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Together We Power The World SFRA Training
Together We Power The World SFRA Training
Together We Power The World SFRA Training

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training
Together We Power The World SFRA Training
Together We Power The World SFRA Training
Together We Power The World SFRA Training

SFRA Training

Together We Power The World SFRA Training
SFRA History Initial research started in the 60’s. In the 80’s Engineers mainly used HP
SFRA History Initial research started in the 60’s. In the 80’s Engineers mainly used HP
SFRA History Initial research started in the 60’s. In the 80’s Engineers mainly used HP

SFRA History

Initial research started in the 60’s. In the 80’s Engineers mainly used HP network analyzers First generation of SFRA purpose built test sets developed by Doble in 1990. Now SFRA technique has gained world wide acceptance with several manufacturers producing dedicated instruments for SFRA

Now SFRA technique has gained world wide acceptance with several manufacturers producing dedicated instruments for SFRA
SFRA History Today Doble’s SFRA has become the de facto SFRA standard in North America
SFRA History Today Doble’s SFRA has become the de facto SFRA standard in North America
SFRA History Today Doble’s SFRA has become the de facto SFRA standard in North America

SFRA History

Today

Doble’s SFRA has become the de facto SFRA standard in North America and wordwide with > 700 Instruments sold Doble has been cataloging results for ten years Doble has developed standardized SFRA procedures for IEEE & CIGRE Doble develops support network for SFRA analysis and interpretation

standardized SFRA procedures for IEEE & CIGRE Doble develops support network for SFRA analysis and interpretation
National Grid FRA experience • started evaluating FRA in late 1980’s • initially used an
National Grid FRA experience • started evaluating FRA in late 1980’s • initially used an
National Grid
National Grid
National Grid FRA experience • started evaluating FRA in late 1980’s • initially used an impulse

FRA experience

• started evaluating FRA in late 1980’s

• initially used an impulse technique (KEMA digital

LVI)

• changed to swept frequency ( Ontario Hydro )

• hundreds of tests

• several examples of failures

standardised test procedure ( ‘Euro Doble’ )

• Method now used by many other utilities in Europe, Far East, Australia, North America

( ‘Euro Doble’ ) • Method now used by many other utilities in Europe, Far East,
Support: Integration SFRA is one tool in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA
Support: Integration SFRA is one tool in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA
Support: Integration SFRA is one tool in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA

Support: Integration

SFRA is one tool in the tool box

Capacitance
Capacitance
OC: Open Circuit SFRA Exciting Currents
OC: Open Circuit
SFRA
Exciting
Currents

DC Resistance

in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA Exciting Currents DC Resistance SC: Open Circuit

SC: Open Circuit

in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA Exciting Currents DC Resistance SC: Open Circuit
Leakage Reactance
Leakage
Reactance
in the tool box Capacitance OC: Open Circuit SFRA Exciting Currents DC Resistance SC: Open Circuit
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?

SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Why Use SFRA?
Doble SFRA – summary SFRA is a test set for transformers, reactors, and rotating machines
Doble SFRA – summary SFRA is a test set for transformers, reactors, and rotating machines
Doble SFRA – summary SFRA is a test set for transformers, reactors, and rotating machines

Doble SFRA – summary

SFRA is a test set for transformers, reactors, and rotating machines

SFRA can tell you if anything is damaged or broken inside your transformer without going inside.

SFRA is used alongside other electrical tests such as the M4000 and oil analysis

your transformer without going inside . SFRA is used alongside other electrical tests such as the
Transformer Decisions • There are many decisions relating to transformers: – Is it safe to
Transformer Decisions • There are many decisions relating to transformers: – Is it safe to
Transformer Decisions • There are many decisions relating to transformers: – Is it safe to

Transformer Decisions

• There are many decisions relating to transformers:

– Is it safe to go back in service after a fault?

– Has it been damaged in transit?

– Is it deteriorating as it ages?

– Will it fail unexpectedly?

• Decision making for transformers is not easy

• Quality data and engineers support good decisions

fail unexpectedly? • Decision making for transformers is not easy • Quality data and engineers support
Transformer Data • Data may relate to different transformer areas: – Dielectric – ability to
Transformer Data • Data may relate to different transformer areas: – Dielectric – ability to
Transformer Data • Data may relate to different transformer areas: – Dielectric – ability to

Transformer Data

• Data may relate to different transformer areas:

Dielectric – ability to carry voltage

Mechanical – ability to carry current

Thermal – ability to sustain power transfer

Field Testing provides the engineer with a group of tools to assess the condition of a transformer in each area

• Engineer should choose the right tool for the job

of tools to assess the condition of a transformer in each area • Engineer should choose
Which Transformer Tests? • Tests depend on the decision you need to make!
Which Transformer Tests? • Tests depend on the decision you need to make!
Which Transformer Tests? • Tests depend on the decision you need to make!

Which Transformer Tests?

Tests depend on the decision you need to make!

Which Transformer Tests? • Tests depend on the decision you need to make!
Motivation: SFRA When & Why? • Acceptance • Establish a Baseline • Assess Condition after
Motivation: SFRA When & Why? • Acceptance • Establish a Baseline • Assess Condition after
Motivation: SFRA When & Why? • Acceptance • Establish a Baseline • Assess Condition after

Motivation: SFRA When & Why?

• Acceptance

• Establish a Baseline

• Assess Condition after Electrical Disturbance

• Assess Condition after a Relocation

• Asset Management - Ranking and Prioritizing

• Reduce Catastrophic Failures

• Winding technology hasn’t changed much in 100 years

• Available tools have changed a great deal

Failures • Winding technology hasn’t changed much in 100 years • Available tools have changed a
Why Do Things Move? • Mechanical Shock during Shipping • Loosening of Internal Structural Components
Why Do Things Move? • Mechanical Shock during Shipping • Loosening of Internal Structural Components
Why Do Things Move? • Mechanical Shock during Shipping • Loosening of Internal Structural Components

Why Do Things Move?

• Mechanical Shock during Shipping

• Loosening of Internal Structural Components – loss of clamping pressure

• Fault Duty

Shock during Shipping • Loosening of Internal Structural Components – loss of clamping pressure • Fault
Shock during Shipping • Loosening of Internal Structural Components – loss of clamping pressure • Fault
Mechanical Failure
Mechanical Failure
Mechanical Failure
Mechanical Failure
Mechanical Failure

Mechanical Failure

Mechanical Failure
Mechanical Failure
Failure Mode • The very large electromagnetic forces on windings during fault conditions can cause
Failure Mode • The very large electromagnetic forces on windings during fault conditions can cause

Failure Mode

Failure Mode • The very large electromagnetic forces on windings during fault conditions can cause winding

• The very large electromagnetic forces on windings during fault conditions can cause winding movement and even permanent winding and core deformation

• This may result in insulation damage.

• Turn to turn faults are the most likely.

• Insulation damage usually results in a failure of the transformer which is uneconomic to repair.

are the most likely. • Insulation damage usually results in a failure of the transformer which
Design issues • Transformers should be designed to withstand through faults. • However, transformers are
Design issues • Transformers should be designed to withstand through faults. • However, transformers are
Design issues • Transformers should be designed to withstand through faults. • However, transformers are

Design issues

• Transformers should be designed to withstand through faults.

• However, transformers are rarely short-circuit tested because of the costs involved.

• So the short-circuit strengths of designs are not often checked.

• Many new transformers fail short circuit tests, so the short- circuit strength of many designs must be suspect.

• Many new transformers fail short circuit tests, so the short- circuit strength of many designs
Design limitations • Design calculations don’t take into account the effects of twisting forces. •
Design limitations • Design calculations don’t take into account the effects of twisting forces. •
Design limitations • Design calculations don’t take into account the effects of twisting forces. •

Design limitations

• Design calculations don’t take into account the effects of twisting forces.

• Designers can’t design against tap to tap faults.

• Tap windings are difficult to design for short-circuit strength.

Designers can’t design against tap to tap faults. • Tap windings are difficult to design for
Specification • Impedance 20 % 5 % • Short-circuit current 5 p.u. 20 p.u. •
Specification • Impedance 20 % 5 % • Short-circuit current 5 p.u. 20 p.u. •
Specification • Impedance 20 % 5 % • Short-circuit current 5 p.u. 20 p.u. •

Specification

• Impedance

20 %

5 %

• Short-circuit current

5 p.u.

20 p.u.

• Short-circuit forces

1

:

16

20 % 5 % • Short-circuit current 5 p.u. 20 p.u. • Short-circuit forces 1 :
Detection • Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) will only indicate a problem when the insulation has
Detection • Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) will only indicate a problem when the insulation has
Detection • Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) will only indicate a problem when the insulation has

Detection

Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) will only indicate a problem when the insulation has been damaged (usually too late to repair).

• Internal visual inspections often inconclusive

• Winding failures can usually be diagnosed by various electrical tests ( but not always ).

• But latent damage is much harder to detect.

So your transformer may be critically damaged without you being aware of it !

latent damage is much harder to detect. So your transformer may be critically damaged without you
Service • The number and severity of short-circuit events suffered are important. • Close-up lightning
Service • The number and severity of short-circuit events suffered are important. • Close-up lightning
Service • The number and severity of short-circuit events suffered are important. • Close-up lightning

Service

• The number and severity of short-circuit events suffered are important.

Close-up lightning strikes are a common cause of winding movement failures.

Tap-changer faults can cause tap winding failures.

Faulty synchronisation can cause winding damage and failure.

Tap-changer faults can cause tap winding failures. • Faulty synchronisation can cause winding damage and failure.
Ageing • As a transformer ages the insulation shrinks and clamping pressure is lost. -
Ageing • As a transformer ages the insulation shrinks and clamping pressure is lost. -
Ageing • As a transformer ages the insulation shrinks and clamping pressure is lost. -

Ageing

• As a transformer ages the insulation shrinks and clamping pressure is lost. - reduces strength.

• Any minor winding deformation usually

results in mis-alignment of electromagnetic

centres

subsequent faults.

- increases stresses during

deformation usually results in mis-alignment of electromagnetic centres subsequent faults. - increases stresses during
Failure Mode • Hoop buckling of inner winding • Conductor tipping • Conductor telescoping •
Failure Mode • Hoop buckling of inner winding • Conductor tipping • Conductor telescoping •
Failure Mode • Hoop buckling of inner winding • Conductor tipping • Conductor telescoping •

Failure Mode

Failure Mode • Hoop buckling of inner winding • Conductor tipping • Conductor telescoping • Coil

• Hoop buckling of inner winding

• Conductor tipping

• Conductor telescoping

• Coil clamping failure

• End insulation collapse

• Spiral tightening

• Lead displacement

Conductor telescoping • Coil clamping failure • End insulation collapse • Spiral tightening • Lead displacement
Conductor telescoping • Coil clamping failure • End insulation collapse • Spiral tightening • Lead displacement
Neutral bushing lifted from turret and is no longer vertical SFRA 2009 Bushing failure…. This
Neutral bushing lifted from turret and is no longer vertical SFRA 2009
Neutral bushing lifted from
turret and is no longer vertical
SFRA 2009

Bushing failure….

This bushing failed catastrophically
This bushing
failed
catastrophically
This bushing was hit by porcelain and failed
This bushing
was hit by
porcelain and
failed
SFRA 2009 Bushing…. But did the windings move because of the pressure wave in the
SFRA 2009 Bushing…. But did the windings move because of the pressure wave in the
SFRA 2009
SFRA 2009

Bushing….

But did the windings move because of the pressure wave in the oil?

SFRA showed that the windings were in good shape.

did the windings move because of the pressure wave in the oil? SFRA showed that the
Transformer impact…. Or maybe we hit a bridge?
Transformer impact…. Or maybe we hit a bridge?
Transformer impact…. Or maybe we hit a bridge?

Transformer impact….

Or maybe we hit a bridge?
Or maybe we hit a
bridge?
Transformer impact…. Or maybe we hit a bridge?
Transformer impact…. Or maybe we hit a bridge?
Bridge Impact Paint scrapes on delivery are suspicious? Do we know if anything moved inside
Bridge Impact Paint scrapes on delivery are suspicious? Do we know if anything moved inside
Bridge Impact Paint scrapes on delivery are suspicious? Do we know if anything moved inside

Bridge Impact

Paint scrapes on delivery are suspicious?

Bridge Impact Paint scrapes on delivery are suspicious? Do we know if anything moved inside the
Do we know if anything moved inside the transformer?
Do we know if anything moved
inside the transformer?
How did the scrapes get there, and what does the impact recorder say?
How did the
scrapes get
there, and what
does the impact
recorder say?
know if anything moved inside the transformer? How did the scrapes get there, and what does
Transport Issues t
Transport Issues
t
Transformer Arrives by Barge
Transformer Arrives by Barge
Transformer Arrives by Barge

Transformer Arrives by Barge

Transformer Arrives by Barge
Transformer Arrives by Barge
Almost!
Almost!
Almost!

Almost!

Almost!
Almost!
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?

Symptoms - black box scenario

• How can we tell if anything has moved?

Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
Symptoms - black box scenario • How can we tell if anything has moved?
SFRA as a transformer test S weep F requency R esponse A nalysis A method
SFRA as a transformer test S weep F requency R esponse A nalysis A method
SFRA as a transformer test S weep F requency R esponse A nalysis A method

SFRA as a transformer test

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis

A method to measure the frequency response of the passive elements (RLC) of a transformer.

The result is a transfer function which produces a fingerprint related to the mechanical geometry of the transformer.

SFRA relates to Mechanical Integrity

produces a fingerprint related to the mechanical geometry of the transformer. SFRA relates to Mechanical Integrity
SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap
SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap
SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap

SFRA – What do you get?

Core

SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap windings

Main winding

SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap windings

Tap leads

Tap windings

SFRA – What do you get? C o r e Main winding Tap leads Tap windings
Conclusions SFRA is a means to provide data about transformer mechanical integrity Good results lead
Conclusions SFRA is a means to provide data about transformer mechanical integrity Good results lead
Conclusions SFRA is a means to provide data about transformer mechanical integrity Good results lead

Conclusions

SFRA is a means to provide data about transformer mechanical integrity

Good results lead to good decisions

Doble support means you can extract value from your SFRA measurements

integrity Good results lead to good decisions Doble support means you can extract value from your
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz

SFRA Training Introduction:

RLC, dB & MHz

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Introduction: RLC, dB & MHz
SFRA Theory and Practice • In a passive device there are three basic components: –
SFRA Theory and Practice • In a passive device there are three basic components: –
SFRA Theory and Practice • In a passive device there are three basic components: –

SFRA Theory and Practice

• In a passive device there are three basic components:

– resistors

– capacitors

– inductors

• They each have a different response to an AC signal

• Their response is closely related to their geometry: both internal and in relation to other components

an AC signal • Their response is closely related to their geometry: both internal and in
FRA theory What is a winding ?
FRA theory What is a winding ?
FRA theory What is a winding ?

FRA theory

What is a winding ?

FRA theory What is a winding ?
Inductance
Inductance
Inductance

Inductance

Inductance
Inductance
Series capacitance
Series capacitance
Series capacitance

Series capacitance

Series capacitance
Series capacitance
Series capacitance
Shunt capacitance
Shunt capacitance
Shunt capacitance

Shunt capacitance

Shunt capacitance
Shunt capacitance
High frequency model
High frequency model
High frequency model

High frequency model

High frequency model
High frequency model
Winding • inductance • series capacitance ( turn to turn ) • shunt capacitance (
Winding • inductance • series capacitance ( turn to turn ) • shunt capacitance (
Winding • inductance • series capacitance ( turn to turn ) • shunt capacitance (

Winding

inductance

series capacitance ( turn to turn )

shunt capacitance ( turn to earth )

winding geometry determines values of L and

C

( turn to turn ) • shunt capacitance ( turn to earth ) • winding geometry
Winding frequency responses • windings have frequency dependent response for transmitted signals • the detailed
Winding frequency responses • windings have frequency dependent response for transmitted signals • the detailed
Winding frequency responses • windings have frequency dependent response for transmitted signals • the detailed

Winding frequency responses

• windings have frequency dependent response for transmitted signals

• the detailed form of the frequency response depends on winding geometry

• a change in geometry will change the frequency response

form of the frequency response depends on winding geometry • a change in geometry will change
FRA theory If we can measure changes in the frequency response of a winding caused
FRA theory If we can measure changes in the frequency response of a winding caused
FRA theory If we can measure changes in the frequency response of a winding caused

FRA theory

If we can measure changes in the frequency response of a winding caused by winding movement,

then we can detect winding movement

changes in the frequency response of a winding caused by winding movement, then we can detect
SFRA Theory and Practice • Impedance of an ideal resistor, capacitor and inductor 450 400
SFRA Theory and Practice • Impedance of an ideal resistor, capacitor and inductor 450 400
SFRA Theory and Practice • Impedance of an ideal resistor, capacitor and inductor 450 400

SFRA Theory and Practice

• Impedance of an ideal resistor, capacitor and inductor

450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.1
1
10
100
1000
Impedance, Ohms

Capacitor:

Frequency, Hz

Resistance:

flat response v. frequency

Inductor:

Increased impedance with increased frequency; dead short at low frequency

Reduced impedance with increased frequency; open circuit at low frequency

frequency; dead short at low frequency Reduced impedance with increased frequency; open circuit at low frequency
SFRA Theory and Practice • dB’s: as impedance increases, V o u t falls V
SFRA Theory and Practice • dB’s: as impedance increases, V o u t falls V
SFRA Theory and Practice • dB’s: as impedance increases, V o u t falls V

SFRA Theory and Practice

• dB’s: as impedance increases, V out falls

V in

Impedance, Z
Impedance, Z

V out

Response in dB’s = 20 log 10 (V out /V in )

• Each 20 dB drop means we are looking at a tenth of the previous V out /V in

(V o u t /V i n ) • Each 20 dB drop means we are
SFRA Theory and Practice Each 20 dB drop means we are looking at a tenth
SFRA Theory and Practice Each 20 dB drop means we are looking at a tenth
SFRA Theory and Practice Each 20 dB drop means we are looking at a tenth

SFRA Theory and Practice

Each 20 dB drop means we are looking at a tenth of the previous V out /V in

Response in dB’s = 20 log 10 (V out /V in )

+20

dBs

0

-20

-40

-60

V out = 10 * V in

V out = 0.1 * V in

V out

=

0.01 * V in

V out = 0.001 * V in

V out = V in

* V i n V o u t = 0.1 * V i n V o
SFRA Theory and Practice Need to reference each measurement to ground V signal 50 
SFRA Theory and Practice Need to reference each measurement to ground V signal 50 
SFRA Theory and Practice Need to reference each measurement to ground V signal 50 

SFRA Theory and Practice

Need to reference each measurement to ground

V signal

50 Coax Signal Lead

measurement to ground V signal 50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out

V in

Impedance, Z

V out

50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out 50  Coax Test Measurement
50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out 50  Coax Test Measurement

50 Coax Test Measurement Lead

50 Coax Reference Measurement Lead

Means we get a consistent measurement

out 50  Coax Test Measurement Lead 50  Coax Reference Measurement Lead Means we get
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of a short circuit   0 Response, dB    
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of a short circuit   0 Response, dB    
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of a short circuit   0 Response, dB    

SFRA Theory and Practice

Response of a short circuit

 

0

0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0

Response, dB

 
Response, dB  
 

-25

 

Response

-50

 

Frequency, Hz

0 dB across the frequency range
0 dB across the frequency range
Response, dB     -25   Response -50   Frequency, Hz 0 dB across the frequency
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal resistors - no inductance or capacitance present 0
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal resistors - no inductance or capacitance present 0
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal resistors - no inductance or capacitance present 0

SFRA Theory and Practice

Response of ideal resistors - no inductance or capacitance present 0 Response, dB 50 
Response of ideal resistors - no inductance or
capacitance present
0
Response, dB
50  Response
-25
500 
Response
-50

Frequency, Hz

Flat across the frequency range
Flat across the frequency range
present 0 Response, dB 50  Response -25 500  Response -50 Frequency, Hz Flat across
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of an ideal inductor 0 dB down at Inductive roll
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of an ideal inductor 0 dB down at Inductive roll
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of an ideal inductor 0 dB down at Inductive roll

SFRA Theory and Practice

Response of an ideal inductor

SFRA Theory and Practice Response of an ideal inductor 0 dB down at Inductive roll off
0 dB down at Inductive roll off low frequency means it looks like a dead
0
dB down at
Inductive
roll off
low frequency
means it looks
like a dead
short
Larger inductances
start to roll off at lower
frequencies
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal capacitor ‘Knee’ point depends on size of capacitor
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal capacitor ‘Knee’ point depends on size of capacitor
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of ideal capacitor ‘Knee’ point depends on size of capacitor

SFRA Theory and Practice

Response of ideal capacitor

‘Knee’ point depends on size of capacitor Capacitive climb back 0 dB down at high
‘Knee’ point depends
on size of capacitor
Capacitive
climb back
0 dB down at
high
frequency
like a dead
short
Low frequency response is like an open circuit
Low frequency
response is like
an
open circuit
climb back 0 dB down at high frequency like a dead short Low frequency response is
SFRA Theory and Practice Constant dBs down v. frequency Parallel RLC Circuit: Open circuit at
SFRA Theory and Practice Constant dBs down v. frequency Parallel RLC Circuit: Open circuit at
SFRA Theory and Practice Constant dBs down v. frequency Parallel RLC Circuit: Open circuit at

SFRA Theory and Practice

Constant dBs down v. frequency
Constant dBs
down v. frequency

Parallel RLC Circuit:

Open circuit at high frequency
Open circuit at
high frequency

Dead short at high frequency

Dead short at low frequency
Dead short at
low frequency
Open circuit at low frequency
Open circuit at
low frequency
Open circuit at high frequency Dead short at high frequency Dead short at low frequency Open

Impedance, Ohms

Impedance, Ohms SFRA Theory and Practice Impedance of the Parallel RLC Circuit: 6 5 4 3
Impedance, Ohms SFRA Theory and Practice Impedance of the Parallel RLC Circuit: 6 5 4 3
Impedance, Ohms SFRA Theory and Practice Impedance of the Parallel RLC Circuit: 6 5 4 3

SFRA Theory and Practice

Impedance of the Parallel RLC Circuit:

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Resonant frequency depends only on L and C values 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Resonant frequency depends
only on L and C values
0.1
1
10
100
1000

Frequency, Hz

R affects size of resonance peak
R affects size of
resonance peak
Resonant frequency depends only on L and C values 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Frequency, Hz
Resonant frequency depends only on L and C values 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Frequency, Hz
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of the RLC Circuit: Capacitive climb back Inductive roll off
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of the RLC Circuit: Capacitive climb back Inductive roll off
SFRA Theory and Practice Response of the RLC Circuit: Capacitive climb back Inductive roll off

SFRA Theory and Practice

Response of the RLC Circuit:

Capacitive climb back

Inductive roll off
Inductive roll off

Resonance

SFRA Theory and Practice Response of the RLC Circuit: Capacitive climb back Inductive roll off Resonance
4. Understanding SFRA - Basic Principle Response of Multiple Circuits: System 1 0 -20 Resonance
4. Understanding SFRA - Basic Principle
Response of Multiple Circuits:
System 1
0
-20
Resonance ?
-40
-60
V in
V out
-80
-100
Resonance ?
Resonance ?
System 2
10 0
10 10
SFRA Theory and Practice • We get a resonance for an inductor-capacitor (LC) combination •
SFRA Theory and Practice • We get a resonance for an inductor-capacitor (LC) combination •
SFRA Theory and Practice • We get a resonance for an inductor-capacitor (LC) combination •

SFRA Theory and Practice

• We get a resonance for an inductor-capacitor (LC) combination

• Changing L or changing C gives a new resonance

• L and C are dependent on geometry

• Changing R changes the size of the resonance

changing C gives a new resonance • L and C are dependent on geometry • Changing
Real World Measurements HV A real C C C Winding C T C T transformer
Real World Measurements HV A real C C C Winding C T C T transformer
Real World Measurements HV A real C C C Winding C T C T transformer

Real World Measurements

HV A real C C C Winding C T C T transformer has many inductance
HV
A real
C
C
C
Winding
C T
C T
transformer has
many
inductance and
H
H
H
R
R
L H
L H
H
H
Inter
C
H
C H
C H
Winding
capacitances
L
L
L
R
R L
L L
L L
L
Each LC pair
C
C T
gives a
T
C
C L
C L
L
LV
resonance
Winding
capacitances L L L R R L L L L L L Each LC pair C
•
• SFRA Theory and Practice Need to reference each measurement to ground V signal 50 
• SFRA Theory and Practice Need to reference each measurement to ground V signal 50 

SFRA Theory and Practice

Need to reference each measurement to ground

V signal

50 Coax Signal Lead

measurement to ground V signal 50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out

V in

Impedance, Z

V out

50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out 50  Coax Test Measurement
50  Coax Signal Lead V in Impedance, Z V out 50  Coax Test Measurement

50 Coax Test Measurement Lead

50 Coax Reference Measurement Lead

Means we get a consistent measurement

50  Coax Test Measurement Lead 50  Coax Reference Measurement Lead  Means we get
SFRA is really many measurements Some individual resonances
SFRA is really many measurements Some individual resonances
SFRA is really many measurements Some individual resonances

SFRA is really many measurements

Some individual resonances
Some individual resonances
SFRA is really many measurements Some individual resonances
Hardware Test Leads • Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal
Hardware Test Leads • Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal

Hardware Test Leads

Hardware Test Leads • Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal &

• Three lead system

Hardware Test Leads • Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal &

Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal

Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal & Reference Leads Measurement lead

Signal & Reference Leads

Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal & Reference Leads Measurement lead

Measurement

lead

M5x00
M5x00
Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal & Reference Leads Measurement lead
Three lead system Signal + Reference Measure Ground Ground Signal Signal & Reference Leads Measurement lead
M5300 5. SFRA – M5000 Series M5200 M5400

M5300

M5300 5. SFRA – M5000 Series M5200 M5400

5. SFRA – M5000 Series

M5200

M5300 5. SFRA – M5000 Series M5200 M5400
M5300 5. SFRA – M5000 Series M5200 M5400
M5300 5. SFRA – M5000 Series M5200 M5400

M5400

5. M5000 Test Cable At Test Set - Color Coded Leads Yellow - Signal (Gives
5. M5000 Test Cable At Test Set - Color Coded Leads Yellow - Signal (Gives
5. M5000 Test Cable At Test Set - Color Coded Leads Yellow - Signal (Gives

5. M5000 Test Cable

At Test Set - Color Coded Leads

Yellow - Signal (Gives Vin) Red - Reference (Measures Vin) Black - Test (Measure Vout)

Red - Reference (Measures Vin) Black - Test (Measure Vout) At Transformer Red => Vin Black

At Transformer

(Measures Vin) Black - Test (Measure Vout) At Transformer Red => Vin Black => Vout Lead

Red => Vin Black => Vout Lead Grounds to Base of Bushings Safety Ground - Twist Lock to Transformer

Red => Vin Black => Vout Lead Grounds to Base of Bushings Safety Ground - Twist
A note about Test Leads • 60 ft /18 m • Cable Trunk 30 ft
A note about Test Leads • 60 ft /18 m • Cable Trunk 30 ft
A note about Test Leads • 60 ft /18 m • Cable Trunk 30 ft

A note about Test Leads

60 ft /18 m

• Cable Trunk

30 ft to the split

• Shield Ground

12 ft

• Application

use if <= 362 kV

100 ft /30 m

• Cable Trunk

55 ft to the split

• Shield Ground

18 ft

• Application

use if > 362 kV

No longer using the white jumpers

• Shield Ground 18 ft • Application use if > 362 kV • No longer using
Hardware Test Leads IEC Definitions Source lead The lead connected to the voltage source of
Hardware Test Leads IEC Definitions Source lead The lead connected to the voltage source of
Hardware Test Leads IEC Definitions Source lead The lead connected to the voltage source of

Hardware Test Leads

IEC Definitions

Source lead The lead connected to the voltage source of the measuring equipment used to supply an input voltage to the test object. Reference lead (Vin) The lead connected to the reference channel of the measuring equipment used to measure the input voltage to the test object ( Vin). Response lead (Vout) The lead connected to the response channel of the measuring equipment used to measure the output voltage of the test object ( Vout)

to the response channel of the measuring equipment used to measure the output voltage of the
FRA test leads and equipment • High frequency co-axial cable • Impedance matched ( 50
FRA test leads and equipment • High frequency co-axial cable • Impedance matched ( 50
FRA test leads and equipment • High frequency co-axial cable • Impedance matched ( 50

FRA test leads and equipment

• High frequency co-axial cable

• Impedance matched ( 50 ohms ) at equipment (to avoid reflections in test leads)

• Separate S and R leads for applying and measuring signal at input terminal

Only then will layout of test leads have no effect on measurement

• Any length ( 18 m popular )

at input terminal Only then will layout of test leads have no effect on measurement •
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi

Applied and measured signals

Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi

Vo

Vi

Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi

Response = Vo/Vi

Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Applied and measured signals Vo Vi Response = Vo/Vi
Frequency Response Analysis Sweep Frequency Method  V  out H dB  ( )
Frequency Response Analysis
Sweep Frequency Method
 V 
out
H dB 
(
)
20 log
10
 
V in
 V 
1
H
(
out
)
tan
 
Most Useful Frequency Range
20 Hz - 2 MHz
V in
Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network
Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network
Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network

Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis

Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network

Achieve a Two Port Network

Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network
Tutorial Session - Frequency Response Analysis Achieve a Two Port Network
Hardware Range & Resolution Signal Generation: Range & Resolution  Two independent measurement channels 
Hardware Range & Resolution Signal Generation: Range & Resolution  Two independent measurement channels 
Hardware Range & Resolution Signal Generation: Range & Resolution  Two independent measurement channels 

Hardware Range & Resolution

Signal Generation: Range & Resolution

Two independent measurement channels Oversample at up to 100 MS/s 20 V p-p 10 Hz-25 MHz Log Scale at 1.02% of frequency

channels  Oversample at up to 100 MS/s  20 V p-p  10 Hz-25 MHz
Conclusions RLC components have different SFRA responses Even simple circuits may have complex responses ‘Real’
Conclusions RLC components have different SFRA responses Even simple circuits may have complex responses ‘Real’
Conclusions RLC components have different SFRA responses Even simple circuits may have complex responses ‘Real’

Conclusions

RLC components have different SFRA responses

Even simple circuits may have complex responses

‘Real’ transformers have many resonances

different SFRA responses Even simple circuits may have complex responses ‘Real’ transformers have many resonances
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures

SFRA Training Test Procedures

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Test Procedures
SFRA Test Procedures There is a basic set of recommended tests for any transformer. Doble
SFRA Test Procedures There is a basic set of recommended tests for any transformer. Doble
SFRA Test Procedures There is a basic set of recommended tests for any transformer. Doble

SFRA Test Procedures

There is a basic set of recommended tests for any transformer.

Doble software comes complete with templates which have IEEE and CIGRE compliant tests.

Further tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes:

per phase short circuit interwinding tests Reverse short circuit etc

tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes: per phase short circuit interwinding tests Reverse short circuit
Setting up the transformer • Transformer should be disconnected from system. Busbars removed if possible.
Setting up the transformer • Transformer should be disconnected from system. Busbars removed if possible.
Setting up the transformer • Transformer should be disconnected from system. Busbars removed if possible.

Setting up the transformer

• Transformer should be disconnected from system. Busbars removed if possible. Line, neutral and any tertiary line connections shall be disconnected but tank earth, internal auxiliary equipment and internal current transformer connections shall remain connected.

• Transformer should be in normal service condition (assembled, oil- filled).

connections shall remain connected. • Transformer should be in normal service condition (assembled, oil- filled).
Setting up the transformer • Make connections as determined by winding configuration. Phases not under
Setting up the transformer • Make connections as determined by winding configuration. Phases not under
Setting up the transformer • Make connections as determined by winding configuration. Phases not under

Setting up the transformer

• Make connections as determined by winding configuration. Phases not under test are usually left floating.

• In the case where two connections to one corner of a delta winding are brought out, the transformer shall be measured with the delta closed but not with the earth connected.

winding are brought out, the transformer shall be measured with the delta closed but not with
Setting up the transformer • If special connections have been specified and are provided on
Setting up the transformer • If special connections have been specified and are provided on
Setting up the transformer • If special connections have been specified and are provided on

Setting up the transformer

• If special connections have been specified and are provided on the test object to enable a frequency response measurement to be made when it is arranged for transport then the measurement must be made in both the fully assembled (fluid filled) and transport configurations (drained if required for transport) before transport and subsequently as specified by the purchaser.

• Beware of different states of oil draining

before transport and subsequently as specified by the purchaser. • Beware of different states of oil
Setting up the transformer • It is important that SFRA measurements are always made in
Setting up the transformer • It is important that SFRA measurements are always made in
Setting up the transformer • It is important that SFRA measurements are always made in

Setting up the transformer

• It is important that SFRA measurements are always made in a consistent way and that all details of the measurement method are systematically recorded. This will help to avoid false discrepancies and ensure the compatibility of frequency responses during comparison.

This will help to avoid false discrepancies and ensure the compatibility of frequency responses during comparison.
Typical Measurements – two winding unit • Connections - look at each winding separately: •
Typical Measurements – two winding unit • Connections - look at each winding separately: •
Typical Measurements – two winding unit • Connections - look at each winding separately: •

Typical Measurements – two winding unit

• Connections - look at each winding separately:

• Make measurements at extreme raise LTC and nominal DETC

• With previous results – repeat those procedures

HV - H1-H2, H2-H3, H3-H1 LV - X1-X0, X2-X0, X3-X0 Short Circuit - H1-H2, H2-H3, H3-H1 with X1-X2-X3-X1 shorted (all three phases, not X0)

H3-H1 LV - X1-X0, X2-X0, X3-X0 Short Circuit - H1-H2, H2-H3, H3-H1 with X1-X2-X3-X1 shorted (all
FRA test connections
FRA test connections
FRA test connections
FRA test connections
FRA test connections
FRA test connections
FRA test connections

FRA test connections

FRA test connections
FRA test connections
Measurements
Measurements

Measurements

Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
5. SFRA Test Procedure • Open-Circuit (OC) Tests • Short-Circuit (SC) Tests • Supplementary Test:
5. SFRA Test Procedure • Open-Circuit (OC) Tests • Short-Circuit (SC) Tests • Supplementary Test:
5. SFRA Test Procedure • Open-Circuit (OC) Tests • Short-Circuit (SC) Tests • Supplementary Test:

5. SFRA Test Procedure

• Open-Circuit (OC) Tests

• Short-Circuit (SC) Tests

• Supplementary Test: Inter-Winding Tests

LTC at extreme rise (16R or 1).

DETC at nominal position.

If possible to do additional tests - e.g. various tap positions, short circuit tests, tertiary tests etc.

position.  If possible to do additional tests - e.g. various tap positions, short circuit tests,
5. Typical Test Procedure Delta-Wye – Open Circuit (OC) Tests Red Black H1 - H3
5. Typical Test Procedure Delta-Wye – Open Circuit (OC) Tests Red Black H1 - H3
5. Typical Test Procedure Delta-Wye – Open Circuit (OC) Tests Red Black H1 - H3

5. Typical Test Procedure

Delta-Wye – Open Circuit (OC) Tests

Red

Black

H1

-

H3

HV Winding Tests

H2

-

H1

H3

-

H2

X1

-

X0

LV Winding Tests

X2

-

X0

X3

-

X0

Supplementary

H1

-

X1

Inter-Winding Tests

H2

-

X2

H3

-

X3

X2 - X0 X3 - X0 Supplementary H1 - X1 Inter-Winding Tests H2 - X2 H3
5. Typical Test Connections Delta-Wye – Short Circuit (SC) Tests Red Black Short-Circuiting H1 -
5. Typical Test Connections Delta-Wye – Short Circuit (SC) Tests Red Black Short-Circuiting H1 -
5. Typical Test Connections Delta-Wye – Short Circuit (SC) Tests Red Black Short-Circuiting H1 -

5. Typical Test Connections

Delta-Wye – Short Circuit (SC) Tests

Red

Black

Short-Circuiting

H1

-

H3

X1X2X3X1

H2

-

H1

X1X2X3X1

H3

-

H2

X1X2X3X1

Other Test Connections

H1 - H3 X1X2X3X1 H2 - H1 X1X2X3X1 H3 - H2 X1X2X3X1 Other Test Connections
Software Nameplate Test Template
Software
Nameplate
Test Template
SFRA TraceWhat –kindShortedof trace?Leads
SFRA TraceWhat –kindShortedof trace?Leads
SFRA TraceWhat –kindShortedof trace?Leads
SFRA TraceWhat –kindShortedof trace?Leads
SFRA Trace – Open in Test Circuit What kind of trace? Open Circuit inside test
SFRA Trace – Open in Test Circuit What kind of trace? Open Circuit inside test
SFRA Trace – Open in Test Circuit What kind of trace? Open Circuit inside test

SFRA Trace – Open in Test Circuit

What kind of trace?

Open Circuit inside test specimen Open Circuit within test leads
Open
Circuit
inside test
specimen
Open
Circuit
within test
leads
Trace – Open in Test Circuit What kind of trace? Open Circuit inside test specimen Open
What would be the measurements ? Single phase two winding unit? Three phase three winding
What would be the measurements ? Single phase two winding unit? Three phase three winding
What would be the measurements ? Single phase two winding unit? Three phase three winding

What would be the measurements ?

Single phase two winding unit?

Three phase three winding D-D-Y unit?

Check Latest Doble connection guide

measurements ? Single phase two winding unit? Three phase three winding D-D-Y unit? Check Latest Doble
Measurements Example from Manual
Measurements Example from Manual

Measurements

Measurements Example from Manual

Example from Manual

Measurements Example from Manual
Measurements Example from Manual
S/C Connections
S/C Connections
S/C Connections

S/C Connections

S/C Connections
S/C Connections
Measurements Example from Manual
Measurements Example from Manual

Measurements

Measurements Example from Manual

Example from Manual

Measurements Example from Manual
Measurements Example from Manual
Measurements
Measurements

Measurements

Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results should be expected form • Make sure connections are
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results should be expected form • Make sure connections are
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results should be expected form • Make sure connections are

Typical Results - Conclusions

• Results should be expected form

• Make sure connections are appropriate for transformers

• Check with previous results for consistency

expected form • Make sure connections are appropriate for transformers • Check with previous results for
Troubleshooting • Shorted cable measurement • Shorted cable – open ground measurement • Open cable
Troubleshooting • Shorted cable measurement • Shorted cable – open ground measurement • Open cable
Troubleshooting • Shorted cable measurement • Shorted cable – open ground measurement • Open cable

Troubleshooting

• Shorted cable measurement

• Shorted cable – open ground measurement

• Open cable measurement

• Ground check on transformer

• Repeat measurements on ‘good’ winding

• Does it make sense????

cable measurement • Ground check on transformer • Repeat measurements on ‘good’ winding • Does it
Troubleshooting If differences are observed when comparing with a finger print result, it is important
Troubleshooting If differences are observed when comparing with a finger print result, it is important
Troubleshooting If differences are observed when comparing with a finger print result, it is important

Troubleshooting

If differences are observed when comparing with a finger print result, it is important to first verify the measurement by repeating to ensure that the differences are not caused by bad measurement practice or by making different measurement connection.

to ensure that the differences are not caused by bad measurement practice or by making different
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results

SFRA Training Typical Results

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Typical Results
Wye-wye : HV’s Note low frequency variations
Wye-wye : HV’s Note low frequency variations
Wye-wye : HV’s Note low frequency variations

Wye-wye : HV’s

Note low frequency variations

Wye-wye : HV’s Note low frequency variations
Wye-wye : HV’s Note low frequency variations
Wye-wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Wye-wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Wye-wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV

Wye-wye: LV’s

Less dB down than HV

Wye-wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Wye-wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Wye-wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted
Wye-wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted
Wye-wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted

Wye-wye HV Short Circuit

LV windings shorted

Wye-wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted
Wye-wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted
Another HV Wye HV winding – three phases one DETC positions
Another HV Wye HV winding – three phases one DETC positions
Another HV Wye HV winding – three phases one DETC positions

Another HV Wye

HV winding – three phases one DETC positions

Another HV Wye HV winding – three phases one DETC positions
Another HV Wye HV winding – three phases one DETC positions
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases

Another HV Wye

Detail – three phases

Center phase Two outer phases
Center phase
Two outer
phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases

Another HV Wye

Detail – three phases

Center phase Two outer phases
Center phase
Two outer
phases
Another HV Wye Detail – three phases Center phase Two outer phases
Delta-wye HV’s Typical response at low frequencies
Delta-wye HV’s Typical response at low frequencies
Delta-wye HV’s Typical response at low frequencies

Delta-wye HV’s

Typical response at low frequencies

Delta-wye HV’s Typical response at low frequencies
Delta-wye HV’s Typical response at low frequencies
Delta-Wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Delta-Wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Delta-Wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV

Delta-Wye: LV’s

Less dB down than HV

Delta-Wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
Delta-Wye: LV’s Less dB down than HV
4. Simple Transformer Model Open Circuit (OC) V i V o HV LV V i
4. Simple Transformer Model Open Circuit (OC) V i V o HV LV V i
4. Simple Transformer Model Open Circuit (OC) V i V o HV LV V i

4. Simple Transformer Model

Open Circuit (OC)

V i

V o

HV

LV

4. Simple Transformer Model Open Circuit (OC) V i V o HV LV V i V

V i

V o

Short Circuit (SC)

HV

LV

Which Winding has higher impedance?

Which trace is highest and lowest?

OC HV Trace

OC LV Trace • SC Trace

Lowest

Middle

Highest V i V o
Highest
V i
V o
4. Simple Transformer Model HV • Which trace is V H LV V i V
4. Simple Transformer Model
HV
• Which trace is V H
LV
V i
V i
0
V H
-20
V L
V L
-40
-60
-80
ZH > ZL:
-100
VH: Lower response
V H
or
more attenuated
10 0
10 10
Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted together
Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted together
Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted together

Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit

LV windings shorted together

Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted together
Delta-Wye HV Short Circuit LV windings shorted together
Autotransformer HV HV LV and Tertiary compared Tertiary winding LV (common) winding HV (series) winding
Autotransformer HV HV LV and Tertiary compared Tertiary winding LV (common) winding HV (series) winding
Autotransformer HV HV LV and Tertiary compared Tertiary winding LV (common) winding HV (series) winding

Autotransformer HV

HV LV and Tertiary compared

Autotransformer HV HV LV and Tertiary compared Tertiary winding LV (common) winding HV (series) winding
Tertiary winding
Tertiary winding
LV (common) winding
LV (common) winding
HV (series) winding
HV (series) winding
Autotransformer HV HV LV and Tertiary compared Tertiary winding LV (common) winding HV (series) winding
Measurement Sense: H1-H0 v. H0-H1 Effect is smaller when the two bushings are similar –
Measurement Sense: H1-H0 v. H0-H1 Effect is smaller when the two bushings are similar –
Measurement Sense: H1-H0 v. H0-H1 Effect is smaller when the two bushings are similar –

Measurement Sense: H1-H0 v. H0-H1

Effect is smaller when the two bushings are similar – e.g. H1-H3 v H3-H1

H0-H1 H1-H0
H0-H1
H1-H0
Measurement Sense: H1-H0 v. H0-H1 Effect is smaller when the two bushings are similar – e.g.
Variation with LTC position 16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding
Variation with LTC position 16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding
Variation with LTC position 16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding

Variation with LTC position

16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding

Variation with LTC position 16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding
Variation with LTC position 16 Lower through 8 Lower for one winding
Variation with LTC position Mid frequency detail 16 Lower 8 Lower
Variation with LTC position Mid frequency detail 16 Lower 8 Lower
Variation with LTC position Mid frequency detail 16 Lower 8 Lower

Variation with LTC position

Mid frequency detail

16 Lower 8 Lower
16 Lower
8 Lower
Variation with LTC position Mid frequency detail 16 Lower 8 Lower
Variation with and without oil LV winding With oil – Lower resonant frequencies Without oil
Variation with and without oil LV winding With oil – Lower resonant frequencies Without oil
Variation with and without oil LV winding With oil – Lower resonant frequencies Without oil

Variation with and without oil

LV winding

With oil – Lower resonant frequencies
With oil –
Lower
resonant
frequencies
with and without oil LV winding With oil – Lower resonant frequencies Without oil Higher resonant
Without oil Higher resonant frequencies
Without oil
Higher
resonant
frequencies
with and without oil LV winding With oil – Lower resonant frequencies Without oil Higher resonant
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Red lead ground Bad red lead ground Original
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Red lead ground Bad red lead ground Original
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Red lead ground Bad red lead ground Original

Effect of Bad grounds

Original and Bad Red lead ground

Bad red lead ground Original
Bad red lead
ground
Original
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Red lead ground Bad red lead ground Original
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Black lead ground Original Bad red lead ground
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Black lead ground Original Bad red lead ground
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Black lead ground Original Bad red lead ground

Effect of Bad grounds

Original and Bad Black lead ground

Original Bad red lead ground
Original
Bad red lead
ground
Effect of Bad grounds Original and Bad Black lead ground Original Bad red lead ground
Effect of Magnetization Low frequency variation is severe – but identifiable Magnetization affects the core
Effect of Magnetization Low frequency variation is severe – but identifiable Magnetization affects the core
Effect of Magnetization Low frequency variation is severe – but identifiable Magnetization affects the core

Effect of Magnetization

Low frequency variation is severe – but identifiable

Magnetization affects the core response
Magnetization affects the
core response
Effect of Magnetization Low frequency variation is severe – but identifiable Magnetization affects the core response
Magnetization & Grounding variation HV winding High frequency variation due to grounding Magnetization affects the
Magnetization & Grounding variation HV winding High frequency variation due to grounding Magnetization affects the
Magnetization & Grounding variation HV winding High frequency variation due to grounding Magnetization affects the

Magnetization & Grounding variation

HV winding

High frequency variation due to grounding Magnetization affects the core response
High frequency variation
due to grounding
Magnetization affects the
core response
Magnetized center phase
Magnetized center phase
HV winding High frequency variation due to grounding Magnetization affects the core response Magnetized center phase
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding Magnetization variation

Sister Units showing Magnetization

HV winding

Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding Magnetization variation
Magnetization variation
Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Magnetization variation

Sister Units showing Magnetization

HV winding – same unit, more magnetization

Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Magnetization variation
Magnetization variation
Magnetization variation
Sister Units showing Magnetization HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Magnetization variation
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar

HV Wye winding: Open and Short

HV winding – same unit, more magnetization

Very similar at high frequencies
Very similar at high
frequencies
Short circuit wye winding
Short circuit wye winding
Open circuit wye winding
Open circuit wye winding
– same unit, more magnetization Very similar at high frequencies Short circuit wye winding Open circuit
HV Delta winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Similar at
HV Delta winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Similar at
HV Delta winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Similar at

HV Delta winding: Open and Short

HV winding – same unit, more magnetization

Similar at high frequencies
Similar at high
frequencies
Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Similar at high frequencies Short Circuit
Short Circuit
Short Circuit
Open Circuit
Open Circuit
Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Similar at high frequencies Short Circuit
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results vary between units – depending on size and type
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results vary between units – depending on size and type
Typical Results - Conclusions • Results vary between units – depending on size and type

Typical Results - Conclusions

• Results vary between units – depending on size and type of unit

• Results vary with magnetization & grounding

• Results vary with tap changer positions

• Results vary with oil level

• Know what to expect – see next slide!!!

• Results vary with tap changer positions • Results vary with oil level • Know what
4. Simple Transformer Model HV • Which trace is V CHL LV V i V
4. Simple Transformer Model
HV
• Which trace is V CHL
LV
V i
V CHL
0
V CHL
V H
-20
CHL
-40
-60
-80
CHL: High-to-Low or
Inter-Winding
-100
V H
10 0
10 10
One Transformer: HV, LV, SC & IW IW = Interwinding measurement Short Circuit LV Open
One Transformer: HV, LV, SC & IW IW = Interwinding measurement Short Circuit LV Open
One Transformer: HV, LV, SC & IW IW = Interwinding measurement Short Circuit LV Open

One Transformer: HV, LV, SC & IW

IW = Interwinding measurement

Short Circuit
Short Circuit
LV Open Circuit
LV Open Circuit
HV Open Circuit
HV Open Circuit
H-X interwinding
H-X interwinding
HV, LV, SC & IW IW = Interwinding measurement Short Circuit LV Open Circuit HV Open
Wye : HV open circuit Note low frequency variations 2Highs and 1 Low V and
Wye : HV open circuit Note low frequency variations 2Highs and 1 Low V and
Wye : HV open circuit Note low frequency variations 2Highs and 1 Low V and

Wye : HV open circuit

Note low frequency variations

2Highs and 1 Low V and W shape
2Highs and 1 Low
V and W shape
Wye : HV open circuit Note low frequency variations 2Highs and 1 Low V and W
Interpretation • Experience: Certain Frequency Bands Indicate Different Problem Conditions 400kHz to 2MHz: Movement
Interpretation • Experience: Certain Frequency Bands Indicate Different Problem Conditions 400kHz to 2MHz: Movement

Interpretation

Interpretation • Experience: Certain Frequency Bands Indicate Different Problem Conditions 400kHz to 2MHz: Movement

• Experience: Certain Frequency Bands Indicate Different Problem Conditions

400kHz to 2MHz: Movement of main and tap winding leads
400kHz to
2MHz:
Movement of
main and tap
winding leads
<2kHz: Core Deformation, Open Circuits, Shorted Turns & Residual Magnetism
<2kHz: Core
Deformation, Open
Circuits, Shorted
Turns
& Residual
Magnetism
windings
windings
2kHz to 20kHz: Bulk Winding Movement Relative to Each Other, clamping structure 20 kHz to
2kHz to 20kHz:
Bulk Winding
Movement Relative
to Each Other,
clamping structure
20 kHz to 400kHz:
Deformation Within
the main and tap
4. Simple Transformer Model V i V o High A Low B High C W
4. Simple Transformer Model V i V o High A Low B High C W
4. Simple Transformer Model V i V o High A Low B High C W

4. Simple Transformer Model

V i

V o

High

A

Low

B

High

C

4. Simple Transformer Model V i V o High A Low B High C W shape

W shape = A/C Phase

V shape = B Phase

=> Exciting Currents = 2 similar Highs & 1 Low

V i V o High A Low B High C W shape = A/C Phase V
2. SFRA – Logarithm Graph 100 Hz 1 MHz
2. SFRA – Logarithm Graph
100 Hz
1 MHz
2. SFRA – Logarithm Graph 100 Hz 1 MHz
2. SFRA – Logarithm Graph 100 Hz 1 MHz
2. What is SFRA? – Linear Graph Impossible to see 100 Hz
2. What is SFRA? – Linear Graph
Impossible to see 100 Hz
2. What is SFRA? – Linear Graph Impossible to see 100 Hz
2. What is SFRA? – Linear Graph Impossible to see 100 Hz
Interpretation
Interpretation

Interpretation

Interpretation
Interpretation
Interpretation
Power of a Null Result • 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory
Power of a Null Result • 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory
Power of a Null Result • 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory

Power of a Null Result

• 600 MVA GSU Transformer

• SFRA results from factory and initial field

• New SFRA results taken after the fire

• 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory and initial field • New SFRA
• 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory and initial field • New SFRA
• 600 MVA GSU Transformer • SFRA results from factory and initial field • New SFRA
Fire: factory to field comparison HV and LV results overlay almost exactly up to 2
Fire: factory to field comparison HV and LV results overlay almost exactly up to 2
Fire: factory to field comparison HV and LV results overlay almost exactly up to 2

Fire: factory to field comparison

HV and LV results overlay almost exactly up to 2 MHz
HV and LV results overlay almost
exactly up to 2 MHz

Low frequency variations are due to core magnetization

exactly up to 2 MHz Low frequency variations are due to core magnetization Short circuit results
exactly up to 2 MHz Low frequency variations are due to core magnetization Short circuit results
Short circuit results to within 0.01 dB
Short circuit results
to within 0.01 dB
exactly up to 2 MHz Low frequency variations are due to core magnetization Short circuit results
Post fire conclusions • Results show no variation to 2 MHz using different: – Doble
Post fire conclusions • Results show no variation to 2 MHz using different: – Doble
Post fire conclusions • Results show no variation to 2 MHz using different: – Doble

Post fire conclusions

• Results show no variation to 2 MHz using different:

– Doble test sets

– test personnel

– test leads

– lead positions etc

show no variation to 2 MHz using different: – Doble test sets – test personnel –
Post fire conclusions • SFRA results show no indication of a mechanical problem within the
Post fire conclusions • SFRA results show no indication of a mechanical problem within the
Post fire conclusions • SFRA results show no indication of a mechanical problem within the

Post fire conclusions

• SFRA results show no indication of a mechanical problem within the transformer – this is a NULL result

• SFRA data was key in the decision to return the unit to service

• Full details in 2005 Doble Conference Paper

• SFRA data was key in the decision to return the unit to service • Full
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation

Together We Power The World

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation
Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation

SFRA Training

Open and Short Circuit Test Variation

Together We Power The World SFRA Training Open and Short Circuit Test Variation
SFRA Typical Results This presentation gives typical results for open and short circuit tests It
SFRA Typical Results This presentation gives typical results for open and short circuit tests It
SFRA Typical Results This presentation gives typical results for open and short circuit tests It

SFRA Typical Results

This presentation gives typical results for open and short circuit tests

It explains why the two tests are different and

the value in each test

A T-model of a transformer is used to make

things clearer

Only low frequencies are considered – no capacitive effects

A T-model of a transformer is used to make things clearer Only low frequencies are considered
Test Connections - SFRA Open Circuit Normal test on HVs the LVs float HV Winding
Test Connections - SFRA Open Circuit Normal test on HVs the LVs float HV Winding
Test Connections - SFRA Open Circuit Normal test on HVs the LVs float HV Winding

Test Connections - SFRA Open Circuit

Normal test on HVs the LVs float

HV Winding

LV Winding

Signal & Reference

the LVs float HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R
the LVs float HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R
the LVs float HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R

R small

R small

HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test

Core

R high

HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
M5100 Test
M5100
Test

Model is relevant for LOW FREQUENCIES

HV Winding LV Winding Signal & Reference R small R small Core R high M5100 Test
Test Connections - SFRA Short Circuit Short circuit test on HVs - LVs shorted Signal
Test Connections - SFRA Short Circuit Short circuit test on HVs - LVs shorted Signal
Test Connections - SFRA Short Circuit Short circuit test on HVs - LVs shorted Signal

Test Connections - SFRA Short Circuit

Short circuit test on HVs - LVs shorted

Signal & Reference

circuit test on HVs - LVs shorted Signal & Reference M5100 Test HV Winding LV Winding
M5100 Test
M5100
Test
HV Winding LV Winding R small R small Core LV Short R high
HV Winding
LV Winding
R small
R small
Core
LV Short
R high

Model is relevant for LOW FREQUENCIES

M5100 Test HV Winding LV Winding R small R small Core LV Short R high Model
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit Open circuit responses dominated by core at low frequency –
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit Open circuit responses dominated by core at low frequency –
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit Open circuit responses dominated by core at low frequency –

Short Circuit v. Open Circuit

Open circuit responses dominated by core at low frequency – as with Exciting current Different magnetic paths lead to different responses – typical outer v center phase variation

Short circuit responses remove effect of core at low frequencies – as with leakage Reactance All three short circuit responses should be identical

effect of core at low frequencies – as with leakage Reactance All three short circuit responses
Short Circuit Test - Setup • Short secondaries together, use proper size jumpers, close the
Short Circuit Test - Setup • Short secondaries together, use proper size jumpers, close the
Short Circuit Test - Setup • Short secondaries together, use proper size jumpers, close the

Short Circuit Test - Setup

• Short secondaries together, use proper size jumpers, close the delta,

X1-X2-X3-X1

• Do not short multiple secondaries together

• Test each phase

– Phase A

– Phase B

– Phase C

delta, X1-X2-X3-X1 • Do not short multiple secondaries together • Test each phase – Phase A
Short Circuit (SC) Analysis • Analyze the “inductive roll-off” region • This roll-off defines the
Short Circuit (SC) Analysis • Analyze the “inductive roll-off” region • This roll-off defines the
Short Circuit (SC) Analysis • Analyze the “inductive roll-off” region • This roll-off defines the

Short Circuit (SC) Analysis

• Analyze the “inductive roll-off” region

• This roll-off defines the primary winding inductance model

• Very similar to the LRT

roll-off” region • This roll-off defines the primary winding inductance model • Very similar to the
roll-off” region • This roll-off defines the primary winding inductance model • Very similar to the
SC Analysis • The SC test the phases should be no further than 0.1 dB
SC Analysis
The SC test the phases should be no further than 0.1
dB from each other
Roll-off should be close to -20dB/decade
Analysis will require you to zoom in very close
Step 1: Overlay the three HVSC Test Results
Step 1:
Overlay the
three HVSC Test Results
Step 2: Zoom in on the LF Region that shows the “Inductive Roll-off”
Step 2:
Zoom in on the LF Region
that shows the “Inductive
Roll-off”
Step 2: Zoom in on the LF Region that shows the “Inductive Roll-off”
Step 3: Identify the key artifacts A) LF DC Section B) Inductive Roll-off Knee (Low-Pass
Step 3:
Identify the key artifacts
A) LF DC Section
B) Inductive Roll-off Knee
(Low-Pass Filter Cut-off
Frequency)
C) Inductive Roll-off Section
D)End of Inductive Roll-off
Inductive Roll-off Knee (Low-Pass Filter Cut-off Frequency) C) Inductive Roll-off Section D)End of Inductive Roll-off
Step 4: Analyze LF DC Section This is the few points that are at the
Step 4: Analyze LF DC Section
This is the few points that are at
the very beginning – 20 Hz
There should be very close offset
between the three results.
If there is a fan-out at the
beginning this could indicate a
winding resistance problem.
Recommend a winding
resistance test
This example is good
beginning this could indicate a winding resistance problem. Recommend a winding resistance test This example is
Step 5: Locating the Knee point. Starting at 20 Hz, look for maximum deflection point
Step 5: Locating the Knee point.
Starting at 20 Hz, look for
maximum deflection point
where the traces go into the
inductive roll-off section (next
slides explains this more)
The LP Filter cut-off frequency
by definition is the point where
the frequency response goes
from flat to -3db down
The LP Filter cut-off frequency by definition is the point where the frequency response goes from
Start “Inductive Roll-off” Step 5: Find the start and end points of the “Inductive Roll-off”
Start
“Inductive
Roll-off”
Step 5: Find the start and end points of the
“Inductive Roll-off”
The inductive roll-off is the ramped linear section
that drops at -20dB/Decade. On a logarithmic
plot it appears as a linear ramp. One of the
reasons logarithmic display is better than
linear.
Stop
Use the ruler-method if you need to find where the
ramp stays linear (straight line ramp down to
the right). Find the start and stop points where
is stays on a straight edge
stays linear (straight line ramp down to the right). Find the start and stop points where
“Inductive Roll-off” Zoom in here Step 6: Choose a point to analyze Select a point
“Inductive
Roll-off”
Zoom in here
Step 6: Choose a point to analyze
Select a point somewhere very close to the half
way points between Start and Stop and zoom
in very tight
to analyze Select a point somewhere very close to the half way points between Start and
Step 7: Calculate the offset 12.64-12.57=0.07dB = GOOD! In general, most transformers will be below
Step 7: Calculate the offset 12.64-12.57=0.07dB = GOOD! In general, most transformers will be below
Step 7: Calculate the offset 12.64-12.57=0.07dB = GOOD! In general, most transformers will be below
Step 7: Calculate the offset
12.64-12.57=0.07dB = GOOD!
In general, most transformers will be below
0.1 db offset, but up to 0.2 dB is not
uncommon.
This analysis is sensitive to the same issues
as Leakage Reactance.
0.1 db offset, but up to 0.2 dB is not uncommon. This analysis is sensitive to
0.1 db offset, but up to 0.2 dB is not uncommon. This analysis is sensitive to
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar
HV Wye winding: Open and Short HV winding – same unit, more magnetization Very similar

HV Wye winding: Open and Short

HV winding – same unit, more magnetization

Very similar at high frequencies
Very similar at high
frequencies
Short circuit wye winding
Short circuit wye winding
Open circuit wye winding
Open circuit wye winding
– same unit, more magnetization Very similar at high frequencies Short circuit wye winding Open circuit
Good Short Circuit Results Good Transformer – Good Results – Lo Frequency All three have
Good Short Circuit Results Good Transformer – Good Results – Lo Frequency All three have
Good Short Circuit Results Good Transformer – Good Results – Lo Frequency All three have

Good Short Circuit Results

Good Transformer – Good Results – Lo Frequency

Results Good Transformer – Good Results – Lo Frequency All three have same roll off All
All three have same roll off All three have very similar resistance element at 20
All three have same
roll off
All three have very
similar resistance
element at 20 Hz
Resistive section in
this case is not
horizontal. This is
common
SC Analysis • If SC results do not match – at 20 Hz -> Check
SC Analysis • If SC results do not match – at 20 Hz -> Check
SC Analysis • If SC results do not match – at 20 Hz -> Check

SC Analysis

• If SC results do not match

– at 20 Hz -> Check Winding Resistance

Variation in results may occur near 20 Hz due to variation in resistance element of shorting leads. May indicate a need to check transformer with DC resistance tests

– Compare LRT results throughout roll off

– Variation in inductive roll off is due to variation in winding impedance

• Center phase may be slightly different

• We expect all three phases to be within 0.1 dB

in winding impedance • Center phase may be slightly different • We expect all three phases
Short Circuit Variation Recommended is a three phase equivalent short circuit test Can do a
Short Circuit Variation Recommended is a three phase equivalent short circuit test Can do a
Short Circuit Variation Recommended is a three phase equivalent short circuit test Can do a

Short Circuit Variation

Recommended is a three phase equivalent short circuit test

Can do a per phase equivalent by repeating tests and just shorting appropriate LV winding

Can do LV short circuit (with HV’s shorted)

Per phase and LV measurements are useful in diagnostic investigations

Can do LV short circuit (with HV’s shorted) Per phase and LV measurements are useful in
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit At open circuit the load on the LV side is
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit At open circuit the load on the LV side is
Short Circuit v. Open Circuit At open circuit the load on the LV side is

Short Circuit v. Open Circuit

At open circuit the load on the LV side is ‘infinite’

At short circuit the load on the LV side is zero

We should expect a result to lie between the open and short circuit results!

circuit the load on the LV side is zero We should expect a result to lie
Case Studies 1 Shorted Turn 2 Hoop Buckling 3 Axial Collapse 4 Clamping Failure 5
Case Studies 1 Shorted Turn 2 Hoop Buckling 3 Axial Collapse 4 Clamping Failure 5

Case Studies

Case Studies 1 Shorted Turn 2 Hoop Buckling 3 Axial Collapse 4 Clamping Failure 5 Bushing

1 Shorted Turn

2 Hoop Buckling

3 Axial Collapse

4 Clamping Failure

5 Bushing Failure

Case Studies 1 Shorted Turn 2 Hoop Buckling 3 Axial Collapse 4 Clamping Failure 5 Bushing
Case 1: Shorted Turn • Demonstrates need for good low frequency resolution • Many electrical
Case 1: Shorted Turn • Demonstrates need for good low frequency resolution • Many electrical
Case 1: Shorted Turn • Demonstrates need for good low frequency resolution • Many electrical

Case 1: Shorted Turn

• Demonstrates need for good low frequency resolution

• Many electrical tests should show a shorted turn

• No baseline data required for diagnosis

frequency resolution • Many electrical tests should show a shorted turn • No baseline data required
frequency resolution • Many electrical tests should show a shorted turn • No baseline data required
Case 1: Normal Response Three normal open circuit responses Three phases respond differently at low
Case 1: Normal Response Three normal open circuit responses Three phases respond differently at low

Case 1: Normal Response

Three normal open circuit responses
Three normal open circuit responses
Three phases respond differently at low frequencies
Three phases
respond
differently at
low
frequencies
normal open circuit responses Three phases respond differently at low frequencies Results as expected and acceptable
Results as expected and acceptable
Results as expected and acceptable
normal open circuit responses Three phases respond differently at low frequencies Results as expected and acceptable
Case 1: Shorted Turn After an incident - one year later One phase has clear
Case 1: Shorted Turn After an incident - one year later One phase has clear

Case 1: Shorted Turn

After an incident - one year later
After an incident - one year later
One phase has clear inductive roll off associated with short circuit measurement Variation is clear
One phase has clear
inductive roll off associated
with short circuit
measurement
Variation is clear indicator of shorted
turn on A phase
inductive roll off associated with short circuit measurement Variation is clear indicator of shorted turn on
Case 1: Shorted Turn Low frequency responses clearly show inductive roll off associated with short
Case 1: Shorted Turn Low frequency responses clearly show inductive roll off associated with short
Case 1: Shorted Turn Low frequency responses clearly show inductive roll off associated with short

Case 1: Shorted Turn

Low frequency responses clearly show inductive roll off associated with short Another transformer circuit -
Low frequency responses clearly show
inductive roll off associated with short
Another transformer circuit - no reference measurement results
with short Another transformer circuit - no reference measurement results Results indicate shorted turn on one
Results indicate shorted turn on one phase
Results indicate shorted turn on one phase
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Compressive Failure of Winding - also known as Hoop Buckling
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Compressive Failure of Winding - also known as Hoop Buckling
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Compressive Failure of Winding - also known as Hoop Buckling

Case 2: Hoop Buckling

• Compressive Failure of Winding - also known as Hoop Buckling

– Need repeatability to within 1 dB

– Need low frequency repeatability to within 0.3 dB

• Expect increase in LC combination of winding bulk - seen as left shift of resonance at mid range

• Consequent increase in winding impedance - seen in short circuit results

as left shift of resonance at mid range • Consequent increase in winding impedance - seen
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Example here of two 28 MVA sister units • One
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Example here of two 28 MVA sister units • One
Case 2: Hoop Buckling • Example here of two 28 MVA sister units • One

Case 2: Hoop Buckling

• Example here of two 28 MVA sister units

• One known bad after internal inspection

• Other unit suspect based on Dissolved Gas Analysis

28 MVA sister units • One known bad after internal inspection • Other unit suspect based
Case 2: Hoop Buckling Clear bulge in winding Inspection of bad transformer revealed hoop buckling
Case 2: Hoop Buckling Clear bulge in winding Inspection of bad transformer revealed hoop buckling

Case 2: Hoop Buckling

Clear bulge in winding
Clear bulge
in winding
Inspection of bad transformer revealed hoop buckling on TWO windings
Inspection of bad transformer revealed hoop
buckling on TWO windings
Case 2: Hoop Buckling Clear bulge in winding Inspection of bad transformer revealed hoop buckling on
Case 2: Hoop Buckling Open Circuit LV results Two bad phases have shift to lower
Case 2: Hoop Buckling Open Circuit LV results Two bad phases have shift to lower

Case 2: Hoop Buckling

Open Circuit LV results
Open Circuit LV results
Two bad phases have shift to lower frequency at this frequency
Two bad phases have shift to lower
frequency at this frequency
By itself, this is not conclusive evidence as we have no reference results
By itself, this is not conclusive