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System Application Processing in Data Processing


What is SAP ??
The name SAP is acronym for System Application Products in Data Processing. SAP is an extremely complicated system where no one individual can understand all of it. SAP runs on a fourth generation programming language language called Advance Business Application Programming (ABAP). It have many of the features of other modern programming languages such as the familiar C, Visual Basic, and Power Builder. Your programs name conventions begins with a letter yxxx or zxxx. SAP graphical user interfaces (SAPGUI) runs on Windows / NT / Unix / AS400. When you are using 3.x you can used the SAPGUI 4.x, there are no conflicts as the SAPGUI is basically a front end tools. If you create dialog screen, remembers to tick Development Tools (utility programs for the Screen Painter) when you are installing SAPGUI 4.x. In SAPGUI 4.x, you can configure whether to use the present 3.x screen design or the New 4.x Visual design (which is very graphical and computer resource hungry). Disable the login image to reduce the memory usage. In transaction SM30, table SSM_CUST, create a new entries with Name HIDE_START_IMAGE and Value to be set YES. SAP have move towards the Windows Explorer Screen Format (all the Menu on the left of your screen). SAP is an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software product capable of integrating multiple business applications, with each application representing a specific business area. These applications update and process transactions in real time mode. It has the ability to be configured to meets the needs of the business.

Functional Areas
Logistics Sales and Distribution (SD) Material Management (MM) Warehouse Management (WM) Production Planning (PP) General Logistics (LO) Quality Management (QM) Financial Financial Accounting (FI) Controlling (CO) Enterprise Controlling (EC) Investment Management (IM) Treasury (TR) Human Resources Personnel Administration (PA) Personnel Development (PD)

The Advantages of R/3 System Release 3.0


* R/3, the global leader in standard business software, defines new levels of performance in Release 3.0. Find out for yourself about the advantages offered by these cross-industry solutions for use in future-oriented client/server environments: * R/3 optimizes the core processes of your company with its integrated applications, accelerates transactions with its Business Workflow, and makes strategic management information available in transparent form at all levels of the company within the framework of its Open Information Warehouse concept. * R/3 with its multiple platform support and openness in its communications, assures strategic freedom in designing your information management concepts. It has been enhanced by the new ALE concept for the consistent storage and controlled exchange of business data between two physically separated application systems. * The R/3 System can be implemented globally. Thanks to its availability in multiple languages and country-specific versions, R/3 fulfills the requirements for use in your subsidiaries around the world. The common data format promotes clear understanding.

* R/3 offers ready-made solutions for several hundred business processes; solutions that you - with the support of SAP modeling tools - can use to optimize the processes in your company.

The Benefits
With its business-oriented functions, R/3 opens up new opportunities for improving your company's market and customer orientation. The high level of flexibility offered by the system meets the new requirements presented by a continually changing market situation: R/3 can be quickly and easily adapted to these changes. SAP's Vertical Focus Remaining competitive in today's market means reducing costs and improving service. To meet these critical business demands, companies require software that is both capable of streamlining and integrating their business processes as well as addressing the unique needs of their industry. SAP is dedicated to meeting this challenge, providing integrated, standard software systems complemented with powerful Industry Solutions and services. We bring customized software solutions to companies within specialized vertical industries. The key to our success is the combination of SAP's experience as world leader in client/server integrated business solutions, coupled with the know-how gained with our Industry Centers of Expertise (ICOE's), vertical marketing, and the strategic alliances with customers, leading software vendors and consulting partners. Thus, customers benefit from accelerated implementations with software solutions and services tailored to their business requirements. SAP Business Workflow With SAP Business Workflow, business processes are automated across all application and organizational areas and are supported by an active information flow. SAP Business Workflow acts as middleware technology, taking on additional service functions for the R/3 System applications. Workflow management therefore enhances the wide range of possibilities offered by R/3 for managing and controlling integrated transaction and communication processes. SAP delivers predefined workflow samples for practical use, but customer-specific workflows can also be designed to integrate R/3 applications as well as other software solutions and mail systems. Workflow management and desktop integration greatly increase the areas in which the R/3 System can be used, and create new possibilities for integrating data and functions on screen.

SAP R/3 Services: Dedicated To Customer Satisfaction


SAP is continually expanding the level of its services through the use of future-oriented technology. One of SAP's main objectives is to ensure that its powerful services are available around the world 24 hours a day. Your future security is our goal. So we provide you with powerful services at every phase of R/3 implementation to ensure that you make optimum use of your R/3 System. The emphasis of our SAP R/3 service commitment is on problem prevention, information tailored to customer needs, and fast and uncomplicated consulting through video-supported technology. Problem-solving and forwarding of inquiries are accomplished via our Online Service System. Advanced workflow technology automates escalation procedures and increases the efficiency of our service processes. All complemented by extensive customer experience in meeting the needs and expectations of customers. In fact we obtain ideas for the continual further development of our services through our active cooperation with customers. Customers are our central focus, and since no two customers are the same, we tailor our service to fit each customer's individual needs. 24-hour support worldwide The SAP R/3 service commitment means targeted services for each phase of the R/3 System life cycle: * Problem-solving services for the quick resolution of system-related problems * Remote support services for error prevention, system optimization, and consulting * Information Services providing current information tailored to customer needs * Customer support services as a central contact point for receiving and answering questions about the R/3 System and R/3 Services * Product design services for integrating development requests in future production functionality * Certification and audit service to ensure a uniform quality standard for services from SAP and its

partners * EarlyWatch service for increased system availability through preventive analyses that assure early recognition and avoidance of problems We supplement our own services with services from partners. The quality of our services and that of our partners are monitored, certified, and optimized at regular intervals to ensure a constant high level. We would be happy to send you information on SAP products and services. Please call (610) 521-4500 or fax (610) 521-6290.

ABAP/4 Development Workbench


Professional Development Tools in a Stand-alone Package The ABAP/4 Development Workbench is the leading development environment for company-wide client/server applications. With the ABAP/4 Development Workbench, customer-specific developments can be carried out with ease. New synergies are possible because of uniform, forward-compatible enhancements to the standard R/3 applications. The ABAP/4 Development Workbench can be used for customer-specific development independent of the standard R/3 applications. A separate Basis system for stand-alone operation is now available in Release 3.0 for users who want to operate their Workbench exclusively for in-house development. Applications developed with the ABAP/4 Development Workbench on the separate Basis system can be integrated with the R/3 production Basis system via RFC, or migrated completely to the production system. The ABAP/4 Development Workbench takes advantage of R/3 Basis technology, such as scalability, distribution, and system management. Important features include: * Ease of use * Repository-based development * Non-platform-specific programming * Repeated use of ABAP/4 modules * Open RFC, SQL, and OLE interfaces * Powerful tools for testing, tuning, debugging, and optimizing performance Develop client/server applications as SAP does Effectiveness of the ABAP/4 Development Workbench was well established during the development of R/3. Development Workbench is now being used by over 10,000 developers worldwide to create enhancements and customized applications in the R/3 environment. In increasing numbers, SAP customers are also taking advantage of the quality and performance of the Workbench in R/3independent development projects. With the specially tailored tools of the ABAP/4 Development Workbench, SAP is offering a product line which fulfills all the requirements for developing high-end applications. The performance and capabilities are increased further in Release 3.0 with the addition of numerous new functions.

ABAP/4 Development Workbench Highlights in 3.0


* Stand-alone Basis system for in-house developments * User-defined data types * Screen Painter for Windows NT/Windows '95 * Asynchronous communications links with RFC * OLE 2.0 as additional program-to-program function * Simplified database analyses * Simplified dictionary maintenance * Integration of the Data Modeler * Repository information system * Open Repository interface * Enhancements to the SAP-GUI * Computer Aided Test Tools (CATT)

Some ABAP Interview Questions


Want this as a Word Document - Download Here What is an ABAP data dictionary?

ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views. What are domains and data element? Domains: Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user. What is foreign key relationship? A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are no contradictions. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible. Describe data classes? Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed. System data: It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself. What are indexes? Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form eases fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table is included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database. Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables? Transparent tables: A transparent table in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables: A pooled table in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level. What is an ABAP/4 Query? ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. - For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated. What is BDC programming? Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC (Batch Data Communications).The central

component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into sessions. What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC? These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming: BDC_OPEN_GROUP - Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules. BDC_INSERT - It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session. BDC_CLOSE_GROUP - This is used to close the batch input session. What are internal tables? Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need. What is ITS? What are the merits of ITS? ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen, provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa. Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime. What is DynPro? DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro. What are screen painter and menu painter? Screen painter: Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 application. What are the components of SAP scripts? A SAP script is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like standard normal documents. Layout sets. - Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and character string. ABAP/4 program. What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP? ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP List Viewer) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. In such cases, this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options. What are the events in ABAP/4 language? Initialization, At selection-screen, Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection, At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST. What is CTS and what do you know about it?

The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project. What are logical databases? What are the advantages/ dis-advantages of logical databases? To read data from a database tables we use logical database. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program. Advantages: i) Check functions which check that user input is complete, correct, and plausible. ii) Meaningful data selection. iii) Central authorization checks for database accesses. iv) Good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic. Dis Advantages: i) If you do not specify a logical database in the program attributes, the GET events never occur. ii) There is no ENDGET command, so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION). What is a batch input session? Its an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session i.e. data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed. How to upload data using CATT? These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT: Creation of the CATT test case & recording the sample data input. Download of the source file template. Modification of the source file. Upload of the data from the source file. What is Smart Forms? Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality, color, and more. Additionally, all new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution. How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data? Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or cross client objects in the change requests. Workbench objects like SAP scripts are client specific, some entries in customizing are client independent. If you display the object list for one change request, and then for each object the object attributes, you will find the flag client specific. If one object in the task list has this flag on, then that transport will be client dependent. What is the difference between macro and subroutine? Macros can only be used in the program that are defined in and only after the definition are expanded at compilation / generation. Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the program the are defined in and other programs. A Macro is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice. A Form is a local subroutine (which can be called external). A Function is (more or less) a subroutine that is called external. Since debugging a MACRO is not really possible, prevent the use of them (I've never used them, but seen them in action). If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If the subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION.

What is the typical structure of an ABAP/4 program? Header, Body, Footer. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program? Step 1: Converting The Legacy System data to a Flat File into internal table "CONVERSION". Step 2: Transferring the Flat File into SAP System called "SAP DATA TRANSFER". Step 3: Depending upon BDC type. i) call transaction (Write the program explicitly) ii) create sessions (sessions are created and processed. if success data will transfer). What is the alternative to batch input session? Call transaction. A situation: An ABAP program creates a batch input session. We need to submit the program and the batch session in back ground. How to do it? Go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name, job class and job steps (JOB SCHEDULING) What are the problems in processing batch input sessions? How is batch input process different from processing online? i) If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue (log remains). However if session is processed we may delete it manually. ii) if session processing fails data will not be transferred to SAP database table. What are the different types of data dictionary objects? Tables, structures, views, domains, data elements, lock objects, Match code objects. How many types of tables exists and what are they in data dictionary? 4 types of tables i) Transparent tables - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields. Both Opensql and Nativesql can be used. ii) Pool tables & iii) Cluster tables These are logical tables that are arranged as records of transparent tables. One cannot use native sql on these tables (only Opensql).They are not manageable directly using database system tools. iv) Internal tables What is the step by step process to create a table in data dictionary? step 1: creating domains (data type, field length, range). step 2: creating data elements (properties and type for a table field). step 3: creating tables (SE11). Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the data base physically? No. Transparent Table do exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well in the database, exactly with the same data & fields.

What are the domains and data elements? Domains: Formal definition of Datatype.They set attributes such as Datatype, Length, Range. Data Element: A Field in R/3 System. Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements? YES. e.g.:- ITAB LIKE SPFLI. Here we are referencing to a data object (SPFLI) not data element. What is the advantage of structures? How do you use them in the ABAP programs? Global Existance(These could be used by any other program without creating it again). What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program? Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure, you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: EXTRACT <fg>. When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program, the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset EXTRACT HEADER. When you extract the data, the record is filled with the current values of the corresponding fields. As soon as the system has processed the first EXTRACT statement for a field group <fg>, the structure of the corresponding extract record in the extract dataset is fixed. You can no longer insert new fields into the field groups <fg> and HEADER. If you try to modify one of the field groups afterwards and use it in another EXTRACT statement, a runtime error occurs. By processing EXTRACT statements several times using different field groups, you fill the extract dataset with records of different length and structure. Since you can modify field groups dynamically up to their first usage in an EXTRACT statement, extract datasets provide the advantage that you need not determine the structure at the beginning of the program. What is a collect statement? How is it different from append? If an entry with the same key already exists, the COLLECT statement does not append a new line, but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry. What is an interactive report? What is the obvious diff of such report compared with classical type reports? An Interactive report is a dynamic drill down report that produces the list on user's choice. diff:a) The List produced by Classical Report doesn't allow user to interact with the system the list produced by interactive report allows the user to interact with the system. b) Once a Classical Report executes, user looses control. c) In Classical Report Drilling is not possible. In Interactive Drilling is possible. What is a drill down report? It's an Interactive report where in the user can get more relevant data by selecting explicitly. How do you write a function module in SAP? Describe.

Creating function module:Called program - se37-creating funcgrp, funcmodule by assigning attributes, importing, exporting, tables, and exceptions. Calling program - SE38-in program click pattern and write function name- provide export, import, tables, exception values. What are the exceptions in function module? Communication_Failure System_Failure What is a function group? Group of all related functions. How are the date and time field values stored in SAP? DD.MM.YYYY. HH:MM:SS What happens when a table is activated in DD? It is available for any insertion, modification and updation of records by any user. What is a check table and what is a value table? Check table will be at field level checking. Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. What are match codes? Describe? It is a similar to table index that gives list of possible values for either primary keys or non-primary keys. What are ranges? What are number ranges? max, min values provided in selection screens. What are select options and what is the diff from parameters? Select options provide ranges where as parameters do not. Select-Options declares an internal table which is automatically filled with values or ranges of values entered by the end user. For each SELECT-OPTIONS, the system creates a selection table. Select-Options <SEL> FOR <field>. A selection table is an internal table with fields Sign, Option, Low & High. The type of LOW and HIGH is the same as that of <field>. The SIGN field can take the following values: I Inclusive (should apply) E Exclusive (should not apply) The OPTION field can take the following values: EQ Equal GT Greater than NE Not equal BT Between LE Less than or equal NB Not between LT Less than CP Contains pattern GE Greater than or equal NP No pattern. Diff:-

PARAMETERS allow users to enter a single value into an internal field within a report. SELECT-OPTIONS allow users to fill an internal table with a range of values. For each PARAMETERS or SELECT-OPTIONS statement you should define text elements by choosing Goto - Text elements - Selection texts - Change. Eg: - Parameters name (30). when the user executes the ABAP/4 program, an input field for 'name' will appear on the selection screen. You can change the comments on the left side of the input fields by using text elements as described in Selection Texts. How do you validate the selection criteria of a report? And how do you display initial values in a selection screen? Validate: - by using match code objects. Display: - Parameters <name> default 'xxx'. select-options <name> for spfli-carrid. Are programs client dependent? Yes. Group of users can access these programs with a client no. Name a few system global variables you can use in ABAP programs? SY-SUBRC, SY-DBCNT, SY-LILLI, SY-DATUM, SY-UZEIT, SY-UCOMM, SY-TABIX..... SY-LILLI is Absolute no. of Lines from which the Event was triggered. What are internal tables? How do you get the number of lines in an internal table? How to use a specific number occurs statement? i) It is a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need. ii) using SY-DBCNT. iii) The number of memory allocations the system need to allocate for the next record population. How do you take care of performance issues in your ABAP programs? Performance of ABAPs can be improved by minimizing the amount of data to be transferred. The data set must be transferred through the network to the applications, so reducing the amount OF time and also reduces the network traffic. Some measures that can be taken are: - Use views defined in the ABAP/4 DDIC (also has the advantage of better reusability). - Use field list (SELECT clause) rather than SELECT *. - Range tables should be avoided (IN operator) - Avoid nested SELECTS. What are field symbols and field groups?

Field Symbols: Field symbols are placeholders for existing fields. A Field Symbol does not physically reserve space for a field, but points to a field which is not known until runtime of the program. Eg: - FIELD-SYMBOL <FS> [<TYPE>]. Field groups: A field group combines several fields under one name. At runtime, the INSERT command is used to define which data fields are assigned to which field group. There should always be a HEADER field group that defines how the extracted data will be sorted; the data is sorted by the fields grouped under the HEADER field group. What are datasets? The sequential files (ON APPLICATION SERVER) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP. How to find the return code of a statement in ABAP programs? Using function modules. What are interface/conversion programs in SAP? Conversion: Legacy System to Flat File. Interface: Flat File to SAP System. What are logical databases? What are the advantages/disadvantages of logical databases? To read data from a database tables we use logical database. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program. Advantage:The programmer need not worry about the primary key for each table. Because Logical database knows how the different tables relate to each other, and can issue the SELECT command with proper where clause to retrieve the data. i) An easy-to-use standard user interface. ii) Check functions which check that user input is complete, correct, and plausible. iii) meaningful data selection. iv) central authorization checks for database accesses. v) good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic. Disadvantage:i) If you do not specify a logical database in the program attributes, the GET events never occur. ii) There is no ENDGET command, so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION). What specific statements do you using when writing a drill down report? AT LINE-SELECTION, AT USER-COMMAND, AT PF. What do you do when the system crashes in the middle of a BDC batch session? We will look into the error log file (SM35). What do you do with errors in BDC batch sessions?

We look into the list of incorrect session and process it again. To correct incorrect session we analyze the session to determine which screen and value produced the error. For small errors in data we correct them interactively otherwise modify batch input program that has generated the session or many times even the data file. How do you set up background jobs in SAP? What are the steps? What are the event driven batch jobs? Go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name, job class and job steps (JOB SCHEDULING) Does SAP handle multiple currencies? Multiple languages? Yes. What is SAP script and layout set? The tool which is used to create layout set is called SAP script. Layout set is a design document. What are the ABAP/4 commands that link to a layout set? control commands, system commands, What are IDOCs? IDOCs are intermediate documents to hold the messages as a container. What are screen painter? menu painter? Gui status? etc. DynPro - Flow logic + Screens. Menu Painter - Used to create Menu's for the screens. GUI Status - It is subset of the interface elements (title bar, menu bar, standard tool bar, and push buttons) used for a certain screen. The status comprises those elements that are currently needed by the transaction. What is screen flow logic? What are the sections in it? Explain PAI and PBO. The control statements that control the screen flow. PBO - This event is triggered before the screen is displayed. PAI - This event is responsible for processing of screen after the user enters the data and clicks the pushbutton. Overall how do you write transaction programs in SAP? Create program-SE93-create transcode-Run it from command field. What are step loops? How do you program pagedown pageup in step loops? Step loops are repeated blocks of field in a screen. Is ABAP a GUI language? Yes. ABAP is an Event Driven Language. Normally how many and what files get created when a transaction program is written? What is the XXXXXTOP program? ABAP/4 program. DYNPRO

What are the include programs? When the same sequence of statements in several programs are to be written repeatedly they are coded in include programs (External programs) and are included in ABAP/4 programs. Can you call a subroutine of one program from another program? Yes- only external subroutines Using 'SUBMIT' statement. What are the general naming conventions of ABAP programs? Should start with Y or Z. How do you find if a logical database exists for your program requirements? SLDB-F4. How do you find the tables to report from when the user just tell you the transaction he uses? And all the underlying data is from SAP structures? Transcode is entered in command field to open the table. Utilities-Table contents-display. What are the different modules of SAP? FICO, SD, MM, PP, HR. How do you get help in ABAP? Help-SAP Library, by pressing F1 on a keyword. What are the different elements in layout sets? Pages, Page windows, Header, Paragraph, Character String, Windows. Can you use if then else, perform.etc statements in sap script? yes. What takes most time in SAP Script programming? Layout Design & Logo Insertion. What are presentation and application servers in SAP? The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. In an ABAP/4 program how do you access data that exists on a presentation server vs. on an application server? i) using loop statements. ii) flat file What are different data types in ABAP/4? Elementary -Predefined C,D,F,I,N,P,T,X. -User defined TYPES.

Structured -Predefined TABLES. -User defined Field Strings and Internal Tables. What has to be done to the packed fields before submitting to a BDC session? Fields converted into character type. What is the structure of a BDC sessions. BDCDATA (standard structure). What are the fields in a BDC_Tab Table? Program, DynPro, DynBegin, fnam, fval. What is cardinality? For cardinality one out of two (domain or data element) should be the same for Ztest1 and Ztest2 tables. M: N Cardinality specifies the number of dependent (Target) and independent (source) entities which can be in a relationship. What is the difference between RFC and BAPI? What are subclasses and super classes in BAPI and also what are the methods in BAPI? BAPI are RFC enabled function modules. the difference between RFC and BAPI are business objects. You create business objects and those are then registered in your BOR (Business Object Repository) which can be accessed outside the SAP system by using some other applications (NonSAP) such as VB or JAVA. in this case u only specify the business object and its method from external system in BAPI there is no direct system call. while RFC are direct system call Some BAPI's provide basic functions and can be used for most SAP business object types. These BAPI's should be implemented the same for all business object types. Standardized BAPI's are easier to use and prevent users having to deal with a number of different BAPI's. Whenever possible, a standardized BAPI must be used in preference to an individual BAPI. The following standardized BAPI's are provided: Reading instances of SAP business objects GetList ( ) With the BAPI GetList you can select a range of object key values, for example, company codes and material numbers. The BAPI GetList () is a class method. GetDetail () With the BAPI GetDetail () the details of an instance of a business object type are retrieved and returned to the calling program. The instance is identified via its key. The BAPI GetDetail () is an instance method. BAPI's that can create, change or delete instances of a business object type The following BAPI's of the same object type have to be programmed so that they can be called several times within one transaction. For example, if, after sales order 1 has been created, a second sales order 2 is created in the same transaction, the second BAPI call must not affect the consistency of the sales order 2. After completing the transaction with a COMMIT WORK, both the orders are saved consistently in the database. Create ( ) and CreateFromData! ( ) The BAPI's Create () and CreateFromData () create an instance of an SAP business object type, for example, a purchase order. These BAPI's are class methods. Change ( )

The BAPI Change () changes an existing instance of an SAP business object type, for example, a purchase order. The BAPI Change () is an instance method. Delete ( ) and Undelete ( ) The BAPI Delete () deletes an instance of an SAP business object type from the database or sets a deletion flag. The BAPI Undelete () removes a deletion flag. These BAPI's are instance methods. Cancel ( ) Unlike the BAPI Delete (), the BAPI Cancel () cancels an instance of a business object type. The instance to be cancelled remains in the database and an additional instance is created and this is the one that is actually canceled. The Cancel () BAPI is an instance method. Add<subobject> ( ) and Remove<subobject> ( ) The BAPI Add<subobject> adds a subobject to an existing object instance and the BAPI and Remove<subobject> removes a subobject from an object instance. These BAPI's are instance methods. Is it possible to connect SAP to Non-SAP systems to retrieve data using RFC alone with out using BAPI? No it is not possible to connect SAP to Non-SAP systems to retrieve data using RFC alone. RFC can access the SAP from outside only through BAPI and same is for vice versa access. What is the difference between Function module and BAPI? Each BAPI Object has Interface, Key Fields, Attributes, Methods and Events.BAPI Function Modules can be attached to these BAPI objects .Function module has a single bound functionality while a BAPI object can contain many functionalities What are pooled table? Table pools (pools) and table clusters (clusters) are special table types in the ABAP Dictionary. The data from several different tables can be stored together in a table pool or table cluster. Tables assigned to a table pool or table cluster are referred to as pooled tables or cluster tables. A table in the database in which all records from the pooled tables assigned to the table pool are stored corresponds to a table pool. The definition of a pool consists essentially of two key fields (Tabname and Varkey) and a long argument field (Vardata). Table Clusters Several logical data records from different cluster tables can be stored together in one physical record in a table cluster. A cluster key consists of a series of freely definable key fields and a field (Pageno) for distinguishing continuation records. A cluster also contains a long field (Vardata) that contains the contents of the data fields of the cluster tables for this key. If the data does not fit into the long field, continuation records are created. Control information on the structure of the data string is still written at the beginning of the Vardata field. What are Hashed Tables? This is the most appropriate type for any table where the main operation is key access. You cannot access a hashed table using its index. The response time for key access remains constant, regardless of the number of table entries. Like database tables, hashed tables always have a unique key. Hashed tables are useful if you want to construct and use an internal table which resembles a database table or for processing large amounts of data. What are advantages of using ABAP objects? What is the advantage of using ABAP objects in Reports? ABAP objects are root for your program and reports. ABAP Difference between Search Helps and Match Codes? In 4.6b name is call it as match code. in higher versions it is search helps

Have you created database tables? yes, If we have Customised data to store in Table, we create a Table. Difference between client dependent and client independent tables? A client-dependent table has the field MANDT of data type CLNT, which indicates Client id. A clientindependent table does not have this field. How to create client independent tables? Fist field should not be Mandt Have you created Maintenance dialog or Table Maintenance? At the time of creating table through, there is a check box for table maintenance allowed. So if you want to activate the table maintenance, just mark this box. Once table gets activated, u can change its contents through SM30 or Through Table Maintenance In the SELECT statement what is GROUP BY? Group by clause is used to fetch the data from the table by the specified field ex.select count (*) from emptable group by deptno where deptno = 1. It is used to find the number of employees present. Have you worked with field groups? Have you used Import/Export statements? Internal tables are used to hold the records which have the fixed line structures. Where as Extract Datasets are used to hold the records which have different line structures. These records are defined by FieldGroups. What's an effective way of using an internal table record? What are the types of internal tables? Among all methods of internal tables, using and defining the internal tables by types statement is best and effective way, in internal table's three types are there 1.standard internal table's 2.sorted internal table's 3.hashed internal tables What type of user exits have you written? There are four types 1.function exit 2.menu exit 3.screen exit. 4. field exit. these are the user exits In production what is the user exit? User exits can be said as addition of more functionality to the standard SAP code that than what it has with it, like function exit, screen exit -addition of new fields in this screen, menu exit. How data is stored in cluster table? With the help of varkey and vardata. What are client dependant objects in ABAP/SAP? SAP Script layout, text element, and some DDIC objects On which even we can validate the input fields in module programs? In Process After Input Event(PAI) In selection screen I have three fields, plant mat no and material group. If I input plant how do I get the mat no and material group based on plant dynamically? You can use a kind of search help which import the plant mat no and than fetch the material group. You have to declare the select-option variable from the same structure field in which the material no. has the search help attached

How do you get output from IDOC? Direct processing or through Message control Can we create field without data element and how? yes we can create field without data element, make it as Direct type or Built-in Type How do we debug sap script? First we need to put Break point in Print program where ever you want to stop the execution. After in SE71 give your form name and go to Utilities-->Active De-bugger. Then go to your transaction like VF03 (for Invoice or Credit memo) etc. Which transaction code can I used to analyze the performance of ABAP program? Transaction code for check abap runtime performance is--- SE30 What is the step by step process to create a table in data dictionary? Step 1: creating domains (data type, field length, range). step 2: creating data elements (properties and type for a table field). step 3: creating tables (SE11). What is open sql vs. native sql? native sql we can access tables with specific database. open sql we can access tables regard less of its database system. What does an EXEC SQL stmt do in ABAP? What is the disadvantage of using it? Executes the Native SQL statements enclosed between EXEC SQL and ENDEXEC statements. Unlike Open SQL, the addressed database tables must not be declared in the ABAP Dictionary. BDC What are Field groups and internal tables? Field groups are nothing but a similar type of fields grouped under single name (group). or grouping of the fields is called field groups. it tables are stored temp memory/in buffer for the further processing of the fields. Size of the internal tables? it give info about how much memory is allocated for the itabs. sy-toccu gives the memory occupied by the itabs. Control levels in internal tables? The control breaks in an Internal Table areAt firstAt newAt endofSum What's an effective way of using an internal table record? Create Internal table without Header. Do all the internal table operations by Creating Workarea. This would be the efficient way of coding. Don't forget to CLEAR Workarea whenever it is required. What is the difference between cost center element and a GL account? G/L Account is classified into expenses and revenues. In FI module the term GL Account is used and in CO Module the term CostCenter is used. Both r having same meaning What is Recording Function? With recording, user can avoid manual search for fields and tables required in a program including screen numbers. SHDB is the transaction code.

BDC vs. Direct Loads (have you used direct loads on SAP tables)? Ya. Direct loads is 5 times faster than uploading by normal BDC method. but some times while updating the database referential integrity is violated. Difference between /N and /BEND? /BEND terminates the batch input processing and sets the session to be failed./N terminates the current batch input transaction. How to read files and process BDCs automatically? use call function 'upload' exportingfilename = 'file' From Excel to ABAP - Is batch mode possible? NO Call transaction method, how to capture the errors? Create a log file by using BDCMSGCOLL. Update types in Call transaction method. What is the difference? Call transaction update types: update types: S /A/LS-SYNCHRONOUSA-ASYNCHRONOUSLLOCAL MEMORY synchronous mode is waiting for commit work and asynchronous is not waiting for commit work. DATABASE What happens when UPDATE command is used without where clause? If we don't mention "WHERE" clause in the UPDATE statement, it will update all records satisfying the given condition (if given any) in the table! Difference between INSERT, UPDATE & MODIFY? 'insert' will add a new record or a new row into the database table. 'Update' will modify a record in the DB table. 'Modify' it is a combination of both insert and update Explain COMMIT & ROLLBACK? The Oracle RDBMS provides a transaction model based on a unit of work. The PL/SQL language supports most, but not all, of the database model for transactions (you cannot, for example, ROLLBACK FORCE What is GROUP BY in Select statement? Group by is used to fetch a unique data from a column. REPORTS CHECK & CONTINUE. What is the difference? Check statement, checks the condition with in a loop and if it satisfies the condition, the control moves to next statement in the loop. Otherwise, it terminates the loop. Continue statement, acts like Goto statement. If the condition is true, it processes EXIT & STOP. What is the difference? exit statements is exit the current loop. and moving to next loop but stop statement move to end of selection. it's not check all other loops. How many interactive reports can we write?

In an Interactive Report, user can define maximum 20 secondary lists. What is the reserve command? Reverse Command: Reverse N Lines: if there is not enough space left on the current page for at least n lines it starts a new page. What are event keywords in reports? Events keywords in Reports are For Classical Reports, 1.Initialization 2. At line-selection 3. Start-ofselection 4.Top-of-page 5. At user-command 6.End-of-selection 7. End-of-page 8.At Pf For Interactive Reports, 9.At line-selection 10. Top-of-page How can validate input values in selection screen and which event was fired? We can Validate Selection Screen With the Help of the Following Events, the Event Follows the Same hierarchy. AT SELECTION-SCREEN ONAT SELECTION-SCREEN ON BLOCKAT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUTAT SELECTION-SCREEN. BDC Transaction code? Transaction code for BDC: SHDB What is the transaction code SM 31? SE31-Used for maintaining Tables/Views. How to navigate basic list to secondary list? We can Navigate from basic list to secondary list with the help the event called AT LINESELECTION. for every Secondary List the System Field SY-LSIND increases by 1. So there will be Totally 21 list possible in SAP. One Basic List 20 Secondary List. If I am in 15th Secondary List how to navigate to 5th Secondary List? Use Back button or place one pushbutton in application toolbar. case sy-ucomm. When 'Back' sylsind = 5.endcase. Which is the First character of creating LockObject? Lock objects always starts with character 'E'. How many types of standard SAP Internal Tables? 1) Standard Table 2) Index Table 3) Hashed Table 4) Sorted Table What is the Difference Between Table controls and Step Loops? Table controls have both horizontal and vertical scrollers and cursor control logic is designed implicitly. Step loops have only horizontal scrollers and cursor control logic is to be designed by the user explicitly. How many ways you can create Table? User can create a Database table in two ways.1.Top-to-bottom approach: In this approach, first fields are defined and later domain and data element are defined.2.Bottom-to-top approach: In this approach, first domain and data element are defined and later How can you create push buttons in the MenuPainter? Using set Pfstatus <name> in the report. (Or) using the Tcode se41. How can u call the Sessions? Using transaction code SM35

Can u call Report in Sap Script? Yes we can. Just write in Line editor:/:perform f_display_report----------------------------------/:endperform. This perform would be declared in the print programme in which you can always write statement "Submit Report"... How to Upload Logo to Layout Set and what is Program Name? Image should be in tiff file format. using RSTXLDMC Program we can upload the logo into layout What are Text Elements? Text elements makes program easier to maintain program texts in different languages. These are used for maintaining list headers, selection texts in programs What is an Interactive Report? An Interactive report allows the user to participate in retrieving and present data at each level. while classical report doesn't have access to interact What is Refresh in Internal Table? Delete an internal table Transaction Code for Recording Technique? SHDB What is LDB? Logical Database (LDB) How many push buttons u can create in application toolbar in selection screen? Upto 5 Pushbuttons What are Control Break Commands? At first. At new. At end. At last. On change of. What are different Modes of displays in Call Transaction in BDC? There are 3 types of modes in call Transaction. All screen, Error screen, No screen. What is LUW? It is a span of time during which database records are updated either commit or rollback. Have you created tables in SAP? What are client dependent and independent tables? How do you create independent tables? Tables which are having MANDT field is called as client dependent tables. Tables which are not having MANDT field is called as client dependent tables. Have you used WS Upload? Difference between WS Upload and Upload? While using upload we give file name and file type in the function itself as parameters. In ws_upload we give the filename and file type at runtime. What is the syntax for eliminating the duplicates in Internal table? Delete adjacent duplicate entries from itab1. What is the difference between report program and dialog program?

A report program is a stand alone program. They are not controlled by any external programs. A dialogue or module pool program is not a stand alone program. They are controlled by screen flow logic How do you identify a line from the basic list? By system field SY-LSIND What is meant by a client? It is a self contain unit in a R/3 system. what is the function module used to print in a layout set? Write_Form How many select statements are there and list those? select Endselect. select singleselect. up to 1 rowsselect Field from dbtable into table itab. What is meant by BDC? How many methods of BDC are there? BDC -> Batch Data Communication. Methods of BDC-> Direct Input method, Batch Input Session method, Call transaction method. What is the difference between Function module and Sub routine? subroutine do not return values. functions can return values. What is initialization? Initialization is nothing but declaring database fields. In initialization structure of the tables can also be imported. Initialization. -> Tables lfa1.data: begin of itab occurs 2, matnr MODULES Do you need and enquiry or quotation before we start the SD process? No we can start the process with sales order without the reference of inquiry or quotation What happens when you post goods issue after delivery? How does the inventory get reduced after the delivery? movement type actually helps in updating the stocks; movement reduces the stock in plant and posts to FI. In delivery processing which step comes first, Picking, Packing, and Posting Goods Issue? picking and packing are optional. While picking can the pick list be updated automatically? By creating transfer order LT03 the picking can be updated How do you get the Sales Order (S.O) No. from the Delivery Order? From Document Flow In the function module for reading text from the S.O header what needs to be specified? text det. procedure field is to be activated What is Condition technique?

It is the combination of condition tables, access sequence, condition type, procedure determination.. How do we debug sap script? First we need to put Break point in Print program where ever you want to stop the execution. After in SE71 give your form name and go to Utilities-->Active De-bugger. Then go to your transaction like VF03 (for Invoice or Credit memo) etc. What is the typical structure of an ABAP/4 program? Structure of ABAP/4 program is, 1. Declaration 2. Dialog Module 3. Event Block 4. Procedure.

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Home Career Tips E R P Tutorials Gallery ABC of Career


A-void negative sources, people, places, things and habits B-elieve in yourself C-onsider things from every angle D-on't give up and don't give in

E-njoy life today, yesterday is gone and tomorrow may never come F-amily and friends are hidden treasures, seek them and enjoy their riches G-ive more than you planned to H-ang on to your dreams I-gnore those who try to discourage you J-ust do it K-eep trying no matter how hard it seems it will get easier L-ove yourself first and most M-ake it happen N-ever lie, cheat or steal, always strike a fair deal O-pen your eyes and see things as they really are P-ractice makes perfect Q-uitters never win and winners never quit R-ead study and learn about everything important in your life S-top procrastinating T-ake control of your own destiny U-nderstand yourself in order to better understand others V-isualize it W-ant it more than anything X-cellerate your efforts Y-ou are unique of all God's creations nothing can replace you Z-ero in on your target and go for it !

Basics of RESUME
The Lasting First Impressions When we talk of all that is fair and unfair in life, first impressions actually stand for all that is unfair. Someone that appears to be a fit for the job is hired based on first impressions; provided the candidate possesses the requisite qualifications. Someone, who may be more deserving, is not chosen for exactly the same reasons. To get a thorough understanding of the process of impression formation, one needs to first of all know the factors that are involved in impression formation. The second step would be learning to use the very same systems to one's advantage through a process called impression management.

Covering letter It is said that impression formation at work begins with the covering letter that one sends out to an organisation for a job. Technically speaking, a covering letter helps form a mental schema or cognitive framework based on which the interviewer assesses the candidate. This schema may be based on the interviewer's past experience in dealing with applications and meetings with candidates. It could mean that you are perceived as a person type. A covering letter that is sloppy will lead to similar traits getting associated with your personality and you will find yourself on the defensive in the interview. After all, each one of us has some flaws but the trick lies in the first impression that focuses only on positive attributes. Primacy effect Each one of us has some flaw or the other but the first impression must be based on positive attributes that are unquestioned and which create the "primacy effect". In a study done by psychologists, a series of traits - intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn and envious were used to test two different sets of subjects.For the second group of subjects, the presentation of traits was reversed. The subjects belonging to the first group got more favourable ratings. Even the traits of being critical and stubborn were tempered by the traits of intelligence and industriousness. In other words, positive first impressions provide the requisite cushioning for the other dimensions of your personality. The first handshake, eye contact, surety in manner will matter the most the first time around. Similarly, references or word of mouth that is in your favour will be invaluable in this respect. Other factors Apart from the primacy effect, other factors that influence impression formation are - source of information, negative versus positive information and atypical behaviours. A credible source of information helps create a distinct impression.Make sure that any information being conveyed by a credible person about you is positive.Similarly, negative information is always given more weight than the positive information. So, refrain from highlighting or indulging in any quirky acts. And, finally, atypical behaviours like an unusual habit or trait stands out like a sore thumb. Impression management All the factors mentioned above can be translated into a list of dos and don'ts. Initiatives that are aimed purely at impression management are as important. These are the tactics that rsum managers, placement agencies or career guides use to increase your value as a candidate. In fact, there's more to it in terms of what you can add at a personal level in order to appear in the most favourable light to the target audience. Appearance - Research has shown that it pays to take extra care of one's outer appearance. Tidiness and carefully chosen colours are but to be expected. Apart from that, based on your knowledge about the company and its working ambience, you must dress to project an image that makes your induction a fait accompli. Even on the job, your image will be affected by the way you dress everyday. Other Enhancement - This is a tactic that many people use but few get away with. There is a grave danger of it sounding like sycophancy, which will lead to formation of a negative image. However, if your compliments are measured and based on facts, you might be able to crack the loop as a person who can appreciate good work. Asking for the other person's advice is also a way of getting the approval. Take care that you don't project yourself as a greenhorn. Assertive language - It will help in the formation of a positive image more than the use of submissive language. Submissive language might project you as a pushover and thus incapable of taking own decisions Impression management is aimed at making things easier for oneself at work in the long run. It also helps in setting standards for oneself and endeavouring to live up to them.

Interview
Don't do these.. Some interview pitfalls to avoid 1. Don't arrive at the interview late.

2. Don't over or under dress or dress inappropriately for the position. First impressions do count and you want to be dressed to show that you fit into the desired role. 3. Don't wear strong perfume. 4. Don't forget to take with you extra clean copies of your CV as well as a notebook and pen with which to take notes. 5. Don't forget to shake the hand of the Interviewer firmly - a limp or sweaty handshake will not be looked on favorably. 6. Don't chew gum, smoke, eat or drink at the Interview. 7. Don't act distracted. Look the Interviewer straight in the eye and give him your full and undivided attention. 8. Don't let your body language send the wrong messages. Be aware of the nonverbal cues you are sending out! Sit upright and straight in the chair facing the employer and smile. Lean forward occasionally to express interest. Avoid crossing your arms or legs in front of you (suggests defensiveness), slouching in the chair (suggests sloppiness and lack of energy), leaning too far back (may be interpreted as being overly familiar and disrespectful), talking to the floor (lack of confidence) or flirting. 9. Don't refer to the Interviewer by his first name unless he specifically asks you to do so. 10. Don't talk about your weaknesses or failings or apologize for lack of education, experience, training etc. Everyone has weaknesses; the Interview is the time to showcase your enthusiasm and strengths. 11. Don't make derogatory comments about previous bosses or peers. This is never acceptable and particularly works against you in the Interview. 12. Don't act tired or jaded. Employers are invariably looking for someone to energize, inspire and uplift the team. Try to act enthusiastic and full of energy and motivation. 13. Don't act unfocused and uncertain about what you want. Whatever interview you're in - you want THAT job. 14. Don't lie. Answer briefly, truthfully and concisely. 15. Don't interrupt. 16. Avoid giving 'yes' or 'no' answers. Support your answers with examples and be as factual and concise as you can. 17. Don't talk too much. Focus your answers on the particular question and on your related strengths. Watch for signals that the Interviewer is losing interest and stop talking immediately. 18. Don't talk about your personal life. You have not been hired yet so keep it professional. This is no the time to talk about failed love lives, a husband who asked you to quit your job etc.! 19. Don't treat questions as jokes or try to be too funny. 20. Don't ask about holidays, perks, hours or compensation until you've actually been made a serious offer. 21. Don't act overly confident or superior. Ultimately, unless you are applying to the very senior level positions, the Interviewer is looking for someone who is manageable and will fit into the team. 22. Don't drop names of influential friends and acquaintances unless you are passing a message or someone has referred you. Be very careful and professional when you mention names of clients and make sure you are never giving out confidential information. 23. Don't leave abruptly. Shake the Interviewer's hand firmly, thank him for his time and ask what the next step will be.

Technical Part
After clearing the written test Technical Interview is another hurdle to cross. Most of the candidates are filtered in Technical Interview. Questions asked in Technical Interview entirely depend on the interviewer. Imagine the situation in which you are very proficient in Java, but the interviewer does not know Java. Interviewers prefer to ask questions in the subjects which they know well. I should say that luck plays a bit in the Technical Interview. One more thing to be mentioned here is that, most of the interviewers dont prepare for the interview. As most of the interviewers are 4 to 5 years experience, they might have lost the touch on the subjects. So you should be confident in answering the questions. It is another interesting is that interviewers dont know answers for some of the questions they ask. They will judge the confidence of the candidate by asking this type of questions. Being confident while answering does not mean that you should argue with the interviewer. If you make a blunder and interviewer finds it, you should be humble enough to accept your blunder. Most of the interviewers look for passion for learning in you. You should be able to convey to the interviewer that you are eager to learn and you have passion for technology. Interviewers prefer to ask questions for the subjects or languages mentioned in your resume. You should be proficient in the languages or technologies mentioned in your resume. Many candidates feel that if you putting more languages and technologies in resume will help. But that is not true. Even if you know one or two languages, if you are able to answer most of the questions in those languages you will be selected. So my advice is that you should go through your resume and delete the technologies or languages in which you are not proficient or lost the touch. Before the interview you should prepare on your resume. You should analyze the possible questions that interviewer can ask while going through your resume and you should prepare for those question. For instance if mentioned leadership skills in your resume, you should be able to tell the interviewer what are the projects or the programs you have done or organized as a leader. Please remember one thing that you have worked on your project for whole 6 months you are the person who knows most about your project more than any one else. I believe that it is easy for non CSE students to clear the technical interview. This is because if the interviewer asks them questions on advanced topics, they have an excuse to say that they did not study them in their curriculum. Non CSE candidates will be asked questions mostly in C language. So they should be proficient in C language. Another important thing in Technical interview is project. Some of the interviewers ask 60% of the questions in project only. In answering questions on project non cse students have advantage. This is because interviewer may not have that much knowledge in non software projects. While asking non cse students questions about project, the interviewer will look for confidence of the candidate more than any thing else. Interviewer may ask for your favorite subject. Every interviewer expects that you should be able to answer most of the questions in at least your favorite subject. You should be thorough with your favorite subject. Below are some the FAQ asked in the languages C, C++ and Java. Try to answer those questions on your own with out seeing the answers. I believe that if you are able to answer these questions you can easily get through the technical interview.

Telephonic Interview
What if you have an interview over the phone? You may be using the same words to communicate your answers, but you will need to pay extra attention to how you communicate warmth and enthusiasm. Here are a few strategies to use when you want your phone interview to have the same impact as being face toface: 1. Stand up while youre talking. You will breathe more deeply, and your voice will sound fuller. 2. Smile. Yes, smile! Professional salespeople are trained to use this technique so that they actually sound friendly and cheerful (even if theyre really not having a great day). When you are smiling, an interviewer can hear your smile in your voice. 3. Listen extra carefully. Since you cant see the interviewer, be sure you understand what he or she is asking. Its okay to ask an interviewer to repeat the question or to say, I understand that you are asking me _______________________. Is that correct?

4. Keep your answers less than 90 seconds long. You wont be able to see any visual cues, so its wise to keep answers to a reasonable length so as to not let the interviewer become distracted or bored. 5. Vary the pitch or tone of your voice more than you normally would. A slightly higher pitch will communicate excitement, agreement, or enthusiasm. A slightly lower pitch will relay that you are about to make a very important point. Let your tone go up and down a little bit more that normal. It will keep the interview from sounding stale, as well as keep you feeling enthusiastic and excited about what youre saying. 6. If you like, you can put a little stuffed animal or picture of someone you love near the phone and look at it while you talk. It will make you relax and feel like youre talking to a friend. It will also fill your voice with warmth. Remember, whether its the supervisor or a CEO who is interviewing you, that person has feelings, just like you. A little warmth in your voice, generated by looking at something cuddly, funny, or someone you care about, can go a long way to soothing the rattled nerves of some interviewers, thereby making the whole tone of the interview more relaxed for you as well. 7. Do not ever discuss salary on the phone. Its quite likely that one of the first questions asked in a phone interview will be, How much are you making now? or What are your salary expectations? Its way too soon for you to reveal that kind of information.

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