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Metadata 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Metadata DATA ABOUT DATA Metadata is stored in Repository or a Data Dictionary.

. used to identify the contents and location of data in any system When structured hierarchically, Meta data is called ontology or schema. Speed up the serching process Helps to bridge the semantic gaps. Shares resources across users and various tools. Types->classified by the following factors-> contents mutability, logical functions Types of BI&DW metadata-> DW metadata, OLAP metadata, Reporting metadata, Data mining metadata. 10. DW metadata types-> backroom, front room, source system, Data staging, DBMS 11. backroom metadata-> helps bringing the OLTP metadata into DW, Used in ETL 12. Front Room metadata-> Used to label screens and to create reports, defines anything that acts on the data present in the DW. Ex: Business names and descriptions for the DW element, Report definitions and queries. 13. Source system metadata-> metadata acquired during the analysis of source system to help in extraction 14. Source system-> Repositories, source system data model, Data dictionary. 15. source system data model-> logical data model and physical data model 16. Data staging metadata-> Data acquisition metadata, Dimension table management, transformation and aggregation. 17. RDBMS metadata-> a) Referred to as CATALOG->contains system tables which are again tables in the master tables. b) Provides information about the structure and contents of the DB c) Relation present in the DB d) Relation or referential attribute. e) Attribute representation and storage-> partitioning f) Other in formations->indexes. 18. BI metadata describes how data is queried filtered and analyzed and how data is displayed in BI tools. 19. BI metadata types a) OLAP metadata b) Reporting metadata c) Data mining metadata 20. OLAP metadata a) Describes various OLAP elements like facts measures and dimensions. b) Structures of various OLAP elements like cubes, levels, hierarchy and drill paths. c) It depends on RDBMS metadata and DW metadata. 21. Reporting metadata a) Description of various reporting elements like charts, reports and datasets. b) Report attributes like queries, variables, expressions, metadata extensions.

22. Data mining metadata a) Describes about datasets, algorithms and queries 23. Metadata is created by technical staff or busi executives or automated 24. Creating metadata is a most efficient way to employ information professional to create and mainteian metadata. 25. Creation tools: a) Templates-> user enters data into the fields which are set previously b) Markup tools i. XML ii. SGML-Standard Generalized Markup Lang iii. DTD- Document Type Definition c) Extraction tool i. To extract meta data from textual tools ii. Extracted metadata is reviewed and edited d) Conversion tools i. Translates one metadata format to another. 26. Creation Tools: 27. Crosswalks: a) Facilitate interoperability and exchange of data. b) Crosswalk is mapping of Elements, Semantics and syntax from one metadata scheme to another. c) Allows metadata created by one community to be used by another community. 28. Success factor of cross walks depends on a) Degree of similarities between the two metadata schemes. b) Compatibility of rules used to fill elements of each schema. c) Granularity of elements in the target schema when compared with source schema 29. Crosswalks: a) Are very important for virtual collection b) Expected to work as a single search engine c) Are labor intensive to develop and maintain d) Less granularity to more granularity mapping is very complex. 30. Repositories: a) Central area where the metadata definitions are stored and maintained in a controlled manner. 31. Applies to organizations: a) That transmit data using structure like XML, WebService, EDI(Electronic Data Interchange) b) That needs consistent definition across time like DW. c) Repositories document multiple schemas or element sets, particularly with in a specific field of interest. (Ex: US environment data registry) 32. Standards defined for metadata a) ISO or IEC (International Electro technical Commission) 11179 specification and standardization of data elements.

b) ANSI, X3.285, metamodel for management of sharable data. 33. Some vendors: a) Data Foundation Metadata Registry b) Oracle Enterprise Metadata Manager c) SAS Metadata Repository d) Info Librarian metadata integration framework e) Masai technology 34. Metadata lifecycle management a) Managing metadata from the starting phases of the project through design and planning. b) Different groups working in a project should follow the agreed standards and compatible methods of collecting data. c) Metadata should adapt if the base resource changes. d) Metadata should merge if two resource merges. e) Metadata history should be maintained for changes even if the base resource is deleted. f) Change logs or histories are useful in rights management and access restrictions. 35. Internal storage a) MD stored along with data. b) Allows transferring data and metadata together. c) Creates high redundancy. d) Not suitable if the dat is not centralized. e) MD canbe manipulated easily. f) Not efficient for searching. 36. External Storage. a) Metadata stored separately b) Creates less redundancy c) Care should be taken to maintain the link between data n mD d) Change in dat is hard to track and reflect in MD e) More efficient searching. 37. Storage formats a) Human readable formats i. Stores in files like XML ii. Not optimized for storage capacity b) Non-human readable formats i. Stored as binary ii. Speeds up storage and saves space 38. MD is a) Too expensive and time consuming b) Too complicated c) Subjective d) There is no end to MD 39. MD quality control

a) MD creation and defining the quality should be done by the same person coz terminologies will be inconsistent, mandatory elements may be missed or used incorrectly b) MD creators should be trained. c) Interoperability should be maintained at least for the MD definied with in same domain d) Good metadata should be i. Appropriate to the base resource ii. Supports interoperability iii. Uses standard terminology iv. Records should support archiving and persistence.