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pesr () pisar () puts ti () ota () jots b () ob () xats dst () dast () ust p () po () po dndn ( )dandon () inn tm ( )tam () tsem vord sb () asp () br () abr () abri gandum indam gndom () () ut () ut () uxt bisjor biland ar ub dzul lvd tid wint

puc yuc xats ost pu: inon cam vurd abr indam uxt ghak,fana biland ar bashand bucik luvd tigo wunt

pts juts xats st pe anun tsem vurd varm andam xt pr bland ar tard dzl levd tei wand

putr rni jupk ast pu nk tm ja mur dim ut tqi bland ir baf dzqlai xnak tsrak win

zoj wor ob ls p x, stra s uridz anm wxa, wa er, pura lw lre x, l, l wajl kawl winm

putra tar aiwy, ap zasta pxa, pa ? chashman aspa ? ? ? paoiri, paoirsh, pouru berez, berezat dra, drt vohu ? aoj-, mr-, sanghkard-

besjr ( )bisjor () bolnd () dur () ub () kutik ()) goft () krd () did () baland () dur () ub () urd () guft () kard () did ()

1. ., . . : , 2000. . 134. 2. // . : , 2005. . 3. 606 . 1200 . ISBN 5-02-011237-2 3. Gawarjon (/Go rqing) Outline of the Tajik language (/Tjky Jinzh). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House, 1985.

. . . . .-.,1960; amizodt M.B. Xugnni alifb. ullajen t. Sitalinobod Tokand 1931 amizoda amed. Alifbe. Awaln sol at. Stalinobod, 1937 . - . 3 . ., 19881999.


Wakhi language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Wakhi language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator

Wakhi xik zik Native to Native speakers Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Russia 45,000 (19922012)[1]

Indo-European Indo-Iranian Iranian Eastern Iranian Southeastern Iranian Pamir Wakhi

Language family

Writing system

Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin Language codes

wbl ISO 639-3 Linguasphere 58-ABD-c This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the branch of Eastern Iranian language family and is intimately related to other Southeastern Iranian languages in the Pamir languages group.


1 Classification and distribution o 1.1 In Afghanistan o 1.2 In Tajikistan o 1.3 In Pakistan

1.4 In China 2 Orthography 3 Vocabulary 4 Phonology o 4.1 Vowels o 4.2 Consonants 5 Books 6 References o 6.1 See also 7 External links

Classification and distribution

Wakhi is one of several languages that belong to the Pamir language group. A reflection of this is the fact that the Wakhi people are occasionally called Pamiris. The origin of this language is Wakhan in Afghanistan and it is, according to sources, more than four thousand years old. It is spoken by the inhabitants of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan, parts of GilgitBaltistan (the former NAs) of Pakistan, Gorno-Badkhshan (mountainous-Badakhshan, in Russian) region of Tajakistan, and Xinjiang in western China. The Wakhi use the self-appellation Xik (ethnic) and suffix it with wor/war to denote their language as Xik-wor themselves. The noun Xik comes from oxik (an inhabitant of Ox, for Wakhan, in Wakhi. There are other equivalents for the name Wakhi (Anglicised) or Wakhani (Arabic and Persian), Vakhantsy (Russian), Gojali/Gojo (Dingrik-wor/Shina), Guyits/Guicho (Borushaski), Wakhigi/Wakhik-war (Kivi-wor/Khow-wor) and Cert (Turki). The language belongs, as yet to be confirmed according to studies and sources, to the southern group of the Pamir languages, in the Iranian group of the IndoEuropean family (450) of languages, where the different Ishkashmi, Shighni/nani and Wakhi languages are included. A very rough estimate of the population of Wakhis is 50,000 worldwide. The Wakhi live in four different countries. In the GilgitBaltistan region of Pakistan, the Wakhi people mainly live in Gojal, Ishkoman, Darkut and in Chitral District's Broghol. They also live in some parts of Gorno-Badakhshan in Tajikistan and Xinjiang in China.

In Afghanistan
In the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan, Wakhi is spoken from Putur, near Ishkashim, to the upper reaches of the Wakhan River.[2]

In Tajikistan
In Tajikistan the Wakhi and other communities that speak one of the Pamir languages refer to themselves as Pamiri or Badakhshani and there has been a movement to separate their identity from that of the majority Persian-speaking Tajiks. Linguists universally refer to Wakhi as an East Iranian language independent of Tajik Persian, but many Tajik nationalists insist that Wakhi and other Pamir languages are actually dialects of Tajik.[3]

In Pakistan
In Pakistan Wakhi is spoken in the sparsely populated upper portions of five of the northernmost valleys: Hunza (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley now speak Burushaski), Gojal that including the valleys of Chipursan and Shingshal, (Upper-Hunzamostly intact), Ishkoman (many ethnic Wakhi speak, now, Shina), Yasin (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley speak, now, Khow-wor or Burushaski/Virchik-wor), Gupis (many ethnic Wakhi speak, now, Shina) and Yarkhun (many ethnic Wakhi of this valley now speak Khow-wor). Yarkhun is located in the Chitral district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while others are in the GilgitBaltistan. Gojal, in the Hunza valley, has the largest Wakhi population of any of the above five areas. The Wakhis of Ishkoman live primarily in the Karambar valley, in the town of Imit and beyond. In Yasin, they live mostly in the vicinity of Darkot, and in Yarhkun, they are found in Baroghil and in a few other small villages in the high, upper portion of valley. In Pakistan, the central organization of the Wakhi is the Wakhi Cultural Association Pakistan (WCA), an organization that is registered with the Government of Pakistan and which works with the collaboration of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Lok Virsa Pakistan. The Association is working for the preservation of the Wakhi language and culture, as well as documenting their poetry and music. Radio Pakistan Gilgit relays the Wakhi radio programme "Sadoyah Boomy Dunyo", the voice of the roof of the world. The Wakhi Cultural Association has arranged more than twenty programmes since 1984, which includes cultural shows, musical nights, and large-scale musical festivals with the collaboration of Lok Virsa Pakistan, the Aga Khan Cultural Service Pakistan (AKCSP), and Pakistan television. In 2000, the WCA won a "Best Programme" organizer award in the Silk Road Festival from the President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf. A computerized codification of the Wakhi script has been released, which will help to promote the language development programme and documentation of Wakhi poetry, literature, and history. [4]

In China
See also: Tajiks of Xinjiang


Traditionally Wakhi was not a written language. Writing systems have been developed for the language using Arabic script, Cyrillic and a modified Roman alphabet.[5] A modified roman alphabet was developed in 1984 by Haqiqat Ali.[6]

The new Wakhi Alphabet . Sample text from a Bible translation published in 2001 is shown below.[7] Lord's Prayer (Luke 11:2-4)

Wakhi in Cyrillic alphabet English (KJV) : , 2 2 Yiso yavr xaty: Sayit i do carv, xanv: And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, : ! Ey bzrgwor Tat ki d osmont cy! Ti bzrg "Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed ! nung br olam mt! Lcr dwroni Ti podoyi be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will -, - at-t, zmin-t zmon d hkmi taw mt! be done, as in heaven, so in earth. ! 3 3 3 Spo rsq-t rzi sakr nsib car! - ! Give us day by day our daily bread. 4 4 4 ! , C spo gnon xs! Sak b kuy, ki sakr And forgive us our sins; for we also aki, c krk! kxter bax carn. C bandi ! . forgive every one that is indebted to us. And nafs-t awasn, C waswasayi Iblisn saki niga - , lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil." r! !

Wakhi in Roman alphabet

The Wakhi lexicon exhibits significant differences with the other Pamir languages. Gawarjon's comparison of the dialects of Sarikoli and Wakhi spoken in China is reproduced below. Lexical comparison of seven Iranian languages[8] English gloss Persian Tajik Shughni Sarikoli Pashto one jk () jak () jiw iw jaw () waxa, waa ( ut () ut () uxt xt meat ) pts son pesr () pisar () puts zoi () te () ota () fire jots juts or () b () water ob () xats xats ob () st ls ()( hand dst () dast () ust p () pxa, pa () foot po () po pe dndn ( )dandon () inn anun x, () tooth tm () tam () stra () eye tsem tsem vord vurd s ()( horse sb () asp ()

Wakhi Avestan ji avaut ?

putr putra rni tar jupk aiwy, ap ast zasta p pad nk ? tm cashman ja aspa

cloud wheat many high far good small to say to do to see

br () gndom () besjr () bolnd () dur () ub () kutik () goft () krd () did ()

abr () abri gandum () indam bisjor () bisjor baland () biland dur () ar ub () ub urd () dzul lvd guft () tid kard () did () wint

varm andam pr bland ar tard dzl levd tei wand

urjadz () anam () er, pura ( ) lwa () lre () x, () l, l () wajl () kawl () winm ()

mur dim tqi bland ir baf dzqlai xnak tsrak wi

maa? paoiri, paoirsh, pouru berez, berezat dra, drt vohu ? aoj-, mr-, sanghkard-

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

Labial Dental Alveolar Nasal Plosive Affricate Fricative Approximant Rhotic m pb fv n t d l r ts dz sz t d j AlveoloRetroflex Velar Uvular Glottal palatal k x w q h


1. Wakhi Khushkhati (Wakhi Calligraphy) 2. Wakhi Qaida (Wakhi Primer) 3. Wakhi Huroof (Wakhi letters)

1. ^ Wakhi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013) 2. ^ Payne, John (1989). "Pamir Languages". In Schmitt, Rdiger. Compendium Linguarum Iranicum. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. p. 419. ISBN 3-88226-413-6. 3. ^ Viires, Ants; Lauri Vahtre (2001). The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. Tallinn: NGO Red Book. ISBN 9985-9369-2-2. 4. ^ Wakhi Tajik Cultural Association report 19912001. Pakistan: Wakhi Cultural Association. 2001. 5. ^ Wakhi Roman alphabets on Gojal.net 6. ^ Ali, Haqiqat (1984). Wakhi Language 1. 7. ^ Luqo Inil (Gospel of Luke) (in Wakhi). Bzrg Kitob tarimacrakzg institute. 2001.: Title page, passages in Roman alphabet[1],passages in Cyrillic alphabet[2] 8. ^ Gawarjon (/Go rqing) (1985). Outline of the Tajik language (/Tjky Jinzh). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.

Backstrom, Peter C. Languages of Northern Areas (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 2), 1992. 417 pp. ISBN 969-8023-12-7.

See also

Wakhi people

External links

Wakhies in Gojal, Pakistan Ethnologue data: Languages of the World, 15th Edition The Wakhis: Article from the Ismaili dot net English-Ishkashimi-Zebaki-Wakhi-Yazghulami Vocabulary Wakhi poetry Georg Morgenstierne multimedia database


Sarikoli language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Sarikoli tujik ziv Native to People's Republic of China Native 16,000 (2000) speakers Indo-European Indo-Iranian o Iranian Language Eastern family Southeastern Pamir


Writing system

Arabic Language codes


ISO 639-3 Linguasphere 58-ABD-eb

Xinjiang province. Light blue are areas where Sarikoli is spoken. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. The Sarikoli language (also Sariqoli, Selekur, Sarikul, Sariqul, Sarikli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. It is officially referred to in China as the "Tajik language", although it is different from the language spoken in Tajikistan.


1 Nomenclature 2 Distribution of speakers 3 Orthography 4 Phonology o 4.1 Vowels o 4.2 Consonants o 4.3 Stress

5 Vocabulary 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Sarikoli is officially referred to as "Tajik" ( Tjky) in China.[1] However, it is not closely related to Tajik as spoken in Tajikistan.[2] It is also referred to as Tashkorghani,[3] after the ancient capital of the Sarikoli kingdom (now a county of Xinjiang); however, this usage is not widespread among scholars. The earliest written accounts in English, from the 1870s, generally use the name "Sarikoli".[4]

Distribution of speakers
The number of speakers is around 20,000; most reside in the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in southern Xinjiang Province, China. The Chinese name for the Sarikoli language, as well as the usage of Sarikol as a toponym, is Slkr y (). Speakers in China typically use Uyghur and Chinese to communicate with people of other ethnic groups in the area. The rest are found in the Pakistani-controlled sector of Kashmir, closely hugging the Pakistan-Chinese international borders. It is mutually unintelligible with the related Wakhi language.[5]

The language has no official written form. Gawarjon, publishing in China, used IPA to transcribe the sounds of Sarikoli in his book and dictionary,[2][6] while Pakhalina, publishing in Russia, used an alphabet similar to that of the Wakhi language in hers.[7][8] Because the majority of Sarikoli-speakers attend schools using Uyghur as the medium of instruction, some may be able to write their language using the Uyghur alphabet.
[citation needed]


Sarikoli vowels as used in Russian works (IPA values in brackets): a [a], e [e], y [i] (dialectal y or ay [i / ai]), w [u] (dialectal w or aw [u /au]), [], i [i], o [o / ], u [u], [] (dialectal []). In some dialects also long variants of those vowels can appear: , , , , , , .

Sarikoli has 29 consonants: Sariqoli consonants according to Russian Iranologist transcription (IPA values in bracelets): p /p/, b /b/, t /t/, d /d/, k /k / c/, g / ~ /, q /q/, c /ts/, /dz/, /t/, /d/, s /s/, z /z/, x /x/, //, f /f/, v /v/, //, //, x //, //, //, //, w /w/, y /j/, m /m/, n /n / /, l /l/, r /r/

Most words receive stress on the last syllable; however, a minority receive stress on their first syllable. Also, several noun declensions and verb inflections regularly place stress on their first syllable, including the imperative and interrogative.[2]

Although to a large extent the Sarikoli lexicon is quite close to those of other Eastern Iranian languages, but a large number are words are special to Sarikoli and the closely related Shughni, that are not found in other Eastern Iranian languages like Wakhi, Pashto or Avestan. Lexical comparison of seven Iranian languages together with an English translation [2] English gloss Persian Tajik Wakhi Pashto Shughni Sarikoli Avestan one jk () jak () ji jaw () jiw iw avawaxa, waa ( ut () ut () ut uxt xt meat ? ) pts son pesr () pisar () putr zoi () puts putra te () ota () rni or () fire jots juts tar

water hand foot tooth eye horse cloud wheat many high far good small to say to do to see

b () dst () p () dndn () tm () sb () br () gndom () besjr () bolnd () dur () ub () kutik ()) goft () krd () did ()

ob () jupk ob () ls ()( dast () ast p pxa, pa () po () dandon () nk x, () tam () tm stra () ja s ()( asp () abr () mur urjadz () gandum () dim anam () er, pura ( ) bisjor () tqi baland () bland lwa () dur () ir lre () x, () ub () baf urd () dzqlai l, l () guft () xnak wajl () kard () tsrak kawl () wi did () winm ()

xats ust po inn tsem vord abri indam bisjor biland ar ub dzul lvd tid wint

xats st pe anun tsem vurd varm andam pr bland ar tard dzl levd tei wand

aiwy, ap zasta pad ? cashman aspa maa? paoiri, paoirsh, pouru berez, berezat dra, drt vohu ? aoj-, mr-, sanghkard-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ^ A wide variety of transcriptions of the name "Sarikoli" are used in linguistic discussions, such as Slkry, Slikuly, Slkry, or Slkly. ^ a b c d Gawarjon (/Go rqing) (1985). Outline of the Tajik language (/Tjky Jinzh). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House. ^ Rudelson, Justin Jon (January 2005). Lonely Planet Central Asia Phrasebook: Languages Of The Silk Road. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74104-604-1. ^ Shaw, Robert (1876). "On the Ghalchah Languages (Wakhi and Sarikoli)". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Asiatic Society of Bengal) XIV. ^ Arlund, Pamela (2006). An Acoustic, Historical, and Developmental Analysis of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. Arlington, Texas: The University of Texas. p. 8.

^ Gawarjon (/Go rqing) (1996). (Tjk-Hn Cdin) Tujik ziv Hanzu ziv lughot. Sichuan: Sichuan Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 7-5409-1744-X. 7. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (1966). The Sarikoli Language ( /Sarykol'skij Jazyk). Moscow: Akademia Nauk SSSR. 8. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (1971). Sarikoli-Russian Dictionary (- /Sarykol'sko-russkij slovar'). Moscow: Akademia Nauk SSSR. 6.

Further reading

Arlund, Pamela S. (December 2006). An Acoustic, Historical, and Developmental Analysis of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. Ph.D. dissertation. Arlington: University of Texas. Retrieved 2009-03-27 Xiren Kurban; Zhuang, Shuping (January 2008). "/A Probe into China-Tajik Selekur Dialect" (PDF). Language and Translation: 1319. ISSN 1001-0823. Retrieved 2009-03-27

External links

Ethnologue report for Sarikoli The Tajik Ethnic Group in China


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Giaour be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2013. Gabr (Persian: ( )also geuber, geubre, gabrak, gawr, gaur, gyaur, gabre) is a New Persian term originally used to denote a Zoroastrian.

Historically, gabr was a technical term synonymous with mg, "magus", denoting a follower of Zoroastrianism, and it is with this meaning that the term is attested in very early New Persian texts such as the Shahnameh. In time, gabr came to have a pejorative implication and was superseded in literature by the respectable Zardoshti, "Zoroastrian". By the 13th century the word had come to be applied to a follower of any religion other than Islam, and it has "also been used by the Muslim Kurds, Turks, and some other ethnic groups in modified forms to denote various religious communities other than Zoroastians, sometimes even in the sense of unbeliever."[1] As a consequence of the curtailment of social rights, non-Muslims were compelled to live in restricted areas, which the Muslim populace referred to as Gabristans.[2] In the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish version, giaur, was used to refer to Christians. This is sometimes still used today in former Ottoman territories and carries a strong pejorative meaning. The etymology of the term is uncertain. "In all likelihood,"[1] gabr derives from the Aramaic gabr, spelt GBR, which in written Middle Iranian languages serves as an ideogram that would be read as an Iranian language word meaning "man." (for the use of ideograms in Middle Iranian languages, see Pahlavi scripts). During the Sassanid era (226-651), the ideogram signified a free (i.e. non-slave) peasant of Mesopotamia. Following the collapse of the empire and the subsequent rise of Islam, it "seems likely that gabr used already in Sasanian times in reference to a section of Zoroastrian community in Mesopotamia, had been employed by the converted Persians in the Islamic period to indicate their Zoroastrian compatriots, a practice that later spread throughout the country."[1] It has also been suggested that gabr might be a mispronunciation of Arabic kafir "unbeliever," but this theory has been rejected on linguistic grounds: "there is no unusual sound in kafir that would require phonetic modification."[1] Also, kafir as a generic word probably wouldn't refer to a specific revealed religion such as Zoroastrianism.[1][3]

See also

Gabr, meaning in Arabic = force Algebra Andalusian variation of Arabic surname El-Gabr, Gabr Surname, very popular in Arabia, especially Egypt in Gharbiya and Dakahlia governorates majusi, the Arabic word for a Zoroastrian. Gabrni, a northwestern Iranian dialect which is used by Zoroastrians in Yazd and Kerman. Zoroastrians in Iran ajam, "illiterate", non-Arab, Iranian ahl al-Kitab, "People of the Book" dhimmi, "protected" kafir, "unbeliever" Irani

Gabr, Gavre or Gabre (Zoroastrian) Gabrni Magus

^ a b c d e Shaki, Mansour (2001), "Gabr", Encyclopedia Iranica 10, Costa Mesa: Mazda ^ Savory, R. M. (<! Citation bot : comment placeholder c0 >2003), "Relations between the Safavid State and its Non-Muslim Minorities", Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 14 (4): 435458, doi:10.1080/0959641032000127597 3. ^ Bausani, A. (1965), "Gabr", Encyclopedia of Islam II (2 ed.), Leiden: Brill 1. 2.

Further reading

"Gabars", Encyclopdia Britannica, Chicago: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 2007

Categories: Pejorative terms for people