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Februa ry April 2 013



Health Care System of Pakistan03

Biodiversity for

Safety and Security of Pakistans Nuclear Program...13

Drug Delivery System...17


N AYS e -M a gaz i ne , I ss u e 3 , Feb r ua r y Ap r i l 2 0 1 3

The Universe is immeasurable with no definite boundaries. Although human knowledge is limited with respect to the actual universe, we like to say HELLO NEIGHBOUR to galaxies next to us. The scientists are struggling day in, day out to find out new worlds leading to the discovery of a new galaxy near our Milky Way. With Hubble Space Telescope scientists have spotted many new galaxies so far off that they appear to be 400 million years, after big bang event. According to astronomers, it is hard to find these small galaxies near Milky Way as they are distant, faint and could be anywhere in universe. Leo P is a small galaxy in vicinity of Milky Way at a distance of about five or six million light-years discussed for the first time in astronomical journal May 2013. It was first spotted as a cloud of hydrogen gas with hundreds to thousands stars as compared to Milky Way having thousands to billions stars. It contains a number of bright, blue, newly formed stars as well as a region of ionized gas that indicates the presence of a luminous young star. Indeed, the P in the galaxys name stands for Pristine, rest refers to the galaxys location in the constellation Leo as viewed from Eart h, discoverer state. In a nutshell, the discovery makes one think of several small galaxies waiting to be revealed in inexhaustible universe.


Attia Razzaq University of the Punjab, Pakistan UMC St. Radboud, The Netherlands E-magazine@nays.com.pk Physics Zahoor Ali Senior Scientist PAEC, Pakistan zahoor78ali@yahoo.com

Data Managers
Khalid Iqbal M.Phil student Pharmaceutics University of the Punjab, Pakistan kiqbal85@gmail.com

IT Editor
Ubaid Umar MS Student (EME College, NUST) Operations Engineer (Nayatel) ubaid.umar@gmail.com

Biomedical Sciences Muhammad Javed Hassan Muhammad Sughis PhD Agriculture PhD Biomedical Sciences Bahauddin Zikria University, Multan, Pakistan Center of Research for Public Health & the Health ch.javedhassan@gmail.com Journal, Pakistan msughis@hotmail.com


Data Collector
Seema Adil B.S student Biochemistry University of Karachi, Pakistan seemaadil@ymail.com

Biology Dr. Muhammad Amjad Ali PhD Biology UFT-BOKU, Austria amjad.ali2001@gmail.com Engineering Malik Waqas Ahmed Civil Engineer NUST, Pakistan engr.vacas@gmail.com

Aneela Yasmeen University of the Punjab, Pakistan editor@nays.com.pk Suha Tirmizi Research Officer AKDN eHealth Resource Center Aga Khan University Karachi suha.tirmizi@aku.edu misstirmizi@gmail.com Dr. Aneela Karim Assistant Professor Federal Urdu University of Arts Science and Technology chemistaneela@yahoo.com Aftab Ahmad School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Pakistan president@nays.com.pk

Biography of Eminent Scientist

NAYS Publications publications@nays.com.pk

Naey Charagh Report

NAYS Naey Charagh team

Campus Corner
Mirza Abdul Aleem Baig Research Assistant, College of Biomedical Engineering, Ziauddin University, Karachi aleembaig_mughal@hotmail.com Workshop/Conference Corner Audience portion

Subject Editors
Botany Dr. Mehmooda Munazir PhD Scholar, Arid Agriculture University, RWP Kings College London, UK moodi977@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Anwar Nasim

Mr. Aftab Ahmad School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore president@nays.com.pk

Vice President
Dr. S.M. Shahid (KIBGE), University of Karachi vice-president@nays.com.pk

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Automatic Watering System for Plants

Arsalan Shakil Engineering hobbyist (Govt. College, Nazimabad, KHI)
Everyone loves gardening as this is one of the things which make our lives delightful by its fragrance and appearance. As we take our very first step outside of our room or house in the morning, our breaths get filled with the aroma of all kinds of flowers and then our eyes get captivated by the beauty of mother nature. Unfortunately, this beauty depends on humans! It requires very short amount of time from us in order to look good and to live longer. As we believe that time is money so it has become quite hard for us to spend our time for some activities other than our routine work. In more formal words, everything is changing rapidly and adapting advance technologies so why gardening has to be left behind? Thats why I thought of making a project which can give plants or even an entire garden free-

Electronics Engineering/Plant Sciences Arsalanstien@gmail.com

into the ADC (Analogue to Digital Converter) channels of microcontroller where these readings are processed and if necessary, it turns ON/ OFF the water pump and that not only saves lot of water but also lives of some sensitive plants. As this project uses Microcontroller, analogue readings can easily be tweaked with respect to different kinds of plants (if necessary). This project is also equipped with an LCD module which gives a new way to humans for interacting with the plants more freely, all of the process can be seen on the LCD display, as: 1. Water Level: Excellent! 2. Water Level: Good! 3. Water Level: Normal! 4. Water Level: Water is Needed! (This message turns on the water pump and it stays on unless first level is reached). This project consists of the following parts: Microcontroller, 16x2 LCD Display, Two Metal Probes (for taking readings from the soil), Small Water Pump, Small pipes for watering purpose, 12V DC Adaptor (entire system is operated at just 12V).

dom to live on their own. Existing watering systems water the plants according to the time, just like alarm clock. That doesnt work well during different seasons because soil dries more quickly in summer and less in winter which results in over watering, thus most plants die. In this Automatic Watering System, precise analogue readings are taken from the soil of plants with the help of two metal probes that stay deeper in the soil. Then these readings are fed

Pharmacists: The Health Care System of Pakistan

Umer Mir Pharm D Dawn news reported: 1. 2. 3. LAHORE, March 21: The World Health Organization (WHO), too, has blamed ISOTAB for the death of more than 200 patients of the Punjab Institute of Cardiology in Lahore in early 2012 Tyno death toll rises to 17, samples cleared LAHORE: At least 16 people, mostly drug addicts seeking a fix, have died after drinking toxic cough syrup in Gujranwala, officials said Saturday General

Any one has time to think about the cause of these accidents in Pakistan? Why these are only happening in Pakistan? OR there is negligence? Page 3

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A step forward going towards the diagnosis of this situation in Pakistan, I will point out one major lapse in our system, which is the absence of pharmacist in different fields of health care system. Let us discuss the first one which is the biggest one, happened in PIC Lahore, when we discuss the drug therapies, we must think about the clinical pharmacist which plays a vital role as a team member in hospital. In all developed countries clinical pharmacists are working as therapeutic specialists. In PIC there was no clinical pharmacist to check the adverse drug actions and to correlate these reactions with the toxic symptoms of different drugs. If clinical pharmacists were there then the death toll may have been remained very low. Now come towards the 2nd and 3rd cases. Both were because of the cough suppressant drug dextrometharphan . This is a cough suppressant and is available without prescription (OTC-over the counter). This drug is used for the relief of the symptoms of cough, and it is also used as abuse drug by the addicts. Its over dose cause respiratory depression, coma and eventually death. Addicts use its over dose for the euphoric and stimulant action. Now the question is how pharmacist can prevent these happenings, if there are retail pharmacists at the retail pharmacies and they are properly assessing the buyer and only giving drugs to patients but not to abusers and properly counseling patients about the use and harms of overdose then you can easily think how many cases can be prevented. Now I will discuss the different applied fields of pharmacy, and how pharmacists are beneficial to the people of Pakistan .Some fields are not well established in Pakistan while others are established in Pakistan. It is important to describe a pharmacist. Pharmacists, also known as druggists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences, focusing on safe and effective medication use. The role of the pharmacist has shifted from the classical "lick, stick, and pour" dispensary role (that is, "lick & stick the labels, count the pills & pour liquids"), to being an integrated member of the health care team directly involved in patient care. Now some chatter about the hospital pharmacist, hospitals pharmacist is a person who is responsible for the dispensing, counseling, inventory control, storing and record keeping of the medicines. Hospital pharmacists are also involved in educating the physicians, nurses, staff and patients about the use, safety and administration of drugs. Here the most important segment is the counseling of patient about the medication. For example how to take medicine?, either with water or milk?, after how many hours?, which food you can take and which food u cant take?, either before the meal or after meal?, which adverse drugs effects are possible? which medication is for which purpose? and how long the therapy will be continued. Pharmacist welcomes the queries and give answers to the patient and satisfy patient psychologically. Drug information centre and poison control centre are the modifications. Drug information centre provides any information related to drug. And in near future inshAllah UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, FACULTY OF PHARMACY will establish drug information centre. You can call there, if u has a query related to medicine. Poison control centre are established in hospitals and they maintain information and antidotes of the drugs. Pharmacists are specialized in this field. But hospital pharmacists are not appointed in all govt. hospitals, their induction is necessary to achieve the above mentioned services. Now come towards the role of clinical pharmacist, these are most desperately needed in our health care system, after PIC incident Punjab govt. has appointed clinical pharmacist in the Punjab institute of cardiology. Punjab govt. also has hired pharmacists during dengue control. Currently AGHA KHAN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, SHAUKHAT KHANAM MEMORIAL CANCER HOSPITAL and CHILDREN HOSPITAL LAHORE have well established clinical pharmacy setups. Now I want to tell u how a clinical pharmacist can beneficial for health care system. 1. Clinical pharmacist ensures there is an appropriate indication for each drug and that all the medical problems are addressed therapeutically. Select and recommend the most appropriate drug based upon therapeutic goal. Select the most appropriate dose regimen according to therapeutic goal. Checks drug drug interactions, drug food interactions, preparing TPN ,preparing and dispensing radiopharmaceuticals , patient profile, adjust the dose according to body weight, and also in case renal and hepatic impairment. 5. Maintain drug therapy for effectiveness or adverse effects in order to determine whether to maintain, modify or discontinue. Also counsels the patient and evaluate the effectiveness of drug therapy. If govt. appoint clinical pharmacists in hospitals then we can achieve these benefits. Community pharmacy is a pharmacy in community, where a competent, qualified and trained pharmacist is appointed. This pharmacy has the family history of patient, while pharmacist is well aware of the allergies of the different families. So at community pharmacy pharmacist can best manage chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Community pharmacist can also educate people about the disease, how they spread and prevention. For this purpose pharmacist can also arrange discussion sessions with people of community. Also pharmacists play their active role in immunization. Govt. should set the trend of community pharmacies where pharmacists treat diseases like irritable bowl syndrome, common cold, etc. and refer the patient to the physician and respective specialists in case of more severe pathology. This will help to reduce quackery in Pakistan and will also be beneficial for patients in terms of prevention of economic loss, time loss and early diagnosis. There are many private as well as public sector universities which are offering Pharm-D. It means thousands of students graduate annually. Many talented studiers leave the country because Pakistan has not well established job structure of pharmacist, in this way talent of this country goes out and its not beneficial for the country. Govt. should devise policies for the pharmacists induction in health care system and giving them proper opportunity to perform in health care system. The Punjab drug rules 2007( schedule G) should be implemented for the safety of people. No doubt the establishment of Drug Regulatory Authority is admirable but we want to see it fully functional at all levels. Last year in 2012 Punjab assembly has passed a bill that there will be 1 pharmacist for fifty beds in every public sector hospital. It was a brilliant idea but not came into reality. Because vacancies was not announced, I wish in near future govt. will announce vacancies and will pay attention to this alarming situation in health care system.

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Climatic Changes and Forest Diseases

Muhammad Mohsin Raza, Zeeshan Sattar, Asim Ali, Aiman, Iqra Ishfaq, Zarnab Sabir M.Sc. (Hons.) Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Forests provide critical shelters for terrestrial biodiversity, act as a central constituent of the earths biogeochemical systems and are a source of ecosystem services essential for human well being. Forests also have the potential to mitigate global climate change by serving as net carbon sinks. The global forest area has been reduced by 40% over the last three centuries, primarily as a result of human activities, particularly the conversion of forested land to agricultural usage. Today, less than one third of the earths land area is covered by forests. Disturbance agents such as pathogens, insects and fire can decrease the ability of forests to provide goods and services. Climate has always shaped the worlds forests but today the worlds climate has become warmer and will change further at an exceptional rate. Recent extensive tree death events have been associated with climate change. Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean or variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change has the potential to initiate multiple, interacting processes that affect forests, some positive and others negative. For instance, higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations can result in increased growth rates and water use efficiency of trees, or there may be a reduced effect of carbon fertilization on tree productivity over time and in older trees. Elevated CO2 was shown to increase host resistance to forest diseases. If host susceptibility or pathogen virulence or aggressiveness is increased by climatic conditions, then a disease outbreak or epidemic may result. Plant disease epidemics may become more frequent as the climate changes. Epidemics of pathogens that are mobile or easily dispersed, and can kill their hosts relatively quickly. The main objective of the article is to understanding and management of forest tree diseases under a changing climate. Because, most plant diseases are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, climate change will affect the pathogen, the host and the interaction between them, resulting in changes in disease impact. Since, abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture influence host susceptibility to pathogens, pathogen growth, reproduction and infection which represent the most considerable drivers of disease outbreaks. The distribution of hosts and diseases will change under the perception of climate change. Because, increases in temperature and changes in precipitation may allow the ranges of some species to expand, perhaps whilst contracting elsewhere, but models frequently predict a reduction in the potential geographic distribution of tree species or diseases as a result of climate change. Pathogens that typically affect water stressed hosts are likely to have an increased impact on forests in regions where precipitation is reduced. The roles of pathogens as disturbance agents will probably increase, as their ability to adapt to new climatic conditions will be greater than that of their long lived hosts. Most pathogens will be

Popular article Agriculture Sciences mohsin1570@gmail.com

their effects on the host. Changes in climatic conditions in the last 60 years, i.e. increased mean winter temperatures, seasonal precipitation shift from summer into winter and a tendency to heavy rain are favoring infection by several species. It has been predicted that increasing temperatures will lead to a potential range expansion of the pathogen of this group. Pathogens indirectly affected by climate: Pathogens indirectly affected by climate e.g. Armillaria root disease, Pine wilt, canker pathogens etc tend to infect such hosts that are stressed by environmental factors. Such pathogens can sometimes infect a healthy host and remain latent (hidden) until the host is stressed. Whilst the ability of these pathogens to sporulate, spread and infect new hosts is affected by temperature and moisture, factors that stress their hosts are often critical to their successful invasion of host tissues. For example, an increased incidence of summer drought will increase the probability that trees will be infected by pathogens whose activity is facilitated by host stresses, such as root pathogens, wound colonizers and latent colonizers of sapwood. Decline diseases Forest declines are diseases caused by a complex of predisposing, inciting and contributing factors. As these difficulties accumulate the tree gradually becomes less able to produce, store and mobilize carbohydrates. It typically develops symptoms of die back, and unless the situation improves significantly the tree eventually dies. Managing forest diseases as climate changes Given the numerous examples of the ecological, economic and social value of forests, and the role that forests may play in mitigating global climate change, it is precious to conduct a comprehensive assessment of management options for forest diseases. Impacts of climate change on forest health must be mitigated. This will require proactive thinking and a modified technique of forest management approaches, because orthodox management strategies will not protect forest values in a changing climate. Climate change is already disrupting practices and policies for managing commercial and noncommercial forests.

able to migrate to locations where the climate is suitable for their survival and reproduction at a faster rate than tree species. Climate change will affect the life cycles and biological synchronicity of many forest trees and pathogens. In this artifact the diseases and their causal pathogens or agents are divided into three groups: diseases caused by pathogens directly affected by climate; diseases caused by pathogens indirectly affected by climate; and decline diseases. Pathogens directly affected by climate: This group of pathogens e.g. Phytophthora root rot can cause disease in a healthy, vigorous host, if the pathogens environmental requirements are met. Their life cycles are directly affected by temperature and moisture. For example, many pathogens causing needle diseases are sensitive to precipitation and humidity and their rates of reproduction, spread, and infection are greater when conditions are moist. In these cases, changes in temperature and moisture more directly affect the pathogen regardless of

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Essential components for managing forest diseases as climate changes Four categories of management tactics have been recommended: monitoring, forecasting, planning and use of mitigating strategies. Monitoring Monitoring the spatial (Regarding Space) occurrence of forest diseases relative to both the ranges of host trees and annual weather patterns will inform adaptive management. The reliability of monitoring data will be maximized if regular, organized surveys of tree health, mortality and growth, whether remote or ground based, are conducted by skilled personnel, ideally at the stand, watershed and landscape levels at regular intervals. Forest range plots also can be used to detect trends in growth and mortality for individual species and incidence of diseases or other disturbance agents. The ability of these activities to effectively inform the long term management of forests might be increased by coordinating with monitoring for other disturbance agents, such as insects or fire, and by monitoring across jurisdictional boundaries. Forecasting The profound changes in environmental conditions expected from global climate change mean that forest professionals cannot rely on historical observations and experiences to forecast and plan for the future, but instead must develop and use a variety of modeling tools. Models of diverse phenomena, from climate to vegetation to disturbance agents, can guide management of forests under a changing climate, especially when they are well integrated. Bio climatic envelope models, for example, which integrate spatially explicit historic and contemporary data from weather stations, general circulation models and other sources, can be used to correlate current tree and pathogen species distributions with climate variables or to project future distributions on the basis of understanding of species physiological responses to environmental variables. Modeling pathogens climate envelopes alongside host reactions to climate can thus enhance the ability to predict disease outcomes. Planning Jurisdictions that already have forest health strategies must ensure that they are maintained and adequately funded. Also, they should review and revise pertinent legislation and policies to ensure that forest health problems can be responded to quickly and effectively. The success of management proposed to minimize the potential effects of climate change on forest pests on large spatial scales depends, in part, on the synergistic effects of other major disturbances, such as wildfire. Climate change induced increases in tree mortality from pathogens and insects may increase the occurrence and severity of fires. Hazards and risk rating systems are integral components of forest management plans and can be applied in the absence of disease epidemics, and have proven useful for projecting the effects of climate change on forest pathogens. Strategies for mitigating effects of climate change Ecological resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to absorb disturbance without shifting into a qualitatively different state. The establishment and maintenance of forests with diverse species and age classes can help maintain resilience to mortality and reduction in growth rates of trees in response to diseases and climate change. Breeding programs for forest trees can promote genetic diversity, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental stresses. A trees resistance to pathogens depends on genetic variation, evolved immunity, agility and environmental conditions. Fungicides may be an effective method of controlling forest diseases in forest nurseries and in natural forests, especially in the short term, despite negative public perception.

Evaluate the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Major Traditions and Approaches to Value the Environment
Abdullah Mohiuddin Sustainable environment and energy systems, Middle East Technical University
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the major traditions and approaches to value the environment. Referring to the classical, neo-classical (marginalist), environmental and/or ecological traditions, and their variants as you see appropriate, outline your preferred approach to value the environment. Illustrate your responses using real historical environmental problems. Why there is need to estimate or assign the value to the environment? If something is there for free, it is ignored in every step of decision making. Thus in order to save the environment the first step required by the economists is to come up with the concept of assigning the monetary value to the environment and thus somehow limit the environmental degradation using economical principles. There are various approaches for the

Field: Political Economy and Law in Sustainability

estimation of the value of the environment. In Neo Classical economics, one major approach is the creation of market. A brief introduction and strengths and weaknesses of this approach are discussed in this essay. Two examples from the recent history in this essay will extend the understanding about how development of a market can help in the reduction of the degradation of the environment. Second most important concept is of market failures. After which another approach named as willingness to pay is discussed which is for the estimation of value of non-market based environmental goods and services. A brief discussion of the ecological economic approach will be followed by the conclusion. In neo classical tradition, the centre of economic activities is the market. Market is a place where customers and suppliers gather for the exchange of goods and

services. The basic difference between classical and neo-classical approaches of market are that in neo-classical economics the valuation of price comes from the equilibrium of supply and demand where as in classical economics the price is determined by the cost of production. So in Neo-classical Market, the instruments of supply and demand operate and determine the price of the goods and services. Markets are meant for the efficient allocation of resources. Creation of markets for environmental goods and services will provide the monetary value to them and thus it will directly influence the decisions and preferences of the people and the corporations. A new commodity will be created and new opportunities of trade will emerge. Markets are created by humans, they are not natural.

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The major problem in creating a market for environmental goods and services is that these goods and services are non-excludable. For instance the services of the ozone layer or the benefits of polar ice caps in prevention of climate change are for all human beings. It is impossible to restrict anyone from enjoying the benefits of their services. Everyone is using these environmental services for free. In order to create a market it is necessary to incorporate the concept of ownership or private property. It is very difficult to establish property rights for these goods and services. Some of these problems are international (e.g. melting of Polar Ice Caps, rise of sea levels, global warming etc) and since there is no global institution powerful enough to possibly intervene and establish property rights and thus create a market. So in order to create a market some sort of institution should be present that could establish property rights. And creation of such institution would require costs. Thus creation of Market itself requires some costs such as transaction costs, which may be very significant. Although there is an example of success in developing a cap-and-trade mechanism that showed that this might work for restricting the degradation of the environment. United State program for trading in SO2 (Sulphur dioxide) emissions is said to be successful in reducing the SO2 emissions. SO2 emissions can cause acid rain. So in order to prevent acid rain this program was introduced under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to reduce acid rain by achieving a reduction in SO2 and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emissions (EPA). In that market based mechanism, the program sets a permanent cap on the total amount of SO2 emissions on electric power plants, and the level below the cap is traded. Thus, allowing the parties to flexibly select the method of compliance. So they could decide the best possible economical way to reduce their emissions. And the operations of these electric power plants were influenced by the market value. As it is mentioned earlier that creation of market itself requires cost. The cost that was anticipated for this program was much higher than the actual cost that incurred during the implementation of the program. And the benefits were estimated to be 70 billion Dollars annually with a costbenefit ratio of 1:40 (EPA). The program achieved a reduction in Acid rain phenomena locally, so it was kind of a localized solution for a localized problem. This however cannot be easily replicated for other international environmental problems .Global warming, for instance is an international problem and thus, for a market based mechanism to work successfully, it will require an international consensus. Kyoto Protocol is an international effort to combat global warming by reduction of CO2 emissions. Its an international agreement associated to the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change. This protocol binds the 37 industrialized countries and European community to adopt local measures to reduce CO2 and other green house gas emissions and gives them some flexibility through market based mechanisms (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change -UNFCCC). This however seems

For example, the consumption of resources such as fossil fuels, how much would the people of future generation like to pay for these resources? Conventional economists however define a concept of intertemporal discounting where methods of discounting can be applied to find the future value of the environmental resources and this evaluation can be used in the decision making process. Then a problem emerges that future assets may be valued much lower. As it is evident, in modern world money is considered as a criterion for depiction of value of any asset, and according to the economic principles the value of money decreases with time. This may be proved as a setback, as environmental goods and services will be valued lesser in future than in the present. Future environmental resources when evaluated with the discounting factor, if results in lower estimation of their value, will make it difficult to decrease the excessive consumption in the present. Above mentioned example is a reason of market failure, where market fails to serve the purpose of efficient allocation of the resources. There can be various other reasons of market failure as well and they could be because of any inherent feature of the resource. In case of a market absence of an environmental good, economists suggest an empirical method of estimation of their value. This approach to find the value of environment is the concept of willingness to pay, how much people are willing to pay to stop the degradation of the environment. This non-market based method can help the policy makers and governments to decide the amount of funding they must allocate towards the solutions of environmental problems. One of the major problems with the neoclassical approaches is the possibility of errors and misjudgment in valuation of environment. The pricing technique or the calculation of monetary value of environmental goods and services may not reflect the actual value. Also not everything can be put in terms of money. A different perspective in valuation of environment is found in ecological economics. As Kenneth Boulding, who is regarded as one of the founding fathers of ecological economics describes spaceman economy,

not to be much fruitful because, some major players in the CO2 emissions are not taking part in it. United States for instance, being the major CO2 emitter is not the part of the deal. China is not required to reduce its emissions since its emissions of CO2 per capita is very low (Liliana LaValle and Amy Braun) .The estimation of price of a market good is affected by the supply and demand of the goods and services. The number of participants of a market is thus very important. The achievements of this protocol might have been very different if United States would have agreed to sign this protocol. Apart from these examples there are other things to be considered as well which are related to the market based approach of valuing the environment. There is a possibility of miscalculation of the value of environmental goods and services through market based mechanisms because the number of participants in the market is restricted to the present generation. There is a possibility that if future generation could somehow participate in the market, then the value that we will get via supply and demand principles could turn out to be far greater. But since future generation does not exist right now, and with future there is a factor of uncertainty, we cannot know how valuable the environment will be for them in terms of monetary criteria.

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where earth is modeled as a spaceship and it can be thought of a closed system in terms of materials. (Roger Perman et.al, 2001). Mankind can enjoy the resources that are present within the spaceship but they cannot get a supply of resources beyond the boundaries of the spaceship. Here, in order, for mankind to exist sustainably, they must find their existence in such a way that does not degrade the ecological cycle. This perspective of valuation of environment does not negate the need of price based evaluation of the environment as Boulding himself accepts the need for market based methods, but it emphasizes more on the need of putting the things in a correct perspective. That is, the economics of humans is a subset of a larger system, which is the ecology. As Robert Nadeau, a professor of environmental science and public policy at George Mason University says: The primary objective of the ecological economists is to enlarge the framework of the neoclassical economic paradigm to include scientifically valid measures of the environmental costs of economic activities (Robert Nadeau, 2011). In the light of above discussion, it may be stated that neo-classical approaches of valuation of environment, if pursued in a proper perspective as it is suggested by ecological economics, with efforts of minimizing the miscalculations, errors and failures such as market failures, can provide a better solution of the environmental problem . Efforts to include the environmental costs of the economic activities in the economic system are required. Lessons from the past efforts of creation of markets must be learned and applied in the continued efforts. As it is mentioned in this article US program for trading in SO2 is an example of the success that is achievable via market based mechanism. The Neo-Classical market based approach can provide some sort of flexibility and ease of implementation by all parties, which may be more acceptable. Bibliography
EPA Cap and Trade: Acid Rain Program Results [http://www.epa.gov/capandtrade/ documents/ctresults.pdf] accessed on 24th November 2012 3:15 PM Li liana La Valle and Am y Braun. Kyoto Protocol [ http://sitemaker.umich.edu/ section3group3/ the_protocol_and_its_problems] accessed on 27th November 2012 at 10:56PM Robert Nadeau, 2011 Ecology Theory: Environmental and ecological economics. Encyclopedia of Earth [ http://www.eoearth.org/article/ Environmental_and_ecological_economics? topic=58074] accessed on 27th November 2012, 7:42 PM Roger Perman et.al, 2001, Natural Resource and Environmental economics: 4th edition: Addison Wasley Press UNFCC (United Nation`s Framework Convention on climate change) Kyoto Protocol [ http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/ items/2830.php] accessed on 27th November 2012, 6:16 PM

How Would You Value Biodiversity for Sustainability ?

Abdullah Mohiuddin Sustainable environment and energy systems
How would you value biodiversity for sustainability? How could development which respected biodiversity be made sustainable, if at all? The term biodiversity or biological diversity refers to the variety of life forms occurring in nature, as a result of evolutionary history. The concept includes the variety of organisms at all levels, from genetic variants belong-ing to the same species through arrays of different species; as well as the variety of ecosystems, encompassing ecological communities in a given habitat and the physi-cal conditions under which they live (Wilson, 1992). The notion of economic growth and development of humankind is causing the natural habitats to shrink and thus the world is currently progressing towards the state where many species are endangered. After the industrial revolution we humans are considered to be responsible for dreadful conditions of the environment, and biodiversity loss is one of the foremost environmental problems. Biodiversity is indispensable for the stability of the ecosystem. The loss of biodiversity reduces the exquisiteness of the ecosystem. The chances of prospective

Middle East Technical University Field: Political Economy and Law in Sustainability
sources of victuals and the chances of discovery of new pharmaceuticals, the other benefits that are not known to men yet, will trim down if biodiversity loss is not curtailed (Hans-Peter Weikard, 2002). In other words, biodiversity itself is very important for a sustainable world for mankind. Some scholars believe that we cannot attach a value to essentials, like the services provided by the ecology. According to Gowdy (1997) we cannot affix a value to an indispensable resource. Some claim that biodiversity is not substitutable. As, Mainwaring (2001, Page 81) states that, the replacement of ecosystem services is far from human capacity. Even if Gowdy and Mainwaring`s arguments are accepted, we will still require a valuation of biodiversity since our decisions towards anything extensively depend upon what value we give to it. The survival of ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity all these things need an evaluation to be a part of decision making. (Hans-Peter Weikard, 2002). Even though it may be tough to find the absolute valuation of the biodiversity, (for various reasons like lack of knowledge or lack of operational definition of biodiversity), the mitigation and compensation values of the impacts of human activities on biodiversity may help in the reduction of the loss of biodiversity. Moreover, considering the significance of biodiversity for sustainability of mankind, these mitigation and compensation values will help us understand the extent of efforts that are required to preserve biodiversity. This approach seems effective in the valuation of biodiversity, because it involves the conservation of biodiversity and conservation of biodiversity is inevitable for sustainability. Later on in this essay the valuation approach of mitigation and compensation is defined. The work of Alexander James et al. (2001) is discussed as an example of mitigation and compensation value. The work of Hanspeter Weikard (2002) is presented as a support of area-based approach of Alexander James et.al. In the second part of the essay the notion of possibility of sustainable development that respects biodiversity is presented. In this part of the essay examples from agriculture, aquaculture and livestock farming are given to support the notion that developments in these areas can be done while conserving the biodiversity. Next

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to that the concept of a policy instrument tool i.e. `Biodiversity offset` is discussed that can make it possible to sustain the development while respect diversity. The first approach that is discussed here is Mitigation and compensation values. Conservation of biodiversity deals with enveloping the development into the biological conservation framework and finding procedures to mitigate or compensate the impacts caused by man`s exploitation of natural habitats. The costs of these measures are the mitigation and compensation values of biodiversity (Alho CJR. 2008) The work of Alexander James et al (2001) can be considered a very good illustration of mitigation and compensation valuation of biodiversity which involves the estimation of costs of a conservation program for biodiversity around the globe. They surveyed current spending on protected areas globally, made an estimate of the funding shortfalls. The next step was the acquisition of land to spread out this network for ecological representation, and summing the cost of managing these areas in future effectively. Finally they estimated the scale of reimbursement required to meet the opportunity costs incurred by regional people living in or near natural reserves. They added all the costs to find the total annual cost of maintaining a biodiversity conservation program around the globe. Alexander James et.al also mentioned about the enormous subsidies towards environment perverse activities like subsidies given to prop up agricultural production, energy use, road transportation, water consumption, and commercial fisheries. Alexander James et.al (2001) proposed that a worldwide representative and sufficiently maintained nature preservation program could be achieved for about 2% of the annual spending on such environmentally detrimental subsidies. If the proposition of Alexander James et.al is accepted and the 2% or more of annual spending on environmentally detrimental subsidies are diverted towards a global biodiversity conservation program than development and conservation can go side by side. This global conservation program as proposed by the work of Alexander James et.al is a noteworthy example of a possibility of coupling of development with the conservation of natural habitats for the protection of biodiversity. It may present a hope for the possibility of a world that is not only sustainable but also conserving biodiversity. The approach of Alexander James et.al (2001, Page: 43-52) for the valuation of biodiversity is to increase the number of protected areas, thereby giving the nature, a chance to protect the biodiversity in its own natural way i.e. absence of human interference. This however requires a compromise between the humanity`s urge for development, land exploitation and conservation of biodiversity. As Hans-Peter Weikard (2002) concludes in his paper that Indeed, the problem of Noahs ark, which species will be given a place on the ark, is only one of two problems that Noah faces. It is a second-stage problem. At the first stage Noah must make up his mind about how much space on the ark he wants for himself. The approach of valuation of biodiversity by Alexander James et.al (January 2001) seems more practical in a sense that it focuses on the area of protected reserves instead of focusing on the species for the conservation of biodiversity. This seems in-line with the work of Hans-Peter Weikard (2002,). Hans-Peter Weikard argued that biodiversity conservation programs lack operation-ability because of various constraints like lack of all the genetic information, lack of funds, and a lack of a practical operational definition of biodiversity. In his work Hans-Peter Weikard discussed the diversity function presented by Weitzman (Weitzman, Martin L. 1992. On Diversity.). Weitzman`s diversity function as a framework for the measurement of biodiversity, is based on the genetic variation amongst the species. He argued that Weitzmans structure of diversity measurement can be made realistic and germane by shifting the level of analysis from species to ecosystems. Hans-peter Weikard (2002) also proposed that the ecosystems with more biodiversity can be preferred in allocation of resources for conservation. This may be a problem, because we do not know what we are losing in the less diverse ecosystem. May be ecosystems that are less diverse if not protected, their species can be conserved as well due to the advancement in the technology as Keekok lee (2000 Page: 39) suggests that whole plants need not be saved; only their seeds. Keekok lee adds that the habitats of plants may be destroyed but their seeds live on. With the seeds intact, DNA genetic engineering will enable us to splice the DNA relating to whatever property of the plant is deemed desirable into another, or indeed into bacteria using viruses as a vector, which could replicate that property for us in an infinitely more efficient manner than the original seed/plant can do Thus the approach of giving preference in saving more diverse ecosystems can make more sense if the species of less diverse systems be conserved using the biotechnology. The proposition of Alexander James et.al can be performed based on the approach suggested by Hans-peter Weikard with an addition of conservation of species of less diverse ecosystems as discussed by Keekok Lee. In this way, well being of future generation could be ensured and the impacts of loss of biodiversity on sustainability will be minimal. Now moving to the second part of our discussion i.e. how could development which respected biodiversity be made sustainable? The development which respects biodiversity is inherently supporting the cause of sustainability because sustainability of mankind itself requires biodiversity. We depend on biodiversity in many ways. For example the change of climate and other adverse effects sometimes require us to make use of biodiversity. Many traditional livestock farmers employ multi-species and multi-breed herds and flocks to sustain high diversity and to shield against climatic and economic adversities. (Hoffmann I., 2003). Other than livestock, species combinations also augment the output in aquatic systems thus supporting the sustainability. Use of diverse fish species in aquaculture improves resource use efficiency and reduces waste. This is why, in china four types of carp are commonly raised in the same pond: silver carp filter phytoplankton, grass carp feed on plant-eating microorganisms, the common carp is an omnivorous bottom feeder and bighead carp filters zooplankton (Naylor et al., June 2000). We can see in above example that because of different sources of feed the resources are used effectively and the carp yield can be higher than the pond which has only one type of carp.

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Similarly for agriculture, soil enrichment, pest control and pollination are necessary ecological benefits that are obtained due to biodiversity. The presence of wild patches of vegetation in farming area preserves wild or weedy species that provide habitat for wild fauna that contribute towards soil enrichment, pest control and pollination (Vandermeer et al., 2002). Instead of using unsustainable sources, like the use of pesticides for pest control, these wild patches may be used. Above examples show the direct dependence of human welfare on biodiversity and they assert the importance of biodiversity for sustainability. Research in these areas can help us further more in developing sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and livestock practices that can support biodiversity. Besides that a change in policy can also help for the conservation of biodiversity while keeping the development process intact. As it is argued earlier that any development that respects biodiversity is inherently supporting the sustainability, so any policy instrument that could bound the development process to respect biodiversity will support sustainability. Biodiversity offset is emerging as a significant policy instrument for the protection of biodiversity from the impacts of development. Biodiversity offsets have been dened by ten Kate et al (2004, Biodiversity offsets: views, experience and the business case) as: Conservation actions intended to compensate for the residual, unavoidable harm to biodiversity caused by development projects, so as to ensure no net loss of biodiversity. (David A. Norton, 2009). Biodiversity offsets involve the safeguard of a natural habitat that holds existing conservation value. In case of possibility of a loss of a natural habitat due to impacts of development, it requires the developers to restore the natural habitat of the same conservation value elsewhere. In some parts of the world biodiversity offsets are referred as mitigation whereas in some places it is referred as compensation measure. (David A. Norton, 2009). This also supports the earlier discussion of mitigation and compensation values of Biodiversity in this essay .This policy instrument also seems in-line with the proposition of Hans-peter Weikard i.e. focusing on ecosystems for the conservation of biodiversity. The assessment of conservation value can be possibly done as per the suggestion given by Hans-peter Weikard i.e. the ecosystems with more biodiversity, may be preferred over the ecosystems with less biodiversity. Biodiversity offsets are used by governments and private sector to permit the development activities (thus sustaining the development) after the assurance of the no-net-loss or net-gain in biodiversity. One example of the biodiversity offset is the Kate Valley Landfill. Kate Valley landfill is situated in coastal hill country in New Zealand`s eastern South Island. Kate Valley Landfill was identified by Transwaste Canterbury Ltd. (TCL) as a possible site for a new regional landfill. TCL applied in 2002 to Hurunui District Council for resource consent. TCL was granted the permission subject to some conditions. One of the restrictions was that the area of Nothofagus solandri (black beech) forest should be retained. TCL wanted this restriction to be removed to enable the landfill to be of a viable size while the opposing parties wanted it to stay. TCL and the three opposing parties went to the environment court, where TCL offered the environmental compensation (Biodiversity offset). The court accepted the biodiversity offset and allowed to remove the restriction of retaining of Nothofagus solandri (black beech). The biodiversity offset as proposed by the TCL which was later accepted by the environment court included the long-term protection, restoration and management of a 410 ha Conservation Management Area adjacent to the Kate Valley landfill, which is now known as Tiromoana Bush. The Court Further specified the number of actions that TCL must undertake. Some of these actions included the permanent fencing of the Tirmoana Bush and the removal of domestic grazing animals within two years. (David A. Norton, 2009). The effectiveness of biodiversity offset for conservation of biodiversity in this case and in general as well is not discussed here. But it can be assumed that policy instruments like this if refined and implemented properly may help. In this essay, the mitigation and compensation valuation approach for the conservation of biodiversity for sustainability is discussed. This approach is based on reducing the human impacts on biodiversity so it inherently supports sustainability (since biodiversity is inevitable for sustainability) .After that a proposition of Alexander James et.al is shown. Hans-Peter Weikard`s suggestion of shifting the focus from species to ecosystems is also discussed to show that conservation programs like the one proposed by Alexander James et al which focus on increasing the protected areas, (which can be ecosystems) would be effective and practical. Finally a policy tool ( Biodiversity offset) is discussed, which can also work in the same manner, i.e. conservation of areas that have higher conservation value in terms of biodiversity, while giving flexibility to the people pursuing development. References
Alexander James, Kevin J. Gaston, and Andrew Balmford, January 2001, Can We Afford to Conserve Biodiversity? BioScience, Vol. 51 No. 1, Page: 43-52 Alho, CJR, 2008, The value of biodiversity, Braz. J. Biol., 68(4, Suppl.): Page: 1115-1118 David A. Norton, 2008, Biodiversity Offsets: Two New Zealand Case Studies and an Assessment Framework, Published: 23 August 2008, Springer Science & Business Media, LLC Gowdy, John M. 1997. The Value of Biodiversity: Markets, Society, and Ecosystems., Land Economics 73 (Feb.): 2541. Hans-Peter Weikard, February 1, 2002,Diversity Functions and the Value of Biodiversity, Land Economics vol. 78 no. 1, Page 20-27 Hoffmann I. (2003),Spatial distribution of cattle herds as a response to natural and social environments. A case study from the Zamfara Reserve, Northwest Nigeria. Nomadic Peoples 6, 623. Keekok Lee, Alan Holland and Desmond McNeill, 2000, Global Sustainable Development in the 21st century: Global Sustainable development its intellectual roots, Edinburgh University Press, Page: 30-47 Mainwaring, Lynn, 2001. Biodiversity, Biocomplexity, and the Economics of Genetic Dissimilarity. Land Economics 77 (Feb.): Page 7993. Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh, 2001, Economic valuation of biodiversity: sense or nonsense? Ecological Economics 39, Page: 203222 ten Kate K, Bishop J, Bayon R (2004),Biodiversity offsets: views, experience and the business case. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Insight Investment, London, UK Rosamond L. Naylor, Rebecca J. Goldburg, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Nils Kautsky, Malcolm C. M. Beveridge, Jason Clay, Carl Folke, Jane Lubchenco, Harold Mooney & Max Troell , Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies Nature 405, Page 1017-1024, 29 June 2000 Vandermeer, J., Lawrence, D., Symstad, A. and Hobbie, S. 2002. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning in managed ecosystems. In: Loreau, M., Naeem, S. and Inchausti, P. (Eds.). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. pp. 157-168. WILSON, EO. , 1992, The Diversity of Life. New York: W.W.Norton & Company. Page: 424. Weitzman, Martin L. 1992, On Diversity. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 107 (May): Page 363 405.

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Genotyping by Sequencing and its Application in Crop Improvement

Zaryab Khalid Sial PhD Scholar, LCWU Lahore
I have attended a workshop on 7th February, 2013 in National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad. This was one day awareness workshop on Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) and its application in crop improvement. Agricultural Biotechnology Division of NIBGE organized this workshop. After registration session, Hafiz Arshad recited some verses from Holy Quran, and then participants provided their brief introduction. After this, Dr. Sohail Hameed (Director NIBGE) gave a warm welcome address for all distinguished guests and participants. Dr. Sobia Ikram (Assitant professor, NIBGE), who was also organizer of event gave details of program and major aspects which would be covered during workshops. First lecture was delivered by Dr. Shahid Mansoor (Sitara e imtiaz), who is working as Chief Scientific Officer/ Head Agricultural Biotechnology Division, NIBGE. He discussed whole genome sequencing of crop plants and their importance in developing countries like Pakistan. He also geve a brief and informative note on history of genetics. A detailed recorded lecture on genotyping sequene by Dr. Sharon Mitchell (Research and Laboratory Manager, Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University) was also shared during workshop, she provided complete procedure and protocol about genotyping. Second session started after refreshment, Dr. Muhammad Asif (Senior Scientist) provided a detailed note on data analysis in GBS. In addition, he discussed some examples and plans of GBS in plants, after his lecture students asked some important questions about his talk, Dr. M Asif satisfied all participants by his knowledge, It was really a new technique for all of us and the speaker drew our full attention towards its importance. Association Mapping using GBS and/or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data was also a novel approach and Mr. Javed Iqbal (PhD Scholar, NIBGE) discussed his research using these techniques on size improvement of rice. Dr. M. Arif (Principal Scientist, NIBGE) gave basic knowledge about Tilling and its application in SNP Scoring and gene identification, it was a thought-provoking knowledge and had a great deals of informa-

Workshop Corner zaryab.syal@yahoo.com

tion for agronomists. Concluding ceremony was inaugurated by Dr. Sobia Ikram after lunch break, she also gave a brief overview of workshop activities, Dr. Mubarak Ali (Chief Executive, PARB) was the chief guest of event whe is a senior member in Punjab Agriculture and Research Board, he pleasely appreciated the effort of NIBGE for organizing such events for young researchers. Certificates were distributed among participants and organizers and Director, NIBGE submitted the vote of thanks. At the end, audience shared their views about the said event which were very encouraging for whole organizing team; group photo was also taken with guest, faculty members and participants.

Group photo of participants

Seminar on Palliative Cancer Care

Aftab Ahmed PhD Punjab University, Lahore (President NAYS)
A seminar was held on Palliative Cancer Care at University of Health Science, Lahore. The event was organized by Cancer Care Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore which is project of Cancer research and treatment foundation. Two lectures on cancer status in Pakistan and palliative cancer care was delivered by Prof. Dr. Shaharyar (Professor of Oncology, King Edward Medical University and President of the Cancer Research and Treatment Foundation) and Dr. Riaz ur Rehman (Oncology Department, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore). During first lecture Prof. Sheharyar highlighted the importance of more cancer hospitals in Pakistan and also strongly stressed on need for more research work in Pakistan related to cancer. The statistics he presented were frightening, according to him there are 10 million new cases of cancer worldwide and more than 50% die the same year and this ratio is much more in developing countries like Pakistan. He further added that there are about 300,000 new cancer cases in Pakistan and

Workshop/ Seminar Corner

it result in more than 150,000 deaths each year and one of big reason of high death rate is late diagnosis of cancer and at this stage it becomes un-treatable. According to him in Punjab only there are 75 beds, 6 senior doctors and 10 junior doctors for kids suffering from cancer which is very less and in just Punjab province of Pakistan there are around 162,000 new cases of

cancer each year and we have facility of just 500 beds with only 35 specialist doctors in this area.

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He added that we treat around 41,000 of total cases and for rest we dont know details that what treatment they get or where they go. He said there is only one bone marrow transplant unit in whole Punjab which is at Armed Forces Research Institute in Rawalpindi while there is not a single unit in Lahore or any other big city of Punjab. In order to have a comparison with neighboring country India he added that there is only 2 clinical research organization related to cancer in Pakistan while India have over 4000 so there is great need to do more investment in research and education related to oncology as according to one survey Pakistan rank 162 in the world related to cancer related knowledge and education. Dr. Riaz ur Rehman added that cancer is 2nd leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. According to him 1 in 5 people suffer from cancer at some stage of life and in developing countries mortality rate is very high. He further added that there is no concept of palliative cancer care in Pakistan and we need to start it. He also said that palliative cancer care is not only good for patient and his family but also it will reduce the economic losses of government as otherwise patient in late stages have to get medicine from multinational companies and they cost in millions and ultimately person die by cancer. He added that cancer research and treatment foundation is going to start a 400 beds hospital for cancer patients in Lahore and they will also have palliative care facility in this hospital which will be first facility of this kind in Pakistan. At the end of his presentation he also presented a model of palliative cancer care and how we can involve paramedical staff, volunteers, family physicians and palliative care experts to give best treatment to patients and it will result in pain free cancer death and death with dignity which are recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO).

SI-ARCS: Sketch Interpretation and Rationale Capture System

Iqra Ejaz, Abeer Syed Faculty of Electronic Engineering, GIKI
Gone are the days when we humans had to jump into the reality created by machines to be able to use them. The recent past has shifted the research focus to human centered computing in an attempt to make the physical world around us intelligent and perceptive. Advances have been made to impart intelligence to the surroundings. This way machines are made to understand and perceive the real world. Speech, gesture and vision recognition, if embedded in the real world, would revolutionize the research in engineering. With this consideration, the initiative that we have taken under the supervision of Professor M. Junaid Mughal intends to bring the idea of intelligence embedded systems to the engineering researchers at undergraduate level. Our team comprises of four senior year students of the Faculty of Electronic Engineering at GIK Institute: Abeer Syed, Ayesha Khan, Iqra Ejaz, Tauqeer Hussain. Our project entitled Sketch Interpretation and Rationale Capture System (SI-ARCS) is an innovative look into the future of educational system in Pakistan. Developed from scratch, this software-hardware amalgamation is aimed to interpret and understand everything that is drawn or written on any surface; A surface that is as natural and easy to draw on as paper, yet that understands what you draw.-Randall Davis, CSAIL-MIT. SI-ARCS makes any smooth physical surface

Research Project in Human Computer Interaction siarcs2013@gmail.com

intelligent enough to understand and recognize a free hand sketch drawn by a digital pen. This assembly presents an innovative way of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It reduces the effort splendidly for an instructor/student to choose a component from the library; he can sketch it freehandedly and get it recognized with the aid of SI-ARCS. The idea is practically realized with the clever combination of an IR pen (transmitter), that sends the information about its position via IR rays; an IR camera (sensor), that captures the co-ordinates of the IR pen and feeds this real time data to the software in the PC; the developed application that first interprets the figure and then swiftly corrects it in real time; and the projector that simultaneously displays the image on any flat surface. The software application that we have developed is capable of recognizing, interpreting and correcting any freehand sketch. The software is written in C# using .Net Framework. The beauty of the software lies in its absorbability i.e. many shapes/sketches can be added to its database as per requirement to diversify its use for sketch interpretation. SI-ARCS serves as a platform for a diverse range of applications. Therefore, this project has excellent prospects of being launched on a commercial scale. Not only does it serve as a wondrous teaching aid for the instructors of the

engineering domain but it also provides an opportunity for it to be integrated with many simulation softwares. Besides its applicability in academia, SI-ARCS can be used by musicians to have their notes interpreted or even by children to doodle on walls with the inkless pen. Our inspiration to choose the domain of HCI and then develop SI-ARCS, was the current research that is being conducted in the state-ofthe-art research facilities all around the world including MIT, Stanford and Microsoft. We aimed at bringing a user-friendly teaching aid that would have both educational and commercial utilities, within the reach of the institutes of Pakistan. But the vision doesnt end here. For us, SI-ARCS is not just an idea, its a realization.

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Safety and Security of Pakistans Nuclear Program

Ahmad Khan Research Associate, Strategic Vision Institute Islamabad Twitter Handle@ahmadkhan000.
Introduction 1. The threat of nuclear terrorism, especially after 9/11, and the safety of nuclear installations highlighted by nuclear disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima Nuclear Plant in 2011, has profoundly changed the discourse of global regime for nuclear safety and security. After the Fukushima power plant disaster, the world leaders sensed the urgency to discuss the issues of nuclear safety and security. In this regards, the second Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) in 2012 was held in Seoul. With the participation from more than 53 heads of state and different international organizations, the agenda of summit was set to discuss three main issues. This include (1) Cooperative measures to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism, (2) Protection of Nuclear material and related facilities and (3) Prevention of Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The basic purpose of arranging this summit was to give strength to the international efforts to prevent nuclear materials from being misused by terrorist groups. President Obama in his Pragues speech in 2009 highlighted the serious threatnuclear terrorismto international security. Above and beyond, he expressed his will to create World free of nuclear weapons. Pakistan also participated in the summit, where Prime Minister Yousad Raza Gillian represented his country. Pakistan participation in the summit shows Pakistans commitment and motivation to strengthen international cooperation to prevent the non-state actors to misuse nuclear materials for any malicious activities. 2. After the events of 9/11 in United States, the Western world is now quiet apprehensive about the security of Pakistans nuclear arsenal. The Western media, think tanks, newspapers and their official reports painted a dark picture of Pakistans nuclear weapons, falling in the hands of radical, extremists, and fundamentalists Jihadi networks, working in connection with AlQaeda and Afghan Taliban. Scenarios were developed about the possible theft of nuclear materials or gaining access to nuclear weapons by the extremist groups, might be facilitated by some of the insiders as well outsiders, favorably inclined towards Al-Qeada and Taliban political and radical thoughts. On top of that, the most discouraging scenario was developed portrays the fear of radical Islamic movements destabilize Pakistan, and possibly transforms Pakistan into the first radical Islamic country possessing nuclear weapons. In addition, another most heinous scenario about the security of Pakistan nuclear arsenal was formulated radical Islamic movements influencing military people and or/scientists to gain access to the nuclear weapons and fissile materials. 3. Despite possible concerns/scenarios about the security of Pakistans nuclear arsenal, the global security threats or risks to nuclear materials or nuclear installations/facilities as describes by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Nuclear Security Recommendation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities; are (a) the risk of unauthorized removal of nuclear material with an intention to engage in acts of nuclear terrorism, e.g. Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD) (b) risk of physical attack or sabotage of nuclear installations; (c) risk of unauthorized removal of nuclear material for making Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD); and (d) theft or illegal transfer of nuclear material or radioactive materials illicit trafficking. Safety and Security Issues of Pakistan Nuclear Program. 1. The international propaganda campaign against the safety and security of Pakistans nuclear arsenal after the terrorist attacks on Army General Head Quarters (GHQ) in 2009, PNS Mehran attack in 2011, and Kamra Air Base attack in 2012, has gained velocity. Over and above, the increased number of terrorist activities in the country, the political instability, and the pace at which Pakistan is developing its nuclear infrastructure, has also increased the challenges to its nuclear safety and security apparatus. Terrorist attack on Kamra Air Base in 2012the mostly deadly attack in recent yearsrejuvenates the global discourse regard-

Full length research paper Field: Strategic and Security Studies Ahmed_ishaq669@yahoo.com
ing the security of Pakistans nuclear weapons. Prior to that, two attacks have already being carried out on Kamra. As the result of 2012 Kamra Air Base attacks, new questions are stirrer in the international media about terrorist networks attacking and taking over Pakistans nuclear arsenal 2. Pakistan has introduced an effective command and control structure in 2001. However, with the passage of time, the global concerns about Pakistans nuclear safety and security were cultivated and scenarios were formulated about the possibilities of terrorists getting nuclear materials from nuclear facilities, to make nuclear explosion devices and RDD. Pakistans nuclear program, for the last one and half decade, has got much attention and negatives publicity from across the globe. During all this propaganda campaign, there was not a single credible day left when Pakistan did not defend its nuclear program. The global propaganda campaign coupled with deliberate piercing by some Pakistani nuclear pessimists, has got pace. In a recent interview with DAWN, Pervaiz Hoodboy hoists concerns about Jihadi Networks, taking over key nuclear installations to fulfill their political objectives. He deliberately neglected Pakistans efforts to ensure the nuclear safety and security of its nuclear arsenal. However, the question arises, are terrorists networks attacking and taking over Pakistan Nuclear weapons is a reality or its just a mere myth? 3. P-5 nuclear weapons states have significant number of nuclear weapons. On the other hands, the de facto states India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Koreaare having sizeable nuclear infrastructure. Pakistan falls under the category of those states, which have not signed Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) yet; however Pakistan, has signed number of agreements with the IAEA, based on guidelines contained in Safeguards Document INFCIRC. Pakistans plan to expand its nuclear program has come under severe criticism, raising countless questions about its safety and security mechanism to

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guard its nuclear materials. However, President Obama and to U.S officials have showed their confidence in Pakistans nuclear security apparatus. Security System of Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Materials, and Facilities: 1. In February 2000, Pakistan National Security Council (NSC) established the National Command Authority (NCA), the apex civilian led authority to supervise the employment, deployment, research and development, and command and control structure of Pakistan nuclear program. After its establishment, the NCA has took measures for the safety and security of the nuclear arsenals, materials, and facilities, which include the formalization of the nuclear safety procedures, security of nuclear arsenals, physical protection, control, accounting and creation of vital infrastructure and legislation. As Zafar Nawaz Jaspal articulated, since the establishment of Pakistan Nuclear Program, it has institutionalized highly-secured system, which has been improved gradually to thwart internal and external security challenges, posed to its nuclear program. 2. Security Division: The Security Division in one the most important organs of the Strategic Planning Division (SPD), responsible for the security and protection of Pakistan nuclear arsenal, facilities and the entire strategic organizations. Today, the Security Division comprises more than 20,000 highly trained, skillful security personnel to guard the arsenal. Having said so, these personnel are capable of protecting both nuclear weapons and high sensitive strategic facilities from any terrorist attacks. They are trained to counter the terrorist attempt of sabotage as well as any foreign power raid on the nuclear facilities. This security division is headed by a two Star General, who has his eyes and ears inside the strategic organizations. 3. Personal Reliability Program (PRP): The security clearance and screening processes of all individuals for employment in the strategic organizations has been further consolidated through the enhancement of PRP. The SPD has overall approval of key personnel and also retains information on all retired personnel. Besides PRP for military personnel, SPD has also introduced Human Reliability Program (HRP) for civilian. All these efforts are made to prevent the insiders link with any terrorist organizations or groups. Any individual dispensed a

strategic task goes through multiple intelligence agencies security clearances, which is very much similar to the Unites States Safety and Security System. In Pakistan, The Warheads and the delivery systems are separated from each other, so that the chances of accidental or unauthorized launch of the weapons can be prevented. Furthermore, the individuals who have information about the locations of the nuclear weapons are strictly monitored and ought to be under constant surveillance. 4. Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities: The Security Division is the solely responsible for the physical protection of all the civilian and military nuclear installations. Today, it is fully established and operating a multilayered security perimeter to protect the nuclear installations. The first layer encompasses of the security personnel from the respective organization; however, it works in coordination with the SPD. Prior to that the providing security to the installations was the sole responsibility of the respective organization. In the Inner Perimeter, the specially trained forces operate on a permanent basis. In the Outer Perimeter, additional fencing is being reinforced by installing closed circuit cameras and electronic sensors. Besides inner and outer security arrangements, an Air Defense System around the particular nuclear facility is also installed. The sensitivity of the nuclear installations is protected by Air Defenses elements, and is designated as no-fly zones. The last tier of the Physical Protection System consists of counter-intelligence teams, who are tasked to indentify the external threats to facilities and provide covert security. 5. Transportation Security: While transporting the nuclear materialsthe nuclear waste, and radioactive materialscan become a potential target for the terrorists. The security and protection of materials, such as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and highly radioactive sources is more difficult especially transit when in fixed locations. Pakistan has approved the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) during 2000, and worked to ensure that it meets all the guidelines included in the convection. In 2005, an amendment was introduced in the convection; however, officials are also considering accession to the July 2005 amendments that are intended to strengthen the CPPNM. Above all, specialist vehicles and

tamper-proof containers are provided for the transportations of nuclear materials that are escorted by military personnel. 6. Fissile Material Protection, Control and Accounting: The A.Q Khan Proliferation saga has forced Pakistan to introduce strict measures for protection of fissile material. Prior A.Q Khan Chapter, there were no formal reporting channel of the apparatus that could check the account for shipments and personal travels. In fact, no formal procedures existed for the physical protection and accounting (MPC&A). Today, the SPD has adopted strict measures to conduct external audits on the nuclear inventories, and implementing regular and surprise inspections at all facilities. 7. Export Control Regimes: In 2001, Pakistan established a Strategic Export Control Division (SEDIV) in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The SEDIV comprises of personnel form Customs, Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Commerce, Defence, Federal board of Revenue. In addition, the personnel from PEAC, PNRA, and SPD also work in coordination with the rest of the personnel. SEDIV operates independently so that personnel will not face any conflict of interest. To oversee SEDIV, a board is also formulated, headed by the Foreign Secretary and other high-level officials to implement of the act. 8. International Agreements to Prevent Nuclear Terrorism: Pakistan has joined the US led Container Security Initiative (CSI) in 2006 and Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) in 2007. Pakistan has also cooperated with Secure Freight Initiative (SFI). Pakistan for the last one decade is actively participating in all these agreement to prevent the nuclear or radiological terrorism23. 9. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA): In 1994, Pakistan signed Convection of Nuclear Safety (CNS). In order to fulfill the obligation under CNS, each member state has to establish an independent regulatory body. In this regards, Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Body came into being under Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). To further this process of having independent regulatory infrastructure, Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established after the promulgation of PNRA Ordinance 2001. PRNA is an independent organization responsible for regulating all the aspects of radiation and nuclear energy.

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It issues licensed for export control of radiological materials. Furthermore, it regulates, and supervises all the matters relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection. PNRA being a multilateral coordinating agency is responsible for interacting with domestic and foreign entities. PNRA in coordination with IAEA evaluates and submits reports in compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 1540, which calls for national measures to prevent non-state actors from obtaining highly dangerous weapons. 10. Radiological Source Security: The PNRA is tasked to protect workers in the facilities, public, and the environment against accidental or malicious acts involving nuclear materials and facilities. It continuously reviews and updates safety and security measures according to recommendations and guidance received from the IAEA. Pakistan has signed the CSI, which provided radiation detectors at Karachi port. Pakistan also participates in the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database, to share information on incidents involving theft, loss, or pilferage of radiological materials. Pakistan is working to cooperate with the U.S. Department of Energy on export and border control programs. 11. Nuclear Security Summit (NSS): Pakistan has participated in two NSS in 2010 and 2012. During his address in Seoul NSS Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani said, Pakistan has taken effective measures which are the most important part of its efforts to enhance nuclear security. He also said, As we meet here, we break new ground on the evolving global nuclear security architecture, the role of the IAEA, a n d protection of nuclear materials and radioact i v e

sources. Pakistan offered her support to the international community in establishing Nuclear Security Training and Support Centers. Besides, Pakistan also agreed to deploy Portal Monitors to detect smuggling of nuclear materials in order to prevent the illicit trafficking. 12. Nuclear Plant Stress Test: After the Fukushima power plant disaster, the debate about safety of the nuclear power plants gained new pace. Moreover, the debate was further fueled right before the beginning of the NSS in Seoul. Scores of concerns were raised in the world about the safety of the nuclear energy. After Fukushima, Pakistan immediately carried out IAEA recommended stress tests on its civilian nuclear power plants, which were very successful. 13. International Cooperation: Pakistan has signed number of agreements with the IAEA demonstrating its firm commitments, and strong level of cooperation with the IAEA. The most important agreement in this regard is the Technical Cooperation (TC). In addition, Pakistan is currently one of the top three recipient countries in terms of TC assistance and receives around $ 2-3 million worth of Assistance annually. Pakistan was among the first countries that submitted a report to the UN to fulfill its obligations under the UNSCR 1540. More to the point, Pakistan has also applied Facility Specific Safeguards (INFCIRC/66). Pakistan has also made political commitment to apply the non-binding IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and also participates in the IAEA Illicit Trafficking

Database (ITDB). In October 2001, Pakistan also initiated a bilateral dialogue with U.S to improve its nuclear security. U.S officials have repeatedly expressed their satisfaction over nuclear safety and security apparatus of Pakistan. On September 22, 2008, Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Michael Mullen described U.S. concerns that, to the best of my ability to understand itand that is with some abilitythe weapons there are secure. And, that even in the change of government, the controls of those weapons havent changed. Certainly at a worst-case scenario with respect to Pakistan, I worry a great deal about those weapons falling into the hands of terrorists and either being proliferated or potentially used. And so, control of those, stability, stable control of those weapons is a key concern. And I think certainly the Pakistani leadership that I've spoken with on both the military and civilian side understands that. After the terrorist attack on the Minhas Air Base in 2012, the State Department Spokeswoman Victoria Nuland said that We do talk about these issues and support Pakistani efforts to keep them secure we have for quite a long, long time. And we dont have any reason to be concerned at this moment. During the Foreign Ministry weekly press briefing, spokesperson Moazzam Ali Khan said, Pakistans strategic assets are safe and sound and we have a robust command and control in place, so nobody should worry about the safety and security of our nuclear assets. Conclusion: The terrorist attack on twin towers and Fukushima power plant disaster has changed the whole global discourse of the nuclear safety and security. Prior to Fukushima, not much attention has been paid to the safety of the nuclear power plants. On the other hand, a lot debate has been carried out on the issue of security of the nuclear arsenal. In this regards, Pakistan has been made a punching pad. Despite the political turmoil and the country facing both kinetic and non-kinetic threats, its nuclear weapons are the jewel of her crown. In fact, Pakistan has unearthed all the stones to make its nuclear safety and security apparatus stringent. Scenarios developed against the possible theft of nuclear materials, and revolutionist group in connection with military and persons working inside the nuclear facilities .

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1. Overview, thenuclearsecuritysummit.org, accessed on March 10, 2013, http:// www.thenuclearsecuritysummit.org/eng_info/ overview.jsp. 2. Maurizio Martellini, Nuclear Safety, nuclear stability and nuclear strategy in Pakistan: A concise report of a visit by Landau Network-Centro Volta, Pugwash Online, February 9-13, 2008, accessed on February 25, 2013, http://www.pugwash.org/ september11/pakistan-nuclear.htm. 3. Ibid. 4. Nuclear Security Recommendation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA Nuclear Security Series no.13, accessed on February 25, 2013, http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/ publications/PDF/Pub1481_web.pdf, 3. 5. Naeem Salik and Kenneth N. Luongo, Challenges for Pakistans Nuclear Security, Arms Control Association, March 2013, accessed on March 20, 2013, http:// www.armscontrol.org/ act/2013_03/ Challenges-forPakistans-NuclearSecurity. 6. Ibid. 7. Many Western experts believe that at Kamra 100 nuclear warheads were stored, and terrorists aimed to attack the nuclear arsenals. However, according to Pakistani official report is not credible and lacks does not depicts the true picture of Pakistan nuclear security apparatus. See Declan Walsh, Militants attack Pakistani Air Base, The New York Times, August 16, 2012, accessed on March 10, 2013, http:// www.nytimes.com/2012/08/17/world/asia/pakistaniair-force-base-with-nuclear-ties-is-attacked.html? _r=0.; Salik and Luongo, Challenges to Pakistan Nuclear Security. 8. Zafar Nawaz Jaspal, Pakistans nuclear weapons safety and security, The Nation, February 23, 2013, accessed on February 28, 2013, http:// www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-dailyenglish-online/columns/23-Feb-2013/pakistan-snuclear-weapons-safety-and-security. 9. Pervaiz Hoodboy, interview to DAWN, DAWN, February 20, 2013, accessed on February 28, 2013, http://dawn.com/2013/02/20/pervez-hoodbhoy-thebomb-is-immoral/. 10. Henry D. Sokolski, Pakistans Nuclear Woes, in Pakistans Nuclear Future: Worries beyond War, (ed.) Henry D. Sokolski (United States: Strategic Studies Institute, 2008), 5. 11. Pakistan establishes Nuclear Control Body, Arms Control Today, March 2000, accessed on February 26, 2013, http://www.armscontrol.org/node/2899. 12. Zafar Nawaz Jaspal, Pakistans nuclear weapons

safety and security, The Nation, February 23, 2013, accessed on February 26, 2013, http:// www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-dailyenglish-online/columns/23-Feb-2013/pakistan-snuclear-weapons-safety-and-security; and also see Pakistans Nuclear Safety and Security: A Critical Analysis, Weekly Pulse, March 06, 2013, accessed on March 10, 2013, http://weeklypulse.org/ details.aspx?contentID=3368&storylist=1. 13. Passing out of soldiers of Strategic Plans Division held, Pakistan Today, April 19, 2012, accessed on February 27, 2013, http://paksoldiers.com/isprpress-releases/passing-out-of-soldiers-of-strategicplans-division-held/. 14. Kenneth N. Luongo and Naeem Salik, Building Confidence in Pakistans Nuclear Security, Arms Control Today, December 1, 2007. 15. Jaspal, Pakistans nuclear weapons safety and security. 16. Naeem Salik, The Genesis of South Asian Nuclear Deterrence: Pakistans Perspective (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2009), 284.

17. Abdul Manan, Preventing Nuclear Terrorism in Pakistan: Sabotage of Spent Fuel Cask or a Commercial Irradiation Source in Transportation, in Pakistans Nuclear Future: Worries Beyond War, ed. Henry Sokolski (United States: Institute of Strategic Studies Army War College, 2008), 235. 18. Luongo and Salik, Building Confidence in Pakistans Nuclear Security. 19. Jaspal, Pakistans nuclear weapons safety and security. 20. Peter Levoy, Islamabads Nuclear Posture: Its Premises and Implementation, in Pakistans Nuclear Future: Worries Beyond War, ed. Henry Sokolski (United States: Institute of Strategic Studies Army War College, 2008), 152. 21. Strategic Export Control Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan, accessed on February 27, 2013, http://www.mofa.gov.pk/mfa/ pages/article.aspx?id=25&type=4. 22. Ibid. 23. Philip E. Coyle and Victoria Samson, The Proliferation Security Initiative: Background, history and Prospects for the Future, International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament, 10.

24. Noreen Iftakhar, Safety and Security of Pakistans Civilian Nuclear Industry, South Asian Strategic Stability Institute, Research Paper no.31, 4. 25. Luongo and Salik, Building Confidence in Pakistans Nuclear Security. And also See Safe Port Act Reauthorization: Securing our Nation's Critical infrastructure, United State Senate, Hearing before Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, July 21, 2010, 29, accessed on March 1, 2013, http:// www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111shrg67271/html/ CHRG-111shrg67271.htm. 26. Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peoples Republic of China, March 28, 2012, accessed on March 2, 2013, http:// www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t920452.shtml. 27. Seoul Summit: Responsible Pakistan seeks civil nuclear tech, The Express Tribune, March 27, 2012, accessed on March 2, 2013, http://tribune.com.pk/ story/355715/seoul-summit-responsible-pakistanseeks-civil-nuclear-tech/. 28. Ibid. 29. Pakistan pledged to establish Nuclear Security Training and Support Center within the region and outside the region in collaboration with 22 countries. See Salik and Luongo, Challenges for Pakistans Nuclear Security. 30. In an interview, Pakistan Ambassador to China Masood Khan, who was also the chief negotiator on Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), told about the stress tests conducted by Pakistan on its nuclear power plants. See Pakistan nuclear plants undergo stress tests, The Nation, March 25, 2012, accessed on March 2, 2013, http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistannews-newspaper-daily-english-online/international/25 -Mar-2012/pak-nuclear-plants-undergo-stress-tests. 31. Iftakhar, Safety and Security of Pakistans Civilian Nuclear Industry, 14. 32. Jaspal, Pakistans nuclear weapons safety and security. And also see Pakistan nuclear plants undergo stress tests, The Nation, March 25, 2012, accessed on March 2, 2013, http://www.nation.com.pk/ pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/ international/25-Mar-2012/pak-nuclear-plantsundergo-stress-tests. 33. Iftakhar, Safety and Security of Pakistans Civilian Nuclear Industry, 12. 34. Paul K. Kerr and Mary Beth Nikitin, Pakistans Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues, Congressional Research Services, February 13, 2013, accessed March 25, 2013, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/ nuke/RL34248.pdf, 1; Malik Qasim Mustafa, Are Pakistans Nuclear Weapons Safe, Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad, accessed on March 25, 2013, http://www.issi.org.pk/publicationfiles/1299650081_87535106.pdf, 4. 35. US confident of Pakistan nuclear security, The Express Tribune, August 17, 2012, accessed on March 25, 2013, http://tribune.com.pk/story/423242/ us-confident-of-pakistan-nuclear-security/. 36. Pakistan reiterates nuclear assets are safe, The Express Tribune, August 16, 2012, accessed on March 25, 2013, http://tribune.com.pk/story/422953/ pakistan-reiterates-nuclear-assets-are-safe/.

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Wireless Drug Delivery System An Innovative Approach and its Awareness among Health Care Professionals
Mehwish Tanveer*, Tariq Ali^, Munazza Khalid*, Daniya Anwer*, Anum Shahnawaz*, Huma Talib*, Israh Ausaf * *Pharm D Graduates, ^Assistant Professor DOW College of Pharmacy, DOW University of Health Sciences
ABSTRACT Micro-electronic devices have become integral part of our lives. This review examines emerging technology in drug delivery system that is wireless controlled microchip technology. For this purpose, a review based survey was conducted to find the level of awareness among health care professionals. Wireless drug delivery system (WDDS) is an innovative approach to enhance patient compliance which is a major issue especially in patients with chronic ailments that require daily complex dosage regimen. The microchips devices implanted in patients and controlled by microprocessor wireless communication. WDDS has the potential to improve patient compliance. It is an intelligent system which provides real time dose schedule tracking and physicians to adjust the treatment while away from patient. INTRODUCTION A perspective drug delivery system may be defined as mechanism to introduce therapeutic agent into the body. Drug delivery systems had an enormous impact on medical technology and enabling the use of entirely new therapies [1]. Our lives have been revolutionized due to the invention of micro-electronic devices. They are present in our automobiles, cellular phones and computers [2]. This stimulated the development of innovative technologies in drug delivery system. Recent advances created the possibility to meet the patient need. For this a new drug delivery system is designed that is wireless control drug delivery system that works through microchip [3]. Microchip: Microchips are smart medical implants that can dispense drugs into the bloodstream as a result of wireless signals sent to it from the medical implant communication service (MICS)[4]. These chips offer a range of advantages including localized delivery, delivery on demand, controlled drug release, dose checking and physician remotely adjust treatment schedule [5]. This smart implant can be injected under the skin in the doctor's office in about 30 minutes using a local anesthetic and lasts about four months before needing to be replaced [7]. Need of Wireless Drug Delivery System: Wireless drug delivery system has the potential to improve patient compliance as it is a major

Field: Pharmacy Research Article mehwish.tanveer@hotmail.com

device cleared by the FDA an in the market sometime in 2014 [3]. Future Challenges and Opportunities: Hurdles in commercial development of drug delivery systems are that they are complex to economically manufacture, high cost, invasiveness and payload limitation. On the other hand, elements for successful implementation are proof of technological feasibility, a regulatory approval, greater emphasis on advanced delivery systems and capability to address significant unmet medical needs [5]. METHODOLOGY This review examines emerging technology in drug delivery system. For this, articles from wide range of sources were searched like pubmed, springer link, google scholar, science direct, wiley and other online libraries. Also a survey was conducted to know the awareness of latest technologies in our set up among health care professionals and students by providing a 16-item based questionnaire. A total of 138 questionnaires were retrieved out of 200 with the response rate of 69%. It seems that overall response about the awareness of WDDS is negative. About 72 % dont have any idea about WDDS, about 18% has some idea and healthcare professionals do not have enough knowledge and understanding about DDS and WDDS. After giving some information about the system, 75.3% show a positive response towards the future applications of WDDS and about 24.7% show negative response as they think that WDDS is difficult to implement. CONCLUSION The convergence of drug delivery and electronic technologies gives physicians a real-time connection to their patients health [3]. Technical success is a prerequisite but does not guarantee commercial success. Advanced drug delivery development provides a mix of failures

Fig. 1 The Microchip implant contains 100 or more tiny reservoirs curved into silicon wafer. On wireless command the lid a sandwich of platinum and titanium foil vaporizes and reRESULTS OF AWARENESS SURVEY leases the drug stored underneath
medical issue, especially in chronic diseases. Such issues include simply forgetting (65%); concerns about the drugs (45%) and feeling the drug is unnecessary (43%) because of long term and complex drug regimen [8]. Therefore, it is of a great advantage to find a drug delivery device that is capable of controlled release of a wide variety of drugs that can be safely implanted inside the body [10]. If future research is promising, the technology could be used to treat a wide range of conditions that require frequent or daily injections. Food and Drug Administration Status To achieve marketing approval, implantable drug delivery devices are submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval as combination products and expects to get the

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8. Wertheimer A. Medication Compliance Research: Still So Far to Go. Journal of Applied Research. 9. Maloney J.M, Uhland S, Polito b, Sheppard N, Pelta C, Santin J.T. Electro thermally activated microchip for implantable drug delivery & biosensing, journal of controlled release, 109 244-255,2012. 10. Viral Shah, Kruti Patel, U.M. Upadhyay Injecting New Ideas Into Drug Delivery Systems-A Brief Review on Microchips as Controlled Drug-Delivery System. The Pharma Review, JAN 2010. 11. Trafton A. MIT News Office Clinical trial of the programmable, implantable device shows promise in treating osteoporosis. 12. Laura J, Martin M. Drug-Delivery Microchip Could Replace Daily Injections. 13. Boyle R. A wirelessly controlled pharmacy dispenses drug from within your abdomen. 2012. 14. Johnson R.C. Wireless Implant Meters Drug Doses. 2012. 15. Improving patient compliance with low-cost wireless technologies. 2006. 16. Lavan D, Mcguire T, Langer R. Small scale system for in vivo drug delivery. Nature biotechnology. 17. Rebecca Boyle A Wirelessly Controlled Pharmacy Dispenses Drugs From Within Your Abdomen, 2012 Feb.

Fig. 2. Pharmacy inside your body and successes so it is difficult to predict the success of innovative products. So new technologies are only useful if they can be commercialized, and drug delivery applications cannot be commercialized without a regulatory environment sufficiently adaptable to support marketing approval of innovative products [5]. It seems to have an innovative discovery for mankind which has pharmacy on a chip, enhancing patient compliance. In a nutshell, microchip provides a new treatment option for clinicians where sub-optimal performance of conventional dosing methods is inconvenient in terms of safety, efficacy and pain. This avoids the compliance issue and points to a future where you have fully automated drug regimens.
REFERENCES 1. David A Lanvan, Terry McGuire & Robert Langer Small-scale systems for invivo drugdelivery. 2. Santini J, Richards AC, Scheidt R, Cima MJ & Langer R Microchips as controlled drug delivery devices Angew Chem.Int.Ed.2000,39,2396 -2407. 3. Dolan B. Results from wireless, implantable drug delivery device study. Science Transitional Medicine, 2012. 4. Johnson R.C. Wireless Implant Meters Drug Doses. 2012. 5. Staples M. Microchips and controlled-release drug reservoirs. Wiley online library. 2010. 6. Maloney J. M. an implantable microfabricated drug delivery system. International Mechanical Engineering Congress. 2003. 7. Pandolfino J.E , Richter J.E , Ours T , Guardino J.M , Chapman J, Kahrilas P T. Ambulatory Esophageal pH Monitoring Using a Wireless System. The American Journal of Gastroenterology (2003) 98, 740749.

Fig. 3 Mechanism of the drug introduction and release in body

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The Story of Frozen Smoke

Muhammad Ali Lecturer, Institute of advanced materials, BZU, Multan ali_10m10@yahoo.co.uk
In late 1920s, a professor of chemistry S. S. Kistler and his colleague professor S. Learned bet over the reason behind the stability of gel like matter (jelly/semi-solid). The former justified it as the function of structural network of microscopic pores, whereas the latter, nullifying the role of porous structure, attributed the semisolid behaviour to properties of the liquid it contains. To prove his proposition, Kistler went on to remove the liquid component (alcohol) from the silica-gel. The problem he faced in doing so was quite expected that the conventional evaporation of the liquid rendered the structure to collapse. After several attempts he succeeded in his objective and formed a material having structure of a gel but with no liquid contents. Removal of liquid from alcogel (silica -gel with alcohol inside the pores) was conducted through supercritical drying employing the combined action of temperature and pressure. As the alcohol was replaced with air in the gel, so the alco with aero in the terminology. Common types and properties: Aerogels can contain up to 96% of air in the nano-pockets resulting in the lowest density solid and hence the nickname frozen smoke or solid smoke. Generally, these materials exhibit excellent durability, high strength coupled with brittleness, incredibly large surface area and fire proof characteristics (except those made from carbonbased materials). Aerogels can be made from silica, metal oxides (iron oxide, alumina, chromia and so on), polymers and carbon-based materials. Silica aerogels, the most common type, have translucence and insulating properties. They are used in building and window glass and tennis rackets etc. They are light blue in colour; the reason for which is same as for the colour of sky (i.e. Rayleigh scattering). Aerogels made from metal oxides can be magnetic in nature and found prominent uses in the production of carbon nanotubes and catalyst carriers in chemical industry. Among the aerogel community, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) aerogels, in the monolithic form, are the lightest with density as low as 4 mg/cm3. Their major applications include electronic components, super-capacitors, fuel cells and sensors to detect toxic substances. CNTbased aerogels can be made super-elastic by infusing a compatible polymeric material therein. Experiments have been conducted showing successful preparation of flexible and non-fragile aerogels (x-aerogels). Aerogels in space: In studying the chemical reactions, often the gravitational effect is neglected. But its influence on the pores characteristics of aerogels has been proved from the experiments conducted in space (under zero gravity) during 1998-99 space mission. Regardless of its ultra-high cost, it is a standalone material in many high-tech applications. It is a best space-dust collector offering excellent performance even against the speedy comets. Its ability to retain properties at elevated temperatures

Scientific Article Material Sciences

makes it a perfect insulating material for electrical machinery of space rovers and for heat shields of the same. Future implications: Despite of the unique properties of aerogels, the only hindrance to their adaptability on commercial scale is heavy (not merely high) cost associated with quality synthesis. Currently it costs more than double the price of gold. Once it becomes cost efficient for public approach it would be seen in sundry everyday usables such as cosmetics, wetsuits, fire-fighter suits, windows, paints, tennis rackets and so on. Due to high surface area, strength and translucence, it can be a good material to support photocatalyst to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen thereby operating a fuel cell. If becomes possible on large scale, it will be a revolution in green energy. Want to make aerogel? Putting the quality issue aside, silica aerogels can be synthesised conveniently. What required for accomplishing it are basic understanding of sol-gel chemistry to prepare the gel and an autoclave for supercritical cooling. In lieu of alcohol, use of acetone or supercritical carbon dioxide makes the process less hazardous. However, precautionary measures must be exercised as silica fumes may be carcinogenic. References:
1. 2. Nature 127, 741 ACS Nano, 4(12), 7293 7302

Diabetes Mellitus
Sheeba Wajid Student M.Sc. Biochemistry, University of Karachi What is Diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which blood glucose level becomes high, either because some special type of cells (the islet of Langerhanss cells) of pancreas do not secrete enough insulin or pancreatic beta cells do not respond towards insulin. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is generally grouped into two major types. The first one is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and the other is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Another type is also known and that is gestational diabetes. In type-1 diabetes, the beta cells that synthesize insulin get destroyed. This type of diabetes strats in early childhood. Symptoms of IDDM may include rapid weight loss, frequent urination, increased hunger, increased thirst, blurred vision and tiredness. It is treated by diet and regular exercise is recommended. Page 19 Scientific article/ Biomedical Sciences Sheeba_wjid@yahoo.com

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On the other hand, Type-2 or non-insulindependent (NIDDM) diabetes is more common than type-1 diabetes. In this kind of disease, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cells do not respond to insulin. Symptoms of type-2 diabetes are closely similar to that of Type1 diabetes. Long term effects include heart disease, kidney problems and other disorders of vision and nerve damage. It is treated by diet, exercise, medications and insulin injections and by controlling weight. While Gestational diabetes is different from other types as it occurs in some pregnant women. It can also be cured by diet, exercise and weight loss. It is unique in the sense that it usually disappears after childbirth. Prevalence Rate of Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus vary amongst populations. Pronounced changes in our surroundings and new generation lifestyle cause globalization and due to this, both obesity and diabetes rates greatly increase. Hence a new word diabesity has also been introduced for the aforementioned disease. It has been estimated by the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) that the global number of diabetic persons will become double over the next 25 years. In Sindh province of Pakistan, the prevalence of Type-2 DM was 13.9% and in Baluchistan, it was 8.6%. Alternative Medicines The use of alternative medicines has increased throughout the world for treatment of diabetes mellitus. The use of such type of medicines can be differentiated into pharmacological category (namely herbal treatments), physical remedies (acupuncture) and dietary approaches. Some plants have been shown to contain

hypoglycemic agents. Such plants include Aloe vera, Osmium sanctum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ficus carica, Opuntia streptacantha, Gymnema sylvestre and Momordica charantia. These plants have been regarded to have potent anti-diabetic activity. Diabetic Meal Plan If you intend to control your blood sugar, you should focus on foods that your body digests slowly but make sure that the foods should be nutritious too. Beans are rich in fiber that decrease your digestion process. Grains are also high in fiber and are able to lower glycemic index.

to do exercise when they have less blood sugar level than 250 mg/dl. Exercise should be avoided in case of health problems including damage to the blood vessels of the eye, damage to the nerves and circulation to extremities, kidney damage and cardiovascular problems such as angina, embolism. Some Precautions For Diabetics Who Exercise To avoid injuries and wounds in feet, wear protective foot wears. People with diabetes should monitor their blood glucose level carefully before, during, and after workouts.

Some of the fruits and vegetables (broccoli, bell peppers, onions, string beans and eggplant are typically low in calories) are also a good source of lowering weight. With these foods there are some high glycemic index foods. Diabetics should avoid white rice, white pasta, white flour, white sugar, caffeine foods, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. Who Can Exercise? It is advisable by the doctors to the patients

If your glucose levels are above 300 mg/dl or under 100 mg/dl you should avoid exercise. Insulin should be injected away from the muscles to avoid hypoglycemia. Before exercising, diabetics should avoid alcohol and beta-blockers, which is the major cause to increase hypoglycemia.

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Biography of Dr. Wasim Ahmad

Aliya Farooq NAYS Publication team
Dr. Wasim Ahmad is a well known name in biological sciences in Pakistan. He is an HECDistinguished National Professor; currently serving as a Tenured Professor at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. Prof. Dr. Wasim Ahmad was born on May 2, 1957 in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He received his early education from Peshawar. He completed his M.Sc. in 1981 from Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad. He then chose the same department to complete his M.Phil. in biochemistry/ molecular biology in 1984 and then left to England for Ph.D. and got admission in Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, England. He completed his Ph.D. in 1990. Prof. Dr. Wasim Ahmad got Postdoctoral Research Experience from prestigious institutions like MRC-Molecular Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (1990-1992); University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama USA (1992-1994); Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Italy (1997); and Department of Dermatology Columbia University New York (1997-1999). Prof. Wasim Ahmad started his career as a researcher after completing his Ph.D. He has been a postdoctoral research fellow in well known international institutions for many years. He returned to Pakistan after twelve years of research and joined his parent institution Quaid-IAzam University as assistant professor, Department of Biological Sciences in 1999. He worked for three years and then promoted to Associate Professor in the same department in 2003. Department of Biochemistry was established in 2006 in Quid-I-Azam University and since then Dr. Wasim Ahmad is working as a Professor of Biochemistry there. Prof Dr. Wasim Ahmad is actively engaged in scientific research. His main areas of interest are Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of inherited Diseases. He has completed a number of projects funded by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan and Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF). These include Identification and Cloning of Inherited Alopecia, Ectodermal Dysplasia and Nail Dysplasia Genes (20022005), Identification of Genes Involved in Hereditary Hearing Impairment (2003-2005) funded By Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan and Identification of Loci/ Genes in Five Pakistani Kindreds with Ectodermal Dysplasia (2000-2003) funded by Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF). He also completed a project namely Identification of Loci/ Genes in Pakistani Kindreds showing hereditary hearing impairment in 2002 funded by Quaid-I -Azam University Research Fund . In addition, he has internationally funded and completed projects to his credit, namely Identification of Loci/Genes in Pakistani Kindreds with Inherited Neurological Disorders (20012004) Funded by ISESCO Rabat Morocco. He is also heading two ongoing projects, Identification of Non-syndromic Hearing Loss Genes (2005-2016), funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Maryland-Bethesda USA and Identification of Genes Involved in Human Skin Disorders Funded by HEC. He is also actively engaged in teaching to M.Sc., M. Phil., and Ph.D. levels. His main interests in teaching are Nucleic Acids, Protein Chemistry and Molecular Biology of Gene Expression and Structure. He has supervised 25 PhD students and 103 M.Phil. students so far. To his credit there are over 158 publications in reputed National/ International Journals. Prof. Dr. Wasim Ahmad is a Fellow of Pakistan Academy of Science since 2010 and a Member of American Society of Human Genetics, USA since 2009. He has been an editor and reviewer of international journals. He has been an Associate Editor of BMC Medical Genetics London-UK, and reviewing papers published in the following international journals: American Journal of Human Genetics USA, American Journal of Medical GeneticsUSA, Pediatric Dermatology-USA, Human Genetics-Germany, Journal of Medical Genetics -UK, British Journal of Dermatology-UK, Mo-

Biography of eminent Scientist

lecular Vision UK, Clinical and Experimental Dermatology-UK, European Journal of Dermatology-UK, BMC Medical Genetics-UK, Mo-

Prof. Dr. Wasim Ahmad

lecular Biology Reporter Australia, Archives of Dermatological Research-Germany, Journal of Dermatological Science-Japan, Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology France. He is a recipient of many national and international awards. He won Overseas Research Students (ORS) Award in 1986. He was also awarded Dermatology Foundation Award (Dermik Laboratories Research Grant New York, USA) in 1999. The Government of Pakistan awarded him Sitara-e-Imtiaz in recognition of his services in 2001. He is an HEC National Distinguished Professor since 2005 and won HEC Best Teacher award in 2010. He has also won a Gold Medal from Pakistan Academy of Sciences in 2007. Prof. Dr. Wasim Ahmad is an amazing teacher, and has been a source of motivation and inspiration for his students. He is a very knowledgeable person with a passion for both teaching and research. He is a great asset in the field of Biological Sciences in Pakistan.

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Naey Charagh Dr. Hidayat Hussain

Syyada Samra Jafri Project Coordinator, NAYS Naey Charagh
In the world of science and technology, Pakistani Scientists are playing a prominent role. One such Pakistani eminent scientist, Dr. Hidayat Hussain, was born in a small village of Parachinar, Pakistan and where he also received his basic education. He received his B.Sc. degree from Postgraduate College Parachinar and his M.Sc. degree from Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. He received his Ph.D degree in 2004 under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Viqar Uddin Ahmad at H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan with a thesis on phytochemical investigation of terrestrial plants of Pakistan and synthesis of organotin complexes. From June 2004 to September 2007 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Paderborn, Germany, under the supervision of Prof. Karsten Krohn. During this postdoctoral study he has worked on Natural Product Chemistry (Isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products from plants and from Endophytic fungi) and Synthetic Chemistry (Synthesis of orthoquinones, phenazines, hydroxy napthoquinone derivatives, and quinoline -5,8 dione derivatives as potential anti malarial drugs; synthesis of phmosine derivatives). He isolated more than hundred natural products from natural sources and showed anticancer, antimalarial, and antimicrobial activities. On the other hand some of his synthesized compounds showed very strong antimalarial activity against Chloroquine resistant strain Plasmodium falciparum. In October 2007 he moved to the University of Maine France under Region Pays de la Loire postdoctoral scholarship for one year and worked on topic Asymmetric Robinson annulation via [4+2] heterocycloaddition and design and synthesis of Tin catalyst for [4+2] heterocycloadditions in the group of Dr. Gilles Dujardin, Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. In December 2008, he rejoined the group of Prof. Karsten Krohn University of Paderborn Germany as senior research scientist (group leader), working until October 2010. His "road of life" has been interesting, challenging and always rewarding. The steps along the way that have led to this point in his life are, in some ways, very different than he had imagined; however, he likes who he is today in part because of his parents and elder brother who encouraged him to do more what he thought to do. All he had was a big dream of his mother, Mir Janana, late father, Habib Ullah Khan and elder brother Muhammad Hayat Khan and it was their dream which came true when Dr. Hidayat obtain Ph. D degree in Organic Chemistry. Currently, he is working at the Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, Oman. His research goals are to utilize principles, tools, methodologies and diverse wealth of medicinal chemistry, natural product chemistry and organic synthesis in order to contribute to the understanding and solving the biological problems together with global community of scientists. His research interests include design and synthesis of anticancer, antimalarial, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial compounds, asymmetric catalysis of [4 + 2] heterocycloadditions, total synthesis of anthrapyran antibiotics, and biodiversity and characterization of natural products produced by endophytic microorganisms and plants. To date he has authored and co-authored over 140 scientic publications in reputed internationally peer reviewed research journals cumulative impact factor of over 275 along with over 850 citations. He is given 15 podium lectures at International Conferences and also he is a referee for more than 15 international journals. He was listed in prestigious Marquis Whos Who in Science and Engineering and Marquis Whos Who in the World and is included in these print directories on the basis of the reference values of his achievements and research contributions. He was also nominated for 2000 outstanding scientist 2008/2009 by International Biographic Center Cambridge England. Despite the fact that talented people need direction and training, however, self-motivation, strong determination and patience can get most of the job done.

Naey Charagh

Quick Facts Name: Dr. Hidayat Hussain Birth Date: 27th July 1974 Education: PhD Organic Chemistry Current Position: Visiting Scientist (Visiting Faculty), Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman Research Achievements: To date he has authored and coauthored over 140 scientic publications in reputed internationally peer reviewed research journals cumulative impact factor of over 275 along with over 850 citations.

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N AYS e -M a gaz i ne , I ss u e 3 , Feb r ua r y Ap r i l 2 0 1 3

NAYS is the torch-bearer in mobilizing young scientists; researchers, professionals and scholars on a platform by providing them an enabling environment to collaborate and exchange their fruitful innovative ideas and information in multidisciplinary science domains. These Scientists are supported by an advisory council that includes crew of highly qualified professors for their guidance. It is helpful for young researchers for their advancement, to enrich their knowledge and to prove their flair in research oriented subjects. Moreover, NAYS firmly believes that engaging young scientists (and utilizing their capabilities by better orientation, improvisation and execution would definitely bring a remarkable boom of science and technology in Pakistan.