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Answers to exercises in A Course in Phonetics Chapter 1

A: (1) 1: upper lip 2: (upper) teeth 3: alveolar ridge 4: (hard) palate 5: soft palate or velum 6: uvula 7: epiglottis 8: lower lip 9: tongue tip 10: tongue blade 11: tongue front 12: tongue center 13: tongue back 14: tongue root B: (2) s: voiceless alveolar central oral fricative k: voiceless velar central oral stop n: voiced alveolar central nasal stop f: voiceless labiodental oral fricative l: voiced alveolar lateral oral approximant t: voiceless alveolar central oral stop C:
h] (3) a: alveolar stop, e.g. [t b: labiodental fricative, e.g. [f] c: (inter)dental fricative, e.g. [T] d: labial stop, e.g. [p] e: palatoalveolar a ricate, e.g. [> f. palatoalveolar fricative, e.g. [S] g. velar stop, e.g. [k]


D: (4) 1: met bet pet 2. got cot 3. fat vat 4. zip nip lip sip tip dip 5. thigh thy 6. shy 7. race wreath bush breathe rave rose rough 8. rain rang dumb 9. lip lit crab dog hide back 10. lull 11. we you one run 12. much edge 13. mother robber leisure razor 14. suit meet 15. wad lad 16. gate cat kit 17. coop cop good 18. who E: (5) adder: voiced alveolar stop father: voiced interdental fricative singing: voiced velar nasal etching: voiceless palatoalvealor a ricate robber: voiced labial stop ether: voiceless interdental fricative pleasure: voiced palatoalveolar fricative hopper: voiceless labial stop selling: voiced alveolar lateral sunny: voiced alveolar nasal lodger: voiced palatoalvealor a ricate


(6) bite: hod/hawed; ho d/hawed bait: head; head boat: hood; ho od I: (7) laugh: 3 begged: 4 graphic: 5 fish: 3 fishes: 5 fished: 4 batting: 5 quick: 4 these: 3 physics: 6 kno ck: 3 axis: 5 J: (8) 1: mean 2: steak 3: mast 4. ton 5. good 6. dud

Chapter 3
A: (9) a. Before the vowel ends the soft palate lowers so that air can ow through the nasal cavity. At the end of the vowel the blade of the tongue is raised to make contact with the alveolar ridge, preventing air from

Im not completely sure I understand whats being asked in this question.

passing through the oral cavity. The lips remain open. The vo cal folds continue vibrating. b. Then the velum (or soft palate) is raised and the front of the tongue is raised, while the tip of the tongue remains in the same place. The lips become more rounded. The vo cal folds stop vibrating. c. The velum remains closed throughout the end of the word. After a short period the tip of the tongue moves downward, but the front of the tongue remains close enough to the alveolar ridge to tightly restrict air owing through the oral cavity. The lips are partially rounded. The vocal folds are held open. B: (10) a. The lips close to block air ow through the oral cavity, while the velum is lowered to allow air ow through the nasal cavity. The vocal folds continue to vibrate. b. The velum is raised, cutting o nasal air ow, and the vocal folds are held open, ending voicing. Anticipating the lateral sound, the tip of the tongue is raised to the alveolar ridge. c. The lips are opened, allowing air ow through the oral cavity, and one or both sides of the tongue are lowered to allow air ow around a lateral obstruction. The vo cal folds resume vibration. D:
h A ], [t h A ], [k h A ] (11) (2) par, tar, car: [p (3) stab Ted, love Ted, breathe together, kid Ted, buzz cut, lo dge Ted, hug

Ted: [b h ], [v h ], [ t h ], [d h ], [z h ], [ d >Z t h ], [g t h ] (only relevant segments t t t t transcribed) (4) a boy, this boy; a dog, this dog; a judge, this judge; a girl, this girl: [ b], [s p]; [ d], [s t]; [ g], [s k] (only relevant segments transcribed) (5) spark, stark, scar (Numbering problem in the book here Statements 5, 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [spA k], [stA k], [skA ] (6) plan, tram, queen, pure (Numbering problem in the book here Stateh l h h w ments 5, 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [p n], [t m], [k in], [ph jU ] (7) thief, thieve; rat, rad; bus, buzz; lack, lag (Numbering problem in the book here Statements 5, 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [Ti:f], [Tiv]; [ :t], [ d]; [b :s], [b z]; [l :k], [l g]

(8) lobbed, lapped, whacked, bagged. (Can you have alveolar stops in this environment?) [lAb^d], [l p^t], [w k^t], [b g^d] h APt], [skAPt] (9) stop, tot, Scot: [stAPp], [t (10) bitten, kitten, litter: ["bIP@n], ["kIP@n], ["lIP@ ] (11) rotten, sudden, bottom: ["rAtn" ], ["s dn" ], ["bAtm" ] (12a) puzzle, simple, wrinkle, butter, summer, hacker: ["p zl "], ["sImpl"], [" INkl "], ["b R " ], ["scapital, m "], ["h k "] ladder, center, winter: [" R@m], ["k pIR@l], ["fjuR@l], (13a) atom, feudal, ["l R@ ], ["sEnR@ ], ["wInR@ ] (14) width, had that, done that: [wId T], [h d t], [d n at] (15) hand write, went lo oking, old money: [h n aIt], [wn "lUkIN], [oUl "m ni] (16) answer, comfort: [" nts@ ], ["k mpf@ t] (17) wide door, bag girl, love virtue: [waI doU ], [b g@ l], [l v@ > (18) can, Kay, guess, gear: [k n], [k eI], [g Es], [g i ] h I ]; [g ], [l g] (19) lip, pill; gull, lug: [lIp], [p tSu]

Chapter 4
C: (12) [i]: sheep [Sip] /I/: ship [SIp] /eI/: shape [SeIp] /E/: step [stEp] / /: sap [s p] /A/: hop [hAp] /O/: gawp [gOp] /oU/: grope [g oUp] /U/: whoop [wUp] /u/: soup [sup] / /: sup [s p] /aI/: stripe [st Ip] /aU/: None? /OI/: None?

As in whoop his ass, not whoop for joy.

D: (13) Vowels that cant occur in syllables closed with /p/: /aU/ /OI/ /b/ /m/ /f/ /t/ out [aUt] /n/ town [taUn] coin [kOIn] /l/ owl [aUl] coil [kOIl] /z/ house (verb) [haUz] poise [pOIz] /k/ E: (14) /OI/ occurs before the smallest number of consonants. Alveolar (or coronal) consonants o ccur after the largest number of vowels. F: (15) Tense and lax vowels: /i/ secrete [s@k it] secretive [sik @tIv] /I/ explicit [eksplIsIt] explication [ekspl@keIS@n] /eI/ opaque [oUpeIk] opacity [op s@Ri] /E/ repair [ @pE ] reparation [ Ep@ eIS@n] / / erratic [@ RIk] errant [E @nt] /A/ monster [mAnst@ ] monstrosity [m@nst AsIRi] /oU/ provoke [p @voUk] provocation [p Av@keIS@n] /aI/ divine [d@vaIn] divinity [dIvIn@Ri] G: (16) The red monster shu ed around the room three times. [ Ed mAnst@ S f@ld aUnd um T i taImz.] H: (17) (1) me, meet, mead: [mi], [mi:t], [mi::d] (2) refuse, refuse; protest, protest; contest, contest: [ "fju:z], [" Efjuz]; [p @"t ["p oUtEst]; [k n"tE:st], ["kAntEst] (3) need, needy, neediest; pow, power, powerful: [ni::d], ["ni:di], ["nidi@st]; E:st],

h aU@ f@l] [ph aU], ["ph aU@ ], ["p (4) testify, repetition, mystify, diluted: ["tEst@ faI], [ Ep@ "t [daI"lut@ d] (5) Sam, sin, sang, crumb: [s m], [s In], [s eIN], [k m] h d], [p h ]; [sI], [sI (6) pad, pal; sid, sill: [p ]

IS@n], ["mIst@ faI],

Chapter 7
A: (18) [b]: pulmonic egressive voiced bilabial oral stop [th ]: pulmonic egressive aspirated apical alveolar central oral stop [t]: glottalic egressive laryngealized apical alveolar central oral stop [ ]: pulmonic egressive voiceless apical alveolar lateral oral fricative [!]: velaric ingressive voiceless laminal palato-alveolar central oral stop [ ]: pulmonic egressive voiced laminal uvular central oral trill A: (19) nasal trill apical pharyngeal bilabial lateral pharyngeal nasal glottalic egressive voiced C: (20) [h]; I have no idea. D: (21) Sounds with multiple primary articulations, such as [ > gb] and [ ].

Ladefoged, Peter (2006) A Course in Phonetics. Wadsworth.