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Module 1: Planning Training Session

LO 3: Prepare Basic Instructional Materials

Objectives: 1. To identify and familiarize basic learning/instructional materials. 2. To develop the Contextual Learning Matrix (CLM) and the Competency Based Learning Materials (CBLM). Content: 1. Types of Learning/Instructional Materials 2. Steps in the Development of CLM and CBLM?

What are instructional Materials?

- These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information

from one to another.

I. Types of Learning/Instructional Materials Instructional Materials Print Materials Textbooks, references, etc. Facts, concepts, terms, background information, principles, and actual steps in performing tasks if written well and illustrated. Step-by-step procedure for performing task using specific make or model of a product, tool or equipment. Leaders, current issues, and trends in occupation; new advances in technology; career awareness. Anything for which other resources cannot be located.


Technical, shop, and manufacturers manuals

Magazines, journals, trade publications, pamphlets, and periodicals Instructor-developed Instruction Sheets

Non-Print Materials Instructional Materials Still visuals (with & without sound), film strips, flip charts, photograph Description/Uses Step-by-step procedure in slides, performing task; interior parts or construction of devices, Close-up shots; color. Complex tasks where motion & sequence are critical; speed up or slow down time. Computers are gaining popularity in making use of self individualize learning. Recordings of specialized sounds noises; pronunciation of words.

Motion visuals (with & without sound)16mm, 8mm, film loops & cartridges, videotape, video discs and Computer mediated materials

Cassette tapes, reel-to-reel tapes, or records, and language machines

Contextual Learning Matrix What is Contextual Learning? Learning that occurs in close relationship with actual experience Subject matter contents are related to real work situation

What is Contextual Learning Matrix? An analysis tool for identifying the: learning activities; technology, math, science ,values, communication concepts; and Their interrelationship within the element of a core unit of competency or the learning outcome of a curriculum module. Steps in Preparing the Contextual Learning Matrix 1. Select a core competency. 2. Identify the curriculum modules covered by the core competency from the course design. 3. Copy the learning outcomes and assessment criteria from the curriculum module. 4. Identify learning activities for each learning outcome of the module. 5. Identify the learning concepts for each learning outcome. 6. Repeat steps 4-5 for the other learning outcomes of each module

Example of Modules Ex. #1 Qualification : Core Competency : Module :

Automotive Service Technician NC I Test, Service and Replace Battery Testing and Servicing Automotive Battery

Ex. #2 Core Competency : Install, Test and Repair Wiring Lighting System Modules: 1. Installing Automotive Lighting Systems 2. Testing and Repairing Electrical Systems Learning activities -Major activities the trainee will perform to accomplish the element of competency in a training program. Learning activities column Describe briefly the learning activities The description should provide an idea of what, how and where the trainee will do the activity. Sequence the learning activities. The learning activities should simulate the workplace environment. A learning outcome can have several learning activities to cover the: Assessment criteria Range of variables Critical aspects of the competency Underpinning knowledge and skills Common and tool competencies Learning concept - The underpinning knowledge necessary in performing the element of competency. Learning concept column Technology Math Science Communication(English) Values Identify only the specific and relevant learning concepts. Identify learning concepts per learning activity/assessment criteria. A learning concepts may appear several times in different learning activities

Always refer to the: Assessment criteria Range of variables and the underpinning knowledge and skills in the standard Common and basic competency

Creation of CLM Committee Supervisor Technology Instructor Math Instructor Science Instructor English Instructor

STOP WORKSHOP on CLM Development

II. DEVELOPING COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIALS (CBLM) What is Competency-Based Learning Material (CBLM)? Instructional material that facilitates individualized learning Package used by the trainer and trainee/s in competency-based training

Types of Competency-Based Learning Materials (CBLM) 1) Resource-Based CBLM A developed learning material that provides the titles of text books, manual, websites as reference of the learner to achieve the competencies. 2) Self-contained CBLM It is a self-contained, independent unit of a planned series of learning activities designed to help the learner to accomplish certain well defined objectives. Resource-based CBLM Cover page Introduction Learning activity Self-check Knowledge test Competency assessment

Requirements for Developing CBLM 1. Use the CLM as the guide and reference material in the preparation of the CBLM. 2. Gather the competency standards, curriculum, textbooks, manuals, etc. as reference materials.

Components of Self Contained CBLM Cover Page Indicate name of training institution Indicate Qualification title Identifies module title Introduction How to use this module Summary of learning outcomes Summary of assessment criteria Prerequisite First learning outcome Assessment criteria Condition/Resources

Learning Activity Actions the trainees will do to achieve the learning outcome stated in the Module of Instruction. Types of learning activities: 1. Reading from modules, textbooks, journals, etc. 2. Viewing or listening audiovisual materials 3. Keeping a journal 4. Observing or operating models or mock-ups 5. Role-playing of a performance 6. Real-life performances 7. Observing a skilled worker in a real work situation 8. Simulated experiences 9. Small group activities 10. Production or construction of projects or services 11. Problem- solving activities 12. Skill practice exercises 13. Performing experiments 14. Writing technical/general reports 15. Preparing visual materials 16. Critique or evaluation activities 17. Co-operative learner activities 18. Learner designed activities

Instruction Sheets What are Instruction Sheets? There many times during the instruction process when learners are given handouts. One type of handout is the Instruction sheet. An instruction sheet may be defined as a written sheet that assists in directing a learner through learning experience. In addition to appearing on the printed page, instruction sheet may also appear on a video screen. In general, an instruction sheet supplements or replaces a step in the instruction process. Traditionally there are four types of instruction sheet . these include: Information sheet: Assignment sheet: Operation sheet: Present knowledge concerning specific task or topic. Reinforces the information sheet through paper-and pencil types of application or practice exercises. Tells the learnerhow to perform a specific operation or task. Often referred to as a task sheet. Typically reinforces one or more operation sheet: Requires the learner to complete a specific job project.

Job sheet:

How can instruction sheet be used? The four types of instruction sheets maybe used by the trainer in both traditions group instruction (lecture, discussion, etc.) and in individualized, self-paced instruction. The following are examples of how these sheets could be used with both group and individualized instruction: FOR GROUP INSTRUCTION Preparation 1. The trainer reviews the objectives and develops the presentation with appropriate instruction sheets. Knowledge Presentation 2. The trainer reviews the objectives and introduces the topic. 3. The trainer addresses specific content using a variety of methods. 4. Learners are given an information sheet to supplement the lecture or discussion. Learners read and take additional notes on the information sheet. Knowledge Application 5. Learners are given an assignment sheet with a series of paper and pencil activities that pertain to the information sheet.

Knowledge Evaluation 6. After checking the assignment sheets to ensure that the learners understand the content, the trainer may administer a test. Skill Presentation 7. The trainer may then give a demonstration on how to perform the task being discussed. To ensure the learners are aware of each step in the operation, they are given an operation sheet. During the demonstration they are able to see and read each step. They are also able to take notes and highlight critical steps. Skill Application 8. Following the demonstration, learners may used the operation sheet to practice the skill. Skill Evaluation 9. As the final step the learners may be given a job sheet that may involve one or more operation sheets and applies the skills to the completion of a job or project. 10. The trainer observes and evaluates the learners as they practice and complete the job or project. 11. Following the trainers evaluation of their competence, the learners may be given a written test to once again measure their knowledge concerning the content. The cycle is then ready to begin again. FOR INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION Preparation 1. The trainer reviews the objectives and develops individualized instruction sheets and learning materials. Knowledge Presentation 2. In individualized instruction (which is exactly what you are doing at the moment) the learners will read the objectives. 3. The learner may read content in an information sheet (which is what you are doing) and / or read a textbook, workbook, technical manual, etc. 4. The learner may watch a videotape of the instructor and follow along on the information sheet. 5. The learner may listen to an audiotape of the instructor and follow along on the information sheet. Knowledge Application 6. After receiving the content, the learner may complete an assignment sheet to reinforce that knowledge.

Knowledge Evaluation 7. The learner may refer to a key to check his or her responses or may submit the assignment to the instructor for grading. Assuming that a minimum level of competence has been achieved, the learner moves on. A test may be administered at this point. Skill Presentation 8. The learner may then read an operation sheet which outlines the step necessary to perform a specific task. This operation sheet may be supported by an audiotape, videotape, slides, computer assisted instruction, technical manual, etc. Skill Application 9. The trainer will observe the learner practicing the skill and will then evaluate their competence in performing that skill. 10. A job sheet may then be provided to afford the learner an opportunity to apply the skills developed through one or more operation sheets. Skill Evaluation 11. The trainer evaluates the learners work and when satisfactory, the learner moves on to the next task. What are the advantages and limitations of Instruction sheets? There are both advantages and limitations to using instruction sheets. As a trainer it is your responsibility to recognize these and utilize instruction sheets appropriately in your training programs. The advantages include: 1. The instructions sheets are very useful when learners miss a day, enter your program after the first day, or fall behind. 2. They are a critical component in an individualized instruction system where each learner may be working on a different task. 3. They are useful when content is not available in textbooks, manuals, etc. 4. They are useful when information is available from several sources and the instructor wishes to consolidate this information into one document. 5. They are helpful in ensuring that learners remember both the required information and key points. 6. They provide a permanent record of the content addressed in the training program.

The limitations of instruction sheets include: 1. Some developers tend to limit the methods of instruction used within the sheet. If for example, the only method involves reading, and no media or instructor involvement occurs, then the sheets may become ineffective. 2. Well developed instructions sheets are difficult to write. To develop the skill requires practice. 3. Instructors often write instruction sheets at a reading level much higher than that of their learners. When this occurs the impact of the sheets is limited. 4. Once an instructor has developed a series of instruction sheets, there is a tendency to not revise them. When this occurs, the content may become dated and of questionable value. Information Sheet A handout containing cognitive information or knowledge which the learner needs to know to understand a specific task or topic. Example: Unleaded Gasoline: Its Advantages and Disadvantages

Topics for Information Sheet Summary of an article in a recent technical journal Report material from a conference Hard-to-find technical data Information which are to high for trainee reading level Hard-to-comprehend information that can be made clearer by illustrations or drawings HOW TO PREPARE AN INFORMATION SHEET Well-written information sheets can be very useful in both group and Individualized Training programs. The following steps will assist the trainer in writing information sheet. 1. 2. 3. 4. Develop or locate a comprehensive content outline. Identify any key safety points and highlight them. Determine the type of supportive media that will be used. Determine whether the outline should be broken into two or more information sheets. 5. Keep in mind the reading level of your learners. 6. Begin with an attention grabbing introduction, move into the body and conclude with a good summary. 7. Proofread the material.


Operation Sheet A series of instructions for teaching a single basic task, operation or process. An operation is a single step in the process of doing a complete job. Applicable to all types of teaching in which the subject matter can be analyzed into units of performance. Example: OPERATION TITLE: How to Operate a Microwave Oven Operation Sheet Format OPERATION TITLE: Describe the operation in a few words. PURPOSE: Describe the use of the operation in a sentence or two. CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE OPERATION: Describe or list situations in which the operation is to be performed or the conditions necessary for the operation to take place. EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND MATERIALS: List the equipment, tools and materials required for the operation. PROCEDURE: Give the step-by-step procedures for completing the operation. Include, if appropriate, illustrations, drawings, or diagrams to clarify the procedures. PRECAUTIONS: Describe or list any special safety or quality control precautions to be noted in the operation. QUALITY CRITERIA: Describe the acceptable final appearance, fit, or performance, so the student can evaluate his/her success in performing the operation.


HOW TO PREPARE OPERATION SHEET While operation sheets are not difficult to develop, there are a few steps one would follow to ensure that the sheet is both well-written and useful.

These steps include: 1. Identify the how to task and/or skill to be addressed by the operation sheet. 2. Determine the scope of the task. 3. Break the task into a series of steps. 4 Identify the key safety points related to the task. 5. Identify any tools, equipment, and supplies which the learners will need as they practice the skill. 6. Identify any drawings, photographs, or supportive media to be included within the operation sheet. 7. Utilize the materials and information contained in steps four through six above, write the operation sheet. 8. The instructor should ensure that all steps have been included. Job Sheet A set of related operations which results in the completion of specific job. A job can be a product, service or combination of both. Example: Fabricate a Cold Chisel Job Sheet Format JOB TITLE: Describe the job in a word or two. OBJECTIVES: List statement of objective(s) for this specific job, stated in terms of studentperformance. LABORATORY WORK: Provide instructions for completing the skills phase of the job, including as appropriate: Materials and supplies required:

Tools, instruments and equipment required Illustrations or drawings of complete job Instructions/ procedures Dimensions and/or specifications Safety precautions, sanitary conditions, or other special requirements.

EVALUATION: Describe evaluation methods and criteria.

HOW TO PREPARE A JOB SHEET While job sheets are not difficult to develop, there are a few steps one should follow to ensure that the sheet will be useful. These include: 1. Identify the operations to be addressed by the job sheet. 2. Select an activity, product, or project which relates to the performance objectives. 3. Identify any supporting media that will accompany the job sheet. 4. Identify the tools, equipment, and materials the learner will need. 5. Sequence the operations in a logical manner. 6. Indicate how the learners work will be evaluated. 7. Indicate how the learner is to submit her or his work 8. Develop an evaluation instrument or checklist to check each learners work. ASSIGNMENT SHEET A series of questions, problems, and/or paper-and-pencil activities which reinforce a specific block of information. An assignment sheet (or self-check as it is sometimes called) is a typically paper-and-pencil activity which asks the learner to closely examine informational content. This content may come from a lecture, textbook, technical manual, magazine article, computer, or information sheet. The primary purpose of this sheet is to force learners to mentally shift gears and THINK about the content they have received. There are number of items to consider when developing an assignment sheet. The first items is the topic being presented. The nature of this content will determine the type of assignments the trainer might select for the learners to complete. The following is a brief list of suggestions. You should be able to think of many more. 1. Give the learners a series of problems to solve. Remember to move from simple to complex. This could be a math problems, calculations or similar activities. 2. Ask the learners to write out short answers. Examples includes case studies, definitions and describing specific processes. 3. Have the learner make a layout or sketch.

4. Require the learner to measure some lines or an objects. 5. Have the learner label a drawing. 6. Ask the learners to review a schematic and answer a series of questions regarding a schematic. 7. Have the learners conduct an interview and record the results. 8. Ask them to list the safety rules regarding a piece of equipment. 9. Have the learner describe the processes. 10. Give the learner a series of matching, true- false, completion, or multiple choice items to complete.. This is how we are using assignment sheets. HOW TO PREPARE AN ASSIGNMENT SHEET EXAMPLE: ASSIGNMENT SHEET #___ NAME:____________________ INSTRUCTIONS: Utilizing the information presented in this module prepare an assignment sheet. This sheet can be newly developed or a modified version of one from a curriculum guide. Give consideration to the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The assignment is consistent with the information sheet. The assignment sheet has a title. The assignment sheet is appropriate for the learners. Clear directions are given. A minimum proficiency level is established Identify the information or content. Determine the most appropriate options to be included in the assignment. Write the assignments in a clear and concise manner. Determine how the learners will receive feedback. Establish a minimum proficiency level. Determine how learners who do not reach the minimum level of proficiency are going to acquire the necessary information. Provide instruction for moving on to the next assignment.

When you have completed the development of your assignment sheet, then go to the next step on the learning activities page.







Sector Qualifications Unit of Competency Module Title School/Inst. LOGO

As many sheets as necessary to cover all the training outcomes and corresponding activities Take note that the resources such as information, operation, job sheets & other types of learning materials are with in the package

Institutional Assessment Institutional Assessment is to be undertaken by the learner who enrolled in a structured learning program to determine the achievement of competencies. It is administered by the trainer/assessor at the end of each learning module. It is intended to provide feedback on progress during training. The institutional result of the assessment may be considered as an evidence for national assessment.

STOP Go back to the activity sheet # 4 WORKSHOP on CBLM Development