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CHAPTER- 4 SYSTEM DESIGN 4.1 MODELLING OF SRM The torque developed in a switched reluctance motor is given by: Torque, T =
1 2

2 ph

dL d

Thus the above equation shows that the torque developed in an SRM depends on phase current and inductance profile. Hence by controlling either of them the output torque can be controlled. The mathematical model is inconsistent over the entire operation. However segmenting the operation region is helpful to analyze the motor. The phase voltage equation is given by: V = iR +
d dt


Where V is DC bias voltage, I is the phase current, R is the coil resistance and is the flux linking the coil. The flux linkage consists of inductance L and current i and equation (1) is differentiated giving (2), where V = iR + L

is speed and is rotor position.

di dL +i dt d


The inductance is continuously varying with position according to equation (3), where

is unaligned inductance.

L ( ) =

dl d



In equation (3) the term L ( ) is the instantaneous inductance at that rotor position. In equation (2) the term term i
dL d dl is the slope of the inductance profile and the d

is the back emf generated by the motoring action.

The power equation of the motor is given by equations (4) and (5)

Vi = i R + Li + d i d Or




P= i R+ ( L )+ dt 2 i 2 i d



The equation (5) shows the power consumed by motor. The power lost in resistance, inductance and the remaining energy is the mechanical output. The third term is equivalent to given by: T=
1 2 dL 2 i d


= T. , where T is the torque and is


The sign of the slope of inductance profile decides the direction of torque.


= Number of stator poles = 6

= Number of rotor poles = 4

= Number of phases.


Angle of the rotor pole,


= 30

180 ,

Angle of the rotor pole,

= 30

= 2 (

= 2 (1/4 1/6) =




= , then R S
, then

= x



[ R + S ],

= [





30 4




For a 6

4 SRM,


= 8mH and



= 60mH

= + +
xy x


= Turn on angle


= Turn off angle


= Demagnetizing angle


= Initial rotor position

Voltage,V = 150V Phase Resistance,R = 1.30 Inertial coefficient,J = 0.0013 Friction coefficient,F = 0.0813 Reference current,I = 5A


= 20



= 30


= 60



= 20.1


The load is changed along with






Knowled ge base

Reference Speed


Fuzzificati on

Inference engine

Defuzzificati on Torque estimation Ref.Current Generator

Current controller

uzzificatio n

Gating circuitry

Encode r


Driver /inverter


Fig 4.1 Block diagram of proposed system 4.4 DESCRIPTION The above figure shows the simplified block diagram of proposed system .it mainly consists of torque estimator ,fuzzy logic controller ,current controller and SRM driver. This system utilizes a feed back control system for effective control of the output the fuzzy logic controller use to optimize the parameters the main objective is to reduce torque ripples. The PID controllers along with the fuzzy logic unit will serve the above purpose.


4.5 WHAT IS FUZZY LOGIC? Fuzzy Logic is a problem-solving control system methodology that lends itself to implementation in systems ranging from simple, small, embedded micro-controllers to large, networked, multi-channel PC or workstation-based data acquisition and control systems. It can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. FL provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy, or missing input information. FL's approach to control problems mimics how a person would make decisions, only much faster. Fuzzy Logic is the theory of fuzzy sets, sets that calibrate vagueness. FL reflects how people think. It attempts to model our sense of words, our decision making and our common sense. As a result, it is leading to new, more human, intelligent systems. Fuzzy Logic provides a completely different, unorthodox way to approach a control problem. This method focuses on what the system should do rather than trying to understand how it works. One can concentrate on solving the problem rather than trying to model the system mathematically, if that is even possible. This almost invariably leads to quicker, cheaper solutions.

4.6 FUZZY SET The concept of a set is fundamental to mathematics. However, our own language is also the supreme expression of sets. A fuzzy set is a set with fuzzy boundary. Suppose that A is the set of tall people. In a conventional set, or crisp set, an element is either belonging to or not belong to a set; there is nothing in between. Therefore to define a crisp set A, we need to find a number, say, 510 such that for a person taller than this number, he or she is in the set of tall people. For a fuzzy version of set A, we allow the degree of belonging to vary between 0 and 1. Therefore for a person with height 510, we can say that he or she is tall to the degree of 0.5. And for a 6-foot-high person, he or she is tall to the degree of .9. So everything is a matter of degree in fuzzy sets.


4.6.1 MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS The membership function is a graphical representation of the magnitude of participation of each input. It associates a weighting with each of the inputs that are processed, define functional overlap between inputs, and ultimately determines an output response. The rules use the input membership values as weighting factors to determine their influence on the fuzzy output sets of the final output conclusion. Once the functions are inferred, scaled, and combined, they are defuzzified into a crisp output which drives the system. There are different membership functions associated with each input and output response.

Fig 4..2Membership Function Plots 4.6.2 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES In 1973, Professor Lotfi Zadeh proposed the concept of linguistic or "fuzzy" variables. At the root of fuzzy set theory lies in the idea of linguistic variables. Linguistic variable is a fuzzy variable. In fuzzy systems, linguistic variables are used in fuzzy rules. For example: If wind is strong Then sailing is good The range of possible values of a linguistic variable represents the universe of discourse of that variable.


Fig 4.3FIS Variables

4.6.3 FUZZY RULES Fuzzy rules relate fuzzy sets. In a fuzzy system, all rules fire to some extends, or in other words they fire partially. Linguistic rules describing the control system consist of two parts; an antecedent block (between the IF and THEN) and a consequent block (following THEN). Depending on the system, it may not be necessary to evaluate every possible input combination since some may rarely or never occur. By making this type of evaluation, usually done by an experienced operator, fewer rules can be evaluated, thus simplifying the processing logic and perhaps even improving the FL system performance. If the antecedent is true to some degree of membership, then the consequent is also true to that same degree. A fuzzy rule can have multiple antecedents. 4.7 USE OF FUZZY LOGIC Fuzzy logic is conceptually easy to understand and flexible. The mathematical concepts behind fuzzy reasoning are very simple. Fuzzy logic is a more intuitive approach without the far-reaching complexity. With any given system, it is easy to layer on more functionality without starting again from scratch. Fuzzy logic is tolerant of imprecise data. Fuzzy reasoning builds this understanding into the process rather than tacking it onto the end. Fuzzy logic can model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. A fuzzy system can be created to match any set of input-output data. This


process is made particularly easy by adaptive techniques like Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), which are available in Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. In direct contrast to neural networks, which take training data and generate opaque, impenetrable models, fuzzy logic helps to rely on the experience of people who already understand the system. Fuzzy logic can be blended with conventional control techniques. Fuzzy systems don't necessarily replace conventional control methods. In many cases fuzzy systems augment them and simplify their implementation. Fuzzy logic is based on natural language. The basis for fuzzy logic is the basis for human communication. This observation underpins many of the other statements about fuzzy logic. Because fuzzy logic is built on the structures of qualitative description used in everyday language, fuzzy logic is easy to use. The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox extends the MATLAB technical computing environment with tools for designing systems based on fuzzy logic. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) guide you through the steps of fuzzy inference system design. Functions are provided for many common fuzzy logic methods, including fuzzy clustering and adaptive neurofuzzy learning.


4.8 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERS 4.8.1 Fuzzy Inference System

Fig 4.4 Fuzzy Inference System The figure 4.4 shows the Simulink interface for developing fuzzy inference system. The system used here is MAMDANI type. It has two input variables and one output variable, each variable having seven triangular membership functions.


4.8.2 Membership Function Editor

Fig 4.5 Membership Function Editor The editor shown in figure has seven triangular membership functions. In fuzzy logic, linguistic variables like Nlarge, Nmedium, Nsmall, Zero, Psmall, Pmedium, Plarge are used which makes the computation easy. Each membership function can be defined using three parameters viz. a peak value and two edge values. The edge values represent the range of a particular membership function


4.8.3 Rule Editor

Fig 4.6 Rule Editor The rule editor shown in figure 4.5 explains the 49 rules that are formed from the set of input variables, speed and rate each having seven membership functions. The rule editor converts these set of rules into corresponding Simulink blocks, thereby making the task simpler. Any number of rules can be added, deleted or changed using the options provided in the rule editor. The rules are developed using the rule matrix. For example: if speed is Plarge and rate is Plarge then output is Plarge.


4.9 PID CONTROLLER A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process, a PID controller is the best controller.[1] However, for best performance, the PID parameters used in the calculation must be tuned according to the nature of the system while the design is generic, the parameters depend on the specific system. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. The proportional value determines the reaction to the current error, the integral value determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors, and the derivative value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the error has been changing. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. Heuristically, these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change. By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral value may


prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action.The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms, whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). Hence:

Where Pout, Iout, and Dout are the contributions to the output from the PID controller from each of the three terms. The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller. Defining u(t) as the controller output, the final form of the PID algorithm is:

where the tuning parameters are: Proportional gain, Kp Larger values typically mean faster response since the larger the error, the larger the proportional term compensation. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to process instability and oscillation. Integral gain, Ki Larger values imply steady state errors are eliminated more quickly. The tradeoff is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated away by positive error before reaching steady state. Derivative gain, Kd Larger values decrease overshoot, but slow down transient response and may lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error.