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PENANG SECOND BRIDGE APPROACH SPANS

QUALITY OF SEGMENTAL BOX GIRDERS


SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

Julian Clarke General Manager Technical Buildcast Sdn Bhd 29 November 2012

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

PULAU PINANG

PULAU JEREJAK

BCSB CASTING YARD

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PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

AERIAL VIEW OF THE CASTING YARD

PROJECT OWNER
GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA

PROJECT ORGANIZATION CHART


PACKAGE 2 APPROACH STRUCTURES

AUTHORITIES
MINISTRY OF WORKS

MALAYSIA HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

CONCESIONAIRE
JAMBATAN KEDUA SDN. BHD.

INDEPENDENT CHECK ENGINEER


ARUP JURURUNDING SDN. BHD.

PACKAGE 2
UEM BUILDERS BERHAD

SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGNER RB Perunding

SITE SUPERVISION RB Perunding

SBG CASTING
BUILDCAST SDN BHD BCSB

SHOP DRAWING SUPPLIER

RB Perunding

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


GENERAL OVERVIEW
Significant Specification Requirements
120 years design life Concrete Durability requirements RCPT: 1000 Coulombs at 28 days / 800 Coulombs at 56 days ISAT: 0.1 at 28 days

Strength Design 55MPa Target: 67.5MPa Early strength 15MPa for mould striking and 25MPa for lifting Current average 28-day strength: 90+MPa
Workability 550 650 mm Flow Table

36 degrees maximum fresh mix temperature

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

TWIN DECK ARRANGEMENT

Expansion Joint adjacent to P1 pier segment

Typical Segments

Locator Segment
Deviator Segments

In-situ stitch joining P2 pier segments

Full six-span module arrangement

Direction of casting in the short-line moulds

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Three separate casting yards, each with one reinforcement cage jig per mould and serviced by one 20T gantry crane on rails per pair of moulds.

FINISHING BAYS

BP1 STORE WORK SHOP OFFICE

One reinforcement cutting shop (RCS) that processes all delivered stock length bars to cut bars for all three casting yards. Two segment storage yards (doublestacking) serviced by two 120 gantry cranes on rails and three straddle-carrier transporters. Note segments are also stored single-stacked on the general hardstanding areas. Total storage capacity is approximately 1000 segments.
Finishing bay area to the west end of Storage Yard B, of capacity eight spans, for finishing works and final inspection processing prior to delivery to UEMB jetty storage ready for shipment to the erection sites.

STORAGE YARD A

CANTEEN

OCY-1 7 Moulds OCY-2 8 Moulds

STORAGE YARD B

RCS
CCY 7 Moulds

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION SEGMENT TYPES

TYPICAL SEGMENT

DEVIATOR SEGMENT

LOCATOR SEGMENT

P1 EXPANSION JOINT SEGMENT


P2 PIER SEGMENT

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

Typical Segment Casting Mould

Segment Storage Yard

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

Span Finishing Bays

Jetty Storage Bays

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Summary of the Production and QA/QC Process The following summarises the production and QAQC processes carried out in the casting yard: Cut reinforcement is delivered to the appropriate bending areas at casting bay areas Bars are assembled into cages in the jigs first QC Pre-pour check

Cages are stored / transferred to the mould


Moulds prepared for casting second QC Pre-pour check Concrete poured subject to QC checks on every concrete batch Membrane and water-curing applied to unformed surfaces QC Post-pour check identify any quality issues

Segments used to match-cast and / or transferred to storage


Remedial works as required > QA/QC documentation and remedial works reviews and close-out Segments sent by spans in programme sequence to finishing bays QC final inspections

Finalise and close Birth Certificates (QAQC Departments of BCSB, RBP, UEMB and JKSB)
Send spans to erection jetty storage

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


All segments are produced subject to strict quality control systems governed by the Project Quality Plan. This includes a Request For Inspection (RFI) process, specific Quality Control forms and the Inspection and Test Plan (ITP.)
Segments are all prepared and cast to an individual and unique Shop Drawing package. Supervision is provided by BPJV production managers and supervisors, production engineers and QAQC engineers. All operations are overseen by the resident Site Supervision consultant team. Any defects in the segments are generally detected at the post-pour inspection, others within the storage areas and some at the finishing bays. Depending on the severity of the defect or imperfection, the Site Supervision teams raise a Non Conformance Report (NCR) or a Site Observation Report (SOR). JKSB also carry out independent quality reviews and raise correspondence to UEMB accordingly. Segment defects are generally remediated at the transfer bays or in the storage yards prior to transfer to the finishing bays, using the Request For Inspection (RFI) system. Once segments have been transferred to the finishing bays and passed a final inspection process each segment is awarded a Birth Certificate (on a full span arrangement), which is signed by the Supervision Consultant and JKSB. The full span is then transferred to the UEMB jetty storage facility to await transfer to the bridge site for erection. Segment quality is monitored on a continuous basis, with reviews of SOR or NCR frequency and responsibility. Quality issues are discussed at regular coordination meetings to discuss keep the production teams aware of the current status, and specific and general cases reviewed with a view to eliminate poor practice or other defect source.

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


MATRIX FOR BIWEEKLY SPAN DELIVERY COORDINATION MEETING
SPAN ID SEGMENT NO TYPE 1 2 SOR / NCR REF. NO. OCY 1 CCY Nature of Defects LOC. STATUS REMARKS

3
4 5 6 SOR 798 822 Crack at top slab (0.3mm width) OCY1 Suspected segregation on the soffit of bottom slab S1 cast on 24/5/12 S14 cast on 28/8/12

7
N 192 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 All 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 OCY 2 S 192 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 All OCY 1 OCY 2 SOR

S1 cast on 26/4/12
on 4/9/12

S14 cast

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Jul- Au Se Oct No De Jan Fe Ma Apr Ma Jun Jul- Au Se Oct No De Jan Fe Ma Apr Ma Jun Jul- Au Se Oct 0 Cumulative SBG Cast

Monthly Cast

Casting of the segments commenced in July 2010, initially with the typical span segments and subsequently the pier segments. The rate of segment casting remained low until the end of 2011 when production increased to over 400 segments per month.

100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00%

P2B APPROACH SPANS SEGMENT PRECASTING RATE OF SOR/NCR INCIDENCE AGAINST CUMULATIVE SEGMENT CASTING

SOR

NCR

60.00%
50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

It is of note that, although production increased, the rate of SOR and NCR incidence (against cumulative number of segments cast) generally decreased.
It is stressed that incidence of serious defects is relatively low.

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


QUALITY ISSUES DURING PRECASTING OPERATIONS During segment production various types of quality issues have occurred to some segments. Generally these have been physical defects in the hardened concrete, of varying degrees of severity. The root causes include; poor fresh concrete consistency or workability, poor workmanship a combination of the above Defect Category List referred to on the NCR and SOR documents. structural defects >> NCR, requiring specific remedial works procedures non-structural defects >> SORs, for which standard remedial works procedures are applied.

All remedial works are inspected by the Site Supervision teams at various stages, and are only closed out on final closure of the specific RFI. No Birth Certificate may be issued without the segment, including any defect remedial works, being in compliance with the Specification.
In cases where defects are deemed to be totally unacceptable, the segment affected has been rejected outright.

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Quality issues at the precast yard include:
Honeycombing Shear key and section edge concrete spalling

Cold joints (apparent)


Cracks to formed and unformed surfaces Misalignment of PT tendon ducts Incorrect PT cast-in items Blow holes on inclined formed surfaces

Concrete section dimensional variations exceeding specified tolerances


Grout loss from mould joints Formed surface discolorations and blemishes Displaced reinforcement couplers with reduced cover

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Selected Example for Discussion:
Honeycombing At internal webs and lower haunches or bottom slab soffits, often at deviator segments Delays to concrete truck delivery, Concrete quality inconsistency and poor workability, Poor vibration and incorrect layering of concrete as the pour rises up the webs Smaller cases occur at match faces in the vicinity of internal ducts and at grout leaks at mould joints Remedial works for the more severe cases improved with improved procedures, supervision and application methods. Ultrasound Pulse Velocity (UPV) testing and MP4 accelerometer standard cube strength, RCPT and ISAT testing to confirm the structural integrity and durability compliance. Improvements to the concrete consistency and delivery, Introduction of variable truck load sizes against location in the segment, Improved placement and compaction practices

have significantly reduced the incidence and severity of honeycomb issues.

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Actions by BCSB on Quality Issues

Proactive :

Improvements to: concrete consistency quality and supply casting and finishing practices

Reactive:

Development of appropriate remedial works procedures and practices Specific testing using cores, UPV and MP4 >> increased confidence that the remedial works are sound both structurally and for durability
BCSB, RBP design office and Site Supervision, JKSB and ICE have worked together to address the various issues

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

Quality issues experienced at the bridge site include: Spalling of concrete during PT stressing Design / construction development to minimise a particular quality issue Example of Continuous Improvement

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Pier segment diaphragm cracks during stressing works Design / construction development to minimise a particular quality issue Example of on-going Continuous Improvement

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

Incorrect PT cast-in items QC System Issue Systems improved to eliminate production quality issues

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION


Actions instigated by BCSB 1. A back-check of all the shop drawing packages for segments cast to that date plus those in preparation was carried out. This identified that one other package had incorporated an incorrect drawing that would have had similar consequences to those of S109 as above.

2.

A modified system of shop drawing package preparation and schedule was developed which includes a rigorous double-check and random triple-check of the packages by successively senior QC staff plus a review by the RBP Site Supervision team.

3.

A modified QC site check system to ensure that the shop drawing details were being correctly installed as per the design requirements.

PENANG SECOND BRIDGE QUALITY OF SBG SOLVING ISSUES DURING CONSTRUCTION

END OF PRESENTATION THANK YOU