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Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future POST-TENSIONED SLABS IN BUILDINGS Increasing

EUROCODES

Building the Future

POST-TENSIONED SLABS IN BUILDINGS

Increasing popularity

/versus/

Lack of specific coverage by Euro codes

by Guy A. TABET

LEBANON

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Post-tensioned Slabs in Buildings Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Post-tensioned
Slabs in Buildings
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future PRINCIPLE OF POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy Building
EUROCODES
Building the Future
PRINCIPLE
OF POST-TENSIONED
CONCRETE
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Illustrative example Tendon α 2

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Illustrative example

Tendon
Tendon
α 2 P cos α P P For harped profile α
α
2 P cos α
P
P
For harped profile
α
Three-span post-tensioned beam V P W B P
Three-span post-tensioned beam
V
P
W
B
P

A

For parabolic shape w =

8P x sag

L 2

Free-body diagram of a tendon section between its low point (A) and point of inflection (B)

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Illustrative example W Va Vd

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Illustrative example

W Va Vd P
W
Va
Vd
P

P

Free-body diagram of beam after removal of tendon Va Vd W P
Free-body diagram of beam after removal of tendon
Va
Vd
W
P

P

Free-body diagram of tendon Force system between tendon and beam

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Benefits of Post-Tensioned slabs • Longer Spans • Flat Soffits • Flexibility
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Benefits of Post-Tensioned slabs
• Longer Spans
• Flat Soffits
• Flexibility of Layout & Services
• Deflection & Crack Control
• Thinner Slabs
• Reduced Storey Height
• Lighter Structure
• Fast Construction
• Cost Saving
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Who Benefits ? • Clients

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Who Benefits ?

Clients

– More clearance & More Flexibility – Less Columns, Larger Open Spaces

Architects

– Easier Internal Planning – More Elegant Structure

Structural Engineers

– More solutions – Better Structural Performance

Contractors

– Quicker and Easier Construction

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future IN SLABS two categories of PT systems are used : Un-bonded system
EUROCODES
Building the Future
IN SLABS
two categories of PT systems are used :
Un-bonded system
Bonded system
&
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Un-bonded Tendons • Single strand

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Un-bonded Tendons

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Un-bonded Tendons • Single strand

Single strand coated with corrosion inhibiting grease and encased in polyethylene sheathing

PT force is transferred to the concrete by the anchors provided at the ends

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy Building the Future in the
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Bonded Tendons Bonded system tendon

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Bonded Tendons

Bonded system tendon detail for beams & slabs Flat corrugated duct Strand position in a circular
Bonded system tendon detail for beams & slabs Flat corrugated duct
Bonded system tendon detail
for beams & slabs
Flat corrugated duct

Strand position in a circular duct

Bond is achieved throughout the length of the tendon by a cementitious matrix called grout

PT force along the tendon is a function of the deformation of the concrete

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy Building the Future in the
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Structural Forms

   
 
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
 
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
 
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
 
 
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Structural Forms

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms Workshop - 27-29
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Structural Forms • Preferred Option

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Structural Forms

Preferred Option

Flat Slab

Minimum Thickness Flat Soffit

• Preferred Option – Flat Slab • Minimum Thickness • Flat Soffit
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future LOAD BALANCING Design Concept A

EUROCODES

Building the Future

LOAD BALANCING

Design Concept

A comprehensive solution to Post-Tensioning by T.Y.Lin

Simple - General – Powerful

for analyzing simple & complex PT structures

Principles

– Remove the PT tendons from the structure & replace it with all the forces that it exerts on the structure when in place

– Analyze the structure under this given set of equivalent loads

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Design Concept Load Balancing Three-span

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Design Concept

Load Balancing Three-span post-tensioned beam Tendon Va Vd W P P
Load Balancing
Three-span post-tensioned beam
Tendon
Va
Vd
W
P
P
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Analysis of the Structure Modeling

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Analysis of the Structure

Modeling of two way slab system

Methods available :

– Equivalent Frame Method – Finite Element Method – ……….

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Analysis of the Structure •

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Analysis of the Structure

Plane Frame Model

– Models a single sub-frame

Finite Element Model

– Models a whole Floor – Actual Tendon Locations

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Equivalent Frame Method Analysis of

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Equivalent Frame Method

Analysis of the Structure

Most common modeling of gravity loading and post-tensioning:

– Slab systems are modeled as rows of intersecting two dimensional slab frames.

– A single story slab frame consists of a line of column supports bounded by its tributary

– Floor levels are treated each separately

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Analysis of the Structure Typical

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Analysis of the Structure

Typical slab frame

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Analysis of the Structure Typical
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model STRUCTURE PERSPECTIVE Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
STRUCTURE
PERSPECTIVE
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model ELEMENT MESH PLAN Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
ELEMENT MESH PLAN
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model BANDED TENDON LAYOUT Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
BANDED TENDON LAYOUT
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model DISTRIBUTED TENDON LAYOUT Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
DISTRIBUTED TENDON LAYOUT
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model TOP FIBER STRESSES Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
TOP FIBER STRESSES
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model BOTTOM FIBER STRESSES Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Finite Element Model
BOTTOM FIBER STRESSES
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model DEFLECTION Workshop

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Finite Element Model

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Finite Element Model DEFLECTION Workshop

DEFLECTION

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Design Checks Design Criteria exist

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Design Checks

Design Criteria exist in most Codes:

British Standards (BS8110 Part 1)

ACI 318 (Chapter 18)

ACI 423 for un-bonded tendons

CAN3 A23.3

Euro Codes

Concrete Society Technical Report 43

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Design Checks Serviceability Serviceability Limit

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Design Checks

Serviceability

Serviceability Limit

Limit State

State

Un-Factored Loads

Check Stresses

Maximum Tension

Maximum Compression

Check Deflections

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Design Checks Serviceability Limit State

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Design Checks

Serviceability Limit State (Cont’d)

Allowable Stresses

Design Classes

Class 1 - No Tension Allowed Class 2 - Limited Tension (No Cracks) Class 3 - More Tension allowed (Crack Width 0.1 to 0.2 mm)

Check at Critical Sections

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Design Checks Ultimate Limit Ultimate

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Design Checks

Ultimate Limit

Ultimate

Limit State

State

Bending

FORCE RESULTANTS SECTION
FORCE RESULTANTS SECTION
FORCE RESULTANTS SECTION

FORCE RESULTANTS

SECTION

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Non regular geometry easy to

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Non regular geometry easy to handle

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Non regular geometry easy to
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Non regular geometry easy to
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006,

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006,
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006,
EUROCODES Building the Future
EUROCODES
Building the Future
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Workshop - 27-29 November 2006,
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
EUROCODES Building the Future IDEAL SOLUTION FOR TOWERS Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy Building
EUROCODES
Building the Future
IDEAL
SOLUTION
FOR
TOWERS
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future PROBLEM… ?!? .. ....... How

EUROCODES

Building the Future

PROBLEM… ?!?

..

.......

How to get all the potential benefits of flat frameless PT slabs,

AND

still provide suitable resistance to lateral actions?

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future PROBLEM… ?!? .. ....... How

Typical slab/column joint in PT slabs frameless slabs

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Slab to act as diaphragm

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Slab to act as diaphragm

transferring lateral actions to shear walls

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Slab to act as diaphragm
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Frameless PT slabs acting as

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Frameless PT slabs acting as

diaphragm only, for lateral loads resistance

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Frameless PT slabs acting as
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Numerous walls for increased lateral

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Numerous walls for increased lateral

resistance, if necessary

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Numerous walls for increased lateral
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future Lack of coverage Although Euro

EUROCODES

Building the Future

Lack of coverage

Although Euro codes address pre-stressed concrete structures in general and flat slabs in another separate chapter,

YET

Post-Tensioned flat slabs are not specifically covered and very little is said concerning their detailing and mostly their behavior with respect to seismic actions.

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area

Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area EUROCODES Building the Future A need to address The

EUROCODES

Building the Future

A need to address

The increasing popularity of the use of Post- Tensioned slabs in buildings should be enough reason for properly regulating their design in the Euro codes up to the level of other national current codes as in the ACI where a specific chapter is dedicated for this technique.

Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Building the Future EUROCODES YOUR ATTENTION THANK YOU FOR Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Building the Future
EUROCODES
YOUR ATTENTION
THANK YOU FOR
Building the Future in the Euro-Mediterranean Area
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy
Workshop - 27-29 November 2006, Varese, Italy