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Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,



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Preface ii
1. Introductory 1

2. Brie Oeriew o Pak - Arica Relations 2

3. Speech by President Mohammad Zia-Ul-laq at the Banquet
hosted in honour o the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe, Robert
Gabrial Mugabe ,23 May 1981, 4

4. Reply by Prime Minister Robert Gabrial Mugabe ,23 May 1981,

5. Statement by loreign Oice Spokesman on the \eek o Solidarity
with the Colonial Peoples o Southern Arica lighting or
lreedom, Independence and Lqual Rights ,25 May 1981, 9

6. Joint Communiqu issued at the end o the Visit o
Robert Gabrial Mugabe, Prime Minister o Zimbabwe to Pakistan
,26 May 1981, 10

. Interiew o President Mohammad Zia-Ul-laq to
Nigerian Journalists ,29 January 1983, 14

8. Speech by President Mohammad Zia-Ul-laq at the
State Banquet in honour o Dawda Kairaba Jawara, President
o Gambia ,19 September 1984, 19

9. Speech by President Mohammad Zia-Ul-laq at the
Banquet in honour o Dawda Kairaba Jawara, President o
Gambia ,21 March 1988, 23

10. Lxcerpts rom a Speech by Dawada Jawara, President o Gambia at
the Banquet hosted in his honour by President Mohammad Zia-Ul-laq
,21 March 1988, 26

11. Speech by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan at the Banquet in honour
o Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Beshir, President o Sudan
,16 Noember 1990, 26

12. Joint Press Statement issued on the conclusion o Visit to
Pakistan by Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Beshir, President o Sudan
,1 Noember 1990, 28

13. Report on a Call on Chairman Pakistan Agricultural Research
Council by the loreign Minister o Niger ,16 August 1996, 30

14. State Visit by President larooq Ahmed Khan Leghari to Uganda
,10-13 September 1996, 31

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

15. 1ext o the Joint Communiqu issued at the end o President
larooq Ahmad Leghari`s Visit to Uganda ,10-13 September 1996, 35

16. Visit o South Arican loreign Minister to Pakistan ,11-14 June 199, 3

1. Lxcerpts rom an Interiew o B.K. Kisilu, the ligh Commissioner
o Kenya with 1be ^atiov ,28 June 199, 40

18. Lxcerpts rom an Interiew o Ll Rasheed Khidar,
the Ambassador o Sudan with 1be ^atiov ,4 Noember, 199, 43

19. Lxcerpts rom an Interiew o Aissa Seperdjali, the Ambassador
o Algeria with Pa/i.tav Ob.errer ,8 Noember 199, 46

20. Report on Calls on the President and the loreign Minister by
Alzubair Bashir 1aha, Sudanese Minister o Science and
1echnology ,21 lebruary 2002, 4

21. Report on Signing o MoU between Pakistan and Sudan or
Cooperation in Sugar Research ,23 April 2003, 48

22. President Perez Musharra`s Address to the Businessmen in Algiers
,1th July 2003, 49

23. President Perez Musharra`s Visit to Algeria, 1unis and Morocco,
,14-1 July, 2003, 51

24. Agreement on Cultural Cooperation between the Goernment o
Pakistan and the Goernment o Algeria, ,16 July 2003, 65

25. Memorandum o Understanding on Consultations between the
Ministry o loreign Aairs o Pakistan and the Ministry o
loreign Aairs o Algeria ,16 July 2003, 6

26. Memorandum o Understanding relating to the Promotion o
loreign 1rade between Lxport Promotion Bureau o Pakistan and
Algerian Oice or loreign 1rade Promotion ,1 July 2003, 69

2. Memorandum o Understanding between the lederation o Pakistan
Chambers o Commerce and Industry and the Algerian Chamber o
Commerce and Industry ,1 July 2003, 1

28. Agreement on Cooperation in the ields o Science and 1echnology
between the Goernment o Pakistan and the Goernment o
Morocco ,18 July 2003, 2

29. Agreement o Islamic Cooperation between the Ministry o Religious
Aairs, Zakat and Ushr in Pakistan and the Ministry o Awqaa and
Islamic Aairs in Morocco ,18 July 2003, 6

30. Agreement o Cooperation in the ield o Lnironment between
the Goernment o Pakistan and the Goernment o Morocco
,18 July 2003, 8
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31. Report on Pakistan-Sudan Agreement to Lstablish a Joint
Reoling lund to Promote Mutual Cooperation in the ield
o Science and 1echnology ,23 July 2003, 82

32. Lxcerpts rom a Joint Press Brieing addressed by leads o
Arican Diplomatic Missions in Islamabad on Arica Day
,25 May 2004, 84

33. Visit o Lgyptian Deputy loreign Minister, Dr. Mahmoud Karem
,11-13 July 2004, 86

34. Oicial Release on President Perez Musharra`s Strenuous Lorts
to lelp Address the lumanitarian Crisis in Darur ,2 July 2004, 8

35. Visit o loreign Secretary Riaz Khokhar to Khartoum, as Special
Lnoy o the President o Pakistan ,4 August 2004, 88

36. Visit o Pakistan Delegation to the XIV NAM Ministerial Conerence
and the Second AASROC Ministerial Meeting ,19-20 August 2004, 89

3. Remarks by Riaz Khokhar, loreign Secretary and Leader o
Pakistan Delegation, at the Second AASROC ,20 August 2004, 90

38. Lxcerpts rom Ambassador Munir Akram`s Statement in the Security
Council on the need to Curb Lthnic Violence in Sudan
,19 September 2004, 93

39. Oicial Release on the Visit o the Minister o State or loreign
Aairs to Morocco and 1unisia ,5 June - 3 July 2005, 95

40. Reamping Pak-Arica Relations 95

41. Arica - Pakistan Relations 98

42. lortiying Pakistan-Arica Relations 101

43 Interaction with Arica ,2005-06, 105

44. UN Member States o Arica 109

45. Map o Arica 111

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,


Arica, the second largest continent o the world, is spread oer 30,35,362 sq
km and has a population o 21,368,251. 1he continent has 53 countries, 4
mainland and 6 island. It is rich in natural and mineral resources and is called
world`s storehouse` o strategic raw materials. lrance, United Kingdom,
Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Germany and Italy had colonized most o the
continent. Ater \orld \ar II ,1939-45,, Arican people gained independence
and started deeloping political and economic relations with the rest o the
An institutional eolution o the continent was witnessed on 9 July
2002 with the establishment o the Arican Union ,AU,, which replaced the
Organisation o Arican Unity ,OAU,, ounded on 25 May 1963. 1he AU is
aimed at accelerating the process o integration o the continent so that it
could collectiely address its social, economic and political problems. A
signiicant programme o the AU is the New Partnership or Arica`s
Deelopment ,NLPAD, with main objecties to eradicate poerty, to guide
Arican countries towards sustainable growth and deelopment, to enhance
Arica`s beneicial integration into global economy, and to accelerate the
empowerment o women. 1he ambassadors and high commissioners o
Arican states, located in Islamabad, organize Arica Day collectiely eery
year on 25 May.
Pakistan has cordial relations with all Arican countries and is
committed to deeloping stronger political, diplomatic and economic ties. It
has resident missions in 15 countries while others are coered through
concurrent accreditation. Pakistan is linked with Arica through Asian Arican
Regional Organisation Conerence ,AASROC,, Non-Aligned Moement
Centre or South-South 1echnical Cooperation and with seeral Muslim
countries through Organisation o Islamic Conerence ,OIC,. 1hese ora
proide institutional ramework or cooperation between Pakistan and Arica.
Beside assistance or education and training in arious institutions, such as
loreign Serice Academy, Deence Serices Academies, etc., Pakistan is the
highest contributor to the UN peacekeeping orces in Arica ,See PR actfite:
|^ Peace/eeivg Oeratiov. ava Pa/i.tav, Vol. VIII, Number 1, January 2006,
loweer, Pak-Arica collaboration in economic, trade and commerce
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is quite below the desired leel. Pakistan`s exports to Arica hardly stood at
about US> 941 million in 2005, which was only 6. percent o Pakistan`s total
exports. Similarly, the leel o imports rom Arica is also quite marginal. lor
instance, Pakistan`s imports rom Arica stood around US> 596 million in
2005, which was merely 2.2 percent o Pakistan`s total imports. 1hereore,
there is a need to generate more trade and commerce as well as to hae a
proactie policy or urther cementing brotherly relations.
1he PR actfite gies glimpses o Pak-Arica relations during the last
quarter o a century ,1981-2006,. It coers some o the bilateral isits o
leaders o Pakistan and Arican states, their speeches, press statements,
interiews, memoranda o understanding, agreements and joint communiqus.

31 December 2006 Noor ul laq

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,


Pakistan and Arican countries hae had close ties beore and during the
colonial days. Pakistan which was among the irst Muslim countries to gain
independence spearheaded support to the struggle or sel determination o
Arican colonies. Pakistan was also one o the irst countries to support
Lritrea's independence rom Italian colonialism and morally supported
Morocco, Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Arica in their liberation struggles.
Many Arican leaders hae traelled on Pakistani Diplomatic Passports.
Moreoer, a large number o students rom Arican countries hae studied in
Pakistani Uniersities.
Pakistan has, on dierent occasions, contributed peace keeping
contingents to the UN, which were deployed in Ghana, Somalia, Lritrea,
Sudan, Congo and Namibia to assist them in transition to sel rule or to
proide relie assistance to amine aected areas. Presently too its troops are
stationed in Sierra Leone to maintain peace between warring actions.
Deence orces oicers rom Arican countries continue to be trained in
Deence Academies in Pakistan including NDC |National Deence College|
and the Sta College Quetta. Pakistan is also imparting training to oicers o
the oreign serice o some Arican countries. Many airlines operating in
Arica were established with the technical support and training acilities
extended by Pakistan.
A number o eminent Pakistanis hae sered in Arica on dierent
assignments. Justice M. B. Ahmed was Chie Justice o Nigeria. Air Martial
Daud Pota was head o the Zimbabwean Air lorce. Sahibzada \aqoob Khan
was special enoy o U.N. Secretary General or \estern Sahara and Mr.
Sheharyar Khan was Special Lnoy o the UN or Rwanda and Burundi.
loweer, with the passage o time these links hae become weaker or non
existent. Pakistani presence in Arican countries has become ery thin to the
extent that at the diplomatic leel an Ambassador or ligh Commissioner
rom Pakistan is accredited to many countries simultaneously. Pakistan's
oreign policy thereore has to be repositioned iz a iz Arican countries
without disturbing the ocus on the \est. A proactie policy would require
interaction between the Parliaments o Pakistan and Arican countries
coupled with constituting riendship groups or Arican countries in the
Parliament. ligh leel isits by the President o Pakistan, Prime Minister and
Ministers will go a long way in establishing or cementing close brotherly ties
with Arica. Moreoer, Pakistan should pursue an aggressie economic
diplomacy so as to reap the abundant inancial beneits as well as inestment
opportunities that exist in Arica. 1he setting up o ministerial commissions
with dierent Arican countries would be one o the steps in the right
direction. 1he Pakistan lederation o Chambers o Commerce and Industry
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should penetrate the markets o Arica and exploit the business opportunities
that exist in those countries. It can also beneit rom the experiences o
Arican countries in the ield o tourism. Direct air links between Pakistan and
Arican countries are also ery important in eery respect. Asian and Arican
countries, which account or a 109 otes, need to speak with one oice at the
United Nations or any other international orum while the 53 Muslim
countries in Asia and Arica should support one another in the OIC. At the
\1O, Asian and Arican countries should adopt a uniied policy.

Mushahid lussain Sayed, Chairman loreign Relations Committee, evate oreigv
Retatiov. Covvittee Reort , December 2005, pp. -8.


I will start with a brie oeriew o our relations with Arica. Interestingly we
know that with ocus on \estern countries like the United States, Lurope
and also on South Asia, a ery important dimension, the Arican dimension o
Pakistan`s oreign policy is oten missed out, and it is a ery important
dimension. I will try to trace it ery briely. In 1952-53 Pakistan joined the
U.N. Security Council and at that time we were among the ew Muslim
countries who were independent and we spearheaded support or the struggle
or sel-determination o Arican colonies. And i you see the record o the
ities, you know that we were one o the irst countries which supported
Lritrea`s independence rom Italian colonialism. In 1unisia, the ather o the
nation, labib Borguiba used to trael on a Pakistani Passport. In Algeria,
larhat Abbas, Prime Minister o the proisional Goernment and Ahmad Bin
Bella used to trael on Pakistani Diplomatic Passports. \e also proided
support to Morocco and other countries including Zimbabwe and the ZANU
Patriotic lront o Robert Mugabe. \e supported the liberation struggle in
Namibia and South Arica, opposing all orms o apartheid. I think
Ambassador 1ayyab Siddiqui was the one who deliered 300 thousand dollars
on behal o Pakistan to \innie Mandela, as Pakistan`s support to their
struggle, and this support has been consistent through dierent goernments
whether they were military goernments or elected democratic goernments.
So there has been a consistent pattern in Pakistan`s oreign policy, and we
sent peace keeping orces or the election in Namibia and also helped in the
conlict against Lthiopia in 198. 1here has been an actie pattern o
Pakistani support or liberation moements in Arica, when it was ery rare
and diicult to gie this kind o support. 1hen we also hae been proiding
special training programmes or the military and o course, some oicers later
attained prominence as leaders o their countries. Presidents o Nigeria,
Sudan, and Ghana come in this category. Pakistan also contributed to nation
building o newly independent countries o Arica through the training o
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

oicers at the National Deence College, Pakistan Administratie Sta
College, Air lorce \ar College, and proision o expertise. In Uganda, or
example, Mian Riaz Uddin Ahmad was Cabinet Secretary o Uganda. 1hen we
had Justice M.B. Ahmed in Nigeria, he was Chie Justice there. lirst Chie o
the Air lorce o Zimbabwe was a Pakistani, Air Marshal Daud Pota. 1hen
Capacity Building Programmes which we hae executed or dierent
countries. Libya or airlines, Kenya, Nigeria and Sudan, in trade. \e also
helped in the peace process, or example, Sahibzada \aqub Khan was Special
Lnoy o U.N. Secretary General or \estern Sahara and Mr. Sheharyar
Khan was a Special Lnoy or Rwanda and Burundi and also or the
decolonization process Pakistan has played a key role. Our peace keeping
orces, Pakistan Army contingents and police contingents, hae been there in
Ghana, Somalia, Lritrea, Congo and Namibia to assist in the transition and
also in Sierra Leone and in the Congo. So, relie assistance to amine aected
areas in Sudan and Niger, and een during the Darur crisis, you know, there
was Pakistan who played the role o a mediator.
Because we were in the U.N. Security Council, we did not want
things to spin out o control and a special enoy was sent rom Pakistan to
Sudan to deuse the situation. \e also helped out in the U.N. Security
Council. So on a host o issues whether they are training programmes,
whether they are support to liberation moements, whether they are capacity
building, we had a strong relationship and, inally, also in training o
diplomats. I was told that we hae a training programme or two kinds o
Arican diplomats, one or the younger ones who just joined the serice and
the other or mid-career oicers, twenty our slots in each case. So, it is a
great pleasure to hae all o you here and we are also keen in our Committee
that Pakistan should hae a ery close interaction with Arican countries
because the Arican Union has a large membership. I think it is the second
biggest ater the OIC in the UN. In the UN General Assembly, as we are
discoering right now, in the struggle or the UN Security Council
membership, it is one country, one ote. So each ote matters and we were
ery keen that this relationship should be reinorced, not just with Luropean
and \estern countries and Arab countries but we reached out to Arican
countries and I understand that certain important trips are in the oing.
Recently we had the President o Lritrea isiting us and the Prime Minister o
Mauritius is also isiting us and o course, Nelson Mandela came here on
dierent occasions beore he became President in 1994 and then as President
in 1999. So, we hae had this close interaction with Arica and the people o
Arica and so I look orward to this continued close relationship.

Mushahid lussain Sayed, Opening Remarks at the Meeting o the Standing
Committee on loreign Aairs and Kashmir Aairs and Northern Areas held on 22
June 2005, evate oreigv Retatiov. Covvittee Reort-, December 2005, pp. 14-15.
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AN0UET h08TE0 | N h0N0UR 0F ThE
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May 23, 1981

\our Lxcellency Prime Minister Robert Gabrial Mugabe,
Madame Mugabe,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It gies me great pleasure to welcome on behal o the people and the
Goernment o Pakistan and on my own and on my wie`s behal the Prime
Minister o Zimbabwe, Madame Mugabe and the other distinguished
members o his delegation. lis isit to our country is a memorable and happy
occasion because today we hae the priilege o haing amongst us the great
Prime Minister o a great country which achieed its independence ater a
long and heroic struggle. 1he people o Pakistan know and respect Mr.
Mugabe as a aliant reedom ighter and as a dynamic national leader. 1he
act is that Mr. Mugabe is held in high esteem not only in Pakistan but all oer
the world.
lis Lxcellency Mr. Robert Mugabe is not a stranger amongst us. le
has isited Pakistan earlier. Mr. Mugabe came to Pakistan in 198 when his
country was struggling to throw o the yoke o colonialism. \e had then
expressed our total sympathy with the campaign launched by him to win
reedom or his people and had pledged him our ull political and moral
support. 1oday when he isits us as the leader o independent and soereign
Zimbabwe we would like to reassure him once again o our ull support and
I had the priilege o participating in April last year in the
Independence celebrations o Zimbabwe and had personally witnessed the
inspiring leadership o Mr. Mugabe and the loe or reedom o the People o
Zimbabwe. 1hese impressions are still iid in my mind and will always
remain a cherished memory. \e pray that the people o Zimbabwe under the
guidance o their beloed leader should continue to make rapid strides
towards the goal o progress and prosperity.

Distinguished Guest,
\e are deeply conscious o the wise and sagacious eorts that you are making
to rebuild your country. 1his is not an easy task ater the depredations o a
long period o colonialism. \e realise this ully because we hae passed
through a similar phase and in act are still, to some extent, trying to
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

oercome the legacy o colonial rule.

Not only do we share the common historic experience o the colonial period,
our aspirations and objecties are also identical. Our countries desire to
protect their independence and bring prosperity to the peoples. It remains our
constant endeaour that the ominous clouds o war do not appear on the
world horizon, and in particular in our respectie regions so that we can
channel our eorts and direct our resources or the welare o our peoples.

\e are also conscious o your eorts towards the promotion o regional
cooperation in Southern Arica and we look with great admiration at the key
role being played by Zimbabwe in this ield. It is our earnest hope that this
cooperation is promoted urther so as to reduce the economic dependence o
the neighbouring Arican countries on South Arica. I do not need to reiterate
that Pakistan ully supports all measures which can bring prosperity and
strength to newly independent countries.
Pakistan has oer the years, identiied itsel ully with all those
moements which are aimed at breaking the shackles o colonialism to
achiee independence or their peoples. Pakistan has always strongly opposed
and continues to oppose and condemn the South Arican system o apartheid
because it is unjust and inhuman and an eort to the conscience and dignity
o man. \e do not recognize the racist minority regime o South Arica and
hae no links o any kind whatsoeer with that country.

It is our irm coniction that the people o Namibia can no longer be denied
independence. \e recognise South \est Arican Peoples Organisation as the
sole legitimate representatie o the people o Namibia and we are conident
that Namibia will soon achiee its legitimate place in the comity o
independent nations. \e shall not rest until the accession o Namibia to
independence becomes a reality. \e will also continue to extend ull support
to the noble objectie o eliminating the last estiges o colonialism rom the
continent o Arica.

Just as there are some urgent problems in Arica which await a just solution,
there are some ery serious problems acing this region. 1he oremost
amongst them is the question o Aghanistan. 1he armed interention by a
super power in Aghanistan has led to a continuing ciil war there as a result
o which more than two million helpless Aghans hae led their land and
sought reugee in Pakistan. 1heir number grows steadily and at the rate at
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which the inlow is continuing there will be close to three million homeless
and hapless Aghan nationals in our country. Pakistan has accepted them
purely on humanitarian grounds and despite our limited resources we are
proiding them shelter and ood. \hile this eort is placing an unbearable
strain on our resources, our respect or these brae and proud people is such
that we will be prepared to accept hardships but we will not shirk our duty to
proide relie to them.
Side by side with this humanitarian task, we are making all eorts to
ind a political solution to the problem o Aghanistan which would result in
the withdrawal o all oreign orces rom there and which would enable the
Aghan nationals to return to their homeland in saety and honour and to
exercise their right to orm a goernment o their own choice.

Distinguished Guest,
Peace and stability in our region has been threatened by the deelopments
around Pakistan. 1he massie inlux o oreign troops in Aghanistan has
created a threat to Pakistan`s security which is a matter o great concern to us.
In the ace o this threat we are trying to strengthen our deences as ar as our
circumstances permit. \e consider it our soereign right to take all necessary
steps to acquire a credible deence capability to strengthen our independence
and contribute to the stability o the region. lor this we desire bilateral
relationships with all countries on the basis o soereign equality and respect
or Pakistan`s policy o non-alignment and its commitment to the positions
taken by the Islamic Conerence. Islam is a religion o peace and as ollowers
o. Islam we seek peace not only or ourseles but or the entire world.

In this objectie o promoting world peace Pakistan and Zimbabwe hold
identical iews on most issues acing the world. Apart rom this our bilateral
relations are also being strengthened constantly. 1he ministerial delegation
rom Pakistan which isited Zimbabwe last August had identiied arious
areas o mutual cooperation. lurther possibilities were explored during the
isit o a ministerial delegation rom Zimbabwe earlier this year. \our isit to
our country has proided us with yet another opportunity to urther
strengthen our mutual cooperation and bilateral relations and we are
conident that your isit will proe to be a milestone in the consolidation o
relations between Zimbabwe and Pakistan.
I once again thank you Mr. Prime Minister, Madame Mugabe and the
distinguished members o your entourage or your isit to Pakistan and or
proiding us an opportunity to meet and exchange iews with you.
Ladies and gentlemen, may I now request you to join me in expressing
our best wishes or:
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

the health, prosperity and long lie o lis Lxcellency Mr.
Robert Mugabe and Madame Mugabe,
the happiness and prosperity o the other distinguished
guests rom the Republic o Zimbabwe,
the prosperity and progress o the riendly people o
Zimbabwe, and
the growing riendship between Zimbabwe and Pakistan.

Long Lie Pakistan-Zimbabwe riendship.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav 1ot. VII, Issue 5-6, May-June 1981, pp. 1-4.


Mr. President,
lonourable Ministers,
\our Lxcellencies,
Distinguished Guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen.

I am honoured and priileged to be here in Pakistan on an oicial
isit or the irst time as Prime Minister o an independent Zimbabwe.
I was delighted to be able to welcome you, Mr. President, General
Zia-ul-laq at our Independence Celebrations in April last year, and to be able
to hold talks with you, and I assure you that the people o Zimbabwe as a
whole were deeply impressed by the signiicance o Pakistan`s representation
at lead o State leel on that historic occasion. \e know that the ties o
riendship and solidarity established between the people o Pakistan and the
people o Zimbabwe during our long and bitter struggle or reedom rom
racism, colonialism and exploitation are still strong but, in the context o our
independence, they need to be urther deeloped and consolidated on a
goernment-to-goernment basis as well as at a people-to-people leel.
I would like to remind you that in our irst year as an independent
state, there hae been a number o exchanges and isits reinorcing and
expanding the riendship and understanding which has existed rom the early
days o our liberation struggle.
1he oppressed masses o Zimbabwe had neer accepted the yoke o
colonialism and racism and throughout the 90 years o oppression neer lost
sight o their goal o equality and sel-determination. 1hey were always
cognizant o the act that their political, social and economic aspirations were
shared by peoples elsewhere in the 1hird \orld.
It was the support and encouragement rom their brothers and sisters
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in other countries that spurred them to ictory. Pakistan ranks high among
Zimbabwe`s deoted riends because o the role she played in proiding
material and political support or our liberation struggle. My isit thus enables
me to express on behal o the people o Zimbabwe the gratitude and
indebtedness they owe to the Goernment and People Pakistan or the
alliance that bound them until inal ictory was achieed oer imperialism and
1urning now to the uture o the special relationship between our two
countries, I should like to outline areas in which our politics economic and
social cooperation can be expanded. It is clear that we in Zimbabwe perceie
it as our moral duty and a duty in our own interest to play an actie role in the
Organisation or Arican Unity, the United Nations, and Non-aligned
Moement and thus to support the position adopted by these and other
organizations. As Pakistan plays such prominent role in international aairs, it
is our wish to be in constant contact with your goernment in all matters o
international concern. In particular, we know that on the burning issue o the
day in Southern Arica, that is independence or Namibia, in addition to the
support or S\APO as the sole, legitimate and authentic representatie o
Nainibian people, our two countries are completely united in support o
United Nations Security Council Resolution 435, passed in 198.
Arica has reused to be dierted rom the clear course to Namibian
Independence enisaged under the United Nations plan and solicits the
support o all 1hird \orld countries and the Non-aligned Moement on the
Namibian question so pressures can be mounted or the implementation o
the plan. \e must consolidate all progressie orces in order to set the
independence process in motion and nulliy South Arica`s intransigence and
reactionary tactics.
\our Lxcellency, I am sure, are ully aware that South Arica whilst
remaining intransigent on Namibia, is resorting to more oppressie measures
in implementing her iniquitous system o apartheid as she becomes more and
more aggressie against her peace-loing neighbours.
In relation to Zimbabwe, South Arica has recruited and training 5000
nationals rom our country or purposes o` carrying out her unprooked acts
to mask aggression and sabotage aimed at destablising our democratic
systems. 1he progressie world must condemn this eil strategy o South
Pakistan as a member o the Non-aligned Moement naturally shares
with us an international orum whose principles we hold dear. \e hold as
irmly as you do that it is wrong or any one country, big or small, to interere
in the internal aairs o another or political, economic or any other reasons.
\e equally eel that the competitie race or arms between the two world
blocs does not augur well or the uture peace o mankind.
In our international policy we are also glad that our posture on
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

Palestine is the same as yours. \e hae always lent our ullest support to the
Palestinian people under the leadership o the PLO or its legitimate struggle
or the liberation o Palestine.
Lqually, we support the struggle o the people o the Saharawi
Republic, as led by Polisario, or the establishment o their own independent
state. \e shall express our unresered stand on this matter at the orthcoming
Summit o the OAU to be held in Nairobi, Kenya, in June.
\ith reerence to our relations, I should like to say that though
Zimabwe has an agricultural inrastructure, it has a lot to learn rom Pakistan
in the ield o mining and industry. \e know that the Pakistani people hae
made gigantic strides in arious ields o technology, ranging rom medicine
to heay industry.

\our Lxcellency,
1he agreements on trade and technical cooperation signed between Pakistan
and Zimbabwe ater our independence are ery aluable instruments or the
consolidation o our relations. It is our hope that our isit to your beautiul
country oers our two goernments an opportunity to improe on our
existing relations.
It remains or me, both in a personal capacity, and as Prime Minister
o Zimbabwe, to express the deepest thanks o mysel and my delegation or
the magniicence o our reception here in Pakistan. \our Goernment and
people hae welcomed us with warmth and enthusiasm which truly justiy
your national reputation or hospitality, and we thank you rom the bottom o
our hearts.
May I now inite you to drink:
- to the continued riendship and solidarity between our two
peoples and countries,
- to the ictory o the peoples o Pakistan and Zimbabwe,
- to the good health and leadership o President Zia-ul-IIaq.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. VIII, Issue 5-6, May-June 1981, pp. 5-8.

wEEK 0F 80L| 0AR| TY w| Th ThE 60L0N| AL PE0PLE8 0F

May 19-25, 1981

Pakistan joins the international community in obsering the Solidarity with
the Peoples o Southern Arica ighting or their reedom, independence and
IPRI lactile 10
equal rights and reiterates its complete support or their aliant struggle
against the eils o apartheid, racism and colonialism. 1he Goernment and
the people o Pakistan admire courage o coniction and salute the countless
martyrs who hae laid down their lies so that their children could lie in
reedom and dignity.
Dea to the call o reason and the persistent appeals o the
international community, the Pretoria regime continues to intensiy its
policies o discrimination, oppression and brutality against the ast majority
o the South Arican people. 1he ailure o the Genea Conerence on
Namibia early this year and continued disregard o the resolutions o the UN
Security Council and the General Assembly addressed to it are illustratie o
the obduracy o the illegal racist regime in perpetuating its oppression and
control oer Namibia.
1he preceding year has witnessed momentous changes in the
continent. o Arica, oremost among them being the splendid triumph o the
people o Zimbabwe ater a long and arduous struggle. 1his deelopment has
urther isolated the apartheid regime in Pretoria and a new impetus to the
struggle o the reedom ighters in Namibia and Azania ,South Arica,.
Belie in the equality o man is a corner stone o the aith o the
people o Pakistan. Racial discrimination being an anathema to Islam, we
always considered it our sacred duty to proide concrete and tangible support
to all those who are subjected to this eil.
On this occasion, Pakistan once again pledges to continue to gie all
possible moral and material support to the people o Namibia and Azania
,South Arica,, who are waging a determined struggle to root out the eil o
apartheid and to break the shackles o colonialism. It is our irm coniction
that they will ineitably succeed in realizing their noble objecties.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. VIII, Issue 5-6, May-June 1981, pp. 99-100.

J0| NT 60HHUN| 0UE
| 88UE0 AT ThE EN0 0F ThE 0FF| 6| AL V| 8| T 0F
h. E. HR. R0ERT C. HUCAE, PR| HE H| N| 8TER 0F

May 26, 1981

At the initation o l.L. General Mohammad Zia ul laq, President o the
Islamic Republic o Pakistan, l.L.

Mr Robert G. Mugabe, Prime Minister o
the Republic o Zimbabwe accompanied by Madame paid an oicial isit to
Pakistan rom May 23 to 26, 1981.
2. During his stay in Pakistan, the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe
Islamabad, isited Islamabad \ah, 1arbela and Karachi.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

3. 1he Prime Minister and his party were gien a rousing welcome by
the people o Pakistan whereer they went, relecting the warm and riendly
relationship that exists between the peoples o Pakistan and Zimbabwe.
4. In Islamabad, the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe held oicial talk with
the President o Pakistan on matters o bilateral interest and important
international issues. 1he talks took place in an atmosphere o cordiality and
were marked by a close identity o iews between the two sides.
5. During the talks the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe was assisted by:
,1, l.L. Mr. l. lshewokunze, MCC, MP, Minister o lealth.
,2, l.L. Mr. S. Sekeramayi, MCC, MP, Minister o Lands,
Resettlement and Rural Deelopment.
,3, lI.L. Dr. \. Mangwende MP, Minister o loreign Aairs.
,4, l.L. Mr. l. Shaa, MP, Minister o Manpower Planning &
,5, Maj. Gen. Josiah 1ungamirai.
,6, l.L. Mr. M. Menge MP, Dy. Minister o 1rade and
,, Mr. Shirihuru, loreign Secretary.
,8, Mr. A. Chidoda, Under Secretary or Lastern Lurope, lar Last
& Asia.
,9, Mr. M. Manzou, Desk Oicer, Lastern Lurope, lar Last &
6. 1he President o Pakistan was assisted by:
,1, Mr. Agha Shahi, Minister or loreign Aairs.
,2, Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Minister or linance, Commerce,
Planning and Coordination.
,3, Mir Ali Ahmed 1alpur, Minister or Deence.
,4, Lt. Gen. Saeed Qadir, Minister or Production.
,5, Mr. Ikram Bukhsh Soomro, Minister or Industries.
,6, Mr. S. Shah Nawaz, Secretary General, Ministry o loreign
,, Lt. Gen. ,Retd., M. Rahim Khan, Secretary General Deence.
,9, Mr. Riaz Piracha, Secretary, Ministry o loreign Aairs.
,10, Mr. Ljaz A. Naik, Secretary, Lconomic Aairs Diision.
,11, Mr. Izharul laq, Secretary, Ministry o Commerce.
,12, Mr. S.A..Moid, Additional Secretary, Ministry o loreign
,13, Mr. M. Anwar Khan, Ambassador o Pakistan in Zimbabwe.
14, Mr. Muhammad \amin, Director General ,Arica,, Ministry o
loreign Aairs.
. 1he President o Pakistan expressed his gratiication at the successul
culmination o the struggle o the people o Zimbabwe or independence
under the heroic leadership o Mr. Mugabe, and reairmed solidarity o the
Goernment and the people o Zimbabwe in their endeaours to achiee
greater progress and prosperity.
IPRI lactile 12
8. 1he two sides reiewed the progress o their bilateral cooperation in the
light o isits o delegations o both sides oer the past year. 1he proposals
or urther expansion o their cooperation in the ield o agriculture, trade,
industry, railways, ciil aiation, education, technical training and health were
examined and the two sides agreed on urther measures to be taken to itensiy
their mutual cooperation.
9. 1he President o Pakistan and the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe
emphasised that a just and stable world order could only be based on the
principles o respect or soereignty, territorial integrity and non-intererence
in the internal aairs o other countries. 1he two reiterated their commitment
to the settlement o disputes through peaceul means and within the
ramework o the United Nations Charter.
10. 1he two sides reairmed the support o their goernments or
strengthening the United Nations Organisation in order to make it a more
eicient instrument or the promotion o peace, cooperation, progress and
security in the world.
11. 1he President o Pakistan apprised the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe
o the deelopments in Aghanistan. 1he two leaders termed the armed
interention in Aghanistan by a oreign power a serious iolation o the
norms o good neighbourliness and called or the immediate withdrawal o all
oreign troops rom Aghanistan and the restoration o its independent and
non-aligned status. 1hey expressed the hope that the eorts now being
undertaken by the United Nations Secretary General will lead to a solution o
the Aghan crisis.
12. 1he Prime Minister o Zimbabwe appreciated the eorts o the
Goernment o Pakistan to look ater oer 2 million Aghan reugees and
emphasised the need or an international assistance programme in order to
alleiate the suerings o the Aghan reugees. 1he President o Pakistan and
the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe expressed the hope that suitable conditions
would be created to enable the Aghan nationals now seeking shelter in
Pakistan to return to their homes in saety and honour.
13. 1he President o Pakistan inormed the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe
o the eorts being undertaken under the aegis o the Organization o Islamic
Conerence to resole the Iran-Iraq war. Both sides expressed the hope that
the conlict would be resoled so that the Goernments and the peoples o
both Iran and Iraq would be able to deote their eorts to reconstruction and
deelopment, in their countries.
14. 1he two sides reiterated their coniction that a just and lasting peace
in the Middle Last could only be achieed ater the total and unconditional
withdrawal o Israel rom all Arab territories, including Jerusalem. 1he two
sides called or the restoration o ull national and legitimate rights o the
Palestinian people and enshrined in the arious resolutions o the United
Nations, the Non-aligned Moement, the Islamic Conerence and the OAU.
1he President o Pakistan and the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe condemned
the naarious designs o Israel against the soereignty and territorial integrity
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

o Lebanon and expressed ull solidarity with the determination o the people
o Lebanon to presere and saeguard the independent status o that country.
15. 1he President o Pakistan inormed the Prime Minister o Zimbabwe
o the steps Pakistan had taken or the normalisation o relations with India in
the light o the Simla Agreement which proided or the peaceul resolution
o all outstanding Indo-Pakistan disputes including that o Jammu and
16. 1he two sides expressed their total support or S\APO, the sole
legitimate representatie o the people o Namibia, in its eorts to liberate
Namibia rom the illegal occupation o the racist South Arican regime. 1he
two leaders also called upon the South Arican regime to respond positiely
to the United Nations eorts designed to lead Namibia to genuine
1. 1he two leaders condemned the South Arican regime or its racist
inhuman policies o brutal suppression o the people o that country. 1he two
leaders called upon all nations to put maximum pressure on the illegal South
Arican regime to orce it to bring to an end abhorrent apartheid system.
18. 1he two sides discussed the problems o international peace and
security and world disarmament. 1hey called upon the super powers which
possessed weapons o mass destruction, to take immediate steps to halt and
reerse their prolieration o armaments.
19. 1he two sides agreed that Arican-Asian solidarity was essential to
presere the independence o the Arican and Asian peoples, to ensure the
liquidation o colonialism and neo-colonialism in all their orms, to realise
their aspirations or peace and progress.
20. 1he two leaders called upon the 1hird \orld countries to pool their
resources in order to derie maximum beneit rom each other, attain sel-
reliance or their peoples and thus reduce the prosperity gap between the
industrialized and the deeloping nations.
21. 1he Prime Minister o Zimbabwe expressed his sincere thanks or
the warm hospitality accorded to him and his delegation during their isit in
22. 1he Prime Minister o Zimbabwe inited the President o Pakistan to
pay an oicial isit to Zimbabwe. 1he initation was accepted by the
President with great pleasure. Dates o the isit will be determined by mutual
consultation through diplomatic channels.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. VIII, Issue 5-6, May-June 1981, pp. 103-10.

IPRI lactile 14
| NTERV| Ew 0F
PRE8| 0ENT CENERAL H0hAHHA0 Z| a-U| -haq

January 29, 1983

vterrierer: Mr. President, I want to apologize or the ery short notice or
this interiew.
Pre.iaevt: You are most welcome. \ith Nigeria, we hae a special relationship.
So, the Nigerian 1eleision team has preerence oer all my other work.

Q: 1hank you ery much, and I would likes to register our appreciation
or the assistance, riendliness and cooperation gien to us by our colleagues
in the Pakistani media.
A: 1hank you.

Q: Good eening, I welcome you to the special programme on the
network serice o Nigerian 1eleision Authority. 1onight, we hae the
honour and priilege o haing with us as our guest in this programme, lis
Lxcellency, the President o Pakistan, General Mohammad Zia-ul-laq`.
Sir, I think, it would be air to take up by asking what is the totality o
beneits we shall hae in the context o Pakistani-Nigerian relations
A: I would like to begin in the name o Allah, the Most Beneicent, the
Most Merciul`. Pakistan and Nigeria hae enjoyed, all along, ery riendly
relations. lrom my personal experience and rom the experience o others, I
know, howeer, that there is always room or improement in relationship
and understanding when contacts are established at all leels: more so, at the
highest leel. And I am ery grateul to lis Lxcellency, President Shagari that
he was kind enough to honour us by accepting my initation to isit Pakistan.
Although it is a ery brie isit in this short span, we hae been able to
discoer and agree that there is plenty o room or improement o relations.
\e hae signed a trade agreement. \e hae accepted, in principle, to
establish a Joint Commission, and we hope that with greater economic and
cultural ties, our relationship, or which there already exists a ery solid
ground, would grow and lourish.

Q: Mr. President, were there talks between you and the Nigerian
President on the issue o assistance to Nigeria to deelop and enhance nuclear
A: No, we did not discuss any aspect o nuclear energy.

Q: Mr. President, we hae a situation where Nigeria, as a member o
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

non-aligned nations, has been speaking strongly against prolieration o
nuclear arms, and Pakistan has maintained the same position. But Pakistan
and Nigeria hae a common ront, which is the United States o America,
against whom the concept o non-alignment appears to be attuned. lae you
been able to reconcile the iews with Nigeria
A: I think that as a ery able and experienced leader o the 1hird \orld,
and Nigeria being a member o the Non-Aligned Moement, President
Shagari has the right perception o the role o the non-aligned. I non-aligned
countries are genuinely non-aligned, then they certainly should not align
themseles either against or in aour o anybody. So, it is not right, in my
opinion, to assume that the Non-Aligned Moement is against the United
States o America.
Q: Mr. President, would you say that, with the massie military
assistance being gien to you by the United States o America, you are still
A: Very much non-aligned. Please don`t misunderstand me, but let me gie
you the example o our neighbour - India. India is the ounder-member o
the Non-Aligned Moement. It has receied, at extraordinarily concessional
rates, military equipment worth six billion dollars rom the Soiet Union, and
yet nobody has said that India is aligned with the Soiet Union. Pakistan has
purchased, not at concessional rates, but at the market rates, military
equipment worth about 1.5 billion dollars rom the United States o America.
Now, by purchasing one`s deence requirements one does not get aligned, or
lose its non-aligned status.

Q: May I ask, Mr. President, whether, due to the military build-up by your
neighbour - India - obiously assisted by the Soiet Union, does Pakistan
eel threatened in any way
A: No, we hae neer thought o India`s acquisition o arms on such lines.
On the contrary, we would like to hae a good neighbourly relationship with
India, and we are steadastly pursuing this policy. Our point o iew is that, it
is or India to determine the quantum o military hardware or its deence
requirements. \e hae, thereore, neer once questioned what and why India
is acquiring its weapons, and rom where. \e would, by the same token,
expect India not to object to what arms we procure or our deence. It is on
this basis that we are trying or mutual understanding and trust between
Pakistan and India, and respect or each other`s soereignty.

Q: But does Pakistan eel threatened by eents in Aghanistan and in
Iran, which are also Pakistan`s neighbours
A: Not Iran. \e hae excellent relations with Iran. \e also had good
relations with Aghanistan: but a qualitatie change has been brought about in
that relationship by the interention o nearly one hundred thousand oreign
IPRI lactile 16
troops in Aghanistan. As a result, the situation on our western borders has
been transormed, and we hae become a rontline state, with a Super Power
at our doorstep. Ater Aghanistan, it could be our turn next. \e hae,
thereore, to iew this deelopment with concern, although the Soiets hae
indicated to us that they hae no intention o iolating the principles o inter-
State relationship with Pakistan. 1hey say they hae moed into Aghanistan
at the request o a riend. \e hae accepted this Soiet gesture o reassurance
at its ace alue. \e beliee that the answer lies not in conrontation with a
Super Power, but in seeking understanding with it.

Q: Mr. President, your country made a ormal complaint to the United
Nations about the regular iolation o its air space by the Soiets and the
shelling o its border towns. Just now you said, you might be the next in turn.
\hat measures are you taking to saeguard your territorial integrity beyond
the leel o ormal complaint to the United Nations, i this persists
A: \e hae lodged a complaint not against the Soiet Union, but against
Aghanistan, because it is the Aghan Air lorce, een i the aircrat are lown
by Russian pilots, that has been iolating our air space, and the Aghan
artillery has been shelling our border posts. \e hae, on our own part, tried
to strengthen our deences, but we hae not allowed ourseles to be
prooked into retaliation. \e beliee that the problem o Aghanistan is a
political problem that ought to be resoled through political means, and not
through military means. \e hae, thereore, entered into indirect talks with
Aghanistan and the Soiet Union under the auspices o the United Nations.

Q: \hile the Aghan resistance ighters appreciate the eorts and assistance
o Pakistan in their struggle, some allege that Islamisation o their struggle
seems to be the primary concern o Pakistan and not the struggle or national
liberation. \hat would you say to that
A: Now, correcting your statement, Pakistan is not helping or assisting the
reedom-ighters in any orm. 1hey are waging the struggle, on their own,
inside Aghanistan. 1hey are ighting irtually with their bare hands, they are
ighting with out-moded weapons, through their own resources rom outside
and, rom within Aghanistan wheneer the regular Army personnel hae
deserted and joined the reedom-ighters. \hat Pakistan is doing is to look
ater the three million or so Aghan reugees who hae come rom across the
border to take shelter in Pakistan. \ith the help o the United Nations, the
international agencies, the Muslim countries and others, we are trying to
proide the basic necessities o lie to these three million reugees till such
time that they can oluntarily, with honour and dignity, return to their home
and hearth. lor eery dollar spent on the reugees, Pakistan is contributing 50
cents. 1his is an enormous burden, no doubt: but we are prepared to look
ater Aghan reugees as long as required on humanitarian grounds and
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

because they are our Muslim brothers. It is, thereore, ery unair to attribute
any ulterior motie to our genuine concern or their welare.

Q: Apparently, the deeloped countries are still wanting to exploit the
1hird \orld nations, by controlling world market and placing tari barriers.
1hey hae adopted a rigid attitude during the North-South dialogues. low
does Pakistan iew the solution to this problem
A: 1he dialogue between the North and the South reached, in my
opinion, its climax at the Cancun Conerence, where the 1hird \orld
countries were ery ortunate to hae been represented by some ery able
persons, among whom was your President, lis Lxcellency Shehu Shagari. I
will be ery rank with you. \hile I accept that the deeloping countries are
being exploited, I eel at the same time that we need to put our own house in
order. \e ought to gird up our loins irst, pool our collectie resources, and
assist each other in the deelopment process beore we turn to the adanced
countries or concessions. During our discussion with President Shagari on
this subject yesterday, he was kind enough to gie us his sagacious iews, and
his philosophy is the same that there ought to be greater cooperation, closer
coordination, more collaboration amongst the deeloping countries beore we
ask anybody else to help us.

Q: Sir, what has been the success o your administration since you came
to power - just a relection o this
A: \hen we took oer there was a irtual ciil war in the country, the
economy was in a shambles, the administration had more or less crumbled.
1he mass agitation, that led to the loss o oer 300 lies, was ostensibly
against the rigging o elections, but it assumed the orm o a countrywide
demand or the establishment o Islamic system. So, briely, in reply to your
question, I would say that we - my colleagues and I hae brought stability to
the country, the economy has picked up, the production has increased
maniold, instead o importing ood grains as in the past, we are not only sel-
suicient but also hae a modest surplus or export. Aboe all, we hae put
the country on its ideological rails, and are moing steadily towards the
establishment o an Islamic order on solid oundations.

Q: Mr. President, what, in your opinion, will be the duration o Martial
Law in the country
A: I hae no intention o oerstaying, or o perpetuating my stay.
Although there is Martial Law, yet ours is a constitutional Goernment. \e
hae not abrogated the Constitution. \hen the legitimacy o our Goern-
ment was challenged in the Supreme Court o Pakistan, the court
unanimously held that it was a constitutional Goernment under the Law o
IPRI lactile 18

Q: lad the erdict been otherwise, would you hae stepped down
A: Most certainly, yes. I am a man o law. I do not consider mysel
aboe the law.

Q: Mr. President, at one time, international press painted you as a harsh
leader, especially taking into consideration what happened to late Bhutto. Are
you some kind o an authoritarian leader
A: I suppose I am authoritarian in the sense that I am not an elected
person. But, as I said earlier, mine is a constitutional Goernment. \ou know,
there are many democratic leaders who are extremely authoritarian: and there
are many authoritarian leaders who are ery democratic in their approach.
\ou will be interested to know that it was my so-called authoritarian
Goernment that re-introduced democracy at the grass-root leel ater a gap
o eighteen years. 1he so-called democratic goernments, in the past, kept
putting o the local bodies elections, 1oday, we hae in Pakistan oer sixty
thousand elected representaties running the country`s aairs rom the illage
to the district leel. All cities, all towns, all illages, are being run by local
councilors elected on the basis o adult ranchise, and one-man, one-ote.
As regards Mr. Bhutto`s case, it must be remembered that he was
charged by a citizen o Pakistan or the murder o his ather. Mr. Bhutto`s
case was tried in the ligh Court o` Punjab by ie Judges, who unanimously
gae the erdict o guilty and sentenced him to death. le iled an appeal
against the ligh Court`s Judgment beore the Supreme Court o` Pakistan -
the highest judicial body in the country. 1he Supreme Court conirmed the
erdict o death. le asked or the reiew o his case. In the reiew the
decision o the Supreme Court was upheld, and Mr. Bhutto was sentenced or
murder. 1hroughout this entire judicial process, we - that is my colleagues
and I - neer came in the picture nor did any o us eer attempt to inluence
the judiciary which is completely independent. I receied messages rom all
oer the world that I should use my power.

Q: 1o gie him clemency
A: \es, to grant him clemency. Now, it is my irm belie- and it is
enjoined by Islam - that nobody should be aboe the law. I a layman in the
street is ound guilty o murder, he is hanged: i the lead o State, the Chie
Lxecutie, or a high-up is guilty o murder, why should he be treated
dierently All these years, I hae neer used my prerogatie o granting
clemency. I consider it ethically inadmissible to do so once the highest courts
in the country hae deliberated and passed the sentence. So, those who do
not know the acts o the case, or turn a blind eye to them, claim that here
was a military leader who took power rom Mr. Bhutto and wanted to
eliminate him, thereore, he inoled him in a murder case and got him
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

hanged. 1his is a complete traesty o truth.

Q: \hat is Pakistan`s position with regard to Iran-Iraq conlict
A: \e are or peace between Iran and Iraq. Pakistan is a member o the
Islamic Peace Committee that has been trying to persuade the two to resole
the problem peaceully through dialogue and negotiations: but unortunately,
we hae made no headway. Neertheless, our eorts are continuing.

Q: Sir, I thank you ery much: but, briely, i you hae any message or
the Nigerian people`
A: \es, sir. I am extremely grateul or the opportunity that is being
proided to me - courtesy Nigerian 1eleision and my riends who are
sitting here. All I want to say is that the relationship that exists today between
Pakistan and Nigeria is one o ery close riendship. 1here is loe or the
people o Nigeria in the hearts o the people o Pakistan and, I am sure, the
same is true o Nigeria. I personally would go to the extent o saying that the
people o Nigeria are ery ortunate in haing at the helm o aairs a man
who is pious, who is able, and who is experienced. I wish President Shehu
Shagari, his goernment and the people o Nigeria all the success: our prayers`
will be or the continued prosperity and progress o our brothers in Nigeria.
vterrierer: 1hank you ery much, Mr. President.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. X, Issue 1-2, January-lebruary 1983, pp. 22-32.

AN0UET | N h0N0UR 0F h| 8 EX6ELLEN6Y ALhAJ| 8| R

Islamabad, September 19, 1984

i.vittab rrabvav r Rabiv

\our Lxcellency President Al-laji Sir Dawda Kairabad Jawara,
Modam Chelel Jawara,
Distinguished Members o the Gambian Delegation,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a great priilege or me to extend on behal o the Goernment and
IPRI lactile 20
people o Pakistan, and on behal o my wie and mysel, a ery warm and
cordial welcome to you, Madame Chelel Jawara and to the distinguished
members o your delegation. \e are indeed honoured to receie in Pakistan a
personality o your eminence and distinction. I am conident that, during your
stay, \our Lxcellency will witness the aection and esteem which the people
o Pakistan hae or their brethren in Gambia to whom they are bound by the
abiding ties o our common aith, Islamic alues and shared aspirations.

\e, in Pakistan, iew with great admiration the remarkable achieements o
the brotherly people o Gambia under your able and benign leadership. lor
nearly two decades, now, you hae steered the destiny o Gambia through
selless serice and sacriice. \our ision and oresight hae attained or your
country a status in the comity o nations, which is worthy o respect and
pride. At the same time through your deotion and dedication, you hae
made a signal contribution to the Arican struggle against the orces o
oppression and colonialism. It is a tribute to your maniold qualities as well as
you proound commitment to the welare o the Muslim Ummah that you
hae been entrusted with the high responsibility o the chairmanship o the
Islamic Peace Committee. It is our good ortune to hae a person o your
outstanding stature and acumen to guide the proceeding o this Committee.

Mr. President,
Pakistan and Gambia are both deeloping countries. \e are bound together
by a common spiritual and cultural heritage and hae waged similar struggles
against colonial domination. \e both adhere to policies o non-alignment and
beliee in 1hird \orld solidarity. It is, thereore, natural that there should be
close co-ordination and an eer-growing riendship between Pakistan and
Gambia. I am sanguine in the belie that your present isit to Pakistan will
open a new chapter in the urther deelopment o relations between our two
countries. In our talks today we hae already reached a wide measure o
understanding on the ways and means o imparting yet greater substance and
depth to our bilateral ties or the mutual beneit o our two peoples.

1he continuing ratricidal conlict between Iran and Iraq which has drained
the precious human and material resources o our two brotherly states
remains a matter o deep anguish and concern not only to the people o
Pakistan but to the entire Muslim Ummah. \e hae spared no eorts to
acilitate the cessation o hostilities and hae participated in and extended ull
support to all initiaties, including those o the Islamic Conerence, the Non-
aligned Moement and the United Nations, to bring this tragic war to a
speedy end. It is our earnest hope that it would be possible or the Islamic
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

Peace Committee, with your able guidance, to achiee this noble objectie. I
pray to Allah Almighty to bless our endeaours with success.

\e admire your untiring eorts or the total liberation o Arica rom all
estiges o colonialism, racism and the abominable system o apartheid. \e
greatly admire your contribution in strengthening unity among Arican
lrom its inception, Pakistan has had a deep and abiding interest in
the continent o Arica. \e hae always rendered our unresered support to
the Arican people in their liberation struggle. \e hae rejoiced in their
successes against colonial domination. \e wish and pray that those who are
striing now or their independence and reedom will emerge ictorious. And
in this context, I would like to reiterate our commitment o moral and
political support or the people o Namibia and South Arica.
Arica has been endowed with rich natural resources which must be
harnessed or the beneit and prosperity o its own peoples. Arica`s strength
contributes directly to that o the 1hird \orld and turmoil or rialry in that
continent causes deep concern to the rest o the deeloping world. \e ully
share the OAU`s cardinal principle o the iniolability o national rontiers
and the right o all peoples to sel-determination.

In our own region, Aghanistan continues to be a ictim o oreign military
occupation or nearly ie years. As a neigbouring country with a long
common border, we hae had to bear some o the consequences o the
conlagration next door. A quarter o the population o Aghanistan has been
orced to leae their homes and nearly three million o them hae sought
reuge on our soil, making Pakistan the host to the single largest
concentration o reugees anywhere in the world. 1o proide humanitarian
assistance to this large number o homeless persons is a daunting task which
we hae been carrying out with the co-operation o the international
community. But the care and maintenance o the reugees alone does not
constitute a solution o the problem. It remains our endeaour to seek a
settlement which will ensure the withdrawal o oreign troops, the return o
the Aghan reugees, and the respect o the right o the Aghan people to
choose their own way o lie and their own orm o Goernment. 1owards
this end, we will continue to lend our ull support to the eorts o the UN
Secretary General and his personal Representatie.

Mr. President,
1he situation in the Middle Last continues to be cause o deep concern. Both
Gambia and Pakistan ully support the cause o the Palestinian people. \e
IPRI lactile 22
beliee that a just, lasting and comprehensie settlement in the Middle Last
can only be achieed through the total acation o Israeli occupation o all
Arab and Palestinian territories including the loly City o Jerusalem, the
dismantling o all Israeli settlements, the exercise by the Palestinian people o
their right to sel-determination and a state o their own.

lor the past ew years the international economic system has been incessantly
jarred by the crises o recession, inlation and mounting protectionism with
deleterious consequences or the deeloping countries. It is a cause o
proound concern that the international community has not been able to
arrie at a solution to the problems alicting all nations, rich or poor, and
there is continued resistance to all endeaours or seeking structural
adjustments in the system or or the adoption o urgent remedial measures
required to ameliorate the economic conditions preailing in the deeloping
countries. 1he near breakdown in the international inancing system is either
driing the deeloping countries towards bankruptcy and deault or is orcing
them into excruciating debt liabilities rom which they cannot recoer. It is
our earnest hope that all states, gien the inter-dependence o the present day
world, would sincerely and seriously take speedy and decisie action to
remoe the existing inequalities, and jointly work or creating a just
international economic order.

Allow me once again to say that we are extremely happy to hae you with us.
I eel conident that your isit is going to contribute greatly to our riendship
and co-operation. \e welcome this opportunity to hae a most ruitul
exchange o iews on our bilateral relations and on international issues o
interest to Gambia and Pakistan.
\ith these words, I once again sincerely welcome our distinguished
guests, and request you, Lxcellencies, ladies and gentlemen, to join me into a

- 1o the health and personal well-being o our brother President
Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara,
- 1o the health and happiness o Lady Chilel Jawara,
- 1o the health and happiness o the members o the distinguished
Gambian delegation, and all those present here tonight,
- 1o the prosperity and progress o the people o Gambia, and
- 1o the eer-growing riendship between Gambia and Pakistan.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XI, Issue 9-10, September-October, 1984, pp. 9-13.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

8| R 0Aw0A KA| RAA JAwARA,

March 21, 1988

In the name o Allah, the Most Beneicent, the Most Merciul

Prai.e be to .ttab, ora of tbe !orta.. te..ivg. ava eace, be vov tbe eat ;i.e. tbe ta.t)
of tbe Probet..
\our Lxcellency, Al.laji Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara,
Respected Lady Jawara,

\our Lxcellency Mr. Mohammad Khan Junejo,
Prime Minister o Pakistan,
Distinguished Members o the Gambian Delegation, Ladies and Gentlemen:

It is a great priilege or me to welcome the President o Gambia, Lady
Jawara and distinguished members o their delegation to Pakistan. \e hae
been looking orward to this occasion or the last our years. I iidly recall
the pleasant and happy memories o your 1984 isit to Pakistan. \e consider
this second isit a special honour which proides us with a unique
opportunity to reiew our bilateral relations and also to beneit rom your
wisdom, experience and deep knowledge o regional and international issues.
I am conident that as in the earlier case this isit too would proe to be
ruitul and o lasting alue.

\ou hae come to Pakistan at a ery auspicious time. 1he month o March
ushers spring in our country. It is also during this month that an important
eent, the National Day o Pakistan, is celebrated in our country with great
enthusiasm and erour. 1he highlight o this day is the joint parade o our
armed orces in which we will hae the honour o your participation this year.
1his is a maniestation o your abiding loe and riendship or which we are
grateul to you.

Dear Brother,
1he bonds that tie our two brotherly people are maniold. Our allegiance to
the common aith o Islam shapes the ery abric o our lie. Our common
struggle against the orces o colonialism, our commitment to an equitable
IPRI lactile 24
world ree o any orm o exploitation, and our resole to meet the challenges
o the contemporary world sere as a sound oundation on which to build the
ediice o riendship and cooperation between our two countries. It is a
matter o great satisaction or me that our bilateral relations hae been
greatly strengthened in the last ew years and your present isit would proe
to be another mile-stone in this direction, Insha Allah.
\e are ully aware o the economic, social, scientiic and technical
progress made by Gambia, which has been ortunate to hae a wise, ar-
sighted and highly astute leader in the person o \our Lxcellency or the last
quarter o a century. I would like to elicitate the people and Goernment o
Gambia or the notable progress that they hae achieed under your inspiring
It would be no exaggeration or me to say that it is not Gambia alone which
has beneited rom your sagacity and wisdom. 1he deep interest taken by you
in the struggle o the Arican people or reedom rom racial discrimination is
a shining example in the annals o Arican history. \e ully share your
abhorrence and deep indignation at the continuing state o racial
discrimination and apartheid in South Arica. \e are also in complete accord
with your worthy endeaours or the independence o Namibia. \e will
continue to play our role in international eorts to dismantle the cruel and
unjust system which the Pretoria regime has orcibly imposed on its people.
1he aliant struggle o` the Arican people is not only o ital importance to
Gambia but also a matter o the greatest concern to us. \e would march
shoulder to shoulder with you in this just struggle till inal ictory is achieed.

Besides your contribution to the cause o reedom in Arica, you hae also
played a ery distinguished and positie role or the cause o Islamic unity or
which you must be congratulated. It is precisely or this reason that the
Islamic Ummah when conronted with the need or the serices o a mature,
ar-sighted and respected leader, in its endeaours to bring an end to the Iran-
Iraq war, turned to \our Lxcellency. 1he eorts being made by you to ulil
this highly sensitie and onerous task are well recognised and appreciated by
the entire Muslim world.

It is a matter o great concern that despite your personal initiaties and the
combined eorts o the Ummah Peace Committee the war between Iran and
Iraq continues unabated. In act it has recently intensiied to an alarming
extent. loweer, the situation is not entirely hopeless. In my iew the Muslim
Umrnah should accept this new challenge, as intensiication o the war has
highlighted more than eer beore the urgency or peace. I hope that under
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

your leadership renewed eorts would he undertaken at an early date to bring
an end to this ratricidal conlict.

Dear Brother,
Aghanistan is another issue o great concern to the Islamic world. \ou are
ully aware o the background to this problem and the present situation which
preails in that country. Lorts which hae been going on or the last six
years to ind a political solution to this issue are now nearing ruition. \e are
hopeul that the Genea negotiations would lead to a comprehensie solution
o this issue and end the bloodshed through the withdrawal o oreign troops
and by creating conditions which will allow 3 million Aghan reugees in
Pakistan to return to their homes in saety and honour.
Like Aghanistan the situation in the Middle Last is also a cause o
great anguish not only to us but also to you and indeed to the entire Islamic
1he recent uprising in the occupied territory has demonstrated
beyond any doubt that a patriotic and courageous people cannot be
suppressed by brute orce. \e beliee that lasting peace in the Middle Last
can only be achieed i the PLO which is the sole representatie o the
Palestinian people is allowed to play its rightul role in the establishment o an
independent state, the legitimate rights o` the Palestinian people are accepted
and a policy o occupation through orce is abandoned.

Keeping in iew the time at our disposal I hae only touched upon a ew
important issues but would take this opportunity to once again welcome you
to Pakistan in the irm belie that your isit would bring the people o`
Gambia and Pakistan closer to each other by increasing collaboration in the
political, economic cultural and technical ields between our two countries.
\ith these words, ladies and gentlemen, I would request you to join
me in our heartelt prayers or:
- the long lie, health and happiness o our brother, President
Jawara and o Lady Chilel Juwara.
- the continued progress and prosperity o the Gambian people,
- the eerlasting riendship between the brotherly people o`
Gambia and Pakistan.

Long lie Pakistan-Gambia lriendship.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XV, Issue 3-4, March-April, 1988, pp. 12-18.

IPRI lactile 26

Islamabad, March 21, 1988

1he President o the Republic o Gambia, M-laji Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara,
expressed the hope that the Current Genea talks would lead to a successul
conclusion paing the way or withdrawal o the Soiet troops rom
Aghanistan to reliee Pakistan o the burden and worries that it was acing
due to this war.
President Jawara said that Pakistan was directly aected by the
Aghan war which was the outcome o Soiet interention in that country.
le said Pakistan had aced many diiculties and was under great
burden due to the presence o a large number o reugees on its soil who were
orced to seek shelter here. le lauded Pakistan`s consistent stand on the issue.
le said the eorts to end the war to enable the reugees to return to their
home were continuing which he hoped would proe successul.
1he isiting lead o the State was conident that the Soiet troops
would leae Aghanistan in a manner which would not cause any more
diiculties or Pakistan. le said the withdrawal would end the bloodshed in
Aghanistan and the country would be let in a good shape.

,Pa/i.tav 1ive. ,Islamabad,, 22 March 1988,, oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XV, Issue
3-4, March-April, 1988, p. 19.

AN0UET | N h0N0UR 0F h| 8 EX6ELLEN6Y
0F ThE REPUL| 6 0F 8U0AN

Noember 16, 1990

\our Lxcellency General Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Beshir,
President o the Republic o Sudan,
Distinguished members o the Sudanese Delegation,
Ladies and Gentlemen

It gies me great pleasure, on behal o the Goernment and the people o
Pakistan and on my own behal, to welcome most warmly in our midst l. L.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

General Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Beshir, the President o the Republic o
Sudan and the distinguished members o his delegation.

Mr. President,
It is a unique priilege or me to greet you today because this is the irst-eer
oicial bilateral isit to Pakistan by any lead o State or lead o
Goernment o Sudan. \our isit has proided us with the long awaited
opportunity to demonstrate the aection and high regard which the people o
Pakistan hae or you and or the brotherly people o Sudan. Our only regret,
and it is a proound one at that, is that your stay with us is going to be so

Mr. President
\ou are no stranger to Pakistan. \ou came here in 194 as a young Army
Oicer to attend the Inantry Commander`s Course in Quetta. Surely you are
well acquainted with Pakistan`s history, the nature and character o our
people, their hopes and aspirations or the unity and solidarity o the Islamic
Ummah and their warm sentiments or the brotherly people o Sudan. In a
world ull o changes, none o this has changed.

Mr. President,
1he ties between Pakistan and Sudan are ery close and o a raternal nature.
1hese are rooted in a common Islamic heritage and hence a shared ideology,
history and culture. 1hese ties hae been nourished and strengthened by the
sympathy and support extended by our two peoples and countries to each
other in deence o their ital national interests.

Mr. President,
Pakistan is grateul to Sudan or the consistent and strong support extended
by it to the cause o the Aghan people and or the restoration o the
independent and Islamic character o their country. \e are equally grateul to
Sudan or the principled and orthright stand adopted by it in aour o a
solution o the Kashmir problem in accordance with UN Resolutions. Such a
clear pronouncement by Sudan is undoubtedly cherished by the people o
Kashmir in their present hour o trial in the most aderse circumstances.
lor its part, Pakistan has always had a deep interest in the
preseration and consolidation o Sudan`s independence and territorial
integrity. \e commend the sincere and noble endeaours o President Ll-
Beshir and his Goernment to promote national reconciliation, unity and
cohesion. Pakistan condemns all external intererence aimed at suberting
Sudan`s unity because ultimately it is directed at weakening the entire Islamic

IPRI lactile 28
Mr. President,
1he peoples o Pakistan and Sudan share common interests and objecties in
aspiring or rapid economic and social deelopment and a peaceul external
enironment. Such a conergence proides the basis or our close
understanding and co-operation both on the bilateral as well as the
international plane.

Mt. President,
\e are conident that your isit will gie a new depth to the existing close
brotherly relations between Pakistan and Sudan. 1his would indeed be the
ulillment o the natural desire o our two countries and peoples.
May I now request you, Lxcellencies, ladies and gentlemen to join me
in oering a toast to the long lie, health and happiness o lis Lxcellency
General Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Beshir, President o the Republic o Sudan,.
- the health and happiness o all the distinguished members o the
Sudanese delegation,
- the progress and prosperity o the Republic o Sudan and the
well-being o its people, the strengthening and consolidation o
the raternal bonds between the peoples o Pakistan and Sudan.

Pakistan-Sudan lriendship Zindabad.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XVII, Issue 11-12, Noember-December 1990, pp. 1-3.

J0| NT PRE88 8TATEHENT | 88UE0 0N ThE 60N6LU8| 0N 0F
0FF| 6| AL V| 8| T T0 PAK| 8TAN Y ThE PRE8| 0ENT 0F 8U0AN

Noember 1, 1990

At the initation o the President o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan lis
Lxcellency Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, the President o the Republic o Sudan,
lis Lxcellency General Omer lassan Ahmed Ll-Bashir paid an oicial isit
to Pakistan on Noember 16-1, 1990. 1he President o the Republic o
Sudan was accorded a most warm and cordial welcome, beitting the leader o
a brotherly Muslim country bound to Pakistan by close ties o aith, culture
and history.
1he President o the Republic o Sudan was accompanied by a high
leel delegation which included l. L. Mr. Ali Ahmed Shaloul, Minister or
loreign Aairs, l. L. Mr. Abdel Rahim Mahmoud lamdi, Minister or
linance and Lconomic Planning, l. L. Dr. Awad Ahmed Al Jaz, Minister o
Commerce, Cooperation and Supply, l. L. Major General ,PSC, Osman
Mohamed Al lassan, Minister o State or Deence, l. L. Mr. Ahmed Abdul
lali, Adiser or Social Aairs, l. L. Mr. \ousi Saeed, Political Adiser to
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

the President. l. L. Mr. Al Sadeq Bakheit, Press Adiser to the President, l.
L. Mr. lassan Osman Rizig, Under Secretary, Ministry o \outh and Sports
and Mr. Salih Mashamoun, Acting Director Asia Department. Ministry o
loreign Aairs.
During his stay in Islamabad, President Omer Ll-Beshir had a
meeting with President Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan who hosted a dinner in his
honour. le also held talks with Prime Minister o Pakistan, lis Lxcellency
Mr. Nawaz Shari whom he congratulated on the assumption o the Oice o
the Prime Minister o the Islamic Republic Pakistan ollowing a air, ree and
impartial election. In these talks the Prime Minister was assisted, among
others, by l. L. Malik Mohammad Naeem Khan, Minister or Commerce, l.
L. Lt. Gen. ,Retd, Abdul Majid Malik, Minister or lood and Agriculture and
l. L. Sayed Ijlal laider Zaidi, Adiser to the Prime Minister on Deence,
Senator, Qazi lussain Ahmed and Senator Khurshid Ahmed.
1he talks between the leaders o the two countries were held in
atmosphere o cordiality and complete understanding. 1hey reiewed bilateral
relations and exchanged iews on regional and international issues o mutual
On bilateral relations, the two leaders reiterated their determination
to promote and strengthen them urther in dierent ields. It was to establish
a Joint Ministerial Commission in order to impart more depth and substance
to mutual co-operation in political, economic trade and cultural ields.
Lxisting bilateral Agreements in this regard will be reactiated.
President Omer Ll-Beshir apprised the Pakistani leaders o the
determined and sincere eorts o his Goernment to promote national unity
and cohesion in Sudan through dialogue and peaceul means. President
Ghularn Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Shari praised these
sagacious and constructie policies and reiterated Pakistan`s condemnation o
all oreign intererence in Sudan`s internal aairs.
1he Pakistani leaders apprised the President o Sudan o the
explosie situation in occupied Kashmir as a result o unabated Indian
repression against the people o Kashmir who are engaged in a heroic struggle
to secure their right o sel-determination. 1he two sides emphasised the
urgent need to ensure respect or the basic human right o the Kashmiri
people. 1hey urther reiterated their Goernment position that the problem
o Kashmir should be soled peaceully on the basis o the releant UN
Reiewing the situation in Aghanistan, the two leaders airmed their
belie that only the establishment o a truly representatie broad-based
goernment, without any oreign intererence could ensure the restoration o
peace and tranquility in that country and enable the millions o Aghan
reugees to return to their homeland. 1hey expressed their support or the
eorts o the Aghan people to that end.
IPRI lactile 30
1he two leaders expressed their proound concern at the continuing
grae crisis in the Gul. 1hey stressed the need or an early peaceul solution
o the crisis in the best interest o the Islamic Ummah.
1he two leaders also expressed their deep concern at the recent
intensiication o repression in occupied Palestine by Israel. 1hey urged
heightened igilance and concrete measures by the international community
to preent Israel rom exploiting the Gul crisis or indulging in urther
iolence and aggression against the Palestinian people. 1hey reiterated their
demand or a comprehensie settlement o the Middle Last problem on the
basis o Israeli withdrawal rom occupied territories and restoration o the
inalienable rights o the people o Palestine including their right to statehood.
1aking cognizance o the recent changes on the global scene and
their implications or Pakistan and Sudan, the two leaders expressed their
resole to impart more strength and itality to the Organisation o the Islamic
Conerence to saeguard and promote the ital interests o the Islamic
President Omer Ll-Beshir expressed his proound thanks or the
cordial and brotherly welcome accorded to him by the Goernment and the
people o Pakistan. le extended initations to 1heir Lxcellencies President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Shari to isit Sudan at
mutually conenient dates. 1he initations were accepted with pleasure.
1his Press Statement had been issued simultaneously in Islamabad
and Khartoum on 1th Noember, 1990.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XVII, Issue 11-12, Noember-December 1990, pp. 16-19.


Islamabad: August 16, 1996.

On August 16, loreign Minister o Niger Andre Saliou called on Chairman,
PARC at PARC headquarters and showed his keen interest in agricultural
research, modern arming and irrigation system.
le highlighted the problem o desertiication in Niger and pointed
out cultural inhibition in deeloping o underground water resources in his
country. le wished to incorporate cooperation in agricultural research
training and sharing o Pakistani expertise in the proposed Joint Ministerial
Committee likely to be constituted in near uture.
Larlier Dr C M Anwar Khan Chairman PARC welcomed the
distinguished loreign Minister o Niger and brieed about the institutional
networking, national & international cooperation the richness o scientiic
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

talents in all sub sectors o agriculture, ivter atia, Crops, Natural Resources,
Liestock Social Sciences and Agricultural Communication.
le shared the latest experience o technology transer to small
armers through PARC`s innoatie model, popularly called PARL ,Pilot
Area Real Lie,, whereby rural communities are being organised and
proessional scientists interace along with acilitating the aailability o new
technologies and inputs. 1he Chairman introduced a strong programme
enisaged in the Pakistan Agriculture Serices Academy and its 1raining
Institute, whereby, riendly countries o OlC can take ull adantage o
upgrading the skills and imparting speciic training through well structured
courses at relatiely low cost compared the western institutes.
Andre Saliou was pleased to learn that quite many scientists o
PARC hae had higher education in lrench and isiting scientists,managers
rom Niger shall hae no diiculty in sharing Pakistani knowledge and
In line with the policy o the Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, already
elaborated in the OIC Contact Group conerence, the Chairman, PARC
assured all possible scientiic and technical support to institutionalize and
strengthen the agricultural research and modern arming in Niger. Mr. Saliou
admired the integrated and networking approach o the PARC and einced
keen interest in deeloping close collaboration between Niger and PARC. le
indicated that he would ensure that these areas are incorporated while
identiying the areas o cooperation or Joint Ministerial Commission o
Pakistan and Niger.
,Source: A press release o PARC,.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIII, Issue 8, August 1996, pp. 215-216.

8TATE V| 8| T Y PRE8| 0ENT FAR000 AhHE0 KhAN
LEChAR| T0 UCAN0A (10-13 8EPTEHER 199}

President larooq Ahmed Khan Leghari paid a State isit to Uganda rom
September 10-13. le was accompanied by seeral senior oicials and leading
businessmen o the country. 1he President`s welcome in Uganda was
exceptionally warm and spontaneous.

I. Bilateral 1alks
On September 11, President larooq Ahmed Leghari and President \oweri
Kaguta Museeni o Uganda held ormal talks ocusing on important regional
and international issues including the grae situation in Indian-held Kashmir
which threatens peace and security in South Asia.
1he main thrust o the high-leel talks during the irst isit to
Pakistan`s lead o State to Uganda was on economic cooperation or which
IPRI lactile 32
prospects hae improed greatly in the wake o political stability and ar-
reaching economic reorms in both countries and the reial o Last Arica
Lconomic Unity.
President Leghari brieed the Ugandan President on the latest
deelopments in Occupied Kashmir as well as other issues o regional and
international importance.
1he Goernment o Pakistan promised to assist and acilitate priate
sector initiatie through credit acilities or industrial projects, especially in the
building o cement and sugar plants, support o light engineering equipment
and in the setting up o textile industries.
On regional issues, the two Presidents stressed that peace and
stability were corner stone or economic deelopment and called upon all
actors in the Arican region to support eorts designed to promote peace and
stability. 1he two Presidents expressed their satisaction oer recent moes
towards regional integration among Last Arican states and appreciated
progress made by COMLSA in promoting inter Arican trade.
1he two leaders discussed questions relating to peace and security in
South Asia Region. In this context, the President o Pakistan brieed the
President o Uganda on situation in Jammu and Kashmir. 1he President o
Uganda expressed his ardent hope that a peaceul political solution could be
ound to the conlict.
1he two Presidents in a warm and cordial atmosphere exchanged
iews on a wide range o bilateral, regional and international issues o
common concern and interested.
President Leghari commended the NRM Goernment or its
achieements in the economic deelopment o Uganda and or restoring
peace and democracy in the country. On his part President Museeni
applauded the incumbent goernment o Pakistan or its achieements in
bringing about rapid industrialisation and promoting peace and unity in the
le spoke o the riendly ties and cooperation that exist between the
two countries.
le reerred to the isit o Uganda Vice-President to Pakistan in
March this year and said she had talks with Pakistani leaders on ways and
means o urther expanding trade and industrial cooperation between the two
President Leghari said his isit underlines the desire o Pakistan to
inigorate the traditionally riendly ties with Uganda both o whom are
members o the Commonwealth and Islamic Conerence.
President \oweri Kaguta Museeni o Uganda said that Pakistan and
Uganda were ery close riends enjoying strong bilateral relations`.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

II. Press 1alk
Ater ormal talks with President o Uganda \oweri Kaguta Museeni,
President Leghari told newsmen that he had told Indian leaders during his
isit to New Delhi last year or SAARC Summit to resole the Kashmir issue
peaceully. \e cannot aord an arms race in our region in missiles as both
Pakistan and India hae capability to do that,` he stressed.
Meanwhile, Pakistan oered to train armed orces personnel o
Uganda and also to sell its deence equipment including the Mashak`, light
trainer aircrat.
President larooq Leghari said this while talking to newsmen ater
talks with President \oweri Kaguta Museeni at Uganda International
Conerence Centre here. President Museeni was also present on the
occasion. Pakistan had earlier trained some personnel o Uganda armed
le inited President Museeni to isit to Pakistan during the Islamic
Summit to be held in Islamabad on March 23 199 on the occasion o
Golden Jubilee Celebrations o Pakistan`s Independence or at a time
conenient to him.
President larooq Leghari while expressing satisaction on the talks
said that there are many areas in which experts o both sides can sit and
identiy cooperation in human resources deelopment, inrastructure
deelopment and agricultural research. Pakistan can assist Uganda in
cultiation o mangoes and citrus ruits.
le said both countries hae common history and hae struggled
against colonialism. Both countries since achieing independence strie or
progress o their people, he added and said Pakistan beliees that the 1hird
\orld countries were being discriminated and calls or economic reedom
and leel playing ield as it was necessary or an eectie cooperation.
1he President said, \e wish quantum jump in our economic ties
and meaningul research.` During the isit o Uganda Vice-President and
later the Agriculture Minister to Pakistan, the two sides identiied some areas
or cooperation which are being ollowed up.
le said there was scope or cooperation between the two countries
in arming which is in priate sector in Pakistan. le said there has been
massie priate sector inestment in Pakistan in last two and a hal years. le
elt there was good scope or cooperation between the priate sector o both
countries. Pakistani priate sector`s representaties who were accompanying
the President held separate talks with their counterparts in this connection.
Later, the two Presidents let by road on one-day isit to Mweya Saari lodge.

Signing of Agreements
Ater extensie talks between the two Presidents and among oicials and the
IPRI lactile 34
priate sector, ollowing agreements were signed on September 13:

i, A 1reaty on Bilateral Lconomic and 1echnical Cooperation.
ii, Memorandum o Understanding to establish a Business lorum.
iii, Agreement on Cooperation between the respectie Chambers o
Commerce and Industry.
i, Lxchange o Instruments o Ratiication or an Agreement o
Cultural Cooperation.
A comprehensie document o Agreed Minutes spelled out details o
uture cooperation which ocuses on the ollowing:
a, Lxchange o expertise in agricultural research, ruit arming and
ood processing.
b, Proision o technical assistance and manpower by Pakistan in
the ields o education, especially ocational training, health and
human resource deelopment.
c, 1he two sides agreed to explore possibilities o joint entures in
the pharmaceutical industry, assembly o tractors and motor
ehicles, auto spare parts and light engineering industries.
d, Lxtensie steps were announced to promote trade ocusing on
exhibitions and establishment o ware-houses by Pakistan in
e, Pakistan agreed to transer appropriate technology to Uganda in
small scale industries, agro-processing, leather and metal
, Pakistan promised to consider aourably requests or
placements and scholarship or Ugandan students.

Answering question from the local newsmen after signing of
agreements at the Uganda International Conerence Centre, the President
said that India had already exploded nuclear deice and posed serious threat
to Pakistan`s security.
le said that Pakistan had bitter experience o Indian armed might
because India had dismembered Pakistan into two creating Bangladesh
through the brute orce o its army which is seen times bigger than that o
le said although Pakistan was capable to produce nuclear deices it
has not done so nor intended to do so. \e hae a peaceul nuclear
programme and did not beliee in production o weapons o mass
1o a question President larooq Leghari said Pakistan would not sign
the Comprehensie 1est Ban 1reaty ,C1B1, unless India does. Pakistan
played important role in Non-prolieration o nuclear weapons and the C1B1
but it wanted that all the countries o the world should sign it and there
should be no exceptions.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

le categorically denied that there were training camps operating in
Pakistan to impart training to reedom ighters and stated that it did not
beliee in interering in the internal aairs o other countries.
\e want a peaceul solution o Kashmir and in this regard we are
pursuing all peaceul means and orums or the early and peaceul resolution
o one o the oldest issues on UN agenda,` he said.
President larooq Leghari told a questioner that Pakistan wished
peace should return to Aghanistan, a brotherly neighbouring country where
existed no central Goernment, but seeral groups and warlords were ruling
that country. le said that eery group in the beleaguered country wants
Pakistan to help it but we hae clearly told them that Pakistan would not be a
party in their internal ighting.
le said that Pakistan resolutely supported the people o Aghanistan
when Soiet Union inaded in 199 and the people resisted this oreign
aggression tooth and nail and inally orced the super power or an
ignominious retreat which inally resulted in the disintegration o Soiet
le said that Pakistan has played host to more than three million
Aghan reugees o which 1.6 million are still enjoying Pakistan`s hospitality.
\e want them to go back home honourably relieing Pakistan o the great
economic burden it is going through or eeding the brotherly people.
le said Pakistan supports UN eorts or bringing peace in
Aghanistan and is ready to work with other countries o the world.
During his stay in Uganda, President Leghari isited Sembule Steel
Mills, Mukwano Soap lactory and Ntinda lish lactory. le also took an
upcountry trip to Mweya Saari Lodge. President larooq Leghari thanked
President Museeni, the Goernment and the people o Uganda or the
welcome and warm hospitality accorded to him and to members o his
delegation during their stay in the country.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIII, Issue 9, September 1996, pp. 3-8.

TEXT 0F ThE J0| NT 60HHUN| 0UE | 88UE0 AT EN0 0F
PRE8| 0ENT FAR000 AhHA0 LEChAR| ' 8 8TATE V| 8| T T0
UCAN0A (10-13 8EPTEHER, 199}

1. At the initation o lis Lxcellency \oweri Kaguta Museeni,
President o the Republic` o Uganda, lis Lxcellency larooq Ahmad Leghari,
President o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan, paid a state isit to Uganda
rom 10 to 13 September, 1996. President Leghari was accompanied by his
wie and by seeral Ministers and high ranking goernment oicials.
2. During his stay in Uganda, President Leghari isited Sembule Steel
IPRI lactile 36
Mills, Mukwano Soap lactory and Ntinda lish lactory. le also took an
upcountry trip to Mweya Saari Lodge.
3. In a warm and cordial atmosphere, the two Presidents exchanged
iews on a wide range o bilateral, regional and international issues o
common concern and interest.
4. President Leghari commended the NRM goernment or its
achieements in the economic deelopment o Uganda and or restoring
peace and democracy in the country. On his part, President Museeni
applauded the current goernment o Pakistan or its achieement in brining
about rapid industrialization and promoting peace and unity in the country.
5. 1he two Presidents expressed satisaction with the existing relations
between the two countries and airmed their determination to urther
strengthen this relationship by expanding cooperation in all possible ields or
mutual adantage. President Museeni welcomed the recent opening o a
resident Diplomatic Mission in Uganda by Pakistan as well as a proposal to
hold an exhibition o Pakistan goods in Kampala beore the end o this year.
6. In urtherance o these objecties, the two Presidents agreed to
support cooperation in agricultural research, ruit arming and ood
. 1he two Presidents witnessed the signing o an agreement o
economic and technical cooperation as well as the exchange o instruments o
ratiication or an agreement o cultural cooperation between countries.
8. 1he Goernment o Pakistan promised to assist and acilitate priate
sector initiaties through credit acilities or industrial projects, especially in
the building o cement and sugar plants, the supply o light engineering
equipment and in the setting up o textile industries.
9. On regional issues, the two President stressed that peace and stability
were the corner stone or economic deelopment and called actors in the
Arican region to support eorts designed to promote peace stability.
10. 1he two Presidents expressed their satisaction oer recent moes
towards regional integration among Last Arican states and appreciated
progress made by COMLSA in promoting inter-Arican trade.
11. 1he two leaders discussed questions relating to peace and security in
the South Asian region. In this context, the President o Pakistan brieed the
President o Uganda on the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. President o
Uganda expressed his ardent hope that a peaceul solution could be ound to
the conlict.
12. lis Lxcellency President larooq Ahmad Khan Leghari thanked
President Museeni, the goernment and the people o Uganda or the
welcome and warm hospitality accorded to him and to members o his
delegation during their stay in the country.
13. President Leghari extended an initation to President Museeni to
pay a return isit to Pakistan. President Museeni gladly accepted. 1he dates
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

will be determined through diplomatic channels.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIII, Issue 9, September 1996, pp. 280-281.

V| 8| T 0F 80UTh AFR| 6AN F0RE| CN H| N| 8TER T0 PAK| 8TAN
0N 11-14 JUNE, 1997

Mr. Alred B. Nzo, loreign Minister o South Arica paid a our-day oicial
isit to Pakistan rom 11 - 14 June, 199. It was the irst bilateral isit at the
loreign Minister`s leel rom South Arica since Nelson Mandela came into
power in May, 1994.
1here is a great potential or deelopment o bilateral relations in the
ields o Lconomy, Commerce, Deence Lquipment and Deelopment o
Mineral Resources. Mr. Nzo signed a Declaration o Intent on Inter State
Relations and a Letter o Intent on Cooperation in the lields o Arts &
Culture during his stay. le also held bilateral talks with the loreign Minister
and paid courtesy calls on the President, the Prime Minister and Minister o
Commerce. le also addressed a select gathering o opinion makers at the
Institute o Strategic Studies Islamabad on 13 June, 199.

I. Call on President
1alking to South Arican loreign Minister Alerd B Nzo, who called on him
at the Aiwan-e-Sadar, President larooq Ahmed Khan Leghari said: \e want
tension ree and good neighborly relations with India. But this could only be
possible i the core issue o Kashmir, which bedeiled relations between the
two countries, is resoled in a peaceul manner and in accordance with the
UN Security Council resolutions and the wishes o the people o Jammu and
1he President expressed concern oer the deployment o Prithi
missiles by India and said: 1he Indian action would trigger an arms race in
the region.` le also talked about massie human rights iolations being
committed by the Indian security orces in occupied Kashmir.
Commenting on Aghanistan, President Leghari emphasised
Pakistan`s strong commitment to peace and stability in that country. le said
Pakistan supports peace eorts under the UN umbrella and the OIC based
on participation o all the parties concerned.
1he President stressed the need or expansion o trade and economic
relations between the Pakistan and South Arica.
le said Pakistan was a major window o opportunity to the resource
rich Central Asian countries and inited entrepreneurs rom South Arica to
take adantage o the enormous potential, which the region oered, through
joint entures with Pakistan.
Mr. Alred B Nzo expressed the hope that exchange o isits would
IPRI lactile 38
strengthen relations between the two countries.
le said South Arica wanted Pakistan and India to resole their
issues through peaceul manners.

II. Call on Prime Minister
On June 12, the isiting oreign minister called on Prime Minister
Muhammad Nawaz Shari at the Prime Minister`s louse.
During the meeting they exchanged iews on matters o mutual
interests, with special reerence to expansion o economic relations, between
the two countries.
1he Prime Minister underlined the need or enhancing bilateral
cooperation in economic and commercial ields and called or more requent
exchange o isits o the businessmen and entrepreneur o Pakistan and
South Arica.
1he Prime Minister described the South Arican President Nelson
Mendala as a great champion o reedom and democracy.
le also lauded his role during the reedom struggle. 1he Prime
Minister said that he was eagerly looking orward to President Mandela`s isit
to Pakistan.
1he Prime Minister also brieed the oreign minister o South Arica
on the policies and priorities adopted by his goernment, or the welare o
the people and the country.
South Arican loreign Minister coneyed the greetings o President
Mendala to the Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Shari.

III. Call on Minister for Commerce
Later the isiting delegation rom South Arica, headed by its oreign minister,
Alred B Nzo, called on minister or commerce and industries, Muhammad
Ishaq Dar, and discussed matters relating to the expansion o trade and
inestment relations between the two counties.
Mr. Dar apprised the South Arican oreign minister o the
tremendous scope or the promotion o business relations between the two
countries, particularly in the priate sector. I hae no doubt that the
quantum o bilateral trade will increase substantially proided we encourage
requent exchange o trade delegations,` he said.
1he isiting oreign minister assured to extend maximum acilities to
the Pakistani business community to bring the priate sectors o both the
countries together or the promotion o trade.
1he ligh Commissioner o South Arica to Pakistan, the secretary
or commerce, and senior oicials o the ministry o oreign aairs were also
present on the occasion.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

IV. Signing of Agreements
1wo agreements to deelop relations between the oreign ministries o
Pakistan and South Arica and enhance bilateral cooperation in the ields o
arts and culture were also signed during the isit. loreign Minister Gohar
Ayub Khan and his South Arican counterpart signed the agreements or and
on behal o their countries.

V. Press Conference
Addressing a press conerence at the loreign Oice on June 12, on
conclusion o his isit South Arican loreign Minister Alred B. Nzo said his
country supports resolution o Kashmir issue in line with the United Nations
le said. we support these resolutions aimed at resoling the
Kashmir issue.` loweer, he stressed the need or dialogue between Pakistan
and India to resole all problems, including Kashmir.
le said during the talks, they coered a wide range o areas to
increase trade and other relations and said there was ast potential to increase
trade. le emphasised the need or encouraging the priate sector o the two
1he South Arican loreign Minister said President Nelson Mandela
will be isiting Pakistan or which dates would be worked out. le extended
his country`s support to Pakistan to become a member o Indian Ocean Rim.
\e can say saely that the relations between Pakistan and South
Arica are growing and there is still much potential or them to grow.`
le said the bilateral trade between the two countries stood at 130
million US dollars last year which was ery low in 1992.
le said he had also discussed working o Non-Aligned Moement
and possibility o increase in the permanent members o UN Security
About cooperation between Pretoria and Islamabad in deence ield,
he said: I am taking certain requests to South Arica in this regard.` le said
Pretoria has set up a cabinet committee which look into such cases.
le said Pretoria has linked arms sale with the situation o human
rights in that country.
loreign Minister Gohar Ayub, also present at the press conerence,
said during the talks Pakistan identiied tremendous potential o South
Arican inestment in Pakistan through participation in priatization o
arious projects as well as new inestments. 1hey also exchanged iews on
cooperation in deence industries and Pakistan requested or PIA lights to
le said he brieed his counterpart about the ongoing talks with lndia
to resole the core issue o Kashmir. le expressed the hope that Pretoria
IPRI lactile 40
would support Islamabad`s inclusion into Association o Indian Ocean Rim.
le said South Arican President Nelson Mandela`s isit would
urther strengthen the bilateral relations between the two countries. \e were
amongst the irst countries which recognized South Arica.`, the loreign
Minister remarked.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIV, Issue 6, June 199, pp. 145-149.

EX6ERPT8 FR0H AN | NTERV| Ew 0F h. E. HR. . K. K| 8| LU,
h| Ch 60HH| 88| 0NER 0F KENYA T0 7hE hA7l 0h, A8
APPEARE0 | N ThE 0A| LY 0N 28 JUNE 1997

lis Lxcellency Mr. B.K. Kisilu, the ligh Commissioner o Kenya gae a
detailed interiew to 1be ^atiov. Mr. Kisililu has been in Pakistan or the last
two and hal years. le inds Pakistan a country with rich heritage and hence a
lot o business opportunities. lere are some extracts rom his interiew:

Q: Please elaborate Pakistan and Kenya's bilateral relations?
A: Let`s go back to time beore Kenya became an independent state, both
Kenya and Pakistan are ormer British colonies and in this sense, share a
common history. 1here are a number o areas where Pakistan and Kenya are
assisting each other. A number o the oicers, belonging to our Nay, Air
lorce and the Army hae been trained in Pakistani institutions. 1here are
seeral Kenyan students who are studying in Pakistani colleges and
uniersities. Some o them are studying medicine program. Under the aegis o
this program, Pakistan oers eery year three scholarships to the Kenyan
students - one or medicine, the other or engineering ava the third one or
pharmacy. 1he beneiciaries are interiewed in Nairobi by the Ministry o
Lducation. Ater the interiews those qualiied are awarded these scholarships
or their ields identiied earlier.

Q: What are the trade prospects between the two countries?
A: Kenya and Pakistan hae cordial trade relations. \e are an agricultural
country. \e do not hae a lot o mineral resources. But een then we do hae
some signiicant areas o exports and imports.
In 1993-94 Pakistan exported to Kenya goods and serices worth
US>1 9.8 million while in 1994-95 the alue o the goods and serices went
up to US>2.11 million. Likewise, Kenya exported to Pakistan, goods and
serices worth US>4 million and 90.96 million respectiely. Although the
balance o trade was in aour o Kenya there was howeer a substantial
increase in Pakistan`s exports to Kenya.
1his happened because I paid requent isits to Pakistan Chamber o
Commerce and Industry and coninced them to isit Kenya and market their
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

products. 1his trade is likely to increase because Pakistan had held a solo
country exhibition in Nairobi in July 1996 and on the spot, sales o US>1
million were realized. Orders o worth US> 5.5 million were placed and I am
sure they hae been executed. More exhibitions o this nature are need o the
hour. Certainly the trade relations will get a boom once this practice becomes
a routine. 1his should be augmented by requent and continued trade
delegations rom both sides.
1he main exports o Kenya are coee, tea, pyrethrum, horticultural
products ,ruits, egetables and cut lowers, sisal, meat, maize, hides and
skins, gum and wattle bark extract. In the mineral area, Kenya exports soda
ash, limestone, cement, lead, siler, luospar ore and arious other precious
and semi-precious metals.
Kenya`s main imports are crude oil, ood and beerages, tobacco,
lubricants, chemicals, egetable oils and ats, rice, textiles, leather products,
iron and steel, paper, products ehicles etc. 1he country needs heay
machinery like ertilizer and cement plants, sugar mills, heay machinery or
inrastructural deelopment, agricultural tractors and pharmaceuticals, marble,
hospital equipment. It also needs sanitary ittings, surgical instruments as well
as sporting goods.
I think there should be an exchange o trade delegations, because the
Pakistani entrepreneurs should isit their counterparts in Kenya and embark
on joint business entures by opening branches o their companies.
Lntrepreneurs are also allowed to establish a 100 per cent oreign unded
companies or businesses.

Q: What is Kenya's stance on Kashmir and Afghanistan?
A: No doubt Kashmir and Aghanistan continue to be the hot spots o a
world. Kenya has ery crucial role to play in the United Nations, specially
ater becoming the member o the UN Security Council last year. Kenya has
been contributing its troops to arious UN peace keeping missions. \e
participated in Namibia, Mozambique, \ugoslaia etc.
It is a good sign that Pakistan and India hae decided to hold oreign
secretary leel talks. \e hope these talks would be ollowed by talks at the
loreign Minister`s leel. It is hoped that ultimately the Prime Ministers o the
both the countries would sit on the negotiating table and work out the
solution o the Kashmir conlict, which continues to pose threat to regional
stability. Kenya appreciates the UN resolutions on Kashmir.
In Aghanistan a lot o blood has been let out unnecessarily. \arring
sections should stop war or political settlement o the problem. 1he UN
eorts should be gien a chance or a broad-based goernment in the
country. 1hen one can hope that thereater, the goodwill o the international
community will preail to bring about meaningul rehabilitation and
construction in the country.
IPRI lactile 42
\e in Kenya do understand how war plays haoc with the nations.
\e hae been witnessing strie in our neighbourhood or quite a long time.
1here is turmoil in Somalia, Lthiopia, Sudan and in Uganda. 1he only
exception was 1anzania. Owing to instability in these countries there was
huge inlux o reugees in Kenya and we can say we were in the same position
as Pakistan as regards the reugees` problem is concerned.

Q: Is there any scope for foreign Investment In Kenya?
A: Kenya has enjoyed political stability since its independence which is a .ive
qva vov or healthy inestment actiities. Kenya is primarily an agricultural
country. Agriculture contributes 30 per cent o GDP and almost 80 per cent
o employment in the rural areas. It urther contributes 52 per cent to the
manuacturing sector and 60 per cent o the country`s exports.
1he goernment encourages inestment by creating a climate o ree
enterprise. Recently, the goernment introduced signiicant economic reorms
to accelerate economic growth and increase external trade. It has remoed
regulatory constraints in trade, pricing and exchange controls. It has created
arious incenties or both local and oreign inestments e.g. oreign
participation in telecommunication, distribution, transport and mining.
- Lxemption o taxes in all export processing zones and or those
manuacturing under bond.
- Allowing o 100 per cent oreign inestment o joint entures or
branches o existing companies elsewhere.

Kenya is the gateway to Arica. 1here is also a ariety o commercial
banks, local, USA, Luropean, Asian with countrywide network o branches.
1here are also numerous inancial institutions, building societies and
insurance companies. 1he country has a pool o skilled labour orce and a
relatiely large and growing consumer market or inestment purposes. 1he
labour orce o all types is approximately 10 million o which about 1.2
million is to be ound in the inormal sector. Kenya since 1990 embarked on
reorms. In this program, the country was to priatize all its 20 state
corporations except 33 corporations which all under the category o
strategic corporations`.

Q: What is the contribution of tourism industry to your economy?
A: 1his is the largest source o oreign exchange or Kenya. In 1994
tourism earned Kenya US> 450 million and plans put in place were to make
the country earn US> 40 in 1996. 1ourism attraction in Kenya includes: 15
national parks spread throughout the country, 23 game reseres, beautiul
white sand beaches and attractie sceneries as one climbs rom Mombasa at
5 eet aboe sea leel through Nairobi at 5,500 eet aboe sea leel and to
top o Mt Kenya at oer 1,000 eet and across the great Arican Rit Valley
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

to Kisumu at the shores o lake Victoria.
1here is still room or improement and there are deinite plans to
improe energy, water, security and communications or enhanced tourism.
lunting still stands banned since 19.

Q: What is Kenya's education system?
A: 1he system we hae us called the 8-4-4 system
Primary 8 years
Secondary 4 years
ligh School 2 \ears
Uniersity 2 years ,minimum or basic degree,
1otal 16 years

Proessional courses take longer periods. 1here are technical
institutes or crat certiicates and institutes o technology or technician
certiicates. 1hen the Polytechnics or national and higher diplomas and then
uniersities or technology degrees.
1here are numerous tertiary institutions or training secondary school
leels as diploma teachers clinical,nursing oicers agricultural range and
eterinary assistants, water and horticultural production managers etc.
1he literacy rate in Kenya is now oer 0 percent and it is hoped that
will be 80 per cent ater ew years. \e spend 33 per cent o our total budget
recurrent on education.

Q: What is your political system?
A: Kenya has remained a democratic country since its independence on 12th
December 1963. It has held general election as due since that time. 1he
country runs a presidential system o parliamentary elections. 1he President is
elected on a countryside ranchise. 1he members o parliament are elected by
their constituents while the members o the local authorities ,councilors, are
elected by people. lrom 1963 till today Kenya has had only two presidents.
1he irst president ruled the country or 15 years and the incumbent president
is in the oice since 198.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIV, Issue , July 199, pp. 101-105.

h. E. HR. EL RA8hEE0 Kh| 0AR, AHA88A00R 0F 8U0AN
w| Th 7hE hA7l 0h, A8 APPEARE0 | N ThE 0A| LY 0N
4 N0VEHER 1997

Peace Process in Sudan
Peace process in Sudan is on. But when we talk about peace process, we
IPRI lactile 44
actually mean the Southern part o Sudan which had been in grip o turmoil.
1he Southern part o Sudan has a number o un-tapped resources. Now it is a
serious concern o the Sudan goernment to deelop them.
\e are ery well aware o the act that peace is a .ive qva vov or
progress. 1he Sudan goernment, or last 8 years, has done a lot to bring
peace through talks. It is hoped that these talks would pay diidends.
Another round o peace talks is in progress and this time eery one is
ery optimistic, the atmosphere is serious and thereore one may presume
that something will come out o these parleys. 1he Luropean Union has also
stepped in, and has determined to help resole the Sudan crisis. 1his is
certainly an encouraging deelopment and it has kindled the hope o return o
peace to Sudan.
In a nutshell, we may orecast an early and durable peace to Sudan.

Islamic Orientation in Sudan
Islamic orientation in Sudan has taken great strides. lor us Islam is a way o
lie. \e are trying to mould our lies in accordance with the Islamic
injunctions. \e had already implemented the Shariah. \e are not applying
Shariah in those areas where Muslims are not in majority. \e hae been
democratic in this sense that we do gie the chance to the majority to adopt
whateer rule they would like.
In the Southern part o Sudan, the Islamic laws hae not been
applied. \e are endeaoring to make our people adhere to the Islamic laws.
1he problem which has been a main hurdle to this eect, is the illiterate
sector. 1hough they are good Muslims but they need to be taught about their
own religion.
Along with Islamic orientation process in Sudan the process o
strengthening o economic system is also on the cards. \e hae streamlined
our banking sector and by this time, I am sure that our banks are transacting
ully in consonance with the Islamic principles. \e are making desperate
eorts to make our banking system een better. Lliminating Riba` is our
oremost priority.

Bilateral Relations
No doubt, Pak-Sudan bilateral relations are rom cordial to excellent at all
leels. Both the countries had been making strenuous eorts to urther
cement these relations.
Obiously, there are certain ields in which enhanced cooperation is
needed. Our economic and trade relations are not up to the mark. Some
concerted eorts are a pre-requisite to improe the same. I think, both sides
should eince interest in each other`s projects and try to cash in on the
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

1here should be exchange o trade delegations between the two
1he existing trade olume between Pakistan and Sudan is
unsatisactory. \e are aspiring to increase the same 1he tours o the
entrepreneurs must be encouraged on regular basis. Sudan`s inestment
climate is ery conducie to the businessmen. 1hereore Pakistani inestors
should go to Sudan and explore business aenues.
Both Pakistan and Sudan are adopting policy o priatization. It has
proided the priate sector an ample chance, to come orward and show their
muscles. 1he role o the priate sector now is becoming more signiicant. I a
working relationship is created between the Pakistan and Sudanese
businessmen the trade olume can be uplited.
1he business prospects or the Pakistani inestors are ery bright in
Sudan. As a matter o act, there are Pakistanis, doing business in Sudan, but
to a airly limited extent.
Sudan has an economy mainly based on agriculture. 1here can be an
enormous inestment in this ield. 1he goernment o Sudan has a ery ast
area. 1hereore, arming might by another lucratie thing to do. \e hae an
agricultural inestment law and as well as an industrial inestment law, which
ensure precise acilities to the businessmen.
Pakistan is producer o quality agricultural equipment. So the
Pakistani businessmen can cater their equipment to Sudan.
1he mining is also getting momentum in Sudan. Sudan is a country,
gited with plethora o mineral resources including gold. 1he mining is a new
ield and productiity o gold in Sudan has increased to great proportions.
Sudan`s oil sector is also ery important. And in the near uture
Sudan will start exporting oil to other countries. 1hus, the deelopment o
this sector is also goernment`s top priority. 1he oreign inestors can be a
partner o their Sudanese counterparts in this enterprise.

Sudan is a large country and has many eatures o tourism. But unortunately
the tourism is not a deeloped sector, because the inrastructure or tourism
had not been taken care o. 1hereore, the contribution o tourism to our
economy is not substantial.
1he Southern part o Sudan is replete with tourist resorts. But
unortunately the war did not allow us to deelop this part.
\e hae a ery deep port o the red Sea. It has ery clean water and
some enchanting scenes, which are a center o attraction or the tourists.
Sudan is a country, blessed with an old education system. 1he
number o educational institutions has been increased. \e hae
reolutionized our higher education. Our primary education used to be only
IPRI lactile 46
six years. Now we hae increased it to 8 years and we call it basic education.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIV, Issue 12, December 199, pp. 116-119.

AHA88A00R T0 PAK| 8TAN h. E. A| 88A 8EPER0JAL| w| Th
0A| LY PAKl 37Ah 083ERVER, 0N 8 N0VEHER 1997

1alking to daily Pa/i.tav Ob.errer, here in an exclusie interiew, the
Ambassador said as per the directie o President Liamine Zeroual complete
reedom, transparency and equity was ensured in the elections to proide
opportunity to the people to reely choose a new generation o political
leaders, truly representing their aspirations.
1he ruling National Democratic Rally ,NDR, headed by President
Zeroual secured three times as many seats o its nearest rial, the ormer
ruling party, the National Liberation lront in the recent local elections
considered as a concrete step in the building o the Algerian democratic
Asked about the spate o killings o innocent men, women and
children in Algeria, he said it was the terrorist guerrilla group which calls itsel
as Armed Islamic Group ,GIA, which was behind these dastardly acts o
terrorism. 1he real aim o such terrorist groups, he said, was to destabilize the
political system in the country by disrupting normal lie. le said the Islamic
Salation lront, which was banned by Algerian Supreme Court, has disowned
any responsibility or the merciless killings o innocent people. le said these
acts o iolence hae been condemned by Muslim religious diines including
Sh Baz, President latwa Commission, Dr 1antai, Chancellor o Al-Azhar o
Lgypt and Muti Kalkarou o Syria.
Ambassador Seperdjali said alse Islamic organizations were created
by the western countries, who did not want any Muslim country to emerge as
a strong and prosperous power. lence they were giing asylum to terrorist
elements and using them to create instability in Algeria.
le said the western countries wanted to impose a regime o what
they call moderate Islamic leaders who could be easily manipulated to suit
their own interests.
le said his country`s crisis with the west began when Algeria used to
take part in the coalition orces against Iraq in iew o spontaneous people`s
reaction in support o Iraq.
le also accused certain western news agencies o spreading enom
against Algerian by giing alse picture o the country`s political situation.
le also dispelled the impression created by the western biased media
about the Islamic Salation lront which contrary to their reports bagged only
a sizable number o seats in elections but did not emerge as single largest
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

le said the surrender o Algerian people beore terrorist groups and
their hidden partners was reused in a clear and unquestionable manner by
Algerian people through its massie participation ,5.9 per cent, in
presidential election and by expressing its oer-whelming choice in irst round
,61.34 per cent, or the candidate Liamine Zeroual, the country`s president
and now their massie erdict in the latest local elections held recently.
1alking about economy, he said Algeria has started a process o
reorms o the country`s economy in order to enable it to adopt to the
mechanism o world economy. le said in his recent statement that the
President o Algeria has underlined the necessity or national solidarity and
social justice or sharing equally the burden by all walks o lie.
1alking o Algeria-Pakistan relations the Algerian ambassador
described them as excellent. le said Algeria could neer orget the help gien
by Pakistan during its independence struggle. le recalled that Pakistan was
among the irst countries to recognize Algeria`s proisional goernment
during the independence war.
le said Algerian President Chadli Benjadid had played a historic role
in rapprochement between Pakistan and Bangladesh, during the OIC summit
held in Lahore in 194. le had sent his special plane to Dhaka to bring late
Sheikh Mujibur Rehman to Lahore, which marked the normalization o
relations between Bangladesh and Pakistan.
1o a question on Kashmir, he said Algeria supports the OIC eorts
to bring about an end to this long standing problem.
About Aghanistan, he commended the role being played by Pakistan
to sole the problem. Pakistan, he said, has paid a high price by proiding
succour to millions o Aghan reugees.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIV, Issue 12, December 199, pp. 120-122.

H| N| 8TER Y h. E. PR0FE880R ALZUA| R A8h| R TAhA,
8U0ANE8E H| N| 8TER 0F 86| EN6E AN0 TE6hN0L0CY,
| 8LAHAA0, 21 FERUARY 2002

l.L. Proessor Alzubair Bashir 1aha, Sudanese Minister o Science and
1echnology was receied by the President General Perez Musharra this
aternoon. le deliered a letter rom l.L. Mr. Omer lassan Ahmed Al-
Bashir, President o the Republic o Sudan addressed to President General
Perez Musharra. 1he letter lays emphasis on strengthening bilateral
relations. 1he President o Sudan has extended a cordial initation to
President General Perez Musharra to isit Sudan at a mutually conenient
dates. 1he President while accepting initation coneyed his best wishes to
IPRI lactile 48
the President o Sudan.
Later, Proessor Alzubair Bashir 1aha called on the loreign Minister.
1he loreign Minister and the isiting dignitary exchanged iews on the scope
o bilateral relations and agreed on the need to hold an early session o the
Pak-Sudan JMC which will gie new impetus to the relations between the two
1he loreign Minister gae details o the achieements and the
reorms carried out by the present goernment in the last two years. le also
explained Pakistan`s restructured road map to democracy and the need to
stabilize the political situation which is ital o the economic deelopment.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXIX, Issue 2-4, leb-Apr 2002, p. 245.

AN0 8U0AN F0R 600PERAT| 0N | N 8UCAR RE8EAR6h,
| 8LAHAA0, 23 APR| L 2003

Pakistan and Sudan agreed to cooperate in carrying out research or
enhancing production o sugar. A Memorandum o Understanding ,MOU,
was signed here at PARC headquarters between the two countries. Mr.
Mohamed Ll-Mahi, Managing Director, Kenana Sugar Company Limited
Sudan and Chairman, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council ,PARC, Dr.
Badaruddin Soomro were also present on the occasion.
Both the parties also discussed arious aspects o sugarcane which
includes, breeding, sugarcane physiology, crop management and precision
sugarcane arming, bio ertilizer technology integrated pest management
,IPM, o increase pest and rodent control o sugarcane and sugar beat crop,
tissue culture technology and human resources deelopment.
1he Sudanese delegation was on a special isit o Pakistan to attend
the conerence on inestment and to see research and deelopment o
sugarcane crop in Pakistan. Dr. Badaruddin Soomro, brieed the delegation
about sugarcane research and production in the country.
1he delegation was impressed to know latest inormation about
Pakistan and showed interest or cooperation in the ield o sugarcane
research and production. It was agreed that both the parties would acilitate
isits o experts,delegates or inormation exchange and proessional
1he MoU shall take eect rom the date o signing and remain
operatie or 5 years unless terminated by any one o the parties by giing
adance notice o 6 months. It was agreed that rom Pakistan, Dr.
Muhammad Ashra, Chie Scientiic Oicer Incharge ,Crop Science Diision,
and rom Sudan, Dr. Ibrahim Saied, Director Sugarcane Research, Kanana
Sugar Company Limited, respectiely will ordinate or the implementation o
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

this MoU.
Dr. Soomro, said that NARC hae a strong program on sugarcane
search and production. le said exchange o germplasm and arieties will play
a signiicant role or deelopment o sugarcane sector. le said Pakistan is
surplus in sugar.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue 3, Apr-15 May 2003, pp. 154-155.

PRE8| 0ENT' 8 A00RE88 T0 ThE U8| NE88HEN
| N ALC| ER8 0N 17 JULY 2003

Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a priilege indeed or me to be here in Algiers and to be addressing a
dynamic gathering o businessmen, inestors and goernment oicials dealing
with trade and inestment. 1his is the era o globalization and o rapid
changes in the world economic scene. I hope that this interaction o ours will
enable us to share our ideas on the prospects or our two countries and to
arrie at a ision that will boost our bilateral economic relations.
As you know, Pakistan has moed towards a ull ledged democratic
system o goernment. Pakistan is committed to democracy and our goal is to
build the system up rom the grass root leel. \e do this with the realization
that stability and security are a must or economic progress and deelopment.
Pakistan`s economy has demonstrated considerable resilience during
the past three years despite the inluence o external shocks. Our economic
perormance since the eents o September 11

has shown that oer the period
o the past ity years or so, our economy has deeloped strengths that enable
it to withstand diicult and oten unoreseen circumstances.
Our oreign exchange reseres hae crossed the ten billion dollar
mark. 1he stock market has shown positie indications with respect to
proitability, inlow o oreign unds, and market capitalization which stands
close to US> 9.3 billion in year 2003. 1he Karachi Stock Lxchange ,KSL, was
regarded as one o the best perorming markets in the world. Our exports are
expected to go beyond US> 10 billion this year with external debt reduced by
> 1 billion.
Pakistan was one o the irst post-colonial states to pursue economic
growth along the lines o the major capitalist economies o the world. 1here
hae been digressions along the way but i we look at the past ten years or so,
we can see that Pakistan has moed consistently towards giing the maximum
role to the priate sector as the prime engine o growth. As such we are
committed to the market-led economic model and to the most open trade
and inestment policies.
In the context o stabilization policies we hae substantially reduced
IPRI lactile 50
the iscal deicit and allowed the exchange rate to be determined by the ree
market mechanism. As structural reorms, we hae introduced tax reorms,
trade & tari reorms, inancial sector & capital market reorms, all o them
aimed at promoting deregulation, transparency in inancial operations, good
goernance, and poerty reduction at the grass root leel.
Currently, Pakistan is ollowing a ocused and highly strategized
policy o priatization. 1hose ollowing deelopments in our economy are
aware that while many important achieements hae been made so ar, the
goernment has taken care to ensure transparency throughout the process,
reorganizing the concerned establishments beore putting them up or sale to
the inestors. Pakistan`s ith largest bank has been priatized whereas
expressions o interest hae been inited or labib Bank, the country`s
oldest, ater reorganization or maximum proitability. Pakistan State Oil is
also being considered or priatization whereas seeral oreign inestors hae
expressed interest in Pakistan 1elecommunication Corporation including
those rom Lgypt and Saudi Arabia.
1he emphasis o the present goernment`s economic policies has
been on deregulating the economy and on encouraging oreign direct
inestment. As o today, all economic sectors are open to lDI ,loreign
Direct Inestment, where inestors rom abroad can hold een 100 equity.
\hile no goernment sanctions are required or inestment, a number o
incenties and acilitatory measures are in place or promoting inestment
actiity in Pakistan. 1hese include the network o industrial estates & export
processing zones, the payment o substantially reduced customs duty on
import o Plant & Machinery ,not manuactured locally,, the reduced ixed
liability o 0.5 income tax on annual turnoer in the case o exporting units,
and the ree remittances o royalty, technical & ranchise ee, etc. Added to
this is the one desk acilitation serice with which the Board o Inestment is
always ready, eager, and waiting or the existing and would be inestors.
\ith the aboe-mentioned incenties and acilitatory role the
Goernment o Pakistan can rightly claim to hae the second most open
economy in South Asia as most o the other countries in the region either do
not allow 100 ownership or require the inestors to obtain prior permission
o the goernment or inesting in their countries.
1here is great room or improement in our bilateral economic
relations. 1here hae been some barriers that may hae impeded us in the
past, be they geography, restrictie trade regimes or insuicient interaction
between our entrepreneurs. But these must be oercome so that our
economic ties can achiee their real potential in an age o liberalization and
decreasing trade restrictions. Some past initiaties need to be reied and
reinigorated. 1here are possibilities o Joint Venture collaboration between
the two countries in ertilizer industry, textiles, oil and gas, electricity and
water management, mining and telecommunications.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

1here is a need or exchange o public and priate sector delegations
rom both sides to discuss trade and joint enture possibilities.
Both Algeria and Pakistan are deeloping countries which oer the
past decade or so hae deeloped impressie expertise in the ields o
banking, and industry in particular in the setting up o textiles and cement
units. Algeria being a member o OPLC is one o the leading exporters o
hydrocarbons. Pakistan has recently signed an agreement with 1O1AL, a
lrench Oil Company, which proides or mutual cooperation in the
exploration o oil in the South Indus Delta. Algeria possesses the ith largest
gas reseres in the world. 1here must be greater interaction between our
businessmen and entrepreneurs in uture so that greater cooperation may be
orged in the energy iled.
Pakistan has eery opportunity or economic deelopment gien its
unique geostrategic situation. Bordering China in the north, India in the east
and Iran and Aghanistan in the west, Pakistan has historically sered as a
route rom Central Asia to South Asia. Its dierse terrain is endowed with a
rich network o riers and canals, the waters o which low ia the Indus rier
into the Arabian Sea ,in the south,. \ith the assistance o Chinese technical
expertise, we aim to deelop Gwadar into one o the most important seaports
in the world. Pakistan is also exploring oil and gas pipeline projects with
Central Asian states besides the possibility o rail and road links.
Algeria, part o North Arica but near to Lurope and the Middle Last
is also rich in strategic opportunities or deelopment. As brotherly Muslim
nations committed to a progressie uture, let us join hands to bring our two
regions close together so that aenues may be opened or greater trade and
economic cooperation.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 3-6.


14-1 July 2003

Algiers - Banquet Speech
President General Perez Musharra said the long-running Kashmir dispute
remained at the heart o Pakistan-India relations as Algeria called on the
international community to make a clear-cut distinction between terrorism
and liberation moements.
Speaking at a banquet, Algerian President Abdulaziz Boutelika
hosted in honour o his Pakistani counterpart, the two Presidents pledged
their continued support to the ight against terrorism.
Pakistan has been emphasizing the need or early resumption o a
IPRI lactile 52
comprehensie dialogue to address the Kashmir issue as it is the main
impediment to the deelopment o normal relations between the two
countries,` President Musharra said.
le recounted the number o conidence building measures
announced by Prime Minister Mir Zaarullah Khan Jamali to prepare ground
or a sustained and substantie dialogue to resole all outstanding issues
including the core Kashmir dispute.
President Musharra asked the international community to coney its
concerns oer the massie deployment o orces, inoled in a systematic
denial o the ery undamental human rights o Kashmiri people in the Indian
held alley.
President Boutetlika noted that the struggle against colonial
domination and oreign occupation is subject today to the same
misconception that aims at questioning a cardinal principle enshrined in the
UN charter - people`s legitimate right to sel-determination. It is indeed
important to make a clear-cut distinction between terrorist act that we must
irmly condemn, and the liberation struggle which represents or peoples the
last resort to recoer their legitimate rights.`
1he two leaders also airmed their support to the international
community to end scourge o terrorism, President Musharra said:
Pakistan is strongly opposed to all orms and maniestations o
terrorism, as we ourseles are a ictim o terrorism.`
le said Pakistan`s decision to support the international campaign
against this menace was based on principles and its national interests - to
saeguard Pakistan`s internal and external security and to ensure conditions
which are conducie to peace and prosperity o our nation.
1he President reiterated that Pakistan would remain committed to
cooperate with the international community including Algeria to ight the
threat o terrorism.
1he Algerian President said that while the worldwide ight against
terrorism was expanding, it was necessary to aoid any kind o conusion,
selectiity and discrimination when identiying acts to be condemned and
le stressed the resolute ight against terrorism be transparent and
impartial within the ramework o international legality`. It is particularly
signiicant to resist any temptation to associate such a phenomenon with a
region, a religion or gien ethnic group,` he added. On the Middle Last, the
two presidents urged the international community to intensiy eorts to orce
Israel withdraw rom all occupied Arab territories.
1hey agreed that the quartet`s road-map` might be a good starting
point. I the peace plan in the road map becomes a reality --- that would
open new opportunities or political relationships,` president Musharra said
but stressed its success largely depended on lsrael`s withdrawal rom occupied
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

lands and acceptance o Palestine as a soereign and iable state.
President Musharra also reairmed Pakistan`s keenness to deelop
riendly and cooperatie relations with Aghanistan on the principles o
mutual respect, soereignty and non-intererence and stated that Islamabad
has extended assistance and support to the administration o President lamid
Karzai to help achiee the goals o peace and prosperity or Aghanistan.
1he two leaders also noted with great concern the challenges acing
the Muslim Ummah in the backdrop o dramatic eents unolding in the
international arena and agreed on the need to reitalize the OlC to enable it
eectiely meet the challenges o contemporary times.
President Musharra and his Algerian counterpart also pledged to
build on the existing excellent ties between the two countries marked by
mutual understanding and aection.
1hey said the ties between Pakistan and Algeria hae been
strengthened by the support and sympathy extended to each other on eery
orum including the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Moement and the
Islamic Conerence. 1hey also agreed to enhance the economic ties between
their countries or the mutual beneit o their two people.

Meeting with Algerian Prime Minister
Meanwhile, during meetings with Algerian Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia,
Chairman Senate Bersele and Speaker National Assembly Karim \ounas who
separately called on him, the President Gen. Perez Musharra urged the
Muslim Ummah to enhance mutual cooperation in arious ields. 1hey
discussed bilateral relations, economic cooperation and other subjects o
mutual interest.
1he President stressed the need to orge unity and to enlarge the base
o mutual cooperation in dierent ields among the OlC member states.
President Musharra told the Algerian leadership that only
adancement in the scientiic ield and optimum exploitation o natural
resources can guarantee eradication o backwardness in Islamic countries to
regain past glory.

Address to Algerian Businessmen
Meanwhile, addressing the Algerian businessmen and potential inestors,
President Gen. Perez Musharra said Pakistan oered the most business-
riendly enironment with win-win` situation or inestors and inited the
Algerian entrepreneurs to inest in the ield o their choice.
All economic indicators today are positie and the country is at a
take-o point,` he said. le said a series o positie economic indicators and
its strategic location at the crossroads o Gul, south and the central Asia has
made Pakistan a commercial hub o the region with an ideal business
IPRI lactile 54
destination or the oreign inestors.
1he President attributed this turnaround in economy, which was in
the dire straits just about three and hal years ago, to the sound and continuity
o its policies. Pakistan today oers oreign inestors the most proitable
outlet or their capital,` he added.
President Musharra said reial o economy and building inestors`
conidence had remained the major priorities o the goernment. \e are
aware that Algeria is also in the process o instituting reorms and is actiely
looking or new economic partnership,` he added.
le said during the last three and hal years the goernment has
ocused on reiing the sagging economy and rebuilding o goernance.
1he President said the country aced an inestment dilemma in the
past as while it was wooing oreign inestors, the state o the economy
remained ragile with extremely low oreign exchange reseres. 1he
goernment tried to correct this dilemma and now the country`s economy
was on road to progress and stability,` he added.
le said the oreign debt was increasing by one to two billion dollars
but the trend has now been reersed and three billion dollars o debt was
reduced in three years. 1his has reduced our liability o debt sericing rom
sixty-our percent to thirty six percent and we will bring it down to twenty-
ie percent in two years.
le said iscal deicit was well under control and has come down to
4.6 rom the preious and would be urther brought down to 3.3.
Ater the decade o olatility the Pakistani exchange rate was stable and its
stocks perormed strongly in recent years, leading to the increase in the
country`s inancial standing in the international market to B-plus rom the
le said the KSL-100 index has broken all past records and was the
best perormer in the world in spite o the world wide economic and business
Reerring to massie increase in the country`s oreign exchange, he
said it has now crossed an unprecedented leel o oer 10.5 billion,
multiplying rom just ew hundred million dollars just about three years ago.
1he GDP grew by 5.1 last year despite shocks, inlation remained
below 3 and oreign debt had been considerably reduced.
1he increasing GDP, improed iscal discipline and inrastructure
deelopment has irmly placed the country`s economy on road to progress.
On inestment, the President said that the goernment has modiied rules
and regulations to proide a leel-playing ield to the inestor. Similarly, he
said, the interest rates which remained as high as 15 hae now been brought
down to 8 and in act certain business houses had loans rom banks at the
rate as low as 3. 1his has tremendously reduced the cost o doing business
in Pakistan, he added. le said that during the last year a priate company
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

Nestle reported a proit o 55 which was a rare eature.
1he President said there was great scope or improement in bilateral
ties and the two countries could beneit rom each other`s experiences to ace
the challenges posed by the globalization o economy. loweer, he said, the
goernment could only play a acilitating role, and it was up to the priate
sectors o the two countries to exploit initiaties as it was the real engine o
the growth.
Listing matchless incenties to inestors, he said, they can hae 100
percent equity and there was no bar on the repatriation o capital and proit.
le said with the skilled manpower, low borrowing charges, secured law and
order and other tax incenties, Pakistan`s inestment climate was most
aourable in the regions.
1he President also stressed the need o south-south relations as there
were tremendous opportunities or cooperation within the deeloping
countries. le also noted the low leel o trade within the Ummah and called
or increasing cooperation within it to reduce poerty and make strides in
scientiic and technological ield.
1he President asked the businessmen o the two countries to join
hands to open up new economic opportunities or the beneit o the peoples
o the two countries.
Later, the President also entertained questions and told the Algerian
businessmen how eorts were made in Pakistan to document the economy
and raise tax reenue collection which has gone up to Rs. 460 billion rom
just oer Rs. 300 billion three years ago.

Meeting with the Press in Algiers
President Gen. Perez Musharra \ednesday described his isit to 1unisia as
exceptionally successul` and said the two sides shared commonality o
iews on boosting trade ties and the need to contribute eorts or the
progress o the Muslim Ummah.
\e hae complete unanimity o iews on the issues o generating
more trade and commercial actiities between out two countries,` he said
while talking to reporters soon ater his arrial in the Algerian capital.
le said 1unisian President Zaine Ll Abidine Ben Ali showed keen
interest in urther promoting economic ties and een suggested to constitute a
special task orce, oer and aboe the Joint Ministerial Commission, to
achiee the desired results.
President Musharra said there was complete consonance o iews`
between the two countries oer the plight o the Muslim Ummah and the
need or eorts or its emancipation. \e agreed to orm a strategy and then
moe in a consolidated way beore the orthcoming OlC meeting to get
results,` he added.
IPRI lactile 56
1he President said he also exchanged with his 1unisian counterpart
iews on the situation in Iraq and the ongoing peace eorts in the Middle
Last. President Musharra said his talks with the Algerian leadership would
ocus on enhancing trade and economic ties between the two countries. le
underlined the need or diersiying the country`s trade and commercial links
or haing broader economic relations.
1he President said the area o Maghreb has its own concerns about
what was happening in the Muslim Ummah and Iraq. I would like to get
their iews on the Israel-Palestine issue and how they see the situation in
Iraq,` he added.
1o a question about haing a Islamic Chamber o Commerce, the
President said currently there was no concrete proposal in this respect but
added, there has to be step-by-step approach or orging and expanding trade
ties within the Muslim world.
1here is a growing realization that we hae to do something and
hae to do it together, he said and added, there was a need to analyze why
the Muslim Ummah hae only 2 o their total trade within itsel. Pakistan
was or trade rather than aid, said the President and added that economic
actiities contribute to creating employment opportunities and alleiating
1he President also thanked the Algerian President and the people or
according a ery warm welcome to him.

1alks in Rabat
President General Perez Musharra lriday held wide-ranging talks with
Moroccan King Mohammed VI that coered matters o bilateral cooperation
and important regional and international issues.
Both the leaders also witnessed the signing o accords ceremony to
promote cooperation in the ields o science and technology, enironment
and on increased interaction between their religious aairs ministries.
During the one-hour meeting, the president and the king discussed in
detail Aghanistan, Iraq, Middle Last peace process, situation in South Asia
and the Pakistan-India relations.
Matters o bilateral cooperation also came up or discussion as the
two sides agreed to increase economic and trade ties or the mutual beneit o
their peoples. 1he delegates o their respectie countries later joined them.
President Musharra and King Mohammad VI reairmed their desire
to enhance the existing brotherly relations between the two countries, which
were characterized by common aith, brotherhood and commonality o iews
on major issues.
1hey also underlined the need or increasing two-way trade between
the two countries, which they agreed, was well below the desired leel.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

1he two leaders exchanged iews on the challenges being aced by
the Muslim Ummah and agreed that the deelopment in science and
technology and the human resource deelopment were the only way or
emancipation o the Ummah.
1hey also stressed upon strengthening the OlC to enable it play its
due role in addressing these issues and urthering cooperation within the
Islamic world.
1he president inormed the king about Pakistan`s desire to hae
peace in the South Asian region and its eorts to resole all outstanding
issues with India, including the core issue o Kashmir, through a meaningul
Later, President Musharra and King Mohammad VI witnessed the
signing o three accords that were to promote cooperation in the areas o
science and technology and enironment and increased interaction between
the religious aairs ministries o both the countries.

Signing of Agreements
loreign Minister Khurshid M. Kasuri and his Moroccan counterpart
Mohammed Benaissa signed the agreements on behal o their respectie
Larlier, on arrial at the Royal Palace, King Mohammed VI receied
the president. le was conerred upon the highest ciil award o Morocco
\isam Al Mohammedi.` 1he king o Morocco decorated the president with
the award at a special ceremony.
1he award had been conerred upon President Musharra in
acknowledgement o his eorts to solidiy the riendship between the two
countries and urther strengthening the bilateral relationship.
President Musharra earlier isited the mausoleum o two ormer
monarchs o Morocco. 1he president was receied at the mausoleum by
Abdulwahab ben Mansour, Conserator and Goernor o Rabat. 1he
president reiewed the guard and oered prayers or the two kings.
President Musharra in the lonour Book` placed at the mausoleum
wrote: \e honour and respect the dynamic and sagacious leadership o the
King Mohammed V and King lassan II.` 1he entourage o the president
was taken round the city to see the historic buildings. Begum Sehba
Musharra and loreign Minister Khurshid Mehmud Kasuri accompanied the
1he President also met the Chairman o Senate and Speaker o the
National Assembly and later addressed a press conerence.

In 1unis - Arrival Statement
President General Perez Musharra Monday hoped his isit to 1unisia would
IPRI lactile 58
help translate riendship between the two countries into a multi-aceted
cooperation in dierent areas with special ocus on economy.
I am ery pleased to come to 1unisia as our two countries hae
enjoyed close raternal relations or nearly hal a century,` he said upon his
arrial on a three-day oicial isit to this north Arican country.
President Musharra expressed his desire to translate this riendship
and goodwill into multi-aceted relations and cooperation in a host o areas
with special ocus on economy and technical exchanges.
In Pakistan, we appreciate that, under the sagacious leadership o
President Zine Ll Abidine Ben Ali, 1unisia has made an important
contribution or promoting peace and cooperation not only among the
western countries but also in the Arab world and the OIC,` said the
President. \ith her ine human resources he said 1unisia has emerged as a
dynamic and progressie country, as a commercial hub and a cultural pole in
the Mediterranean region.
President Musharra said he was looking orward to an in-depth
exchange o iews with President Zine Ll Abidine Ben Ali, on a number o
subjects which were important in the bilateral as well as international context.
I am coninced that my isit to your beautiul country would be
most rewarding and greatly strengthen Pakistan-1unisia relations,` he added.
Larlier, the President was accorded a warm welcome when he arried
here on the irst leg o his weeklong isit to the three North Arican states.
le was receied at the Carthage International airport by State
Minister and Adiser to the President, Abdelaziz Ben Dhia, Minister or
\omen Aairs Madame Neziha Ben \edder, Goernor o 1unis Mahmoud
Mabri and Abbas Mohsen, Mayor o the 1unis.
lirst Lady, Begum Sehba Musharra, loreign Minister Khurshid
Mahmud Kasuri, and Chairman Lxport Promotion Bureau, 1ariq lkram
accompanied the President on the isit which also took him to Algeria and
1wo children clad in traditional dresses, presented bouquet to the
President and Begum Sehba Musharra. President Musharra was to attend a
banquet hosted in his honor by the 1unisian President.

Meeting with the Press
Meanwhile, talking to newsmen embarking on his isit to three Arican
countries the President General Perez Musharra expressed the hope that his
isit to 1unis, Algeria and Morocco would help enhance Pakistan`s economic
and political relationship with these countries.
\e should deelop economic relations with these important
countries so that our political relations are strengthened,` he told newsmen.
During the six-day isit, the President will hold talks with the leadership o
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

these countries on a host o international issues o common interest and
identiy areas o cooperation to urther expand bilateral relationship through
increased commercial and trade ties. 1he president, during the isit, will also
discuss the role o the Organization o Islamic Conerence in determining a
way orward or the Muslim world in the ace o current challenges.
\e shall discuss the phase the Muslim countries are passing through
and what should our countries do or the betterment o the Muslim world,`
he said.
1he OIC, the President said in reply to a question, must hae an
important role in addressing the issues acing the Muslim world, as it is an
organization that represents the entire Muslim world.
1he role o the OIC is ery important i the Muslim world has to set
a orward direction or uture, these three countries are important members
o the OlC, thereore, it is ery important that we talk o the OIC role.`
Pakistan`s exports to 1unis, Algeria and Morocco hoer around >35 million
annually. 1he balance o trade is currently in Pakistan`s aour.

Meeting with 1unisian Chamber of Deputies
President General Perez Musharra 1uesday called or taking pragmatic steps
or the promotion o science and technology in the Muslim would.
1he President was talking to the 1unisian Chamber o Deputies
,Speaker, lawaad Llmbza. le said the Islamic world needed to take practical
steps rather than mere lip serice to bring it out o the crisis it was acing
1he president inormed the speaker that Pakistan bad already taken
an initiatie in this direction and reerred to S&1 lund. le said he had
proposed the und be set up with contributions rom Islamic countries to
promote high education in this ield.
1he president met Speaker lawaad Llmbza during his isit to the
1unisian Parliament louse. le stayed with the speaker or some time and
exchanged iew on bilateral matters. lawaad Llmbza praised the role o
Pakistan in promoting welare o the Muslim Ummah and specially
mentioned the respect and reerence, which Pakistan enjoyed as an important
Islamic state.
le said Pakistan`s achieements in S&1 were a source o pride or
the entire Islamic world and stressed that it must play a leading role in
deelopment o this ital ield in Muslim countries.
1he two sides also underlined the need o an increased interaction
between their parliaments to enhance the existing relations between the two
President Musharra told the 1unisian speaker about the eorts to
promote sustainable democracy in the country. le stated that an elected
IPRI lactile 60
goernment and Parliament were in place and were ully unctioning or the
welare o the common man.

Visit to Martyrs Memorial
Later, President Musharra isited Martyrs Memorial at Sedjoumi, about 25
km south o the capital. 1hree guns boomed as the president laid lower
1he president stood in silence or one minute in respect o those
who gae their lies to ree their country rom the colonial rule in 1956.
1he Cultural Minister, Abdelbaki lermassi, receied President
Musharra at the monument. A small girl attired in 1unisian traditional dress
presented him a bouquet. National anthems o both the countries were
1he president then took a salute rom a smartly turned-out
contingent o the three serices. 1he 1unisians briely inormed him about
the signiicance o the memorial and the history o reedom struggle.

Daily La Presse Comments
Meanwhile, La Presse` a 1unisian daily, in its publication on the ee o
president Musharra`s three-day oicial isit to the country noted that it
would lead to urther deelopment o relations, enhance cooperation in
bilateral ields- as well as regional groupings.
1he daily said, President Ben Ali has always worked to promote
dialogue and deepen cooperation to improe relations between the nations,
the peoples and to promote peace and stability in the world, especially within
international ramework, which is marked by conlicts and uncertainties.`
1he deelopments during the last couple o years on the
international scene require the two countries work together so that
globalization doesn`t impair solidarity between nations and doesn`t preent
the emergence o a just world order.`

Meeting with 1unisian dignitaries
Reiterating Pakistan`s commitment to the ight against the scourge o
terrorism, President Gen. Perez Musharra 1uesday warned against eorts
to equate it with the genuine reedom moement in order to prolong unjust
Pakistan is against terrorism in all its orms and maniestations,`
said the President while speaking to the 1unisian dignitaries and opinion
markers oer a luncheon meeting here.
1he President, howeer, stressed that to uproot the terrorism in its
entirety, the international community must address the root causes o
terrorism. At the same time, the President said, we hae been urging the
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

international community not to lose sight o some glaring cases o occupation
and denial o undamental rights.`
1he President drew the attention o the august gathering to the plight
o the Kashmiri people, struggling or their right to sel-determination or
oer ity years, pledged to them by the UN Security Council. 1he Jammu
and Kashmir dispute has remained at the heart o Pakistan-India tensions,`
said the President.
le told them about the Pakistan`s willingness or a dialogue with
India to resole all outstanding disputes peaceully.
Pakistan, be said, had steadastly pursued the path o dialogue and
negotiations or a peaceul resolution o this dispute which seriously
threatened the security and stability o the region. loweer, he made it clear
that in such a dialogue Pakistan would guard its honour and dignity ery
jealously and neer compromise on principles.
On the issue o Palestine, the President said that Pakistan has always
been in the oreront demanding complete withdrawal o Israeli orces rom
the occupied Palestinian territories and settlement o the Palestinian issue in
accordance with the releant UN Security Council Resolutions.
1he President said he was aware o 1unisia`s consistent and
unresered support or the Palestinian cause and we share this position,` he
said. Pakistan has supported all initiaties, including Crown Prince Abdullah`s
Arab Peace Initiaties, UNSC Resolution 139 and the Quartet`s roadmap.
1he roadmap or Palestinian statehood by 2005, presents a window
o opportunity or establishing lasting peace in the Middle Last, he remarked.
loweer, he said, its success will largely depend on Israel`s withdrawal rom
occupied Arab lands and justice being done to the Palestinians.
On Iraq, the President said Pakistan has highlighted the importance
o national soereignty, non-intererence, territorial integrity, and political
independence o Iraq and its neighbors as pre-requisites or peace and
stability in the region. le said, the coalition in control o Iraq should help the
Iraqis themseles by handing oer power to a national authority.
Meanwhile, the President urged the Muslim Ummah to adopt a path
o enlightened moderation` to achiee progress and called, or reitalizing
the OlC to enable it to eectiely address the issues acing the Islamic world.
\e hae to realistically assess our current state and chart a uture course or
our well being and progress towards regaining past glory,` he said.
Recalling that illustrious past was based on human alues, human
quality, human excellence and a collectie glory o the Ummah, the President
said, it seemed that we hae lost all that and ind ourseles in depth o
despair and despondency`.
1he President posed a question, \hat is the way orward Is the
path o conrontation, extremism and intolerance the road to our glory` 1he
President said the way out is the sel-emancipation through human resource
IPRI lactile 62
deelopment with emphasis on education, health and poerty alleiation.
le proposed a strategy o enlightened moderation` helping each
other within the ramework o the OlC, crystallizing the true alues o Islam
within and projecting the same externally. \e need to reinorce our political
will to moe or solutions to our political problems the world oer in a
peaceul manner,` he added.
1he President called or stepping up eorts to reitalize the OIC to
enable it to eectiely meet the challenges o contemporary times. le said
1unisia and Pakistan could jointly play a signiicant role towards the
realization o this objectie. lor the sake o our uture generations we must
moe on this track with sincerity and resole`, he said while adding, that
Pakistan would not be ound wanting in this regard.
1he President said there was a misperception within the Muslim
world that the lslam as a religion was being targeted by the \est and at the
same time, he added, the \est thought o Islam as a religion o extremism
and intolerance. Both are wrong,` the President emphasized.
1he President said both the Muslims and the \est needed to act to
rectiy these misperception. le said that there was a need to reinorce
political will to resole all disputes in a peaceul manner and reitalize the OlC
to eectiely address the issues acing the Islamic world.
At the same time, be said the \est, specially the United States, must
help to resole all the political disputes around the world in a manner that the
justice is seen to be done to the Muslim world.
le said the \est should also assist the Muslims in the social sector in
order to improe education and human resource deelopment to help
oercome the poerty and backwardness.

Press 1alk on Return Home
President General Perez Musharra ater the conclusion o a successul
weeklong isit to the three Maghreb states told the newsman at the Lahore
airport that his agenda o isit to 1unisia, Algeria and Morocco was to
enhance economic, trade and commercial ties with these countries.
1he president said apart rom strengthening Pakistan`s trade ties, he
discussed with the leaders international issues and the challenges being aced
by the Muslim Ummah.
1he talks, the president said, generally agreed on the need to enhance
relations in economy, while at the same time tried to identiy areas where
there can be urther cooperation. le said there was a general consensus on
the need to hae increased cooperation in the ields o science and technology
and human resource deelopment.
Responding to a question he said the most important achieement o
the isit was the awareness among these states or the need o an agreement
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

or ree trade. le said there was also a need to urther expand these economic
relations with the greater inolement o the priate sector. le said at a later
stage all these countries would identiy new areas o cooperation.
About the warm welcome he receied in all the three countries, the
president said, It was unprecedented.` 1he warm welcome relects the ery
strong cordial relations Pakistan has with 1unisia, Algeria and Morocco.
le said these political and diplomatic relations could be urther
cemented through strong economic ties.
About the Organization o Islamic Conerence ,OlC,, he said,
Pakistan is a big Islamic country and the leaders whom he met asked Pakistan
to play an important role in it.
President Musharra said, \e all should jointly work to seek a so-
lution o the issues conronting the Ummah today.` Reerring to the
importance o his three states isit, he said, apart rom seeking urther
improement in the bilateral relations the isit also held a trilateral dimension.
Morocco is a commercial hub and lies at the junction o Arica and Lurope. It
can proide Pakistan entrepreneurs access to all these markets. Similarly
Pakistan is at a strategic location in South Asia, which could be used by the
Maghreb states to their beneit.
In an oeriew o his isit, the president said all the sides could
beneit by enhancing their trade relations and expanding their markets by
closely interacting with each other. In this regard he also reerred to the need
o reinigorating the Joint Ministerial Commissions.
Larlier in Casablanca, President Musharra isited the King lassan II
mosque. 1he minister o religious aairs receied him at the mosque.
Recording his impressions in the book, the president said he was ery
impressed to isit the unique mosque, which relected excellent calligraphy
and architecture o Moroccan cratsmanship.
1he president isited arious portions o the two-story mosque.
1he mosque is the third biggest in the world ater Masjidul larem
and Masjid-e-Nabi.
It has the capacity or 55,000 Namazis inside and 80,000 outside. It
was completed in seen years in 1993, which inoled 35,000 workmen and

An Appraisal
President Musharra`s isit to three Maghreb countries just ater his state isit
to Unites States, United Kingdom, lrance and Germany has got special
signiicance. Lspecially when Palestine and Israel are negotiating peace in the
area and the latter has started acating occupied oertures and lamas has
declared unilateral cease-ire. Such peace oertimes by Israel would lead to
stability in Palestine.
It is high time now that Muslim states especially the Arabs need to
IPRI lactile 64
get united and work collectiely or mutual deelopment. At the same time it
is pertinent that Islamic countries all oer the world should project
themseles as peace loing nations.
Ater 9,11 incident the world has changed altogether. \ith the
passage o time a realization has emerged that Muslims as a whole are being
targeted. And also a perception has deeloped that Islam as such has been the
target. It becomes thereore important that Muslim countries should eole a
joint strategy to respond through media, through OIC etc. to dispel such
impression and cooperate with each other, beneit rom each other`s
resources and to jointly play their role or peace in the world.
It is an era o geo-economics and not o geo-politics. By cooperating
in the ield o science and technology, trade, human resource deelopment,
industry the Islamic countries can become a power in the world to reckon
with. During President Musharra`s isit to three Maghreb countries, there
was consensus or ree trade. In 1unisia, both the presidents agreed to
increase the leel o trade between the two countries. Both the leaders agreed
to play their role or world peace. General Musharra praised President Zine
Ll-Abidine Ben Ali or his contribution or promoting peace and cooperation
not only among the Maghreb states but also in the Arab world and the OIC.
In Algeria, both the leaders resoled to expand the trade between
their countries.
1he situation around the world demands that Muslim countries
should get closer and closer, cooperate in trade and business that would add
to their indiidual and collectie strength. 1heir geo-political issue could be
resoled through collectie eorts. 1hey can play their role in \orld peace in
an eectie manner proided they hae a joint Strategy.
President Musharra`s isit to three Maghreb countries is apparently
positie step in this direction. lis parleys with leaders o 1unisia, Algeria and
Morocco clearly indicate that while discussing mutual cooperation in trade
and economic ields, he has stressed the need or eoling a joint strategy or
resoling political disputes which generally inoled Muslims and also to play
a role at OlC leel, in world peace.
President Musharra has said the Maghreb countries 1unisia, Algeria
and Morocco concurred on the need or a common strategy to address issues
acing the Muslim Ummah. 1he leadership o these countries is on board
and hae assured us o their ull support to eole a strategy or Muslim
Ummah to moe orward. Pakistan and the three Maghreb countries hae
agreed to coordinate their thoughts and iews beore the upcoming OlC
summit to achiee results.`
Addressing a press conerence in Rabat, General Musharra called or
resoling political disputes, generally inoling Muslims in a just manner. le
oiced his opposition to opening up o new ronts that would urther
destabilize the situation around the world. le said, the world is in turmoil,
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

there is destabilization in the world, we, thereore, must immediately address
the situation so that we can moe orward to bring peace in the world.`
le stressed the need or resoling political disputes which generally
inoled Muslims because the Muslim world has started perceiing that the
religion, Islam, was being targeted. President Musharra said, it was more
important to resole disputes especially the Palestinian-Israel deadlock, with
justice. le said Pakistan was against opening o new ronts and urther
destabilizing the situation around the world.
1he isit is important or Pakistan in particular and the Muslim world
in general. lor Pakistan it would open up opportunities or ree trade among
these countries and support in its eorts or peace in the region. It is also an
eort or eoling a joint strategy at OIC leel to work or world peace and
peace in the Arab world. It would also help setting up a uture course o
direction or OlC.
oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 63-84.

ALC| ER8 0N 1 JULY 2003.

,lereinater reerred to indiidually as a Contracting Party` and collectiely
as the Contracting Parties,
Desiring to urther strengthen riendly relations existing between the two


1he Contracting Parties shall endeaour to deelop and reinorce their
cultural cooperation on the basis o respect or the soereignty o each other`s


1he Contracting Parties shall exchange their experiences and achieements in
the ield o culture and cultural patrimony through the sending o delegations
and cultural representaties and other artistic material.

IPRI lactile 66

1he Contracting Party shall exchange inormation and experiences in the
ields o cinema, theatre, dramatic arts museums and libraries.


Lach Contracting Party shall endeaour to saeguard and protect the authors
rights o the citizens o the other Party according to the laws in orce in both
the countries.

Lach Contracting Party shall endeaour to proide scholarships in the ield o
arts to the nominees o the other Party. 1he number o scholarships and their
grant methods shall be mutually determined by the competent authorities o
the Contracting Parties.

1he Contracting Parties shall encourage cooperation in the ield o radio
broadcasting and teleision and the exchange o national ilms on the basis o
arrangements concluded or this purpose between the interested bodies o
both the countries.


1he Contracting Parties shall examine possibilities o equialences o degrees
diploma and study certiicates awarded by the arts teaching establishment o
both the countries.


lor the purposes o the implementation o this agreement, the competent
authorities o the contracting Parties shall work out eery two years a
program or execution. 1he competent authorities are:
In case o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan: the Ministry o
Minorities, Culture Sports, 1ourism and \outh Aairs.
In case o the People`s Democratic Republic o Algeria: the Ministry
o Communication and Culture.


All disputes concerning the interpretation and application o this agreement
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

shall be resoled amicably through the negotiations, which may be held
through diplomatic channel also.


1his agreement shall enter into orce on the date o the exchange o
instruments o ratiication. It shall remain in orce or a period o ie ,05,
years and shall automatically be renewed or similar periods.
Lither Contracting Party may terminate this agreement at any time
ater the expiry o irst period o ie years by giing a six months notice to
the other party. 1he programs already initiated shall continue to be goerned
by the proisions o this agreement.
It may be amended by mutual consent o the Contracting Parties.
1he amendment shall enter into orce in the same manner as required or
the entry into orce o this agreement.
Done in Algiers on July 16, 2003 in two originals, in the Lnglish and
the Arabic languages, both texts being equally authentic.

lor the Goernment lor the Goernment
O the Islamic Republic o the People`s Democratic
o Pakistan Republic o Algeria
Sd Sd
,Khurshid M. Kasuri, ,Abdelaziz Belkhadem,
Minister o loreign Aairs Senior Minister
o loreign Aairs
oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 23-239.

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1he Ministry o loreign Aairs o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan and the
Ministry o loreign Aairs o the People`s Democratic Republic o Algeria.
,lereinater reerred to as the two parties`,,
Conscious o the traditional riendly relations between their people
and their countries,
Desirous to deelop and reinorce the relations o riendship,
IPRI lactile 68
cooperation, and mutual concord,
Conscious also o the importance o the consultations and
continuous exchanges at the dierent leels between the two countries about
the bilateral relations and world issues o common interest,
Reairming their commitments to the principles and aims o the
United Nation`s Charter,
lae agreed the ollowing.


1he two parties shall hold regular consultations to examine all aspects o their
bilateral relations and exchange points o iew about the world issues o
common interest and their impact on the international scene.


1he consultations about the bilateral relations shall include political,
economic, commercial, scientiic, technical and cultural ields.


1he planned consultations within the ramework o the memorandum o
understanding, shall be organized once a year wheneer necessary, alternately
in Islamabad and in Algiers at the leel o high` oicers.


1he date, enue and agenda o the consultations shall be set up through
diplomatic channel.


1he proisions o this Memorandum o Understanding shall be without
prejudice to any other treaty or agreement which are binding on both parties.


1he diplomatic missions o both parties in other countries, along with their
representaties in the United Nations and other international organizations,
shall increase their consultations and communications according to their
needs in order to exchange inormation in the ield: mentioned in Art. 1 o
this Memorandum.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,


1his Memorandum shall enter into orce rom the date o its signature and
shall remain in orce or ie ,05, years and may tacitly b renewed or urther
similar periods, unless one party notiies to i other party to terminate it by
giing a prior writing notice through i diplomatic channel six ,06, months in
adance o the date o expiry.
Done at Algiers on July 16, 2003 in two originals, in Lnglish and
Arabic languages, both texts being equally authentic.

lor lor
1he Ministry o loreign Aairs 1he Ministry o loreign Aairs
o the Islamic Republic o the People`s Democratic o
Republic o Pakistan

Sd! ,Khurshid M. Kasuri, Sd! ,Abdelaziz Belkhadem,
Minister o loreign Aairs loreign Aairs Senior Minister o

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 240-242.

0FF| 6E F0R F0RE| CN TRA0E PR0H0T| 0N, 00NE AT
ALC| ER8 0N 17 JULY 2003

1he Lxport Promotion Bureau o Pakistan ,LPB,

1he Algerian Oice and lor loreign 1rade Promotion ,PROMLX,

lereinater reerred to by the bodies`


Scope o actiities

Both bodies will take the necessary measures or the promotion and
deelopment o trade relations between companies rom Pakistan and rom
Algeria through:

i, Lxchange o inormation,
IPRI lactile 0
ii, Implementation o trade promotion actiities
iii, Organizing training programs and exchanges o experts.


Lxchange of information

Both bodies agree to establish a regular reciprocal exchange o:
- economic and commercial inormation,
- market research, directories and any other publications which
might enable an easier analysis o the correspondent markets,
- data regarding oreign trade,
- acilities and procedures or the respectie inestors.


Implementation o trade promotion actiities
Both bodies agree to support each other regarding the organization
o promotion actiities, such as international airs and exhibitions, economical
missions, seminars, conerences, orums, etc.
In this respect, each institution will take necessary measures to
propagate the inormation regarding the aboe-mentioned actions as well as
to organize business relations in their respectie countries.


1he procedure o sending the documentary

Materials and information

Depending on their speciic nature, the ollowing methods o coneyance are
- business opportunities, products and serices inquiries,
international tenders through e-mail and or ax,
- inestment and technical and economical cooperation
opportunities through e- mail and,or ax inormation regarding
the organization o international airs and exhibitions through e-
mail and,or ax,
- the airs catalogues and other documentary materials or airs and
exhibitions through e-mail and,or ax,
- legislation amendments in the ield o trade practices, through
regular mail,
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

- sureys, publications, through regular mail.


Organizing training programs and exchange o experts
Both bodies agree to cooperate in organizing training programs or
the sta o both institutions to beneit rom their experience as regards to the
trade promotion actiities and techniques, as well as to exchange experts or
general market studies and trade opportunities in each country.
Lach party will bear its own expenses unless otherwise speciied in a
mutual and particular agreement.

Both bodies agree to organize regular working meeting to be held
alternately in Algeria and Pakistan, with the purpose o ealuating the
implementation o the proisions o the current agreement, and determine the
most appropriate measures or its deelopment.


Duration of the memorandum
1he current memorandum will enter into orce on the date o its signature or
period o three years automatically renewed, unless one o the bodies decide
to end it. In such case six months prior notice in writing will be addressed to
the other.
Done at Algiers on 1 July 2003 in two originals in Lnglish and
Arabic, both texts being equally authentic.

lor Lxport Promotion Bureau lor Algerian oice or loreign
o Pakistan 1rade Promotion
Sd ,1ariq lkram, Minister o Sd ,Mohamed Bennini,
State Chairman General Director

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 243-246.

AN0 | N0U8TRY, 00NE AT ALC| ER8 0N 17 JULY 2003

1he lederation o Pakistan Chambers o Commerce and Industry and the
IPRI lactile 2
Algerian Chamber o Commerce and Industry, lereinater reerred to as the
parties`, haing taken into account the aspiration o their respectie business
community to promote economic and trade in particular, hae agreed on the
1. Both parties shall endeaour to promote the economic and
commercial relations between Pakistan and Algeria.
2. Both parties shall contribute towards obtaining a better analysis and
appreciation o their own markets as well as o those presenting interest or
their exports through a mutual exchange o commercial inormation.
3. Both parties shall exchange their periodical publications and shall
examine aorably all requests put orward by the other party or the ree
publication o commercial inormation in these publications.
4. Both parties shall encourage their members to participate in trade
airs and exhibitions organized in their respectie countries.
5. 1he parties shall encourage exchange o isits, between themseles in
the orm o trade mission.
6. Lach party shall be responsible or organizing the aboe mentioned
eents in its own country.
1he present memorandum o understanding shall come into eect
upon signature and shall remain alid or a period o two ,2, years thereater,
it shall be automatically renewed or a urther period o two year unless one
party gies prior notice to the other party in writing six months in adance to
the date o expiration o its intention to terminate the memorandum o
understanding at any time.
Done in Algiers on 1 July 2003 in two original copies in Lnglish and
Arabic languages, both texts being equally authentic.

lor the lederation o Pakistan lor the Algerian Chamber o
Chambers o commerce and Industry Commerce and Industry
Sd Osman Khalid \aheed, Sd ,Brahim Bouard, Vice President

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 24-248.

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18 JULY 2003

1he Goernment o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan and the Goernment o
the Kingdom o Morocco, hereinater reerred to as Parties`.
CONSIDLRING that the deelopment o scientiic and technical
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

relations shall be o mutual beneit to both countries,
DLSIROUS o strengthening cooperation between the two
countries, particularly in the ields o science and technology,
CONSIDLRING urther that such cooperation will promote the
deelopment o existing riendly relations between the two countries.


1he Parties shall promote the deelopment o cooperation in the ields o
science and technology between the two countries on the basis o equality and
mutual beneit, subject to the applicable laws and regulations in orce
respectiely in the two countries.
Cooperation between the Parties in the ields o science and
technology may be aected by means o:
a. Lxchange o scientists, research workers, specialist and scholars,
b. Lxchange o scientiic and technical inormation and
b, Organization o joint scientiic and technical seminars and
courses in areas o mutual interest,
c, Joint identiication o scientiic and technical problems,
ormulation and implementation o joint research programs,
application o the results o such research in industry, agriculture
and other ields, and exchange o experience and know-how
resulting there rom, and
d, Other ways and means o cooperation as mutually agreed upon
by the Parties.


1he Parties shall promote cooperation between their respectie organizations,
enterprises and institutions concerned with science and technology with a
iew to concluding, i necessary, appropriate contracts within the ramework
o this Agreement.
Contracts which shall be the basis or deeloping cooperation
between the organizations, enterprises and institutions reerred to in sub-
article ,1,, shall be signed in accordance with the domestic law in orce in the
respectie countries. 1he Parties shall encourage the organizations,
enterprises and institutions to include in such contracts, where applicable,
proisions or:
a, recompense or licensing know-how or utilization o patents,
b, exchange o patents inormation, joint application or patents
based on joint projects o research and deelopment, and
IPRI lactile 4
conditions or their commercialization by either Party or jointly
by them in the two countries or in a third country,
c, conditions o introduction into production and realization o
d, inancial terms and conditions, and
e, the terms and conditions applying to the inormation obtained by
the said organizations, enterprises and institutions or
implementation o the said contracts.


In order to ensure optimum conditions or the implementation o this
Agreement, the Contracting Parties shall establish a Joint Committee on
Scientiic and 1echnological Cooperation which shall consist o
representaties designated by the Parties.
1he tasks o the Joint Committee shall be to reiew the progress o
cooperatie actiities under this Agreement,
a, to determine new areas o cooperation under this Agreement, and
b, to discuss other matters related to this Agreement.

1he Joint Committee shall meet, i necessary, alternately in the
Islamic Republic o Pakistan and in the Kingdom o Morocco on mutually
agreed dates.


1he deliery o the equipment required or joint research and or pilot plant
studies instituted in urtherance o this Agreement shall be agreed upon in
writing either between the Parties or between the cooperating organizations,
enterprises and institutions, as may be applicable in each indiidual case.
1he deliery o equipment and apparatus rom one country to
another produced in the course o implementation o this Agreement shall be
eected in accordance with the terms o the then existing trade Agreement
between the Parties, or as may be agreed between them.


1he Parties shall promote cooperation among scientiic libraries, centers o
scientiic and technical inormation, and scientiic institutions or exchange o
books, periodicals and bibliographies.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,


Subject to the requirements o domestic law, no Party shall diulge
inormation obtained by it or its personnel under this Agreement to any third
Party without the speciic written consent o the other Party.


1he Parties shall bear the expenses incurred in connection with the
cooperatie actiities under this Agreement on the basis o the principle o
equality and reciprocity and in accordance with the aailability o assets.

Lach Party shall, subject to its domestic law, proide to the citizens o the
other Party, who stay in its territory, all assistance and acilities in the
ulillment o the tasks they are entrusted with, according to the proisions o
this Agreement. Such personnel shall be subject to national proisions in
orce in the receiing country and may not engage in any actiity extraneous
to their unctions, or receie any compensation other than that agreed upon,
without the prior authorization o both Parties.


1his Agreement shall be subject to the compliance with the constitutional
requirements o the Parties and shall come into orce on the date on which
each Party has notiied the other in writing, through diplomatic channels, o
its compliance with the constitutional requirements necessary or the
implementation o the Agreement. 1he date o entry into orce shall be the
date o the last notiications.
1he Parties shall endeaour to resole amicably any disputes
concerning interpretation or perormance o this Agreement.
1his Agreement shall remain in orce or a period o ie years and
shall be automatically extended or urther periods o ie years, unless either
Party gies twele months prior notice in writing to the other Party through
diplomatic channels o its intention to terminate this Agreement.


1his Agreement may be reised or amended with the written approal o
both Parties, and through the same legal procedures reerred to in Article-9.
any reision or termination o this Agreement . shall be eectie without
prejudice to any right or obligation accruing or incurred under this Agreement
prior to the date o the reision,termination.
IPRI lactile 6
IN \I1NLSS \lLRLOl the undersigned, respectie Parties, hae
signed and sealed this Agreement in duplicate in the Lnglish and Arabic
languages, both texts being equally authentic.

Done at Rabat on this 18
day o July 2003.

Sd,- Sd,-
lor and on behal o lor and the behal o the
the Goernment o the Islamic Republic Goernment o the Kingdom o
o Pakistan Morocco

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 249-254.

H| N| 8TRY 0F REL| C| 0U8 AFFA| R8, ZAKAT AN0 U8hR | N
ThE | 8LAH| 6 REPUL| 6 0F PAK| 8TAN AN0 ThE
H| N| 8TRY 0F Aw0AAF AN0 | 8LAH| 6 AFFA| R8 | N ThE
K| NC00H 0F H0R0660, 00NE AT RAAT 0N 18 JULY 2003

1he Ministry o Religious Aairs, Zakat and Ushr in the Islamic Republic o
Pakistan and the Ministry o Awqaa and Islamic Aairs in the Kingdom o
Desiring to promote the raternal and national bonds and strengthen
the ties o Islamic cooperation between the two countries. And to reairm
their commitment to the teachings o the religion o Islam and its noble moral
Belieing in the signiicance o cooperation and the necessity o
integration in arious aspects o Islamic work and its arious ields,
In implementation o the cultural Accord signed between the
goernments o both countries on July
th, 196.
Do hereby agree on the ollowing:


1o exchange inormation on the reitalization o Islamic heritage, research,
books, publications, scripts about Islamic Shariah and Islamic jurisprudence.


1o exchange isits o scholars and experts in the ield o religious preaching
and Islamic guidance and education, and to exchange. inormation on
academic means or presering Islamic books, scripts and documents to
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

acilitate the process o research on them and to publish them in order to
make them accessible or research


1o exchange publications, books, experiences, studies and documents about
protection and maintenance o religious institutions ,Mosques, uniersities,
old schools, brotherhoods, Awqaa and Quranic madrasas, and also
production o audio isual on Islamic themes and culture.


1o cooperate in respect o creation o websites to disseminate knowledge,
through Internet serices, on all the Islamic themes, research books, scholars,
institutions in both the countries.


1o exchange isits o scholars, teachers and academicians or conducting
research works about Islamic Aairs and to gie lessons and delier lectures
on arious subjects o Islamic culture and to organize seminars and to delier
sermons or guiding Muslims in both countries towards the correct religious
direction and or the Dawah purposes.


1o exchange isits o oicials concerned with Awqaa and Islamic aairs in
both the countries to ind ways and. means beneicial or conducting the
aairs o Awqaa and their administration and to study the best ways and
means to deelop cooperation in this regard.
1o cooperate in the containment and exposition o anti-Islamic
actiities in both the countries.


1o cooperate in respect o construction o mosques, and Islamic centers and
institutes, and to get assistance in this regard rom the ast experience
aailable in Morocco in original Islamic decoration and engraings.


Both parties agree on the ormation o a Joint Commission headed by the
Minister o Religious Aairs, Zakat and Ushr in the Islamic Republic o
IPRI lactile 8
Pakistan and the Minister o Awqaa and Islamic Aairs in the Kingdom o
Morocco. 1he two Ministers will agree to nominate its members.


1he said Joint Commission will endeaour or ollowing up the
implementation o arious aspects o religious cooperation between the two
sides. It will hold its meetings at least once a year in Rabat and in Islamabad

1his Agreement will be alid or three years rom the date o its signing. It
will be renewable automatically or similar successie periods unless any o
the parties announces its desire to terminate it six months beore its date o
Done at Rabatday 1424 l corresponding the 18
day o July 2003 in
two original copies in Lnglish and Arabic.

1he Islamic Republic o
oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 255-258.

ThE K| NC00H 0F H0R0660, 00NE AT RAAT 0N
18 JULY 2003

1he Goernment o the Islamic Republic o Pakistan and the Goernment o
the Kingdom o Morocco ,hereinater reer indiidually as a Party` and
collectiely as the Parties`,,
Aware o the signiicance o the enironmental protection or the will
being o the present and the uture generations,
Realizing the possibility o the transer o enironmental polluting
across borders, and that the protection rom it can only be eect within the
ramework o an international coordinated cooperation,
Coninced o the importance o making sustainable deelopment
Considering the principles, recommendations and texts added by UN
Conerence on Lnironment and Deelopment held in Riode Janeiro in June
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

Considering that deelopment and improement o institution
legislatie and technical cooperation in the ield o enironment contribute in
strengthening the relations between the two countries.
lae agreed on the ollowing:


1he Parties will deelop their bilateral cooperation in the ield enironment in
the basis o justice, equality and mutual beneit rights and priileges within the
ramework o specializations and laws o their countries. 1his cooperation
centering on the scientiic and. technological aspects will specially encourage
promotion o economic and commercial exchanges.


1he Parties will acilitate, according to the objecties o this Agreement, the
establishment and deelopment o relations o cooperation between their
public and priate institutions in the ield o enironmental protection and
sustainable deelopment. And or the same objecties, the Parties will
encourage industrial cooperation and will acilitate the closeness between their
enterprises or sustainable deelopment.


1he Parties designate the Ministry o Lnironment, Local Goernment and
Rural Deelopment in Pakistan and the Secretariat o State in charge o
Lnironment in Morocco or the execution o this Agreement.
As ar as those aspects, which all out o their jurisdiction, are
concerned, the Secretary o State in charge o the Lnironment in Morocco
and the Minister o Lnironment, Local Goernment and Rural
Deelopment in Pakistan will endeaour to acilitate contacts between the
concerned ministries and organizations.
1he Minister o Lnironment, Local Goernment and Rural
Deelopment in Pakistan and the Secretary o State in charge o Lnironment
in Morocco, as per Articles our and ie o this Agreement, shall identiy the
ields which can be subjects o special cooperation between the two Ministries
and similar orms o such cooperation.
In terms o the proisions o this Agreement, cooperation is assigned
to a ollow up committee, the committee consisting o oicials deputed by
the Parties. 1he task to explore the means o promotes enironmental
cooperation between the Parties o the agreed projects o bilateral
A meeting o the Committee will be conened three months ater the
IPRI lactile 80
signing o this Agreement. 1he Committee will hold its meeting once a year
alternately in Pakistan and Morocco and extra-ordinarily sessions o the
Committee may be held as agreed by the Parties.
1he unctions o chairmanship o the normal sessions o the
Committee will be perormed alternately in case o conening o an
extraordinary session, it will be chaired by the hosting party.


1he enironmental aspects which can cooperation between the Parties are the
institutional, legislatie and organization o enironment,
collection and analysis o inormation about the state o
enironment and elements aecting it,
getting arious concerned groups o the society inormed about
enironmental problems, socio-economic actiists.
management and protection o the ecologically sensitie areas:
humid areas, the naturally mountainous ecological system, the
coastal areas and seas,
exchange o inormation and experience concerning actiities
and technologies which are not harmul or the enironment and
to promote their implementation,
merging enironmental policies into sustainable deelopment
Policies specially in industry, agriculture, orestry, tourism,
hunting, transport, territory planning, urban planning and rural
management o municipal and similar wastes, recycle, disposal
reduction o industrial wastes, particularly the dangerous ones,
new renewable and un-centralized energies,
deelopment o applied research concerning enironment
in the ield o industry, geology and chemical industry,
ealuation o air pollution in big urban areas,
any other areas related to the protection and the improement o
enironment that are determined with mutual consent o the


1he cooperation between the Parties may be conducted through the
ollowing means:
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

exchange o inormation about enironment programs o both
countries and also the exchange o scientiic and technical
publications and magazines,
exchange o opinions and proposals about the adoption o
legislatie requirements or preparing programs or executing
projects by any o the Parties,
participation o employees and experts to maniestations and
programs organized by the Parties, and holding o Morocco-
Pakistan meetings during the organized demonstration outside
their countries,
isit o experts and trained people with the aim o exchange o
inormation and experiences and ensuring the transer o
technology know-how,
joint organization o programs to train specialists in the speciic
under the ramework o this cooperation,
grant o technical assistance to the desiring Party through joint
any other orm o cooperation agreed upon by the Parties,

1he Parties will agree on plans o action that will determine the
actiities to be executed, and on sources and means to inance those actiities.

1his Agreement does not aect the rights and obligations o the Parties
resulting rom other international agreements.


Departments in-charge o enironment and scientists o the Parties may hae
access, as the case may be, to inormation obtained under this Agreement,
and which do not all under the rules o protecting the intellectual property
rights, unless the Parties agree on the contrary, this excludes inormation
which can not be published or reasons o national security, trade secret or
industrial secret.


Any disagreement concerning interpretation or application o this Agreement
shall be resoled through negotiations between the Parties.

IPRI lactile 82

Any modiication or amendment in this Agreement, shall be made through
written mutual consent o the Parties.


1his Agreement shall enter into orce on the day o its signing. It shall remain
alid or ie years and shall be renewed automatically or similar successie
periods. Lither Party may terminate this Agreement at any time, ater the
expiry o the irst period o ie years, by giing a written notice o six months
in adance.
1he termination o this Agreement shall not aect projects and
programs which are under implementation under this Agreement, unless the
Parties agree to the contrary.
Done in Rabat on 18 July 2003 in two originals in Lnglish and Arabic
languages, both texts being equally authentic.

Sd,- Sd,-
On behal o On behal o
the Goernment o the Islamic Republic the Goernment o the Kingdom
o Pakistan Morocco

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 259-264.

HUTUAL 600PERAT| 0N | N ThE F| EL0 0F 86| EN6E AN0
TE6hN0L0CY, | 8LAHAA0, 23 JULY 2003

Pakistan and Sudan agreed to establish a joint reoling und equialent to >1
million to promote mutual cooperation in the ield o science and technology
Under the und, each side would annually contribute an amount o
>0.5 million rom its own resources. 1he und will be utilized or meeting
expenditures on the work undertaken in the respectie country or
implementation o agreed joint research projects in S&1.
1he agreement to this eect was reached under an executie protocol
on scientiic and technological cooperation signed between Pakistan and
Sudan at Khartoum. Minister In-charge or Science and 1echnology
Proessor Atta-ur-Rehman and his Sudanese counterpart Proessor Dr. Ll
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

Zubair Bashir 1aha signed the agreement on behal o their countries.
Under the agreement, Pakistan will proide technical assistance to
Sudan in building the Sudan Llectronic City. Pakistan will also participate in
setting up o technology incubators in the Sudan Llectronic City. Pakistan and
Sudan will also take up collaboratie actiities in the ields o electronics and
computer sotware, inormation technology, postgraduate training, eterinary
medicines, sustainable energy, cotton and rice breeding, medicinal and
aromatic plants and human resource deelopment areas.
It has been decided that Pakistan and Sudan will deise programmes
leading to enhancement o capabilities in the sotware and hardware
computer technologies. Pakistan will proide training acilities to Sudanese
scholars in dierent ields o S&1 leading to M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees as well
as short-term training programmes.
In the eterinary medicines area, the Veterinary Research Institute at
the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Poultry Vaccine
Institute, Karachi, and Nuclear Institute o Agricultural Biology ,NIAB,,
laisalabad will collaborate with Animal Research and
1echnology Cooperation, Sudan.
In the sustainable energy area, the Pakistan Council o Renewable
Lnergy and 1echnologies and Optics Laboratories, Islamabad, will interact
with Lnergy 1echnology and Larth Sciences Corporation o Sudan to
promote and undertake joint research and deelopment projects in the ield
o laser technology.
In the ields o cotton, and rice breeding, the Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council`s Cotton Research Institute, Multan, NIAB, laisalabad,
National Institute o Biotechnology and Genetic Lngineering, laisalabad,
Leather Research Centre at the Pakistan Council or Scientiic and Industrial
Research, Karachi, and Agricultural Research Corporation ,ARC, o Sudan
will implement research actiities in their ields o specialization. 1hese
institutions will collaborate with the Agricultural Research Corporation o
Sudan or initiation o joint projects.
In the human resource deelopment area, the Ministry o Science and
1echnology o Sudan will collaborate with the lLJ Research Institute o
Chemistry, Karachi, to aail training acilities or the Sudanese students in
the ields o organic chemistry.
oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXX, Issue , 16-31 July 2003, pp. 14-148.

IPRI lactile 84
Y hEA08 0F AFR| 6AN 0| PL0HAT| 6 H| 88| 0N8 | N
| 8LAHAA0 0N ThE 066A8| 0N 0F AFR| 6A 0AY,
| 8LAHAA0, 25 HAY 2004

Pakistan has made signiicant contributions towards the ideals o Arican
Union by remaining committed to sending peacekeeping troops to the
lashpoints in Arica in pursuance o peace and stability. Arica and Pakistan
are also poised to contribute through a meaningul partnership or the
economic uplit o their respectie peoples by urther enhancing economic
relations and expanding trade and inestment opportunities.
1his declaration came rom the heads o Arican diplomatic missions
based in Islamabad while addressing a joint press brieing here on Monday.
1he enoys o Arica Group also expressed their complete support to
Pakistan`s eorts in eliminating terrorism in all orms and maniestations.
1hey said that the scourge o terrorism could not be stamped out by one
country, but with a combined eort o all countries o the world.
South Arican ligh Commissioner Moosa Moola chaired the
brieing. le was lanked by his counterparts rom Arica Groups heads o
mission, ambassadors and charge de aairs o Lgypt, Mauritius, Sudan,
Algeria, Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia, Libya, 1unisia and Lritrea.
1he Arica Group oer the last ew years maintained a tradition o
hosting an eent to commemorate the ormation o the Arican Union ,AU,,
ormally coming into being on July 9, 2002, in Durban, South Arica. It
replaces the Organization o Arican Unity ,OAU,, which was ounded on
May 25, 1963. 1he AU has been designed to meet the challenges o a
constantly changing world. It builds on and is an extension o the OAU and
has a mandate, which includes the establishment o a mechanism or conlict
preention, management and resolution and calls or greater eiciency and
eectieness within the organization as a whole, and has a special ocus on
political, economic and deelopmental objecties.
1he Arica Group stressed that promotion o peace, security and
stability is an integral element and a core objectie o the Arican Union, as it
relates to sustainable deelopment. leads o Arican diplomatic missions also
expressed keen desire to promote trade relations with Pakistan.
Ambassador o Sudan Awad Mohammad lasan said it is unortunate
that until now only our per cent o Pakistan`s oreign trade is directed
towards Arica, which is much below Arican ambition. le said it is a great
challenge or both Arica and Pakistan, as a lot more needs to be done to
enhance trade relations between the two sides.
Ambassador o Algeria N. Larbaoui stressed that Pakistan needs to
adopt a new outlook or Arica, the new emerging power o the world, and
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

take steps to urther promote the trade and economic relationships.
Ambassador o Lgypt lisham Ll-Zimaity said there is a lot o scope
in expanding relationships in the ield o ood security, textile and clothing,
and I1 sector.
South Arican ligh Commissioner Moosa Moola said that Arica is a
ast continent with oer 600 million people and 53 member countries, the
second largest continent in the world. 1hereore, it is important or Pakistan
to expand the economic and cultural relations with Arica a larger scale.
Mauritius ligh Commissioner Rabindranath Dawarka said that
Arica Group wants to share the ision o Arica with Pakistan, hoping or a
better understanding and closer relationship in economic, trade and cultural
ields, he stressed the need or increasing oicial exchanges between Arica
and Pakistan.
1he Arica Group hoped that the increase in trade would help
strengthen the existing relations between Pakistan and Arican countries.
South Arican ligh, Commissioner Moosa Moolla in his opening
speech said that the relationship between Pakistan and Arica could urther
beneit rom the positie relations through the medium o the Asia-Arica
Sub-Regional Organization Conerence ,AASROC, with exchanges o
cultural, economic, media, and academic arenas. le said that it is heartening
or the Arica Group to see similar eorts like Arica towards peace and
stability in the South Asian region being maniested through Saarc,
demonstrating a collectie will to rid the region o social and economic
malaise. le also lauded the establishment o a composite dialogue between
India and Pakistan.
On behal o the Arica Group, he hoped that the momentum es-
tablished between the two nations in the course o normalization o bilateral
relationship would be urther enhanced, paing way or the peace and
prosperity o the entire region. le said that AU would continue to build on
the political successes achieed and open up a new chapter o economic
liberation and deelopment o the continent.
Moosa Moola said that while political and economic uncertainty,
conlict and terrorism continue to undermine and militate against the general
well-being o ordinary people around the world, especially in the deeloping
South, Arican leaders hae chosen to pursue an architectural ramework o
cooperation amongst themseles that would eentually uplit their peoples
rom the scourge o poerty and underdeelopment. 1hey hae chosen, as
essential elements o the AU, some institutional organs that would enable
them to put into gear the gigantic task o rebuilding the continent.
Giing details about the Arican Union, Moosa Moola said that
Arica has embarked upon an ambitious undertaking to rid the continent o
the plight o poerty, hunger, disease, unemployment, illiteracy and economic
backwardness and transorm itsel into a region o peace and prosperity.
IPRI lactile 86
1he Arican countries are ery much interested in the socio-cultural
lie o Pakistan and inancing arious socio-cultural projects. Member states
o the AU accredited to Pakistan hae established a tradition by
commemorating the establishment o Arica`s premier organization AU on
May 25 annually.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue V, 1-25 May 2004, pp. 292-295.

H| N| 8TER, 0R. HAhH0U0 KAREH (11-13 JULY 2004}

1he Lgyptian Deputy loreign Minister, Dr. Mahmoud Karem, paid an
oicial isit to Islamabad rom 11-13 July 2004 or bilateral consultations
between the loreign Ministries o Lgypt and Pakistan. 1he Lgyptian
delegation held meetings with the senior oicials in the Ministry o loreign
Aairs on bilateral, regional, and international issues o importance to both
their countries. In his meeting on 12 July 04, Dr. Mahmoud Karem held
consultations on international peace, security and the role o OlC in
urthering the interest o the Muslims around the world. 1hese consultations
also included peace in South Asia, Kashmir and Aghanistan.

Political Consultations
1he Lgyptian delegation held ormal political consultations with Additional
Secretary ,ML&A,, Mr. Jaed laiz, in the Ministry on 13 July 2004. 1he two
sides discussed ways and means to enhance mutual cooperation in political
and economic ields. In addition the two legations exchanged iews on some
o the important issues acing the Islamic Ummah like the situation in Iraq
and Palestine and their perception o G-8 sponsored, Partnership or
Progress and Common luture with the Region o the Broader Middle Last
and North Arica`.
1he two sides agreed on regular consultations between the senior
oicials o their loreign Ministries, on regional and global issues. 1hey ound
the consultations useul in coordinating their stance and adoption o a uniied
position on these important issues.
1he consultations between the senior oicials o the two countries
were held under an MoU signed during the land mark isit o General Perez
Musharra to Lgypt in April 2000, with the aim o coordinating their
positions on regional and international issues in saeguarding their interest.
1his irst round o consultations showed marked closeness o iews between
the two countries on all the subjects discussed.

Call on Ioreign Minister
1he Lgyptian Deputy loreign Minister Mr. Mahmoud Karem called on
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

loreign Minister Khurshid M. Kasuri this aternoon at the conclusion o two
days o talks with the senior oicials o the Ministry o loreign Aairs. 1he
Lgyptian delegation expressed satisaction at the useul and intensie
discussions held at the loreign Oice under the MoU or closer diplomatic
consultations between our two countries.
1he loreign Minister emphasized upon the brotherly relations
existing between two important Islamic countries, Lgypt and Pakistan, and
reiterated the need or closer interaction and cooperation at the international
ora. \hile speaking o strengthening the OIC, the loreign Minister
,emphasized the need or early nomination o Lgyptian Representatie or the
OIC Lminent Persons Group`. 1he loreign Minister also emphasized the
importance o territorial integrity and soereignty o Iraq, allowing the UN a
major role in reconstruction and returning Iraq to normalcy as soon as
1he Lgyptian Minister coneyed the appreciation o his goernment
to Pakistan`s eorts, especially policies being ollowed by President Perez
Musharra, in modernizing and reorming the image o Islam. 1he loreign
Minister remarked that Lgypt and Pakistan, being key players in the Islamic
world, should cooperate more with each other. 1he Lgyptian delegation
thanked the loreign Minister or receiing them and expressed the hope that
the loreign Minister would be able to isit Lgypt soon.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue VII, July 2004, pp. 115-116.

EFF0RT8 T0 hELP A00RE88 ThE hUHAN| TAR| AN 6R| 8| 8 | N
0ARFUR, | 8LAHAA0, 27 JULY 2004

Oer the past week, President General Perez Musharra has made strenuous
eorts to help address the humanitarian crisis in Darur. In his contacts with
world leaders, the President emphasised that the situation should not be
allowed to spin out o control in order to sae Sudan and the international
community rom a grae tragedy. 1he President stressed the need or the
international community to use all political means to resole the pressing
problems in order to ward o a bigger crisis.
As part o his eorts, yesterday ,July 26,, the President spoke with
President Omar lasan Ahmad Al Bashir o Sudan to underline that the
implementation o the commitments between the UN and the Sudanese
Goernment proides the ramework or a iable solution o the serious
problems in Darur. President Bashir appreciated President Musharra`s keen
interest and brieed him about the eorts the Sudanese Goernment was
making to resole the crisis.
IPRI lactile 88
President Musharra has said that comprehensie orward moement
on the three aspects o the crisis - humanitarian access, political dialogue,
and security - would help improe the situation considerably. 1he President
also coneyed to President Bashir the concern o the Islamic world, including
Pakistan, about the internecine strie in Sudan and its consequences or the
brotherly people o Sudan.
Later, the President spoke with Mr. Koi Annan, the UN Secretary
General, and Mr. Colin Powell, US Secretary o State, to underscore the need
or creating more diplomatic space or solutions that aert the need or
rationale o sanctions or the threat o sanctions.
Pakistan, as a member o the UN Security Council, has been actiely
engaged in discussing the drat text o a resolution on the situation in Darur.
During the past ew weeks, leaders o seeral countries, including
Sweden, linland, Germany and the US, hae requested President Musharra
to play a greater role in deusing the situation in Darur.
1he President will continue his eorts on the Darur situation.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue VII, July 2004, pp. 282-283.

V| 8| T 0F F0RE| CN 8E6RETARY R| AZ Kh0KhAR T0
PAK| 8TAN 0N 4 AUCU8T 2004

loreign Secretary Riaz Khokhar isited Khartoum, as Special Lnoy o the
President o Pakistan on 4 August 2004. le met the President o Sudan l.L.
Mr. Omer lassan Ahmed Ll Bashir and the loreign Minister o Sudan Dr.
Mustaa Osman lsmail in Khartoum. le coneyed a special message o the
President o Pakistan to the President o Sudan regarding the situation in
1he President and the loreign Minister o Sudan presented Sudan`s
point o iew on the situation as well as their iews on the United Nations
Security Council resolution. 1hey assured the Special Lnoy o Sudan`s desire
to implement the United Nations Security Council and Arican Union`s
resolutions on the matter. 1hey underlined, howeer, the unreasonable
timerame o 30 days in the UN Security Council to undertake this enormous
Mr. Riaz Khokhar, the Special Lnoy, coneyed the brotherly
concern o Pakistan and expressed the hope that an early solution to the
humanitarian situation in Darur will be ound. le also underscored that a
peaceul political solution based on the soereignty, territorial integrity,
honour and dignity o Sudan, was essential. Such a solution was necessary to
aoid sanctions that could low rom the UN Security Council resolution on
Darur ater the lapse o 30 days period.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

In the recent past, the President o Pakistan has been making
strenuous eorts or the resolution o the humanitarian crisis in Darur.
Beore the adoption o Security Council Resolution 1556 on the situation in
Darur, the President had spoken with the Sudanese President, United
Nations Secretary General Koi Annan, and US Secretary o State Colin
Powell to create space or the implementation o the July 3 Joint
Communiqu signed by the Sudanese Goernment and the United Nations.
1he President had called or implementation o the joint commitments to
ensure humanitarian access, political dialogue and security.
1he Security Council Resolution ,1556, was adopted on July 30,
2004. In the context o this resolution as well as in iew o the eoling
situation, Mr. Riaz Khokhar will coney a special message rom President
Musharra or the Sudanese President.
Pakistan and Sudan enjoy close brotherly relations.
1he loreign Secretary`s delegation included Mr. 1ariq Osman lyder,
Additional Secretary ,UN and LC,, and Ms. 1ehmina Janjua, Director, rom
the Ministry o loreign Aairs.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue VIII, August 2004, pp. 59-60.

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loreign Secretary Riaz Khokhar headed the Pakistan delegation to the XIV
NAM Ministerial Conerence and the Second AASROC Ministerial meeting
in Durban on 19-20 August.
On the sidelines o the NAM conerence, the loreign Secretary held
a detailed, substantie and productie meeting with his counterpart, the
Director General o the South Arican Ministry o loreign Aairs, Dr.
Ayanda Ntsaluba. During this meeting, both sides airmed their keen desire
to urther strengthen bilateral relations to mutual beneit and to explore new
aenues o cooperation. It was decided to conene the Pakistan-South Arica
Joint Commission at an early mutually conenient date. 1he loreign Secretary
extended an initation to Dr. Ntsaluba to isit Pakistan or the Joint
Commission Meeting. An initation on behal o the loreign Minister was
also extended to the South Arican loreign Minister, Dr Nkosazana Zuma.
1he meeting between loreign Secretary Riaz Khokhar and Dr.
Ntsaluba reiewed the entire range o bilateral relations between the two
countries as well as matters o regional and global importance. 1he loreign
IPRI lactile 90
Secretary brieed Dr. Ntsaluba on important issues such as Pak-India
relations, Aghanistan, Iraq, and our role in Darur crisis. 1he two sides ound
a close identity o iews on issues o global importance.
1he loreign Secretary also met leaders o arious delegations to the
NAM conerence including the South Arican loreign Minister Dr. Zuma
and the Deputy loreign Minister, Mr. Aziz Pahad. le was also interiewed
by the leading newspapers and teleision,radio channels.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue VIII, August 2004, pp. 1-2.

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lonourable AASROC Co-Chairs, Dr. Nkosazana Zuma, loreign Minister o
South Arica and Dr. lassan \irajuda, loreign Minister o Indonesia,

Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is indeed a great priilege and honour or me to represent Pakistan at the
Second Arica Asia Sub-Regional Organizations Conerence in the beautiul
city o Durban.
I am oerwhelmed by a deep sense o gratitude to the people and
Goernment o South Arica or the warm hospitality extended to the
Pakistan delegation and or the excellent acilities and arrangements made or
the Second AASROC Conerence.
I would also like to coney our deep appreciation to both the
goernments o South Arica and Indonesia or their outstanding leadership
as AASROC Co-Chairs in delineating a new and reinigorated Asia-Arica
partnership road map.

Lxcellencies, Distinguished Delegates,
1he AASROC initiatie draws its spirit and inspiration rom the Bandung
principles. It is based on the realization that the ideals and objecties that our
leaders sought to achiee at Bandung ity years ago, are as releant and
important today as they were then.
Our struggle against poerty, under deelopment and disease is ar
rom oer and yet there are new challenges and threats looming on the
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

horizon including, terrorism, weapons o mass destruction, erosion o
multilateralism. 1he process o Globalization that should hae been a source
o hope and inspiration or the poor has unortunately also become a part o
the problem through its selectie, discriminatory and pro-rich orientation.
In act the threats and challenges that we ace today in the 21

century are perhaps more complex and daunting than beore, thus
necessitating the need and urgency to renew and reinigorate our
commitment to the Bandung concord. 1he initiatie to conene Asia-Arica
Sub-Regional Organizations Conerence could not, thereore, hae come at a
more opportune time.
It is indeed ery heartening to note that in a rather short span o time
we hae already been able to broadly deine the principles and parameters o
our new strategic partnership and the areas and structure o the proposed
cooperation. \e will now need to sharpen the ocus by urther narrowing
down the priority areas and to translate the political will, demonstrated thus
ar, into concrete actions.
Pakistan ully supports the idea o ostering a new strategic
partnership between Asia and Arica. 1he problems that our two continents
ace are complex and daunting. 1he driing motiation to see this inter-
continental cooperatie endeaor to succeed lows rom our common need
and desire to eectiely address the challenge o deelopment and ighting
poerty, exacerbated by reduced market access, rising debt burdens, declining
deelopment assistance and inestment and inancial lows.
1he recommendations made by the AASROC Ministerial \orking
group meeting in Durban earlier this year proide the necessary institutional
ramework to build a mechanism or cooperation between Asia and Arica.
\e are glad that the \orking Group, while identiying the need or
cooperation in political, economic, social and cultural spheres agreed to
primarily ocus the new strategic partnership on intensiying cooperation in
the area o trade, inestment and human resource deelopment.
1he \orking Group also recognized the piotal role that the priate
sector can play. \e particularly welcome the establishment o the Asia-Arica
Business lorum in Kuala Lumpur, in pursuance o the recommendation o
the AASROC Ministerial \orking Group at its meeting in Durban in March
Pakistan is o the irm iew that enhanced trade and economic
actiity between our two continents and closer contacts between our two
business communities would proe to be a critical asset in acilitating wider
cooperation in all other areas. \e are conident that the proposed Asia-Arica
Business Summit would unite businessmen representing the chambers o
commerce and industry o sub-regional organizations in a loose
Pakistan, on its part, would be happy to host a meeting o the Asia-
IPRI lactile 92
Arica Businessmen, in due course, in consultation with the member States.

Lxcellencies, Distinguished Delegates,
1he true potential o Asia-Arica Sub-Regional Cooperation, particularly in
the ield o trade is ar rom ully realized. 1he limited number o bilateral and
regional trading arrangements between the two continents, unortunately also
relected by the low leel o trade and inestment lows,` only conirm the
absence o a robust economic dimension to our relationship. 1he situation
needs to be rectiied.
AASROC initiatie oers an important and unique window o
opportunity here. \e may, thereore, through the AASROC \orking Group,
seriously examine the arious possibilities that may exist to stimulate trade
and commercial cooperation between Asia and Arica by creating such
Pakistan would support the setting up o a Sub-\orking Group,
which could undertake an in-depth reiew o the existing status and uture
scope o trade and economic cooperation between Asia and Arica.
1he Sub-group can submit its report and recommendations to the
next Ministerial \orking Group. In this regard, we eel that the study paper
to be presented by South Arica, Indonesia, Morocco and other olunteer
countries, as agreed during the Ministerial \orking Group in March, could
proide a good basis to urther work on this idea.
Another area where our two continents perhaps lag behind is the
absence o people to people contacts. Non-aailability o inormation about
each other, high cost o trael and other linguistic and cultural barriers hae
been some o the key impediments in the way o building people to people
\e strongly eel that this is the other important area where AASROC
should be working to deise mechanisms that would acilitate closer people to
people interaction at all leels.

Lxcellencies, Distinguished Delegates,
Pakistan has always been pro-actie in supporting initiaties that seek to
address the problems and crises aced by the countries o Arica.
\e hae also been a strong supporter o the eectie and early
implementation o the New Partnership or Arica`s Deelopment ,NLPAD,.
Similarly, Pakistan has consistently supported the political and
economic aspirations o Arica: \e are proud o our participation in seeral
UN peacekeeping operations in Arica. Our military and ciilian personnel
hae been part o UN peacekeeping operations in Somalia, Namibia, Liberia,
\estern Sahara, and, lately, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic o Congo,
Cote d`Ioire and Burundi. Pakistan will continue to lend its moral and
material support to the Arican countries.
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

At the national leel, the Goernment o Pakistan has been
successully operating a special technical assistance programme or Arica
since 1986. lundreds o young Arican proessionals in arious ields hae
beneited rom this ongoing programme.
\e are ready to share our experiences with other willing partners
rom Asia and would also welcome ideas on making the programme more
eectie or our Arican riends who hae participated in the programme.
\e strongly beliee that AASROC would proide the platorm and
the tools to urther enrich and deepen our bilateral engagements with Arica.
\e are o the iew that technological adancement and human resource
deelopment leels achieed by some o the countries in Asia and Arica can
be shared and replicated elsewhere in Asia and Arica. It is, thereore, time to
urther enhance and reinorce South South Cooperation or the common
good o the people o our two continents.
1he absence o a proper institutional arrangement or a regular Asia-
Arica dialogue in a way contributed to the lack o action in this arena. I am
conident that the Second Round o our deliberations here at Durban would
enable us to urther reine our recommendations on the modalities and
parameters or Aro-Asian Cooperation, discussed since our last meeting, or
the approal o our leaders during the Bandung Summit in 2005.
Pakistan, or its part, would continue with its endeaors to make a
positie contribution to the process.
I thank you.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue VIII, August 2004, pp. 82-8.

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On 19 September, the Security Council put Sudan on notice to curb ethnic
iolence in the country`s Darur region or ace oil-related sanctions. 1he ote
was 11 to 0, with Pakistan, Algeria, China, and Russia abstaining.
Speaking ater the ote, Pakistan`s UN ambassador Munir Akram and
the enoys o the three other abstaining countries said they had withheld
support rom the resolution because o ears that imposing sanctions could
prooke the Sudanese goernment to withdraw the operation it had oered
thus ar.
Lrwa, the Sudanese ambassador, dismissed the resolution as the
worst orm o injustice and indignity,` and he said its sponsor, the United
States, was the country that should answer or killing Aghan, Iraqi and
IPRI lactile 94
Palestinian women and children.
1he Pakistan ambassador called the resolution unair` and one that
could proe counterproductie.`
Ambassador Akram noted that within a week o the Council`s
adoption on 30 July o resolution 1556, the Goernment o Sudan had
announced that it had agreed to a plan o action with the Secretary General`s
Special Representatie. On 15 September, the Special Representatie had
reported on the areas in which Sudan had ulilled its commitment, and also
identiied areas where urther action was required. 1he Sudanese Goernment
was ully engaged with the Arican Union and that trend needed to be
encouraged. 1he original text submitted by the sponsors o the resolution
ailed to recognise the progress that had been achieed, the Pakistan
ambassador noted. Pakistan was glad that some o the proposals it had made
had been included in the inal text.
1hese included: an acknowledgement o the steps taken by the
Goernment o Sudan to improe humanitarian access, greater emphasis on
the obligations o the rebel groups, and reairmation o the soereignty, unity
and territorial integrity o Sudan, which we beliee must be unconditional in
accordance with the Charter.
le said that Pakistan had, howeer, stated rom the outset that it
could not endorse the use or threat o use o sanctions, which it belieed
would be unhelpul in the situation. Considering the progress that had been
achieed, he did not eel that it was appropriate to threaten sanction only
against the Goernment o Sudan. Such an approach might be
1he resolution adopted calls upon Secretary General Koi Annan to
create an international commission to determine i the campaign by
marauding Arab Aruba militias against the illagers o Darur, in western
Sudan, has reached the leel o genocide.
1he militias, known as Jan-jaweed and allegedly equipped by the
goernment, are accused o killing up to 50,000 residents o Darur, raping
women and girls, destroying crops and polluting water supplies and orcing
1.2 million people o their lands.
1he United States last week oicially labeled the iolence in Darur
genocide, and the resolution passed Saturday represents the irst time the
1948 Conention on the Preention and Punishment o the Crime o
Genocide has been ormally inoked.
1he resolution also reinorces the role o the 53-member Arican
Union in taking the lead in calming the situation in Darur and calls on other
nations and the goernment o Sudan to help it expand its presence there. Jan
Pronk, the United Nations representatie in Sudan, said he beliees a orce
o monitors and troops totalling 5,000 is necessary.
In our reisions oer the last 10 days, the American draters
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

addressed objections rom indiidual countries by making the threatened
imposition o sanctions more conditional and less automatic and by adding
language acknowledging steps the Sudanese goernment had taken to ease
restrictions on relie workers ,and broaden cooperation with United Nations
aid workers.
As passed, the resolution says the Security Council shall consider`
action rather than immediately take action on sanctions, and it welcomes`
steps by Sudan to remoe earlier administratie obstructions preenting aid
workers and equipment rom reaching Darur.

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue IX, September 2004, pp. 95-9.

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1he Minister o State or loreign Aairs, Makhdum Khusro Bakhtyar isited
Morocco and 1unisia rom 25 June to 03 July 2005 as Special Lnoy o the
President to Pakistan to lobby Pakistan`s position on UNSC Reorms.
1he Minister o State deliered a letter o President to lis Majesty
King Mohammad VI. 1he Minister o State also met the loreign Minister o
Morocco with whom matters pertaining to bilateral cooperation, as well as
deelopments o regional and international signiicance were discussed.
In 1unisia, the Minister o State, as Special Lnoy called on 1unisian

oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXII, Issue VI, June 2005, p. 38.

PAKl 37Ah 083ERVER, 17 0E6EHER 2004

Pakistan has tended to ignore critical regions o the world in its pursuit o a
US-centric oreign policy with intermittent ocus on the Islamic \orld. 1hat
President Musharra was the irst Pakistani President to isit Latin America
relects the historic neglect o important countries which has cost Pakistan
dearly in terms o international understanding and support on crucial issues.
1he trilateral strategic understanding reached between India, Brazil and South
Arica relects the diplomatic space lost to Pakistan.
A recent isit by a two-member Lritrean delegation to lslamabad
once again highlighted the opportunities that are present or Pakistan in
Arica. 1he growing importance o Arica, especially in an energy-ocused
international system can not be oerstated. Interestingly enough, most o the
IPRI lactile 96
energy potential in Arica centres on Muslim states like Sudan and possibly
Lritrea, as well as the oil-rich State o Nigeria. Nor is it just oil potential that
is now compelling een the US to increase its inolement in. Arica, the
continent is rich in strategic minerals like gold, zinc, copper and uranium. But
colonial legacies hae ensured that Arica will remain beset by conlicts
deined by split ethnic groups and disputed borders.
Pakistan, een as it may hae ignored Arica oerall, has been in the
oreront o proiding substantie support to the Arican Muslim struggles
against colonial rule. Primarily, this help was ocused on the Maghreb States
or instance 1unisia. But we hae also helped and supported other Arican
Muslim States in their struggles or liberation. lere, Lritrea is an interesting
example because in 194, while the Muslim League had succeeded under
Jinnah, in the creation o Pakistan, a Muslim League was set up in Lritrea that
year to seek Lritreas liberation rom colonial rule. In act, the Lritrean Muslim
League looked to Jinnah`s Muslim League as a model. Unortunately, the
Lritrean Muslim League was not as successul in the ace o British and then
the Lthiopian machinations, which culminated in Lthiopia annexing Lritrea
in 1962. But by then, the Lritrean Liberation lront ,LLl, had already turned
to armed struggle ,in 1961, and by 1966, it was challenging the imperial orces
o the Lthiopian State.
It took a thirty-year struggle or the Lritreans to liberate themseles,
and in the process, they struggled against the Lthiopian regime o Lmperor
laile Selassi and the communist goernment o Mengistu Mariam in Lthiopia
that took control in 194. As a result, they saw both the superpowers o the
time the US and the Soiet Union proide support or the Lthiopian State.
Despite an aderse balance o military orces, the Lritreans succeeded in their
military struggle with the inal rout o Lthiopian orces rom Asmara now the
Lritrean capital. On 21
May, the Lthiopian dictator, Mengistu Mariam led
and on 23
May 1991, the last stronghold o the Lthiopian army on the
northern ront collapsed and 200,000 Lthiopian troops surrendered. 1his
success came in the wake o eorts by the US to broker a conerence in
London, immediately ater Mengistu had led, in an eort to work out a
compromise between Lthiopia and Lritrea that would all short o ull
independence or the latter. loweer, the situation on the ground orced the
cancellation o the conerence and the Lritreans pushed or the inal military
ictory which permanently altered the situation in the lorn o Arica. Despite
haing succeeded militarily and haing set up a proisional goernment o
Lritrea, the Lritreans, underwent a UN-sponsored reerendum in April 1993
to assess the wishes o the people o the country. It is only when 99.8 o
the people oted or independence that ull nationhood was declared in May
1993. 1he struggle o the Lritrean people shows that i the commitment is
there, then struggles or sel-determination and liberation rom occupation
can succeed een against mighty military odds. Lqually important is the
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

manner in which the Lritreans sought to reairm their commitment to
\ith the independence o Lritrea, an interesting situation now exists
along the eastern seaboard o Arica with Lritrea occupying the strategic
coastline along the Red Sea acing the Middle Last, and Lthiopia becoming a
land-locked country. 1hat is why border disputes between the two continue
despite a Comprehensie Peace Agreement signed between the two in Algiers
in December 2000, an agreement that was guaranteed by President Boutelika
o Algeria, UN Secretary General Koi Annan, the OAU Secretary General,
the then US Secretary o State, Albright, and the LU`s Special Lnoy, Seri and
a inal and binding decision, by a Boundary Commission regarding the border
between Lthiopia and Lritrea.
Pakistan was consistent in its support or the Lritrean struggle or
sel-determination and liberation, especially at international ora like the UN.
Also, in 199, when the military struggle had entered a decisie phase,
Pakistan reused to hand oer two Lritrean hijackers to Lthiopia, ater the
ormer had hijacked an Lthiopian Airlines plane and brought it to Karachi.
\hile the passengers and crew were reed and the plane returned, Lthiopian
requests or handing oer the hijackers were denied. One o these men
became Lritrea`s oreign minister and he retained a sense o appreciation or
Pakistan`s actions!
Pakistan`s problem is that while we hae supported Muslim causes
and struggles or liberation, we hae not managed to continue a proactie
interaction when these succeed. 1oday, the Lastern coast o Arica, rom the
north to the south right up to South Arica comprises primarily o Muslim
states. \et, our interaction at the leel o state and ciil society with all these
states has traditionally been airly limited or almost non-existent. \e hardly
hae any specialist scholars on Arica, within the country. Len, with Lgypt,
till the growing lndo-lsraeli relationship, there was a certain hostility towards
Pakistan as a result o our policy on the Suez crisis. But moing beyond
Lgypt, there are Sudan, Lritrea, Mozambique, 1anzania, and the island o
Madagascar all members o the OIC and all oering potential or greater
proactiism on the part o Pakistan. In the international ramework, we need
to cultiate as many states as we can, especially in order to build-up support
in international ora. 1oday, India`s policy o courting states across the globe
is paying strategic diidends in the orm o substantial support or its quest
or permanent membership o the UN Security Council. \e hae abdicated
diplomatic space to the Indians nilly.
Now that President Musharra has inally expanded our interaction to
Latin America, we need to also look at the ast Arican continent and a
beginning needs to be made with the Muslim states along the strategic east
coast o Arica. 1here is a positie milieu in these countries or Pakistan,
which we should harness especially gien the growing importance o the
IPRI lactile 98
Indian Ocean region and the economic strategic potential o the littoral states.
Already we are improing .our relations with South Arica, which is emerging
as one o the most important regional Arican powers. But more needs to be
done with the countries lying between Lgypt and South Arica. 1oo much
time has already been wasted. Lspecially i we are to make the OIC eectie,
let us bring the whole membership, especially the Arican membership center
stage o this Organisation. 1hat is where a wealth o human and material
potential o the Muslim world lies.

Shireen M. Mazari, oreigv .ffair. Pa/i.tav, Vol. XXXI, Issue XII, December 2004,
pp. 264-21.


In the context o Arica Day, this year, the leads o Arican Diplomatic
Missions in Islamabad had organized arious actiities and interactie sessions
with Pakistani stakeholders to exchange iews on how to urther and
consolidate the oerall relations between Arica and Pakistan.
\e do bask into the comort that our countries hae deep-rooted
relationship and Pakistan has been a ery actie proponent o Arica
loweer, today we want to chart a path or solidarity and
interdependence between Arican Countries and Pakistan. 1his solidarity
interdependence is all the more necessary and important in the present age o
globalization. Some people beliee that globalization will bring prosperity and
wealth to the countries o the 1hird \orld but so ar such kind o rosy
predictions hae proen short o expectations. On the contrary, the risk and
threats to the independence, soereignty and well being o the 1hird \orld
countries hae grown alarmingly. Consequently, solidarity in all ields among
the 1hird \orld countries, to which Pakistan and Arican countries belong, is
the only sure answer and eectie weapon to ace these risks and threats.
\e should work together so that globalization would not become a
new colonialism in disguise. In this historic endeaor we must deelop a
common mechanism o sel-help and mutual dependence, be they economic
or political.
Indeed, we are justiied in protecting our independence, our culture
and ciilization or we are all proud o our respectie historic heritages.
Nonetheless, we must not lose sight o the act that we hae to ight another
battle no less important, namely, the battle o modernization. 1his
necessitates a common ision as to the road to be taken and the destination to
be reached.
1his ision has been elaborated in the Declaration on the New Asian
Arican Strategic Partnership signed in Bandung on April 24, 2005. In this
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

document, that rededicates our adherence and commitment once more to the
Bandung spirit o 1955, emphasis is put on continent-wide inter-regional
cooperation between Asia and Arica. lurthermore, it is stated that
cooperation between sub-regional organizations, through sharing experiences
could propel growth and sustainable deelopment. In the same token, the
document has acknowledged the importance o complementing and building
upon existing initiaties that link the two countries, inter alia, 1okyo
International Conerence on Arican Deelopment, China-Arica
Cooperation lorum, India-Arica Cooperation, Indonesia-Brunei Darussalam
sponsored by Non-Aligned Moement Centre or South-South 1echnical
Cooperation, Vietnam-Arica lorum etc. 1he aboe orums proide an
eectie and strong institutional ramework or uture cooperation between
Arica and Pakistan. In this respect, it is recalled that Pakistan has initiated a
special 1echnical Assistance Program or Arica back in 1986. More than
1500 participants rom 4 Arican countries hae beneits rom this program
in arious ields such as, to name only ew, Ciil Aiation, rural deelopment,
public administration and loreign Serice. lor example, the Pakistan loreign
Serice Academy has proided training to 385 Arican Diplomats since 1986.
On the other hand there are 14 joint Ministerial Commissions between
Pakistan and some Arican countries that work to enhance cooperation in
political, economic and cultural ields.
Nowhere is there an example o Arican and Pakistan solidarity more
than in the ield o Peacekeeping operations in Arica. 1o illustrate the
importance attached by the Pakistan Goernment in this respect, suice it to
say, that out o 9880 Pakistani oicers and soldiers engaged in peacekeeping
operation around the world, 9432 o this oerall orce o peace and security
are working in arious parts o Arica. 1hey orm part o a total international
orce o 4908 peacekeepers, namely:
1. United Nations Mission or the Reerendum in \estern Sahara
,MINURSO, - Military obserers out o 232.
2. United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic o Congo
,MONUC, -335 troops and 25 military obserers out o 16163.
3. United Nations Operations in Brundi ,UNOB, -1195 troops and
5 Military Obserers out o a total o 5469.
4. United Nations Operation in the Iory Coast -34 troops and 10
Military Obserers out o 5469.
5. United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone ,UNASMSIL, -121
troop and 2 ciilian policemen out o 3450- strong orce.
6. United Nations Mission in Liberia ,UNMIL, - 250 troops, 16
military obserers and 24 ciilian policemen out o 15880.
. United Nations Mission in Sudan - A ten obserers out o 458.
1he leads o the Arican Diplomatic Missions in Islamabad would
like to thank the Pakistani Goernment and people or their strong
IPRI lactile 100
commitment to peace and security in Arica. Such a commitment has been
demonstrated in the pattern o Pakistan oting in the UN when Arican
questions are brought to ote.
1urning to trade relations between our two sides, the monthly
bulletin o the lederal Bureau o Statistic dated August 2004, the olume o
trade among Arican countries and Pakistan reached >990 million in the year
2003,2004. In this year, Pakistan exported goods worth o >520 Million and
Arican exports to Pakistan reached >40 million that is a surplus in aor o
Pakistan. \e trust that there is room or a substantial increase in the olume
o trade proided there will be a regular exchange o isits among the Arica
and Pakistani businessmen, participation in airs and exhibitions, direct air
and maritime serices between Pakistan and Arica. \orth mentioning there
are 14 Joint Ministerial Commissions between Arican Countries and
Pakistan. Undoubtedly these agreements will contribute a lot to deelop trade
relations between Arica and Pakistan.
In this connection, we call upon the Pakistani Goernment and
business community to explore ways and means o enhancing relations
between Pakistan on the one hand and the three major regional economic
groups in Arica, namely, COMLSA, SADLC and both the Southern and
\estern economic organizations. It is thereore imperatie that Pakistan and
Arican countries explore ways and means o enhancing their trade.
1hus, to rapidly promote trade and get strong relations between
Pakistan and Arica, we should encourage the ollowing:-
In addition to the 14 Ministerial Commissions currently in
existence between Pakistan and Arican countries, ways
should be explored to increase this number.
Considering the act that many Ministerial Commissions
hae been inactie, it is recommended herewith, that
appropriate bodies be created to resuscitate those inactie
once. 1hey should work out beneicial programmes o
actiity and set targets or them to achiee.
Regular exchange o isits among Arica and Pakistani
exhibitions and seminars on trade promotion should be
encouraged. 1his will acilitate identiication o areas where
mutual trade and inestments are easible.
Similarly, exchange o isits o the top executie
unctionaries usually has tremendous impact in cementing
relations. Such isits are usually ollowed by beneicial
allouts by way o useul discussions, signing o agreements
and MoUs which acilitate trade, and enhance diplomatic
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

1here are also beneits to derie rom exchange o isits by
members o parliament. Apart rom the exposure it oers
them, it also gies them irst hand experience on the arious
shades o the people`s lie. By interacting with their
counterparts rom other countries, legislators come to
appreciate the needs o other countries and how legislation
could be used to improe relations.
Pakistan has recorded signiicant achieement in the ields o
science and technology, inormation technology,
telecommunications, agriculture and agro-allied industries. In
any o the aboe ields, Pakistani experience shared with
Arican countries will be ery inaluable. 1his is particularly
the case in matters concerning bio-technology, alternatie
energy source and aboe all water management and irrigation
being domains where Pakistan has made great strides.
1he role o the press in promoting trade and inestment and
other orms o interaction between Pakistan and Arica
cannot be oeremphasized. Lectie use should be made o
media aderts as a way o bringing aailable opportunities to
the awareness o the business communities.
Arican - Pakistani relations stand today on solid grounds in a rapidly
changing world. \e must stand together to protect our interests and aboe all
our independence, soereignty and identities ully aware that the uture calls
upon us to modernize our societies so that they become more democratic,
corrupt ree, more transparent and more respectul o human rights and the
rule o law. Both Arica and Pakistan are seriously engaged in this loty
endeaor and muster enough political will to adopt policies and programs that
would make this in the not so ar distant uture.
\e need to muster the will and conjugate our eorts to push or a
quantum change in our traditional relationship. 1he aenues are aailable. \e
should be able to explore and exploit them to the mutual beneits o our

1he leads o the Arican Diplomatic Missions Islamabad - Pakistan, evate
oreigv Retatiov. Covvittee Reort, December 2005, pp. 39-42.

1his article is diided into two sections: a general section which deals with
Pakistan`s relations with Arica presently. 1he second section describes the
status o Arican Studies in Pakistan and how it can strengthen ties between
and the continent o Arica and this country.

IPRI lactile 102
Pakistan-Africa Relations
Pakistan has airly robust relations with most o Arica. It greatly alues these
relations and is committed to stronger ties with the Arican continent at large.
Pakistan`s relations with many Arican countries date back to their respectie
independence moements. Pakistan has supported both morally, materially,
and on the diplomatic leel countries such as Algeria, Kenya, Sudan,
Zimbabwe, South Arica, 1anzania, Namibia, Morocco, Libya, Lgypt, Nigeria
and others. Pakistan has established resident missions in 13 Arican countries
while others are coered through concurrent accreditation. Some o the
Arica speciic eorts that can be cited as examples o strengthening
Pakistan`s ties with the continent are cited below.
A recent isit by President Perez Musharra to Algeria includes
eorts to enhance cultural, trade, industrial, social and economic ties between
the two countries. During this isit the Algerian President asked President
Musharra to acilitate a solution o the issue o the \estern Sahara.
In 2003 the Lritrean goernment opened a resident Mission in
Islamabad to strengthen ties between the two nations.
Kenya and Pakistan share strong ties or many years. 1here hae
been arious protocols signed on the adancement o Inormation
1echnology, educational and cultural exchanges and trade. 1he ties between
the two countries are urther strengthened by the act that many Kenyans o
Pakistani extraction lie in Kenya who act as a cultural bridge between the
two countries.
Libya is another country which enjoys trade, diplomatic and cultural
ties with Pakistan. In 2003 top Pakistani businessmen attended the 1ripoli
International lair` which einced great interest in Pakistani products like
carpets, leather goods, onyx, textiles and urniture.
Bilateral trade with Mauritius is rapidly improing. 1he Asian
Diaspora in Mauritius has become a strong source o raternal ties between
the two countries. It is now quite popular among the Pakistani teleision
channels to shoot their ilms and serials in beautiul Mauritius. 1here is much
interest in Pakistani tourists or Mauritius.
1anzania has a large Pakistani-descent population but unortunately
our ligh Commission is no longer operatie in Dar-es-Salaam. 1here exists a
genuine need to expand trade, cultural, educational, economic and diplomatic
ties with this country. 1anzania was once a ormidable ront-line state against
apartheid. \ho can orget the illustrious leadership o the late Mwalimu Julius
K. Nyerere in the non-aligned moement and his contribution to the
liberation struggle o Namibia and South Arica le also made sel-reliance a
clarion call or 1hird \orld countries and brought a ciic culture to 1anzania
which let an eniable legacy o tolerance in a pluralistic society. Despite its 61
tribes 1anzania stands out as a shining example o an Arican country with
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

almost no ethnic strie not to mention the highest rate o literacy in Last
In July 2003 King Mohammad VI o the Kingdom o Morocco
conerred upon the President o Pakistan, General Perez Musharra the
highest ciil award: 1he Order o \issam Al Mohammadi.` Both countries
agreed to expand cooperation in the ields o enironment, science and
technology, and inding solutions or important international issues like
Kashmir, \estern Sahara, Indo-Pakistan relations and conlict in the Middle
Nigeria has enjoyed raternal relations in trade, culture, education,
medicine, technology and military exchanges. Pakistan always ehemently
opposed apartheid. Pakistan rejoiced at the reedom o the Republic of
South Africa along with the rest o the world. Madiba Nelson R. Mandela
paid a state isit to Pakistan in 1993. lis isit was a ery emotional experience
or the Pakistani people. Len today Pakistanis appreciate Mr. Mandela`s
oicial statements condemning the war in Aghanistan and Iraq. 1he people
o Pakistan esteem him as one o the most reered world statesman.
1he most interesting dimension that has emerged in the relations
between Pakistan and South Arica is cricket diplomacy.` Children in remote
parts o this country are amiliar with the names o the South Arican cricket
team members.
Another source o enhanced ties between the two countries is the
emerging cooperation in the ield o wildlie conseration. South Arican
wildlie conserationists, biologists and wardens rom Kruger National Park
are inoled in consering Pakistani wetlands, building game reseres,
national parks, protecting wildlie and biodiersity in the Northern areas o
this country.
It must be mentioned here that Pakistan has the singular honor o
being the highest contributor to the blue berets or the UN peacekeeping
orces in Arica. Pakistani blue berets hae been sering in Rwanda, Burundi,
Liberia and the Democratic Republic o Congo.
In addition to the aboe, oer the last 20 years, 4 Arican countries
hae sent 1500 students to study under Pakistan`s Special 1raining or Arica
Program ,S1AP,.

African Studies in Pan-African Institutional Iramework
In the 190s at least 6 Area Studies Centers were established by the Uniersity
Grants Commission now called the ligher Lducation Commission ,lLC, all
oer Pakistan. Quaid-i-Azam Uniersity ,QAU, houses the .rea tva, Cevtre
for .frica, ^ortb ava ovtb .verica. 1he Director o this Center at the time in a
correspondence with the UGC on May 23, 1984 requested the UGC to take
away Arica as it was impossible to run three continents by one Center. UGC
IPRI lactile 104
declined the request. As o today, the Center library has less than 60 books on
Arica. 1he Center does not publish on Arica unless it is "U.S. related.`
1here are no courses being taught on Arica in the Center. 1here are two
optional courses oered on Arican Politics at the Department o
International Relations at QAU. 1he QAU library holdings hae perhaps 40
books and 2 journals on Arica. 1he Institute o Modern Language does not
oer any Arican language courses.
Needless to mention that Pakistan shares with Arica many cultural,
political and religious leaders. Islam in Arica has sered as an historical anti-
imperialist orce. Arica has produced countless igures who are shared heroes
o the 1hird \orld in general. 1o name a ew would be Nelson Mandela,
Julius Nyerere, Joe Sloo, Ruth lirst, Bram lisher, Chris lani, Desmond
1utu, \alter Sisulu, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwameh Nkrumah, lrantz lanon,
Aime` Cesaire, Leopold Senghor, Amilcar Cabral, Patrice Lumumba, Samora
Machel, Nndabi Azikwe, Ken Saro-\iwa, Chinua Achebe, N`gugi \a
1hiongo Mahdi-al-Sudani, Omar Mukhtar o Cyrenacia, Ahmed-ben-Bella,
louari Boumeddiene and Gemal Abdel Nasser.
South Arica alone, the beautiul rainbow country has produced 6
Nobel laureates. 1he most recent being the illustrious noelist J. M. Cooetze.
\ho can orget the stupendous contribution to soling enironmental issues
by Mama \angari Maathai o Kenya who receied the Nobel Prize or this
year. 1o be mentioned here is yet another Nobel laureate, another son o
Arica, \ole Soyinka o Nigeria.
Any talk o South-South solidarity without Arica is absurd because
Arica's contribution to liberation struggles, truth and reconciliation, non-
aligned moement, 1hird \orld literature, art, poetry and music is truly
Pakistan must shed its apathy in the ield o Arican Studies. 1o
shake us out o this indierence the ollowing suggestions are oered:

1. 1wenty years is a long time to keep Arica Studies in the reezer. lLC
and Area Study Centre or Arica, North and South America could
perhaps expedite the de-rosting o Arica Studies in Pakistani uniersities
so that teaching, publishing and research on this continent could lourish.
2. Courses on Arica should be oered in all Pakistani uniersities and
training institutes. Aro-Asian studies and 1hird \orld Studies should be
3. 1he Institute o Modern Languages could initiate instruction in Arican
4. 1here are ample unds or 1echnical Assistance to Arica Programme in
M.l.A and L.A.D. It could be requested rom both Ministries that some
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

unds ought to be earmarked or academic research and scholastic
improement in the ield.
5. Inter-departmental co-operation between lLC, Area Studies Centers and
MlA`s Arica Desk and Aricans themseles would proe ruitul.
6. Linkage programmes with Arican Uniersities could promote aculty
student exchange as well as improe understanding o each other.
. lLC could encourage grants and unding or attending Arica-related
conerences and research ellowships.
8. Joint publishing in the ield o Arican studies with both western, Arican
as well as Pakistani publishers should be encouraged.
9. Pakistani libraries ought to be encouraged to subscribe to Arican Studies
journals published all oer the world.

It is appropriate to conclude this article with a poem entitled Come Arica`
written by the most illustrious reolutionary Pakistani poet, the world
renowned laiz Ahmad laiz:
Cove, .frica! Cove, bare beara tbe ec.ta., of ,ovr arvv,
Cove, tbe beativg of v, btooa ba. becove vaa
Cove, .frica! Cove, bare tiftea v, forebeaa frov tbe av.t
Cove, bare .craea frov v, e,e. tbe ./iv of grief
Cove, bare retea.ea v, arv frov aiv
Cove, bare ctarea tbrovgb tbe .vare of bette..ve..
Cove .frica.
;ai`. oev. vgti.b trav.tatiov b, 1ictor Kiervav:11)

Proessor Dr. Rukhsana A. Siddiqui Quaid-i-Azam Uniersity, Islamabad, evate
oreigv Retatiov. Covvittee Reort8, December 2005, pp. 43-4.

| NTERA6T| 0N w| Th AFR| 6A (2005-0}

Pakistan greatly alues its relations with the Arican countries and is
committed to deeloping stronger ties with them. Pakistan has had a historical
relationship with Arican countries, going back to their independence
moements, when Pakistan proided moral, material and diplomatic support
to countries such as Algeria, Kenya, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Namibia and South
Arica. Pakistan`s relations with all Arican countries hae always remained
close and cordial. 1hese raternal ties hae been urther strengthened by a
broad similarity o iews on a number o international and regional issues. 1o
oster and urther consolidate these relations, Pakistan has established
resident missions in 12 Arican countries, while others are coered through
concurrent accreditation.
IPRI lactile 106
Pakistan irst established a ramework or proiding technical
assistance to Arican states in 198, coering dierse ields, including public
administration, diplomacy, industry, agriculture, banking and human resource
management, etc. Under S1AP-Arica, which is on grant basis, we hae
proided training in dierse ields to oer 1500 nationals belonging to 4
Arican countries. ,1he loreign Serice Academy alone has trained 350
Arican diplomats in specialized courses during the past decade,.
Pakistan has entered into institutionalized cooperation with a number
o Arican countries in the orm o Joint Ministerial Commissions ,JMCs, and
cultural agreements. As a maniestation o Pakistan`s solidarity with raternal
Arican countries, Pakistan has proided emergency relie assistance o ood
and medicines etc., to countries, which hae allen ictims to ciil wars,
amines and other natural disasters. Pakistan has participated in UN-led
peace-keeping operations beginning with Ghana in 1965, to Somalia, Rwanda
and Sierra Leone in recent years.
Pakistan`s policy o continuous support o the Arican countries, in
spite o, at times, diicult global political enironment, has earned immense
respect amongst the Arican countries or assisting them in strengthening and
improing human resource deelopment.
In the subsequent paras, a country-wise account o deelopments is-
a-is Pakistan`s relations with arious Arican countries, during the year under
reiew |2005-06|, is being gien:

A our-member Lritrean military delegation headed by Major Alazar Dawit
Ghide isited Pakistan in December 2005. 1he delegation ivter atia isited
POl \ah and discussed signiicant technical issues with the experts o the
Ordnance lactory. A ie-member Pakistan military delegation headed by
Rear Admiral Azher Shamim Anwar, Director General 1rq, JSlQ isited
Lritrea in December 2005. During his stay in Asmara, Rear Admiral Anwar
held talks with oicials concerned and isited deence installations.
A ten-member military delegation o Lritrea, headed by Deence
Minister General Sebhat Lphrem, isited Pakistan in June 2006. 1he
delegation isited PAC Kamra, POl \ah, lI1, NDC and Llectrical and
Mechanical Lngineering College. It also called on the President o Pakistan.

Pakistan and Guinea enjoy close, cordial and raternal relations. Guinea
supports Pakistan`s principled position on Kashmir dispute. Both countries
hae cooperated with each other at arious international ora. Pakistan has
been oering technical assistance to Guinea by way o scholarships or its
diplomats, bankers and deence personnel or training in Pakistani
Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

loreign Minister o the Republic o Guinea, Madam Sidibe
latoumata Kaba, on the initation o loreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud
Kasuri paid an oicial isit to Pakistan rom 24-26 August 2005. She was
accompanied by her political adisor and National Deputy Director o
Protocol. Bilateral consultations, between the two loreign Ministers, assisted
by their delegations, were held in the Ministry o loreign Aairs, in a cordial
atmosphere, relecting the long standing close and raternal relations between
the two countries. 1here was a close identity o iews on the important issue
o the reorm o the United Nations. During her stay in lslamabad, she also
called on Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz.

loreign Minister Monyane Moleleki o the Kingdom o Lesotho, alongwith a
three-member delegation, isited Pakistan rom 2-30 March 2006, at the
initation o loreign Minister Khurshid M. Kasuri. 1his was loreign Minister
Moleleki`s irst isit to Pakistan. 1he initation to the loreign Minister o
Lesotho is part o Pakistan`s initiatie to orge closer links with the Arican
countries, especially those where we do not hae diplomatic representation.
1he two loreign Ministers discussed the whole gamut o bilateral
relations and issues o global and mutual interest. On the bilaterial ront, both
sides expressed satisaction oer the existing cordial and raternal ties between
the two countries. Pakistan expressed its readiness to extend urther technical
assistance to Lesotho by proiding training courses in arious ields. loreign
Minister Monyane Moleleki commended the contribution o Pakistan in the
deelopment o Arica and its continuing interest in strengthening ties with
Arican states.
Mr. Monyane also held talks with the Ministers o Commerce and
1extile industry. le also called on the Chairman o the National Assembly
Standing, Committee on loreign Relations. 1he loreign Minister o Lesotho
commended Pakistan role in the war on terror and measures taken to rein
extremism. Mr. Monyane showed keen interest in Pakistan textile industry and
was o the iew that a ery useul collaboration can be initiated in the ield
between the two countries.

Pakistan established diplomatic relations with Morocco in 1958. 1he
relationship has oer the years gained strength by the exchange o high leel
isits and signing o a number o agreements between the two countries.
Morocco has also been supportie o Pakistan at the International ora.

Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz isited Morocco rom 18-19 May 2006 on the
initation o his Moroccan counterpart Mr. Driss Jettou. In Rabat, Prime
IPRI lactile 108
Minister`s engagements, besides talks with Prime Minister Driss Jettou,
included meetings with the Speakers o the Upper and Lower louses o
Parliament and interaction with leading academics o the country. In the
wide-ranging talks held between the two Prime Ministers, it was emphasized
to urther increase bilateral cooperation, particularly in the economic and
commercial ields. 1he ollowing bilateral Agreements were also signed during
the isit:
a. Aoidance o Double 1axation
b. Lxecutie Programme or Cultural Agreement
c. MoU on Industrial Cooperation
Larlier, Minister o State or loreign Aairs Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtair
isited Morocco rom 26-29 June 2005, as a Special Lnoy o the President o
Pakistan. 1he Minister o State had an audience with lis Majesty the King,
and held meetings with the Minister o State or loreign Aairs and Minister
or Lxternal 1rade o Morocco.

1he Minister or loreign Aairs o Morocco, Mr. Benaissa participated in the
Donors Conerence or Larthquake aectees held in Islamabad in Noember
2005. 1he assistance o US> 1.5 million, pledged by Morocco, has been
receied in the President`s Relie lund.

1he Chie o General Sta ,CGS, o the Pakistan Army, Lt. Gen. 1ariq
Majeed paid an oicial isit to South Arica in the last week o May 2006. 1he
isit mainly centred on the sale o deence equipment and strengthening
deence cooperation between the two countries. During his meetings with his
interlocutors, the general appreciated South Arican`s stance on Pakistan`s re-
entry into the Commonwealth, and its support or Pakistan`s eorts or the
membership o the IOR-ARC.

A ie-member Pakistan military contingent, headed by Rear Admiral Azher
Shamim Anwar, Director General 1rg, JSlQ toured Sudan in December
2005. A team o the National Deence College, Islamabad, headed by Air Vice
Marshal laaiz Amir, Member Directing Sta isited Sudan in March 2006.
During their stay in Khartoum, the participants called on the Sudanese
Deputy Chie o Operations or 1raining.
Mr. lameed A. Kidwai, Roing Ambassador to the Sub-Saharan
Arica isited Sudan in April 2006. 1he Ambassador called on the Sudanese
loreign Minister and discussed matters o bilateral interest.

Pakistan and Arica ,1981-2006,

1he Pakistan ligh Commissioner accredited to Comoros attended the oath-
taking ceremony o the Union`s newly elected President Mr. Ahmed Abdullah
Mohamed Sambi in May 2006. During his isit to Comoros, he called on the
President and arious cabinet ministers.
As a relection o our solidarity and goodwill towards the people and
Goernment o Niger, the Goernment o Pakistan has donated 1000 ton o
basmati rice to Niger to replenish its short supply caused by the ensuing
drought. 1he consignment is in the process o being sent to Niger.
On 23 July 2005, the loreign Minister o Pakistan exchanged iews
by telephone, on matters o mutual interest and on the latest deelopments
on UN Reorm issues, with the loreign Minister o Algeria Dr. Mohammad
Bedjaoui, loreign Minister o Gambia Mr. Musa Gibril Bala Gaye, loreign
Minister o Comoros Mr. Soue Mohamed Ll Amine and loreign Minister o
Niger Mr. Alchatou Mindaoudon, noting in this regard that through the
Uniting lor Consensus` approach, UN Security Council would be more
democratic, equitable and accountable. le was o the iew that the Arican
objecties o securing equitable representation can be better achieed through
the Uniting lor Consensus` ormula.

oreigv Office Year oo/ 200:200 ,Ministry o loreign Aairs, Goernment o
Pakistan,, pp. 5-61


1. Algeria
2. Angola
3. Benin
4. Botswana
5. Burkina laso
6. Burundi
. Cameroon
8. Cape Verde
9. Central Arican Republic
10. Chad
11. Comoros |Island|
12. Congo
13. Cote d'Ioire |Island|
14. Democratic Republic o
15. Djibouti
16. Lgypt
1. Lquatorial Guinea
18. Lritrea
19. Lthiopia
20. Gabon
21. Gambia
22. Ghana
23. Guinea
24. Guinea-Bissau
25. Kenya
26. Lesotho
2. Liberia
28. Libya
29. Madagascar |Island|
30. Malawi
31. Mali
32. Mauritania
33. Mauritius |Island|
IPRI lactile 110
34. Morocco
35. Mozambique
36. Namibia
3. Niger
38. Nigeria
39. Rwanda
40. Sao 1ome and Principe
41. Senegal
42. Seychelles |Island|
43. Sierra Leone
44. Somalia
45. South Arica
46. Sudan
4. Swaziland
48. 1anzania, United
Republic o
49. 1ogo
50. 1unisia
51. Uganda
52. Zambia
53. Zimbabwe

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