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# 13.1: a) s. rad 10 38 . 1 2 s, 10 55 .

4
3
2
3
1
= = = = =

f T
T

f

b) s. rad 10 53 . 5 2 s, 10 14 . 1
3 3
Hz) 220 ( 4
1
= = =

f

13.2: a) Since the glider is released form rest, its initial displacement (0.120 m) is the
amplitude. b) The glider will return to its original position after another 0.80 s, so the
period is 1.60 s. c) The frequency is the reciprocal of the period (Eq. (13.2)),
= =
s 60 . 1
1
f Hz. 625 . 0

13.3: The period is s 10 14 . 1
3
440
s 50 . 0

= and the angular frequency is
= =
T

2
s. rad 10 53 . 5
3

13.4: (a) From the graph of its motion, the object completes one full cycle in 2.0 s; its
period is thus 2.0 s and its frequency . s 5 . 0 period 1
1
= = (b) The displacement varies
from m, 20 . 0 to m 20 . 0 + so the amplitude is 0.20 m. (c) 2.0 s (see part a)

13.5: This displacement is
4
1
of a period.
s. 0500 . 0 so s, 200 . 0 1 = = = t f T

13.6: The period will be twice the time given as being between the times at which the
glider is at the equilibrium position (see Fig. (13.8));
m. N 292 . 0 kg) 200 . 0 (
s) 60 . 2 ( 2
2 2
2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

m
T

m k

13.7: a) kg. 084 . 0 c) s. rad 7 . 37 2 b) s. 167 . 0
2
1
= = = = = =

k
f
m f T

13.8: Solving Eq. (13.12) for k,
m. N 10 05 . 1
s 150 . 0
2
kg) 600 . 0 (
2
3
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

T

m k

13.9: From Eq. (13.12) and Eq. (13.10), Hz, 66 . 2 s, 375 . 0 2
1
m N 140
kg 500 . 0
= = = =
T
f T
s. rad 7 . 16 2 = = f

13.10: a) ) ( so , ) sin(
2 2
2
2
t x x t A a
dt
x d
x
= + = = is a solution to Eq. (13.4) if
A a
m
k
2 b) .
2
= = a constant, so Eq. (13.4) is not satisfied. c) ,
) ( t i
dt
dx
x
i v
+
= =
= = = =
+
m k t x x Ae i a
t i
dt
dv
x
x
2 2 ) ( 2
if (13.4) Eq. o solution t a is ) ( so , ) (

13.11: a) s, m 8.29 Hz) )(440 m)(2 10 (3.0 b) ) Hz) )(440 ((2 cos mm) 0 . 3 (
3
= =

t x
), Hz) )(440 sin((2 ) s m 10 34 . 6 ( ) ( c) . s m 10 29 . 2 Hz) 440 ( ) mm)(2 0 . 3 (
3 7 2 4 2 2
t t j = =
. s m 10 34 . 6
3 7
max
= j

13.12: a) From Eq. (13.19), m. 98 . 0
0 0
= = =
m k
v

v
A b) Equation (13.18) is
indeterminant, but from Eq. (13.14), ,
2

## = and from Eq. (13.17), sin . so , 0

2

+ = >
c) )). ) s rad sin((12.2 m) 98 . 0 ( so , sin )) 2 ( ( cos t x t t = = +

13.13: With the same value for , Eq. (13.19) gives m 383 . 0 = A and Eq. (13.18) gives
( ). rad 02 . 1 rad/s) (12.2 cos m) (0.383 and + = t x
, 58.5 rad 02 . 1
kg N/m/2.00 300 m) (0.200
m/s) 4.00 (
arctan = =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

and x =(0.383 m) cos ((12.2 rad/s)t +1.02 rad).
13.14: For SHM, ( ) . m/s 71 . 2 m) 10 1 . 1 ( Hz) 5 . 2 ( 2 ) 2 (
2 2 2 2 2
= = = =

x f x a
x

b) From Eq. (13.19) the amplitude is 1.46 cm, and from Eq. (13.18) the phase angle is
0.715 rad. The angular frequency is rad/s, 7 . 15 2 = f so
. rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 cos ) cm/s 359 (
rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 sin ) s cm 9 . 22 (
rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 cos cm) 46 . 1 (
2
+ =
+ =
+ =
t a
t v
t x
x
x

13.15: The equation describing the motion is ; sint A x = this is best found from either
inspection or from Eq. (13.14) (Eq. (13.18) involves an infinite argument of the
arctangent). Even so, x is determined only up to the sign, but that does not affect the
result of this exercise. The distance from the equilibrium position is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) m. 353 . 0 5 4 sin m 600 . 0 2 sin = = T t A

13.16: Empty chair:
k
m
T 2 =
N/m 993
s) (1.30
kg) 5 . 42 ( 4 4
2
2
2
2
= = =

T
m
k
With person in chair:

kg 120 kg 5 . 42 kg 162
kg 162
4
N/m) 993 ( s) 54 . 2 (
4
2
person
2
2
2
2
= =
= = =
=
m

k T
m
k m T

13.17: kg 400 . 0 , 2 = = m k m T
s 09 . 2 2
N/m 60 . 3
m 300 . 0
) m/s 70 . 2 kg)( 400 . 0 (
gives
: calculate to m/s 70 . 2 Use
2
2
= =
+ =

= = =
=
k m T
x
ma
k ma kx
k a
x
x
x

13.18: We have ). 2 ) s 4.71 cm/s)sin(( 60 . 3 ( ) (
1
t t v
x
=

Comparing this to the general
form of the velocity for SHM:
2
s 4.71
cm/s 60 . 3
1

A
=
=
=

(a) s 33 . 1 s 71 . 4 2 2 T
1
= = =

(b) cm 764 . 0
s 71 . 4
s cm 60 . 3 s cm 60 . 3
1
= = =

A
(c )
2 2 1 2
max
s cm 9 . 16 ) cm 764 . 0 ( ) s 71 . 4 ( = = =

A a

13.19: rad) 42 . 2 s) rad cos((4.16 cm) 40 . 7 ( ) ( a) = t t x
2 2
2 2 2 2
max
max
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
s m 216 . 0 s m ) 0125 . 0 )( 50 . 1 0 . 26 (
. s m 0.303 is Speed
s m 303 . 0 s m ) 0125 . 0 ( ) 0740 . 0 ( 50 . 1 0 . 26
m 0125 . 0 gives s 00 . 1 at evaluated ) ( e)
N 92 . 1 so d)
s m 308 . 0 gives
m 0740 . 0 cm 40 . 7 c)
m N 0 . 26 ) 2 ( so 2 b)
s 1.51 so 2 s) rad (4.16 , When
+ = = =
= = =
= =
= = =
= = = +
= =
= = =
= = =
m kx a
x A m k v
x t t x
kA F kx F
m k A v kA kx mv
A
T m k k m T
T T T t

13.20: See Exercise 13.15;
s. 0.0871 )) (2 0.3 6))( 1.5 arccos( ( = = t

13.21: a) Dividing Eq. (13.17) by ,
. sin , cos
0
0
= = A

v
A x
,
2
2
2
0 2
0
A

v
x = +
which is the same as Eq. (13.19). b) At time , 0 = t Eq. (13.21) becomes
,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
0 2
2
0
2
0
2
kx v

k
kx mv kA + = + =
where
2
k m = (Eq. (13.10)) has been used. Dividing by 2 k gives Eq. (13.19).

13.22: a) s. m 1.48 m) 10 Hz))(0.60 392 ( 2 ( ) 2 (
3
max
= = =

A f v
b) J . 10 96 . 2 s) m kg)(1.48 10 7 . 2 (
2
1
) (
2
1
5 2 5 2
max max

= = = V m K

13.23: a) Setting
2
2
1
2
2
1
kx mv = in Eq. (13.21) and solving for x gives .
2
A
x =
Eliminating x in favor of v with the same relation gives . 2
2
2
A
x
m kA v = = b) This
happens four times each cycle, corresponding the four possible combinations of +and
in the results of part (a). The time between the occurrences is one-fourth of a period or
( )
8
3
8 4
3
4
1
2 4
2
2 2
, , c) . 4 /
kA kA

K U E K E U T = = = = = =

13.24: a) From Eq. (13.23),

m/s. 1.20 m) 040 . 0 (
kg 0.500
m N 450
max
= = = A
m
k
v

b) From Eq. (13.22),
m/s. 11 . 1 m) 015 . 0 ( m) 040 . 0 (
kg 0.500
N 450
2 2
= = v
c) The extremes of acceleration occur at the extremes of motion, when , A x = and
2
max
m/s 36
kg) (0.500
m) N/m)(0.040 450 (
= = =
m
kA
a
d) From Eq. (13.4), . m/s 5 . 13
2
kg) (0.500
m) 0.015 N/m)( 450 (
= =

x
a
e) From Eq. (13.31), J . 36 . 0 m) N/m)(0.040 450 (
2
2
1
= = E

13.25: a) ( ) = = = = =

max
2 2 2 2 2
max
. m/s 5.13 m) 10 0 . 18 ( Hz) 85 . 0 ( 2 ) 2 ( v A f A a
m/s 961 . 0 2 = = fA A . , m/s 57 . 2 ) 2 ( b)
2 2
= = x f a
x

( ) m/s. 833 . 0 m) 10 0 . 9 ( m) 10 0 . 18 ( Hz) 85 . 0 ( 2
) 2 (
2 2 2 2
2 2
= =
=

x A f v

c) The fraction of one period is ) 2 1 ( arcsin ), 0 . 18 0 . 12 ( and so the time is
) 2 ( T arcsin
1
10 37 . 1 ) 0 . 18 0 . 12 (

= s. Note that this is also arcsin A x ) ( .
d) The conservation of energy equation can be written
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
kx mv kA + = . We are
given amplitude, frequency in Hz, and various values of x . We could calculate velocity
from this information if we use the relationship
2 2 2
4 f m k = = and rewrite the
conservation equation as
2
2
1
4
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
2
x A
f
v
+ = . Using energy principles is generally a good
approach when we are dealing with velocities and positions as opposed to accelerations
and time when using dynamics is often easier.

13.26: In the example,
m M
M
A A
+
=
1 2
and now we want , So .
2
1
1 2
1
2 m M
M
A A
+
= = or
M m 3 = . For the energy,
2
2 2
1
2
kA E = , but since
1 4
3
1 4
1
2 1 2
1
2
or , , E E E A A = = is lost to
heat.

13.27: a) J 0284 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
= + kx mv .
b) m. 014 . 0
kg) (0.150 N/m) 300 (
m/s) 300 . 0 (
m) 012 . 0 (
2
2
2
2
0 2
0
= + = +

v
x
c) = = s m 615 . 0 mA k A

13.28: At the time in question we have
2 2
s m 40 . 8 ) ( cos
s m 20 . 2 ) sin(
m 600 . 0 ) ( cos
= + =
= + =
= + =

t A a
t A v
t A x

Using the displacement and acceleration equations:
2 2 2
s m 40 . 8 m) 600 . 0 ( ) ( cos = = + t A
1 2
s 742 . 3 and 0 . 14

= = To find A, multiply the velocity equation by :
2 1 2
s m 232 . 8 ) s m (2.20 ) s 742 . 3 ( ) ( sin = = +

t A
Next square both this new equation and the acceleration equation and add them:
m 840 . 0
m 7054 . 0
) s 742 . 3 (
s m 3 . 138 s m 3 . 138
s m 3 . 138 s m 56 . 70 s m 77 . 67
) ( cos ) ( sin
) s m 40 . 8 ( ) s m 232 . 8 ( ) ( cos ) ( sin
2
4 1
4 2
4
4 2
2
4 2 4 2 4 2 2 4
2 2 2 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4
=
= = =
= + =
+ + + =
+ = + + +

A
A
t t A
t A t A

The object will therefore travel m 0.240 m 600 . 0 m 840 . 0 = to the right before stopping
at its maximum amplitude.

13.29: m k A v =
max

s m 509 . 0 Then
m. 0405 . 0 ) ( so
: find to Use
s 158 ) 2 ( so 2
: find to Use
max
max max
max
2 2
= =
= = =
= = =

m k A v
m k a A m kA a
A a
T m k k m T
m k T

13.30: Using
0
0
L
F
k = from the calibration data,
kg. 00 . 6
Hz)) 60 . 2 ( (2
m) 10 (1.25 N) 200 (
) 2 (
) (
2
1
2
0 0
=

= =

f
L F
m

13.31: a) m. N 10 1 53
m) 120 . 0 (
) s m (9.80 kg) 650 (

3
2
= = =
l
mg
k
b) s. 695 . 0
s m 9.80
m 120 . 0
2 2 2
2
= = = = =
g
l

k
m
T

13.32: a) At the top of the motion, the spring is unstretched and so has no potential
energy, the cat is not moving and so has no kinetic energy, and the gravitational potential
energy relative to the bottom is J 3.92 m) 050 . 0 ( ) m/s kg)(9.80 00 . 4 ( 2 2
2
= = mgA .
This is the total energy, and is the same total for each part.
b) J 92 . 3 so , 0 , 0
spring grav
= = = U K U .
c) At equilibrium the spring is stretched half as much as it was for part (a), and so
J 98 . 0 so and J , 1.96 J ) 92 . 3 ( J , 0.98 J ) 92 . 3 (
2
1
grav 4
1
spring
= = = = = K U U .

13.33: The elongation is the weight divided by the spring constant,
cm 97 . 3
4
2
2
2
= = = =

gT
m
mg
k
w
l .

13.34: See Exercise 9.40. a) The mass would decrease by a factor of 27 1 ) 3 1 (
3
= and so
the moment of inertia would decrease by a factor of ) 243 1 ( ) 3 1 )( 27 1 (
2
= , and for the
same spring constant, the frequency and angular frequency would increase by a factor of
6 . 15 243= . b) The torsion constant would need to be decreased by a factor of 243, or
changed by a factor of 0.00412 (approximately).

13.35: a) With the approximations given, , m kg 10 72 . 2
2 8 2
= =

mR I
2 8
m kg 10 2.7 or

to two figures.
b) rad m N 10 3 . 4 ) m kg 10 72 . 2 ( Hz) 2 2 ( ) 2 (
6 2 8 2 2
= = =

I f .

13.36: Solving Eq. (13.24) for in terms of the period,
m/rad. N 10 91 . 1
) m) 10 kg)(2.20 10 00 . 2 )( 2 1 ((
s 00 . 1
2

2
5
2 2 3
2
2
=

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

I
T

13.37:
( )
. m kg 0152 . 0
s) (265 125) ( 2
m/rad N 450 . 0
) 2 (
2
2 2
=

=
f
I

13.38: The equation ) t ( cos + = describes angular SHM. In this problem, . 0 =
a) ). cos( and ) sin(
2
2
2
t t
dt
d
dt
d
= =
b) When the angular displacement is ) cos( , t = , and this occurs at , 0 = t so
1. cos(0) since , and 0, sin(0) since 0
2
2
2
= = = =
dt
d
dt
d

When the angular displacement is ). cos( or ), cos( , 2
2
1
2
t t = =

. 2 1 ) cos( since ,
2
and ,
2
3
) sin( since
2
3
2
2
2
=

= =

= t

dt
d
t

dt
d

This corresponds to a displacement of 60 .

13.39: Using the same procedure used to obtain Eq. (13.29), the potential may be
expressed as
]. ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 [(
6
0
12
0 0

+ + = R x R x U U
Note that at . ,
0 0
U U R r = = Using the appropriate forms of the binomial theorem for
| |
0
R x <<1,
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+

2
0 0
2
0 0
0
2
7 6
6 1 2
2
13 12
12 1
R x R x
R x R x
U U

(

+ =
2
2
0
0
36
1 x
R
U
.
2
1
0
2
U kx =
where
2
0
/ 72 R U k = has been used. Note that terms in
2
u from Eq. (13.28) must be
kept ; the fact that the first-order terms vanish is another indication that
0
R is an extreme
(in this case a minimum) of U.

13.40:
( ) ( )
Hz. 10 33 . 1
kg) 10 66 . 1 ( 008 . 1
N/m) 580 ( 2
2
1
2 2
1
14
27
=

=

=

m
k
f

13.41: , 2 g L T = so for a different acceleration due to gravity , g
( ) s. 60 . 2 s m 71 . 3 s m 80 . 9 s 60 . 1
2 2
= = = g g T T
13.42: a) To the given precision, the small-angle approximation is valid. The highest
speed is at the bottom of the arc, which occurs after a quarter period, s. 25 . 0
2 4
= =
g
L T

b) The same as calculated in (a), 0.25 s. The period is independent of amplitude.

13.43: Besides approximating the pendulum motion as SHM, assume that the angle
is sufficiently small that the length of the spring does not change while swinging in the
arc. Denote the angular frequency of the vertical motion as
L
g kg
m
k
= = =

and
0

,
4 0 2
1
w
kg
= = which is solved for k w L 4 = . But L is the length of the stretched
spring; the unstretched length is ( ) ( ) m. 00 . 2 N/m 50 . 1 N 00 . 1 3 3
0
= = = = k w k w L L

13.44:

13.45: The period of the pendulum is ( ) s. 36 . 1 100 s 136 = = T Then,
( )
( )
. s m 67 . 10
s 1.36
m 5 . 4 4
2
2
2
2
2
= = =

T
L
g

13.46: From the parallel axis theorem, the moment of inertia of the hoop about the nail is
( ). 13.39 Eq. in with , 2 2 so , 2
2 2 2
R d g R T MR MR MR I = = = + = Solving for R,
m. 496 . 0 8
2
2
= = gT R

13.47: For the situation described, L d mL I = = and
2
in Eq. (13.39); canceling the factor
of m and one factor of L in the square root gives Eq. (13.34).

13.48: a) Solving Eq. (13.39) for I,
( ) ( )( ) . m kg 0987 . 0 m 250 . 0 s m 80 . 9 kg 1.80
2
s 940 . 0

2
2 2
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

mgd

T
I
b) The small-angle approximation will not give three-figure accuracy for
rad. 0.400 = From energy considerations,
( ) .
2
1
cos 1
2
max
I mgd =
Expressing
max
in terms of the period of small-angle oscillations, this becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) . s rad 66 . 2 rad 0.40 cos 1
s 940 . 0
2
2 cos 1
2
2
2 2
max
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

T

13.49: Using the given expression for I in Eq. (13.39), with d=R (and of course m=M),
s. 58 . 0 3 5 2 = = g R T

13.50: From Eq. (13.39),
( ) ( )( ) . kg.m 129 . 0
2
100 s 120
m 200 . 0 s m 9.80 kg 80 . 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

T
mgd I

13.51: a) From Eq. (13.43),
( )
( )
( )
( )
Hz. 393 . 0
2
so , s rad 47 . 2
kg 300 . 0 4
s kg 90 . 0
kg 300 . 0
m N 50 . 2

2
2
=

= = =

f
b) ( ) ( ) . s kg 73 . 1 kg 300 . 0 m N 50 . 2 2 2 = = = km b

13.52: From Eq. (13.42) ( ) , for Solving . exp
2 1 2
b t A A
m
b
=
s. kg 0220 . 0
m 100 . 0
m 300 . 0
ln
) s 00 . 5 (
) kg 050 . 0 ( 2
ln
2
2
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
A
t
m
b
As a check, note that the oscillation frequency is the same as the undamped frequency to
valid. is (13.42) Eq. so , % 10 8 . 4
3

13.53: a) With . (0) 0, A x = =
b) , sin cos
2
) 2 (
(

= =

t t
m
b
Ae
dt
dx
v
t m b
x

and at down. slopes 0 near versus of graph the ; 2 , 0 = = = t t x m Ab v t
c) , sin
2
' cos
4
2
2
2
) 2 (
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

t
m
b
t
m
b
Ae
dt
dv
a
t m b x
x

and at , 0 = t
.
2 4
2
2
2
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
m
k
m
b
A
m
b
A a
x

(Note that this is .) ) (
0 0
m kx bv This will be negative if
. 2 if positive and 2 if zero , 2 km b km b km b > = < The graph in the three cases will
be curved down, not curved, or curved up, respectively.

13.54: At resonance, Eq. (13.46) reduces to . 2 b) . a) .
1 3 d max
1
A b F A
A
= Note that
the resonance frequency is independent of the value of b (see Fig. (13.27)).

13.55: a) The damping constant has the same units as force divided by speed, or
| | | | | | = . s kg s m s m kg
2
b)The units of km are the same as | |, s kg kg]] ][ s kg [[
2 1 2
=
the same as those for ( ) . 5 2 . 0 so , 2 . 0 (i) . c) .
max max d
2
d
k F k F A k b m k b = = = =

, 5 . 2 ) 4 . 0 ( so , 0.4 ii) (
max max d
k F k F A k b = = = as shown in Fig.(13.27).

13.56: The resonant frequency is
Hz, 22.2 s rad 139 ) kg 108 ) m N 10 2.1 (
6
= = = m k
and this package does not meet the criterion.

13.57: a)
. s m 10 72 . 6
min rev

30
) min rev 3500 (
2
m 100 . 0
2 3
2
2
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

A a
b) . s m 3 . 18
min rev

30
) m 05 (. ) min rev 3500 ( c) N. 10 02 . 3
3
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

A ma
J . 6 . 75 ) s m 3 . 18 )( kg 45 )(. (
2
2
1
2
2
1
= = = mv K d) At the midpoint of the stroke, cos(t)=0
and so s, rad ) )( min rev (3500 2 thus , 2
3
350
min rev
30

. t t = = = = so
W. 10 1.76 s) ( J 6 . 75 or , Then s.
4
2(350)
3
) 350 ( 2
3
= = = = P t K P t
e) If the frequency doubles, the acceleration and hence the needed force will quadruple
(12.1 N). 10
3
The maximum speed increases by a factor of 2 since , v so the speed
will be 36.7 m/s. Because the kinetic energy depends on the square of the velocity, the
kinetic energy will increase by a factor of four (302 J). But, because the time to reach the
midpoint is halved, due to the doubled velocity, the power increases by a factor of eight
(141 kW).

13.58: Denote the mass of the passengers by m and the (unknown) mass of the car by M.
The spring cosntant is then l mg k = . The period of oscillation of the empty car is
k M T 2
E
= and the period of the loaded car is
( )
( ) s. 003 . 1 2
so , 2 2
2 2
L E
2 2
E L
=

+ =
+
=
g
l
T T
g
l
T
k
m M
T

13.59: a) For SHM, the period, frequency and angular frequency are independent of
amplitude, and are not changed. b) From Eq. (13.31), the energy is decreased by a factor
of
4
1
. c) From Eq. (13.23), the maximum speed is decreased by a factor of
2
1
d) Initially,
the speed at 4
1
A was ;
1 4
15
A after the amplitude is reduced, the speed is
( ) ( )
1 4
3
2
1
2
1
4 2 A A A = , so the speed is decreased by a factor of
5
1
(this result is
valid at 4
1
A x = as well). e) The potential energy depends on position and is
unchanged. From the result of part (d), the kinetic energy is decreased by a factor of
5
1
.

13.60: This distance ; is k mg L L = the period of the oscillatory motion is
, 2 2
g
L
k
m
T = =
which is the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum of lentgh L.

13.61: a) Rewriting Eq. (13.22) in terms of the period and solving,
s. 68 . 1
2
2 2
=

=
v
x A
T
b) Using the result of part (a),
m. 0904 . 0
2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

vT
A x
c) If the block is just on the verge of slipping, the friction force is its maximum,
.
s s
mg n f = = Setting this equal to ( ) ( ) . 143 . 0 2 gives 2
2 2
= = = g T A T mA ma
s

13.62: a) The normal force on the cowboy must always be upward if he is not holding on.
He leaves the saddle when the normal force goes to zero (that is, when he is no longer in
contact with the saddle, and the contact force vanishes). At this point the cowboy is in
free fall, and so his acceleration is g ; this must have been the acceleration just before
he left contact with the saddle, and so this is also the saddles acceleration.
b) m. 110 . 0 )) Hz 50 . 1 ( 2 ) s m 80 . 9 ( ) 2 (
2 2 2
= + = + = f a x c) The cowboys speed will
be the saddles speed, s. m 11 . 2 ) 2 (
2 2
= = x A f v d) Taking 0 = t at the time when
the cowboy leaves, the position of the saddle as a function of time is given by Eq.
(13.13), with ; cos
2
A
g
= this is checked by setting 0 = t and finding that
.
2 2

g
x = = The cowboys position is . ) 2 (
2
0 0 c
t g t v x x + = Finding the time at which
the cowboy and the saddle are again in contact involves a transcendental equation which
must be solved numerically; specifically,

rad), 11 . 1 s) rad 42 . 9 (( cos m) 25 . 0 ( ) s m 90 . 4 ( s) m 11 . 2 ( m) 110 . 0 (
2 2
= + t t t

which has as its least non-zero solution s. 538 . 0 = t e) The speed of the saddle is
, s m 72 . 1 ) ( sin s) m 36 . 2 ( = + t and the cowboys speed is (2.11 ) s m 80 . 9 ( ) s m
2

s, m 16 . 3 s) 538 . 0 ( = giving a relative speed of s m 87 . 4 (extra figures were kept in
the intermediate calculations).

13.63: The maximum acceleration of both blocks, assuming that the top block does not
slip, is ), (
max
M m kA a + = and so the maximum force on the top block is
( ) . ) ( is amplitude maximum the so and ,
s max s
k g M m A mg kA
M m
m
+ = =
+

13.64: (a) Momentum conservation during the collision: V m mv ) 2 (
0
=

s m 00 . 1 s) m 00 . 2 (
2
1
2
1
0
= = = v V

Energy conservation after the collision:

2 2
2
1
2
1
kx MV =

) (amplitude m 500 . 0
m N 0 . 80
s) m 00 . 1 kg)( 0 . 20 (

2 2
= = =
k
MV
x

M k f 2 = =

Hz 318 . 0
kg 0 . 20
m N 0 . 80
2
1

2
1
= = =

M k

f

s 14 . 3
Hz 318 . 0
1 1
= = =
f
T

(b) It takes 2 1 period to first return: s 57 . 1 s) 14 . 3 (
2
1
=

13.65: a) 2 m m
Splits at 2 so , energy, kinetic all is energy where 0
2
2
1
E E mv E x = =
k stays same
k E A kA E 2 so
2
2
1
= =
Then 2 means 2 A A E E

2 means 2 so 2 T T m m k m T =
b) 2 m m
Splits at A x = where all the energy is potential energy in the spring, so E doesnt
change.
A kA E so
2
2
1
= stays the same.
, 2 so 2 T T k m T = as in part (a).
c) In example 13.5, the mass increased. This means that T increases rather than
decreases. When the mass is added at , 0 = x the energy and amplitude change. When the
mass is added at , A x = the energy and amplitude remain the same. This is the same as
in this problem.

13.66: a)

For space considerations, this figure is not precisely to the scale suggested in the
problem. The following answers are found algebraically, to be used as a check on the
graphical method.
b) m. 200 . 0
N/m) (10.0
J ) 200 . 0 ( 2 2
= = =
k
E
A
c) m. 141 . 0 , If d) J . 050 . 0
2
2
1
4
= = = =
A E
x E U e) From Eq. (13.18), using
, and
0 0
2
0
2
0 k
U
m
K
x v = =
429 . 0

0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
= = =
U
K
x
v
k
U
m
k
m
K

and ( ) rad 580 . 0 0.429 arctan = = .

13.67: a) The quantity l is the amount that the origin of coordinates has been moved
from the unstretched length of the spring, so the spring is stretched a distance x l (see
Fig. (13.16 ( c ))) and the elastic potential energy is
2
el
) ( ) 2 1 ( x l k U = .

b) ( ) ( ) .
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
0 el
mgx mgx lx k l kx x x mg U U + + = + =
Since , k mg l = the two terms proportional to x cancel, and

( ) .
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
mgx l k kx U + =

c) An additive constant to the mechanical energy does not change the dependence
of the force on , ,
dx
dU
x
F x = and so the relations expressing Newtons laws and the
resulting equations of motion are unchanged.

13.68: The spring constant for this wire is ,
l
mg
k

= so

Hz. 1 . 11
m 10 00 . 2
s m 80 . 9
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
=

= =

l
g
m
k

f

13.69: a) s. m 150 . 0
2
=
T
A
b) ( ) . s m 112 . 0 2
2 2
= = x T a The time to go from
equilibrium to half the amplitude is ( ) rad, 6 or , 2 1 sin t t = = or one-twelfth of a
period. The needed time is twice this, or one-sixth of a period, 0.70 s.
d)
( )
m. 38 . 4
2 2
2
= = = =
r
g

g
k
mg
l

13.70: Expressing Eq. (13.13) in terms of the frequency, and with , 0 = and taking
two derivatives,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) .
s 50 . 1
2
cos s m 2110 . 4
s 50 . 1
2
cos m 240 . 0
s 50 . 1
2
s 50 . 1
2
sin s m 00530 . 1
s 50 . 1
2
sin
s 50 . 1
m 240 . 0 2
s 50 . 1
2
cos m 240 . 0
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t t
a
t t
v
t
x
x
x

a) Substitution gives m, 120 . 0 = x or using
3
T
t = gives . 120 cos
2
A
A x

= =
b) Substitution gives
( )( ) - in the N, 10 21 . 4 s m 106 . 2 kg 0200 . 0
2 2
x ma
x
+ = + =

direction.
c) ( ) s. 577 . 0 arccos
4 3
2
= =

A
A

T
t
d) Using the time found in part (c) , s m 665 . 0 = v (Eq.(13.22) of course gives the
same result).

13.71: a) For the totally inelastic collision, the final speed v in terms of the initial
speed gh V 2 = is
( )( )( ) s m 2.6 or s, m 57 . 2 m 40 . 0 s m 80 . 9 2
4 . 2
2 . 2
2

= = =
+ M m
M
V v to two figures. b) When
the steak hits, the pan is
k
Mg
above the new equilibrium position. The ratio
( ) ( ) ( ), 2 is
2 2
2
2
0
M m k ghM M m k v

v
+ = + and so the amplitude of oscillation is

( )
( )( )
( )
m. 206 . 0
kg) m)(2.4 N 400 (
kg) m)(2.2 )(0.40 s m 80 . 9 ( 2
m N 400
m/s 80 . 9 kg 2 . 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
M m k
ghM
k
Mg
A

(This avoids the intermediate calculation of the speed.) c) Using the total mass,
s. 487 . 0 ) ( 2 = + = k M m T

13.72: N/m. 5685 gives kg; 400 Hz, 600 . 0
2
1
= = = = k f m f
m
k

This is the effective force constant of the two springs.
a) After the gravel sack falls off, the remaining mass attached to the springs is 225
kg. The force constant of the springs is unaffected, so Hz. 800 . 0 = f
To find the new amplitude use energy considerations to find the distance
downward that the beam travels after the gravel falls off.
Before the sack falls off, the amount
0
x that the spring is stretched at equilibrium is
given by ( )( ) ( ) m. 6895 . 0 N/m 5685 m/s 80 . 9 kg 400 so ,
2
0 0
= = = k mg x kx mg The
maximum upward displacement of the beam is m. 400 . 0 = A above this point, so at this
point the spring is stretched 0.2895 m.

With the new mass, the mass 225 kg of the beam alone, at equilibrium the spring is
stretched m. 0.6895 m) N 5685 ( ) s m (9.80 kg) 5 22 (
2
= = k mg The new amplitude is
therefore m. 098 . 0 m 2895 . 0 m 3879 . 0 = The beam moves 0.098 m above and below the
new equilibrium position. Energy calculations show that 0 = v when the beam is 0.098 m
above and below the equilibrium point.
b) The remaining mass and the spring constant is the same in part (a), so the new
frequency is again Hz. 800 . 0
The sack falls off when the spring is stretched 0.6895 m. And the speed of the beam
at this point is ( ) ( ) ( ) m/s. 508 . 1 kg 400 N/m 5685 m 400 . 0 = = = = m k A v . Take 0 = y
at this point. The total energy of the beam at this point, just after the sack falls off, is
( )( ) ( )( ) J . 1608 0 m 6895 . 0 N/m 5695 m/s 508 . 1 kg 225
2
2
1
2
2
1
g el
= + + = + + = U U K E Let this
be point 1. Let point 2 be where the beam has moved upward a distance d and where
0 = v . ( )
2 1
2
2
1
2
. m 6985 . 0 E E mgd d k E = + = gives m 7275 . 0 = d . At this end point of
motion the spring is compressed 0.7275 m 0.6895 m =0.0380 m. At the new
equilibrium position the spring is stretched 0.3879 m, so the new amplitude is 0.3789 m +
0.0380 m =0.426 m. Energy calculations show that v is also zero when the beam is 0.426
m below the equilibrium position.

13.73: The pendulum swings through
2
1
cycle in 1.42 s, so m. 85 . 1 s. 84 . 2 = = L T
Use T to find g:
( )
2 2
m/s 055 . 9 2 so 2 = = = T L g g L T
Use g to find the mass
p
M of Newtonia:

kg 10 08 . 9
m 10 18 . 8 so m, 10 14 . 5 2
/
24
2
p
p
6
p
7
p
2
p p
= =
= =
=
G
gR
m
R R
R GM g

13.74: a) Solving Eq. (13.12) for m, and using
l
F
k

=
kg. 05 . 4
m 0.250
N 0 . 40
2
1
2
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
.
|

\
|
=
l
F T
m

b) , Since m. 0.0405 (0.35) sin2 so and , ) 35 . 0 (
4
T
t A x T t > = = = the mass has
already passed the lowest point of its motion, and is on the way up.
c) Taking upward forces to be positive, x kx mg F where ,
spring
= is the
displacement from equilibrium , so
N. 5 . 44 ) m/s kg)(9.80 (4.05 m) 0.030 m)( N 160 (
2
spring
= + = F

13.75: Of the many ways to find the time interval, a convenient method is to take
0 = in Eq. (13.13) and find that for 6 / so and ) / 2 cos( cos , 2
2
1
T t T t t A x = = = = .
The time interval available is from s. 17 . 1 3 / and , to = T t t

13.76: See Problem 12.84; using x as the variable instead of , r
. so , ) (
E
3
E
E 2
3
E
E
R
g
R
GM
x
R
m GM
dx
dU
x F = = = =
The period is then
s, 5070
m/s 9.80
m 10 38 . 6
2 2
2
2
6
E
=

= = =
g
R

T
or 84.5 min.

13.77: Take only the positive root (to get the least time), so that

,
2

) 1 arcsin(
) (

or ,
1
1
0
1
0 2 2
2 2
2 2
1
t
m
k
t
m
k
t
m
k
dt
m
k
x A
dx
dt
m
k
x A
dx
x A
m
k
dt
dx
t A
=
=
= =

=

where the integral was taken from Appendix C. The above may be rearranged to show
that ,
4
2
1
T
m
k
t = =

which is expected.

13.78: a) .
4
0 0
4 3

= = =
x x
x
c
dx x c dx F U

a) From conservation of energy, , ) (
4 4
4
2
2
1
x A mv
c
= and using the technique of Problem
13.77, the separated equation is
.
2
4 4
dt
m
c
x A
dx
=

Integrating from 0 to A with respect to x and from 0 to 4 T with respect to , t

A
T
m
c
x A
dx
0
4 4
.
4 2

To use the hint, let ,
A
x
u = so that du a dx = and the upper limit of the u integral is
. 1 = u Factoring
2
A out of the square root,

,
32
31 . 1
1
1
1
0
4

= =

T
m
c
A
u
du
A

which may be expressed as .
41 . 7
c
m
A
T = c) The period does depend on amplitude, and the
motion is not simple harmonic.

13.79: As shown in Fig. ( ) ( ) , and With . sin , b 5 . 13
tan tan
+ = = = t A v v v this is
Eq.( ). 15 . 13

13.80: a) Taking positive displacements and forces to be upwad,
( ) , 2 ,
2
x f a ma mg n = = so

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). 2 cos 2
2
+ = t f A f g m n

a) The fact that the ball bounces means that the ball is no longer in contact with the lens,
and that the normal force goes to zero periodically. This occurs when the amplitude
of the acceleration is equal to , g or when
( ) . 2
2
b
A f g =

13.81: a) For the center of mass to be at rest, the total momentum must be zero, so the
momentum vectors must be of equal magnitude but opposite directions, and the momenta
can be represented as . and p p

b)
( )
.
2 2 2
2
2 2
tot
m
p
m
p
K = =

c) The argument of part (a) is valid for any masses. The kinetic energy is

( ) ( )
.
2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
tot
m m m m
p
m m
m m p
m
p
m
p
K
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= + =

13.82: a) .
1
2 9
7
0
(

|
.
|

\
|
= =
r r
R

dr
dU
F
r

b) Setting the above expression for
r
F equal to zero, the term in square brackets
vanishes, so that . and , or ,
1
0
7 7
0 2
9
7
0
R r r R
r
r
R
= = =

c) ( ) J . 10 57 . 7
8
7
19
0
0

= =
R

R U

d) The above expression for
r
F can be expressed as

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
.
7
7
2 1 9 1
1 1
3
0
0 2
0
0 0 2
0
2
0
9
0 2
0
2
0
9
0
2
0
x
R
A
R x
R
A
R x R x
R
A
R x R x
R
A
R
r
R
r
R
A
F
r
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

+ + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

e) z. 10 39 . 8
7
2
1
2
1
12
3
0
= = =
m R
A

m k

f

13.83: a)
( )
.
2
1 1
2
0
2
(
(

= =
R r r
A
dx
dU
F
r

b) Setting the term in square brackets equal to zero, and ignoring solutions with
. or , 2 , 2 or 0
0 0 0
R r r R r R r r = = > <
c) The above expression for
r
F may be written as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
,
4

2 1 2 1
1 1
2
3
0
0 0 2
0
2
0
2
0 2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
x
R
A
R x R x
R
A
R x R x
R
A
R
r
R
r
R
A
F
r
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

+ =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

corresponding to a force constant of . 4
3
0
R A k = d) The frequency of small oscillations
would be . ) 1 ( ) 2 1 (
3
0
mR A m k f = =

13.84: a) As the mass approaches the origin, the motion is that of a mass attached to a
spring of spring constant k, and the time to reach the origin is .
2
k m

After passing
through the origin, the motion is that of a mass attached to a spring of spring constant 2k
and the time it takes to reach the other extreme of the motions is . 2
2
k m

The period is
twice the sum of these times, or ( )
2
1
1+ =
k
m
T . The period does not depend on the
amplitude, but the motion is not simple harmonic. B) From conservation of energy, if the
negative extreme is ; so , ) 2 ( ,
2
2
2
1
2
2
1 A
A A k kA A = = the motion is not symmetric about
the origin.

13.85: There are many equivalent ways to find the period of this oscillation. Energy
considerations give an elegant result. Using the force and torque equations, taking torques
about the contact point, saves a few intermediate steps. Following the hint, take torques
about the cylinder axis, with positive torques counterclockwise; the direction of positive
rotation is then such that Ra = , and the friction force f that causes this torque acts in
the x-direction. The equations to solve are then

, R , ,
cm
= = = a I fR kx f Ma
x

Which are solved for

,
) 2 3 (
2
x
M
k
R I M
kx
a
x
=
+
=

where
2
cm
) 2 1 ( MR I I = = has been used for the combination of cylinders. Comparison
with Eq. (13.8) gives . 2 3 2
2
k M T

= =

13.86: Energy conservation during downward swing:

s m 40 . 1 ) m 100 . 0 )( s m 8 . 9 ( 2 2
2
0
2
2 2
1
0 2
= = =
=
gh v
v m gh m

Momentum conservation during collision:

s m 560 . 0
kg 00 . 5
) s m 40 . 1 )( kg 00 . 2 (
) (
3 2
2
3 2 2
= =
+
=
+ =
m m
v m
V
V m m v m

Energy conservation during upward swing:

cm 1.60 m 0160 . 0
) s m 80 . 9 ( 2
) s m 560 . 0 (
2
2
1
2
2
2
f
2
f
= = = =
=
g V h
MV Mgh

=
=
5 . 14
cm 50.0
cm 4 . 48
cos

Hz 705 . 0
m 500 . 0
s m 80 . 9
2
1
2
1
2
= = =
l
g
f

13.87:

2 1
2 2 1 1
cg
3 , 2
m m
y m y m
y d
M m mgd I T
+
+
= =
= =

| | ( ) | | ( )
m 292 . 1
3
2 m 1.55 m 55 . 1 2 m 55 . 1 2
=
+ +
=
M
M M
d

( )( ) ( )M M I
I I I
2 2
3
1
1
2 1
m 602 . 1 m 55 . 1 2 = =
+ +

( )
2
12
1
cm , 2
m 55 . 1 M I =

The parallel-axis theorem (Eq. 9.19) gives
| | ( ) ( )M M I I m 06 . 5 2 m 55 . 1 m 55 . 1
2 2
cm , 2 2
= + + =
( )M I I I m 208 . 7
2
2 1
= + =
Then
( )
( )( )( )
s. 74 . 2
m 292 . 1 s m 80 . 9 3
m 208 . 7
2 2
2
2
= = =
M
M
mgd I T
This is smaller than s 9 . 2 = T found in Example 13.10.

13.88: The torque on the rod about the pivot (with angles positive in the direction
indicated in the figure) is ( ) .
2 2
L L
k = Setting this equal to the rate of change of angular
momentum, ,
2
2
dt
d
I I

=
,
3 4
2
2
2

M
k

I
L
k
dt
d
= =

where the moment of inertia for a slender rod about its center,
2
12
1
ML I = has been used.
It follows that . 2 and ,
3
2 3
2
k
M

M
K
T = = =

13.89: The period of the simple pendulum (the clapper) must be the same as that of the
bell; equating the expression in Eq. (13.34) to that in Eq. (13.39) and solving for L gives
m. 882 . 0 m)) 60 . 0 kg)( 0 . 34 (( ) m kg 0 . 18 (
2
= = = md L Note that the mass of the bell,
not the clapper, is used. As with any simple pendulum, the period of small oscillations of
the clapper is independent of its mass.

13.90: The moment of inertia about the pivot is , ) 3 2 ( ) 3 1 ( 2
2 2
ML ML = and the center of
gravity when balanced is a distance ) 2 (2 L d = below the pivot (see Problem 8.95).
From Eq. (13.39), the frequency is

= = =
L
g
L
g
T
f
2
3
4
1
2 4
3
2
1 1

13.91: a) m. 97 . 3 ) 2 (
2
= = T g L b)There are many possibilities. One is to have a
uniform thin rod pivoted about an axis perpendicular to the rod a distance d from its
center. Using the desired period in Eq. (13.39) gives a quadratic in d, and using the
maximum size for the length of the rod gives a pivot point a distance of 5.25 mm, which
is on the edge of practicality. Using a dumbbell, two spheres separated by a light rod of
length L gives a slight improvement to d=1.6 cm (neglecting the radii of the spheres in
comparison to the length of the rod; see Problem 13.94).

13.92: Using the notation
2
2
,
m
k
m
b
= = and taking derivatives of Eq. (13.42) (setting the
phase angle 0 = does not affect the result),

). sin 2 cos ) (( e
) cos sin ( e
cos
2 2
x
x
t t a
t t v
t e x
t
t
t
=
+ =
=

Using these expression in the left side of Eq. (13.41),

). sin 2 cos ) 2 ((
) cos 2 t sin ) 2 ( cos (
2 2 t
2 t
t t e m
t m m t k e bv kx
x
+ =
+ + =

The factor is ) 2 (
2 2 2 2
(this is Eq. (13.43)), and so

. ) sin 2 cos ) ((
2 2 t
x x
ma t t e m bv kx = + =

13.93: a) In Eq. (13.38), d=x and from the parallel axis theorem,
. , x L m I
x ) L (
gx
2 2
12
2 2 2
so ) 12 (
+
= + = b) Differentiating the ratio
2 2
) 12 (
2
x L
x
g
+
= with
respect to x and setting the result equal to zero gives

, 12 2 or ,
) ) 12 ((
2
) 12 (
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
L x x
x L
x
x L
+ =
+
=
+

Which is solved for . 12 L x =
c) When x is the value that maximizes the ratio
( ) ,
3
12
6
12 2
12
2
2
L L L
L
g

= = =
so the length is m. 430 . 0
3
2
= =

g
L

13.94: a) From the parellel axis theorem, the moment of inertia about the pivot point
is ( ) ( ). 5 2
2 2
R L M +

Using this in Eq. (13.39), With L d = gives.

( )
. 5 2 1 5 2 1 2
5 2
2
2 2
sp
2 2
2 2
L R T L R
g
L

gL
R L
T + = + =
+
=

b) Letting 001 . 1 5 2 1
2 2
= + L R and solving for the ratio R L (or approximating the
square root as
2 2
5 1 L R + ) gives . 1 . 14 =
R
L

c)( ) ( ) . cm 0 . 18 cm 270 . 1 1 . 14 =

13.95: a) The net force on the block at equilibrium is zero, and so one spring (the one
with m 00 . 2
1
= k ) must be stretched three times as much as the one with
m 00 . 6
2
= k . The sum of the elongations is 0.200 m, and so one spring stretches 0.150
m and the other stretches 0.050 m, and so the equilibrium lengths are 0.350 m and 0.250
m. b) There are many ways to approach this problem, all of which of course lead to the
result of Problem 13.96(b). The most direct way is to let m 150 . 0
1
= x and
m, 050 . 0
2
= x the results of part (a). When the block in Fig.(13.35) is displaced a
distance x to the right, the net force on the block is
( ) ( ) | | ( ) .
2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
x k k x k x k x x k x x k + = + +

From the result of part (a), the term in square brackets is zero, and so the net force is
( ) ,
2 1
x k k + the effective spring constant is
2 1 eff
k k k + = and the period of vibration is
s. 702 . 0 2
m 8.00
kg 100 . 0
= =

T

13.96: In each situation, imagine the mass moves a distance , x the springs move
distances
1
x and ,
2
x with forces . ,
2 2 2 1 1 1
x k F x k F = =
a) ( ) . so , ,
2 1 eff 2 1 2 1 2 1
k k k x k k F F F x x x + = + = + = = =
b) Despite the orientation of the springs, and the fact that one will be compressed when
the other is extended, ,
2 1
x x x + = and the above result is still valid; .
2 1 eff
k k k + =
c) For massless springs, the force on the block must be equal to the tension in any point
of the spring combination, and ,
2 1
F F F = = and so , ,
2
2
1
1
k
F
x
k
F
x = = and
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = F
k k
x
1 1
2 1
F
k k
k k
2 1
2 1
+

and .
2 1
2 1
eff

+
= d) The result of part (c) shows that when a spring is cut in half, the
effective spring constant doubles, and so the frequency increases by a factor of . 2

13.97: a) Using the hint,

,
2 2
1
2
2 3 2 1
g
g
T T g g g L T T

=
|
.
|

\
|
+

so ( )( ) . 2 1 g g T T = This result can also be obtained from , 4
2 2
L g T = from which

( ) . 0 2
2
= + g T g T T Therefore, .
2
1
g
g
T
T

## = b) The clock runs slow; 0 , 0 < > g T

and ( ) s m 80 . 9
2
1
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= +
T
T
g g g
( )
( )
. s m 7991 . 9
s 400 , 86
s 00 . 4 2
1
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

13.98: Denote the position of a piece of the spring by 0 ; = l l is the fixed point and
L l = is the moving end of the spring. Then the velocity of the point corresponding to , l
denoted ( )
L
l
v l u u = is , (when the spring is moving, l will be a function of time, and so
u is an implicit function of time). a) , dl dm
L
M
= and so

,
2
1

2
1
2
3
2
2
dl l
L
Mv
u dm dK = =
and
.
6 2
2
0
2
3
2
Mv
dl l
L
Mv
dK K
L
= = =

b) , 0 or , 0 = + = + kx ma kx mv
dt
dx
dt
dv
which is Eq.( ). 4 . 13 c) mis replaced by ,
3
M
so
. and
3
3 M
M
k
M = =

13.99: a) With ( ) 2 and 3 1
2
L d ML I = = in Eq.( ), 39 . 13 . 3 2 2
0
g L T = With the
addedmass, ( ) ( ) ( ) T y L d M m y L M I 2 , 2 4 and 2 , 3
2 2
= + = = + =
( ) ( ) ( ) y L g y L + + 2 3
2 2
and

.
2
3
2
2 2
0
yL L
y L
T
T
r
+
+
= =

b) From the expression found in part a), . when
3
2
0
L y T T = = At this point, a simple
pendulum with length y would have the same period as the meter stick without the
added mass; the two bodies oscillate with the same period and do not affect the others
motion.

13.100: Let the two distances from the center of mass be . and
2 1
d d There are then two
relations of the form of Eq. (13.39); with , and
2
2 cm 2
2
1 cm 1
md I I md I I + = + = these
relations may be rewritten as

( )
( ). 4
4
2
2 cm
2 2
2
2
1 cm
2 2
1
md I T mgd
md I T mgd
+ =
+ =

Subtracting the expressions gives

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), 4 4
2 1 2 1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2 1
d d d d m d d m T d d mg + = =
and dividing by the common factor of ( )
2 1
d d m and letting L d d = +
2 1
gives the
desired result.

13.101: a) The spring, when stretched, provides an inward force; using l
2
for the
magnitude of the inward radial acceleration,
( ) . or ,
2
0
0
m k
kl
l l l k l m

= =

b) The spring will tend to become unboundedly long.

13.102: Let and that so ,
0 0
x R r x R r = + =
]. [
2 bx bx
e e A F

=
When x is small compared to ,
1
b expanding the exponential function gives
( ) ( ) | | , 1 2 1 Abx bx bx A F =

corresponding to a force constant of m N 579 or m N 2 . 579 = Ab to three figures. This is
close to the value given in Exercise 13.40.