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>e2LwKi4^ <^ /;A>JL

THE
PROSE OR YOUNGER

EDDA
COMiMUlNLY ASCRIBED

TO

SNORRI STURLUSON
TRANSLATED FROM THE OLD NORSE

BY

GEORGE WEBBE DASENT,

B. A.

OXON.

STOCKHOLM.
NORSTEDT AND SONS
1842.

LONDON: WILLIAM PlCKEillNG.

TO T n O M AS

CARLYL

E.

^'^

.i^ n-^^

^f

^J>5^'-*^*^

^** /^^'

%^ ^^-^ \
*

V*

"^ ^-^

..

-rV-:^.;

PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR.


The
is

short

work now

for the first Lime,

it

helieved, laid before the English reader, forms

in

the

original

the

iirst

part

of a eollection

published by Prof. Rasr at Stockholm in 1818,


luider the following
title.

"Snorra-Edda asamt

Skaldu og farmed fjlgjandi Rit-gj(3rSum". "Snorri's

Edda

together

with the

Skalda
It

and

the

Treatises thereto

belonging".

was the opinion

of that great Philohjgist that this collection

grew

together in the family of Snorri Sturluson, the

work of several hands

at different times;

and

the Translator has not scrupled to separate writings,

which have scarcely any other connection


being found following one

tlian the fact of their

another

in

the

same MS. At some other time


to

he

looks

forward

stating his convictions

on

this matter,

and
for

his reasons for them, at greater

length;

but

the

present he must content


is

himself with saying, that his opinion

in the

main

the same as that mentioned above as ex-

pressed

by

Prof. Rask.
into

Without entering
the the

any discussion on
which
to
its

present

occasion,

as to the time at

younger

Edda was

written, or as
to

author;

The Translator wishes

say that he

VI

PREFACE.
fell

has
to

no

liesilatioii

in j)lacing the

"Foreword

the

Edtla", along

with

the "Afterwords to
at the

Gylfi's

Mocking and the Edda",

end of

the vokuue, partly because they are plainly of


a later age,
to

but chiefly because he


reader from
into
falling

is

desirous
tlie

save

the

at

very
con-

threshold,

those

false

conceptions

cerning

the nature of the Asa in the old Norse

Mythology, with which the Foreword in question


is

filled.

He
ter

has also taken the

lil^erty

of

printing

separately

and under

a different title, the

chapin

which

in the original stands as the

first

"Gylfi's
it

Mocking", because
clearly

however

interesting,

has

nothing in

common with what

follows,

and

is

doubtless,' the interpolation of

some early
lo

copyist,
at

who
the

thought himself bound

write

down

same time
find
it

all

he knew
for

aJjout Gylfi,
this

and could

no better place
it

mytli than to set

first:

is

remarkable
to

that in the Upsala MS., said


oldest extant, this cliapter
VVitli
is

by some
omitted.

be the

regartl to

the Translation
it

itself,

his

chief wish was to


ble,

make

as

faithfid as possiit

and

thougli he

knows

that

might have
it

been smoother tlnoughout, and that

contains

P R E F A C E.

much
in

that

will

seem harsh and

ahiiipt, both

wording and construction,

to the polished ears

of the 19th century, he could not help himself


in

these

respects,

his

aim being

to

make

translation,

not

paraplnase.

In one passage

only he has been forced

to soften words,

which

the simple Norse tongue spoke out boldly without

shame,

but which

our age,

less

inwardly

pure perhaps, but more outwardly sensitive to

what

is

unseemly, cannot hear without a

blusli.

After all the pains he has bestowed on his


translation, he
is

well aware that faults are to

be

found

in

it,

and

that

his

renderings of
of

doubtful passages,

may

not tally with those

others; but in the gloom

which

still

hangs over
all

many
(for

customs of the Old Norsemen, and above

in the want of a good Glossary of their tongue,

the collection

of Bjorn
')

Haldorson

is

poor

and meagre
failings
all

in the extreme

he

trusts that his

will

be

treated

with

mildness,

since

may
It

stumble in the dark.

was

his

intention

to prefix a facsimile

from
in
*)

a celebrated MS.

of the

Edda, preserved

the

Library

of

the

University of Upsala,

May
is

the Old Norse Glossary on Avhich Mr. Cleasby

said to be at

work soon appear.

VUl

PREFACE.
to the

and up
this

very

last

moment he hoped

that
to

might be possible; but hindrances,


for

be

looked
sala,

rather in the Vatican than at

Up-

have

rendered

this

intention

and hope

alike fruitless.

Lastly there
few^

is

yet one point on which a


said:

words must be

most readers,

it

is

likely, will think a

work

of the kind incomplete,

nay

useless,

without a good

Index of Proper
this objection the

Names and
Translator
is

their

meanings fto^

willing to allow very considerable


state that

weight,

but as his excuse he would


'

considerable

progress

had been made


arose,

in such

an

Index,

when

circumstances
it,

which

would have made


duction,

if

printed, a hurried proill

and rather than do the thing


thej present.
It is

he
his

gave

itj^up'^for

however

purpose to translate the

Skalda

at

some future

time, should leisure and health be granted him,

and

he

hopes then to atone for the imperfec-

tions of this

volume,
works,

by an Index which
as

will

serve for both

there are
to

comparati-

vely
tlie

speaking

few

Names

be met with in

one, which do not also occur in the other.

Ulfsunda near Stockholm, July 20th, 1842.

THE YOUNGER EDDA.

Als producte der vernunft (aber nicht der denkenden) enthalten die religionen der volker, so audi die mythologien, sie mogen noch so einfach, liippisch erscheinen, wie achte kunstwerke, ja
allerdin2:s

sjedanken,

allsfemeine

bestiramunq:en

das wahre,

denn der

instinct

der

verniinftig-

heit liegt ihnen zu grunde.


Hegel. Gesch. der Philosoph. p. 98.

De sailsamma
,

bilder,

som mota

oss

denna

vSra forfaders lara skola redan i sig sjelf va vara be vis nog, att vi bar intrada i en for oss och all nyare odling frammande, langesedan forsvunnen den menskliga tankans verld, hvars bieroglyfer aro lika undransvarda, soni ofta svara alt tyda.
Geijer.

Svea Rikes

Hiifder. p. 311.

ERRORS AND CORRECTIONS.


Page 5
32 38 46
61
lines 15, 16

...

for

the the

read

the

lastline
line

ont
seareh the

out
search
the

11

5
15

you
mimirs
takes he upper
Plutushell
...

thee
mimir's
takes he /Ae upper

^. 80
81

9
9

105

PJdtushell.

It should also be observed, for the sake of those readers


familiar with the old
"^

who

are not
to

and

'5,

that these signs

answer respectively

the hard and soft th

in

English.

CONTEXTS OF THE YOUXGER EDDA.


Page
Gefiun's Ploughing.
Gylfi's

Mocking

1.

Bragi's Telling

86.

Foreword
Afterword
Afterword

to the

EdJa
Mocking

96. 112.

to Gylfi's
to the

Edda

113.

GEFIUN'S PLOUGHING.
King
Svi'l'iod,

Gylfi

ruled in that land which


it is

now

hight

of
as

him
the
in

said

that he

gave a wayfaring

woman,
a

meed of
his

the passtime she

made him.

ploughland

realm, which four oxen could


night.

ear

up
one
took

in

day and a
the

But that
is

woman

was
she

of

Asa stock, she

named Gefiun,

four

oxen from the north out of Jotuna

heimj but they were the sons of

Giant and her, But the plough

and

set

them

before

plough.
it

went

so

hard and

deep that

tore

up

the

land,

and the oxen drew that land out


ward,
set
it

to sea

and west-

and

stood

still

in

certain
it

sound.

There
called

Gefiun the land, and gave


Saelund.

name and

And

the

room whence
water,
in

the land had gone


is

up

became afterward

which
5

now

called
in

The
the
saith

Water (lavgrinn)
lake
lie

SviJ)i6d

and the bays


in

just

as

the

headlands

Saelund.

So

bard Bragi the old.


Four heads and
eiglit

"Gefiun drew from Gylfi


glad in deep-stored goods,
so that
it

brow-moons bore the oxen,


as

from the race-reek

they went with the wide


field

steamed, Denmark's swelling;

reft

of the dear isle."

GYLFFS MOCKING.

King

Gylfi Avas a

man

wise and skilled in spells,

he wondered

much
went

that the Asafolk

was so cunning
thought

that all things


to

after their will, (and) he


tliat

himself Avhcther

might be from

their

own
they

nature, or because of the

mighty Gods
journey
to

whom

worshipped.

He began

his

Asgard and
like-

went
ness,

stealthily,

and took on him an old man's


so.

and hid himself


he
in

But the Asa were wiser

than
his

that they

had spaedom, and they saw

journey before he came, and made ready against


false

him

shows.

Now when
a
to

he was come into the


hall
it
,

burg then saw he there


was scarce able
with
saith

so
it's

high that

he

see over

roof was laid


shingles.

gilded
f>iod6lf

shields

as

it

were with
that

So

of

Hvina

Valhall

was thatcht

with shields.
"Warriors care-vext
(smitten with stones were they)

Let on the back glisten


Svafnir's roof-tree."

Gylfi saw a

man

in

the hall-door

who played
once,

with
that

small-swords,

and had seven


first

aloft at

(man) asked him


s

for his

name, he called
-

Gylfi

Mocking.

GYLFIS MOCKING.
and
(said
to

himself Ganglcri,
a far

he was)

come from
lodging;
that

journey and prayed

seek a

niglits'

and asked who owned the


their

hall.

He answers

was

King, "But

may

lead

thee to sec him,

and

then shallt thou thyself ask him his name:" and the

man
after,

turned before him into the

hall,

but he went

and straitway the door shut

to at his heels.
folk,

There

saAv

he

many rooms and much


a-drinking,

some a-playing,
a-fighting:

some

some with

weapons

then he turned him about and thought


past belief that he saw, then

many

things

quoth he
bard
'tis

"Every gate
ere one goes on

for

to tell

where
i'

foes are sitting

about should be scanned,

th*

house before thee."

He saw

three highseats
sat,

one above the other,


then asked he Avhat
be.
in

and three men


the
bin)

one

in each,

names of those Lords might


in

He

that led

answers, that he

who

sat

the nethermost

highseat

was

King and hight Har,

but next
that

sat

one
J>ri^'i.

hight

Jafiihar,

and uppermost he
asks the

hight
his

Then Har
is,

comer what more


free to

errand

and says meat and drink are


there in Hava-hall.
if

him
first

as to all

He

says he will

spy

out
siiys,

there

be

any wise man there

within.

Har

that

he

comes not whole out unless he

be wiser.

CYLFI'S IhOCKING.
"and stand thou
forth

J^%VH
J^i^ /it/cr^.
/

AtAA
J

since tliou aslvcst

he that sayeth shall


3.

sit".

^
5

7lt**^C

Gangleri began
all

his

speech thus
says.

Who

is first

/J,* AIiIm^^
{i,

or ehlcst of
in

Gods?
in

liar

He

hight Allfadir

i\y0)\^
%

our tongue, but


the
first
is

the old Asgard he had twelve

j5

l/etloi

names,llerian,
is

Allfiidir,
is

the second

is

Herran or

'

the third

Nikarr or Hnikarr, the fourth


the
fifth

Nikuz

or rinikuSr,

JFioInir,
Biflifi

the sixth

Oske, the seventh Omi, the eighth


the

or Biflindi,

ninfh

Svi^orr, the tenth

Svifrir, the eleventh

ViSrir, the twelfth Jalg or Jalkr.


gleri;

Then
is

asks

Gan?

Where

is

that

God?

or what
to

his

might

or

what has he been pleased

work out? Har


all his

says.

He
and

lives

from
all

all

ages,

and rules over

realm,
said
lift

sways

things great and small.

Then

Jafnhar.

He smithied heaven and


that

earth and the

and
.What

all
is

belongs

to

them.

Then

said friSi:

most he made man, and gave him a soul


live

that shall
rot to

and

never perish, though the body


to

mould or burn

ashes

and

all

men

that

are right-minded shall live and be


the
Hell,

with himself in

place called

Vingolfj

but wicked
that
is

men

fare to

and thence

into Niflhel
said

beneath in the
kept he

ninth world.
ere

Then

Gangleri;

Where

Heaven and Earth were yet made? Then ans-

wers Har: Then was he with the Hrimfursar.

i^V
.**''

^\
.

4
4.

GVLFl'S MOCKING,
Gangleri said;
it

'u^
how
"\veis:

What was
Avas

the beginning? or

J)"|,;|^
**Jl*''
.

did

arise?
is

or what
in

before?

Har ans-

%S{
V

As

it

said

Vdluspa.
Earth was not found
nor Heaven above
a

ai^V^wvi 0\
,
'

"Twas the morning of time

<*:

when

yet naught was,


sea

'

"^ sand nor

was there,

Yawning-gap there was,

nor cooling streams;

but grass nowliere".

Then spake Jafnhar: Many


was shapen
of
fall
it

ages ere the earth


in

was Niflheim made; and

the

midst

lieth

the spring hight Hvergelmir


thvis.

and thence

those rivers hight


f>ul,

Svavl, Gunnl'ra, Fiorm,

Fimbul,

SliSr
is

and

Hri!>, Sylgr

and Ylgr, ViS


l>ri^i:

Leiptr, Gioll

nearest Helgate.
in

Then spake

But

first

was that world


it

the southern sphere


it

hight Muspell,

is

so

bright and hot that

burns

and

blazes,

and may not be trodden by those Avho


tlicre.

are outlandish and have no heritage

He

is

named Surtr who

sits

there on the border to guard

the Land; he has a flaming sword, and at the end

of

the

world
all

will

he

fare

forth

and
all

herry

and

overcome
with
fire;

the
it

Gods,
said
in

and burn
Voluspa.

the world

so

is

"Surtr fares south fro


with blazing brand,

Rocks dash together,


Giants totter,

from the sword of the spliere-God


shineth a sunbeam,

Men

tread the

way

to Hel;

but Heaven

is cleft".

^/C^

^^/

^^----^

e^OU^

^i'.a^

'kJU^^-c,

O^c^^^

1.

in

Voluspa the short.

pi

^^

Sn^^^^^cOi^

n^^^^jL^^

Ct^u^t.^.^4^

P^.ryn^t^^ir<

(>^i>V^.^

in

Voluspa the

short.

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
5.

Gangleri said
races

What was

the shape of things


,

ere

the

were yet mingled


said

and the

folk of

men grew? Then


called Elivagar,
their springhead

Har: Those rivers that are


so
far

when thev were come


that the cjuick

from
flow-

venom which

ed with them hardened, as dross that runs out of


the
fire,
still

then became that ice; and

when

the ice
it

stood

and ran
arose

not, then

gathered over

that

damp which
rime; and

from

the

venom and

froze to

the

rime waxed, each (layer) over the


Ginniinga-gap.

other, all into

Then spake Jafnhar:

Ginniinga-gap which looked toward the north parts

was

filled

with thick and heavy


within

ice

and rime, and


but the

everywhere
south
side

were

fogs

and gusts;

of Ginniinga-gap

was lightened by the


Muspellheim.

the sparks

and gledes
f'riSi:

that flew out of

Then spake
and
all

As cold arose out of Niflheim


so

things grim,

was

that part that looked

towards Muspell hot and bright; but Ginniinga-gap

was

as light as windless air;

and
it

when

the

blast

of heat met the rime, so that

melted and drop-

ped

and

quickened

from those lifedrops,


the heat there

by the
was sha-

might of him

who sends

ped the likeness of a man, and he was named Ymir,


but the IIriml>Lirsar
call

him Avrgelmir; and thence


Is

are sprung the stock of the Hrimi>ursar, as


in

said

Voluspa the

short.

O
"From

GYLFIS MOCKING.
Vidiilfi

But poisonseetliers

are witclies all,

from Svart-havfcla,
Giants
all

From Viimcifi
wisards all,

from Ymir come."

But

as to this

thus says Vaffruf nir the Giant

when Gagnradr asked


"Whence came Avrgelmir,
of the sons of the giant
first.

From Elivagar
sprang

venom
till

drops,
a

Thou

wise Giant?

and waxed

Giant was made.

Thence are our kindred

Come

all

together,

Therefore are we so stout."

Then

said

Gangleri;

How waxed

the races toso

gether from

him, or

what was done

that

more
thou

men came?
now may we
and
so
it

or trowest thou him

God whom
:

spakcst of? believe


his

Then answers Har


him
them
to

By no means
he

be

God

was

bad

all
is

kind,

call

we HrimJ>ursar:
he
fell

and

said,

when he
his
his

slept

into a sweat a

then

waxed under

left

hand

man and

wo-

man, and one of

feet

gat a son with the other;


those are the Hriincall

and thence cometh


l>ursar; the old
6.

that

race,

Hrimjurs him
Gangleri;

we Ymir.

Then

said

Where abode Ymir?

or on what lived he? The next thing when the rime

dropped

was
it,

that

tlie

cow hight

Audhumla

was

made
teats

of

but
fed

four milk-rivers ran

out of her

and she

Ymir; then

said Gangleri.

On what

did the

cow feed? Har

says; She licked rime-stones

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
which were
the stones,
salt,

aud the
at

first

day that she licked

there came

even out of the stones a

man's hair, the second day a man's head, the third

day
was

all

the

man was

there

He

is

named
j

Buri, he

fair

of face,

great and
(to

mighty

he gat a son
Besla,

hight Borr.

He took

him) the woman hight

daughter of Bolforn the Giant, and they had three


sons,

the

first
1

hight Odin, the second Vili, the third


this

Ve:

and

trow

Odin and

his

brethren must

be the steerers of heaven and earth, and we think


that he

must be
to

so called,

so

hight the

man whom
and

we know

be

greatest

and
*

lordliest;

well

may
i

they (men) give him this name.


*
7.
'*

Then

said

Gangleri.

What atonement was


were the stronger?

there between them, or which

Then answers Har;


but when he
his
fell

Bcir's

sons slew

Ymir

the Giant;

there ran so

much

blood out of
all

wounds,

that

with that

they

drowned
got

the

kind of the Hrimf'ursar, save one


his

who

away with

household; him the giants

call

Bergelmir, he went

on

board

his

boat, and

(with him) his wife, and

held him there; and of them are come the race of

Hrimfursar,
"Winters

as

is

here said.
that
first
I

past counting

remember,

ere earth was yet shaped out,

how

the Giant so crafty

then was Bergelmir born;

was stowed iu the skiff safe."

8
8.

CYLFl'S MOCKING.

Then answers Ganglei


if

What was done

then

by

Bor's sons,

thou trowest that they be Gods?


is

Har

says; Thereof

not

little

to

say.

They took

Ymir and bore (him)


gap, and

into the

midst of Giiiniinga:

made

of

him the
flesh

earth

of his blood seas

and waters,
his

of his

earth was

made; but of

bones the rocks; stones and pebbles made they

of his teeth and jaws and of the bones that were

broken.

Then

said

Jafnhar.

Of

that

blood which
they made
fast

ran out of the Avounds and flowed


the (great) sea, and anon
that sea
set

free,

the earth

and

laid
it

round about
to
it.

it

in

a ring without;

and

must seem

most

men beyond
said
I'ri'Si
:

their strength to

come over
skull

Then

Tl)ey took also his


set
it

and made thereof heaven and


earth
set

up over

the

with four

sides,

and under each corner


Vestri,

they

dwarves:

they hight thus Austri,

NorJ>ri,

Su|>ri.

Then took they

the sparks and gle-

des that went loose and had been cast out of

Mus-

pelheim, and

set

(them)

in

heaven, both above and


;

below, to give light to heaven and earth

(and) they
in

gave resting-places to

all (ires

and

set

some

Heaven

some fared
a place

free

un(!er heaven and they gave

them
in

and

shaped their goings:


that

So

it

is

said

old

songs,

from
is

that

time

Avere

days

and

years marked out; as

said in Voluspa.

CYLF IS MOCKING.
"Sun
tliat

wist not
liall

what power he had,


had,
stars that wist not

where she her

Moon

that wist not

where an ahode they

liad".

So was
said

it

ere this shape of earth was.


I

Then
hear,

Gangleri; Great tidings are these


niickle

now

wondrous

smithying

is

that,

and deftly

done.

How
It
it,

was the earth fashioned? Then answers

Har:
about

is

round without and there beyond round


the deep
sea,-

lieth

and on

that sea-strand

gave they land for an abode to the kind of Giants,

but within on the earth made they a burg


the world, against restless giants,

round

and

for this

burg

reared they the brows of Yniir the giant, and called


cast

the
(it)

burg Midgard
aloft,

they took also his brain and


as
is

and made thereof the clouds

here said.

"Of Ymirs

flesh

"But of

his

brows

was earth y-shapen, but of his sweat seas;


rocks of his bones.
trees of his hair,

made

the blithe powers


for

Midgard
But of

mens

sons;

his brain

were hard of mood


the clouds all y-shapen."

but of his

slcull

heaven,"

9.

Then

said

Ganglerij
about,

Methought they had


earth

then brought

much

when Heaven and


setj

were made, and Sun and moon were

and days
that dwell

marked outj but whence came the men


in

the

world?

Then answers Har: As

Bor's sons

10

CYLFl's MOCKING.
stocks,

went along the sea-strand they found two


(and) shaped out of them men. The
first

gave soul
the

and
third

life,

the

second

wit

and

will

to

move,

face, speech, hearing,

and eyesight;

(they)

gave them clothing and names; the

man

hight Ask,

but the

woman Embla; and


to

thence was the kind of

man

begotten,

whom
midst

an abode was given under

Midgard.
a

Then next
in

they, (Bor's sons)

made them
is

burg

the

of the world, that

called

Asgard: [that

call

we TroyJ

there abode the

Gods
tidings
is

and and

their
feats

kind, and wrought thence

many

both on

earth and

in

the sky.

There

one place hight


in

HliJ'skialf,

and when Odin

sat lliere

his highseat,

then

saw he over the uhole world


all

and each man's behaviour, and knew


he saw.
His wife
their
h\^\\t
v'\s:u:
is

things that

Fiorqvin's dau"hler,
the

and
that

from

offspring

kindred
in
it;

come
Asgard

we

call

the

Asa

stock,

who dwelt
lie

the old and the realms MJiich


that

about

and
for

all

stock

are

known

to

be Gods.
is

And

this

may he
Gods

hight Allfadir, that he


all

father of all

the

and men, and of


his strength;

that

was wrought out by


his

him and
wife,

Earth was
first

daughter and

and of her got he the

son, and that

was

Asa-f'orr:

him followed
all

strengtl)

and

sturdiness,

thereby quelleth he

things quick.

CYLF IS MOCKING.
10.

11

Norvi or Nard
a

hifjht

fjiant

who abode
Nott
,

in

Jotunheim, he had

daughter

hiijht

she

was swart and dark


she was given to the

like

the stock she belonged toj

man

hight Naglfari, their son


to

hight Aii^r, next was she given

him hight AnDellingr had

na rr, JorS hight their daughter;


her,
light

last

he was of the Asa-stock, their son was Dagr,

and

fair

was he

after

his

father.

Then took

Allfadur

Nott

and

Dagr her son, and gave them


cars,

two horses and two


ven
in
that

and

set

them up

in hea-

they

should drive round the earth each


Nott rides
first

twelve hours by turns:


is

on the

horse that

called

Hrimfaxi, and every


the foam from
his
all

morn he
bit.

bedews

the earth with

The

horse that Dagr has hight Skinfaxi, and

the sky

and earth
11.

glistens
said

from

his

mane.

Then

Gangleri;

How

steereth
says.

he the

going of the Sun and

Moon? Har

The man

who

is

named
fair

JNIundilfciri

had two children, they

were so
(the son)

and

free

that he called
his

one of them

Mani (Moon), but


her
to

daughter Sol (Sun),


but the
that
let

and

gave

the
at

man

hight Glenr:

Gods were wrath


dred

his

pride,

and took

kinSol

and

set

(them) up in Heaven; (and)

drive the horses that


the

drew
to

the car of the Sun,


lisht
to

which

Gods had made

ffive

the world ont

12
of
those sparks

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
that

flew

out

from

Muspelheim,

those

horses hight thus


the

Arvakr, and Alsvi^r: and

under

withers of the horses the Gods set two


soniifs

wind-bafTs to cool them; but in some


called isarncol (iron, and ice cooling).

that

is

Mani

steers

the ffoin" of the moon, and sways his rise

and wane:
thus,
Bil

he

took

two children

from earth hight


from

and Hiuki, and they went

the spring hight

Byrgir, and bare on their shoulders the bucket that


Saegr hight, and the pole Simulj ViSfinnr
their father; tliese children follow
is

named

Mani

as

may be

seen from earth.


12.

Then
as
if

said

Gangleri; Swift fares the Sun

and

near

she

were afraid,

nor could she


she dreaded
is
it

make more speed on her way an


bane.

her
that
her,

Then answers Har; Not wonderful

she fares amain; near cometh he that seekcth

and no way
fore him.

to

escape hath she save to run


Gangleri;

be-

Then

said

Who
It
is

is

he that ma-

keth her this toil? Har says:

two wolves and

he that fares after her hight Skoll; jiim she fears,

and he must overtake her: but he


Hro'Svitnir^s son

that hight

Hati

bounds before
so

her,
it

and he

wills to
said

catch

the

moon, and

must

be.

Then

Gangleri;

What

is

the stock of these wolves?

Har

answers; A hag dwells eastward of Midgard in the

GVLFIS MOCKING.
wood hight JarnviSr,
ches
hight
in that

13
those wit-

wood abide

JarnviSiur,

the old
all

hag brought forth


likeness,*
it

many

giant sons,

and

in

Avolf's

and

thence sprung

these

wolves;

and

so

is

said, of
is

that stock M'ill arise

one the mightiest, who


be
filled

cal-

led

Managarm; he

will

with the lifeblood


will

of all those

men
stain

that die;

and he

swallow the
all the sky;

moon, and
thence
then
in

with blood heaven and

loses

the sun his sheen,

and the winds are


as
is

wild,

and roar hither and thither;

said

Voluspa.
the old (hag)

"Eastward

sits

He
of

is

filled

with lifeblood

in the iron-wood

men a-dying.
reddens the Gods seats

and brings forth there


Fenrir's kindred;
there comes of

He

with ruddy gore;


all

them

swart
of

is

the sun-shine
after,

one the greatest,


the moon's swallower
in a fiends shape

summers

weather

all fickle:

are ye wise yet or what?"

13.

Then

said

Gangleri

What

is

the path

from

earth
at
it

to

heaven?

Then answers Har and laughed


is
it

(the same time). Not wisely

now

asked, hath
a bridge

not been told thee


to

how

the

Gods made
it

from eaith

heaven, and called


it

Bif-raust; that
it

must thou have seen,


bow.
It
is

may

be thou callest

rain-

of

three

hues and very strong and

14
wrouijlit
Avilh

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
craft

and

cunniiifj
it

more than other


it

smithy ings: but though


break when
over
so
it,

be so strong, yet must


of

the children

Muspell fare

to

ride

and

swim
on.

their horses over great


said Ganglerij
tlie

rivers,

come they

Then

Methinks the

Gods could
if
it

not have built

bridge in earnest,

shall

be able to break,
will.

they

who can make

what they

Then

said

Har: The Gods are not


good bridge

worthy of blame
is

for this smithying; a


is

Bifranst,

but no thing
in
itself

there in

this

world that

may
on

trust

when

the sons of Muspell

come

to

the fight.

14. ter

Then

said

Ganglcri,-

What

did Allfadir af-

Asgard was made? Har said: Tn the beginning


set

he

rulers, and

bade them doom with him the


the

Avcirds of
that

man, and rede of


in

shape of the burg;


in

was

the place hight


first

ij^avullr
to

the
a

midst court

of the burg. Their

work was
in,

make

which

theii-

seats

stand

twelve others beside the


5

highseat that

Allfadir

hath

that
it

house
is

is

the

best

made on

earth and
it

the biggest,
in

all

within and

without as

were one gold,

the place

men

call

Gladsheim. Another hall made they there, where the


Goddesses had their Holyplace, and
that
it

was very

fairj

house

call

men

Vingolf.

The next thing they

CVLFI'S MOCKING.
did
\vas
to

15

lay

down

fori>e,
sfitliy,

and for

it

they

Avronghl

hammer

tongs and

and by help of

these all other tools,-

and next and


so

to that they smithied

ore and stone and


hifjht
if;

tree,

plentifully that ore

jold

that all
is

their

housestufF

had thev of
it

and

that age
s])oilt

called gold-age but

was

af-

terward

by

the

coming

thither of the

wosat

men
the

that

came out

of Jcitunheim.
seats,

Then next
a

Gods upon

their

and held

doom and

bethought them
in

how

the

Dwarves had quickened


in the earth, like to
first

the

mould and beneath


flesh
:

mag-

gots

in

the

Dwarves had
in

been shaped

and taken quickness


majjijots; -&o

Ymir's

flesh,

and were then

but

at

the will of the

Gods thev became


in

wise

with

the
J-

wit of
allbeit

men, and were


in

the like-

ness of

men

they abide

earth and stones:


so

MoSsognir was one dwarf, and Durinn anotherj


it is

said

in

Vciluspa.

"Then went
Gods

the powers
i'

all
,

There was Mo^sognir

to their stools

the rack

made

the master

right-holy,

of Dwarves all,

and of that took heed,

and Diuinn another;


there like to

who should

the kindred

men,

of dwarves shape out,

not few were shapen

from the briny

l)lood

dwarves in the earth


as

and limbs of the blue One.

Durinn

said."

16
"Nyi, and NiJ>i,

GYLFIb MOCKING,
Oii, Onarr,

NorJ>ri, and Siifri,


Aiistri,

Oinn, Mo^vitiiir,
Vigr, and Gandalf,
Vindalf, J>orinn,
Fili, Kill,

and Vestri,

Aipiofr, Dvalinn,

Nar, and Nainn,


Wiping!-,

Dainn,

Fun^inn, Vali,
pior, pioinn,
J)eckr, Litri, Vitr.

Bifurr, Bafurr,

Bavmbavir, Nori.
Nyr,

Nj'iaJ)!-

Reckr, Ra^svi^r."

These also are


but the
first

Dwarves and abide


,

in stones,

in

mould

"Draiipnir,

Dolgjpvari,
Dilfr,

Havir, Hugstari,
Hle^iolfr, Gloinn,

Auvari,

Hepti, Fili,

Doii, Ori

Harr, Siarr."

But these come from Svarin's cairn to Aurvanga

on Joruvalla, and from them are the Lovarr sprung,these are their

names
Eikinskialldi,

"Skirfir, Virfir,

Skafi^r, Ai,
Alfr, Ingi,

Fair, Frosti,
Fif>r, Ginnarr,"

15.
seat

Then

said

Ganglerij
of
tlie

What

is

the head-

or
is

holieststead
at

Gods?

liar

answers:
the

That

Yi'frdrasil's

ash,

there must

Gods
hold

GYLF IS MOCKING.
hold their

17
said Gangleri;
?

doom every
there
to
is

day.

Then

What

is

say of that stead


of
all

Then

says

Jafnharj
it's

The Ash

trees

best

and biggest,

boughs are spread over the whole vvoild, and


above heaven j
three roots of the tree hold
is

stand
it

up and

stand wide apart; one

Avith

the Asa;

the

second

with

the

Hrim|>ursar,
the

there
third
is

where

aforetime

was Ginniinga-gap;

standeth

over Niflheim, and under that root


bvit

Hvergchnir,

NiShavggr gnaws the root beneath.

But unthere
are

der the root that trendeth to the


is

Hrimf ursar
Avit

Mimir's

spring where

knowledge and

yhidden; and he that hath the spring hight Mimir,

he

is

full

of Avisdom,

for that he drinks of the


Gicill:

spring
fadir
it

from the

horn

thither

came

AU-

and begged a drink of the spring, but he got


he laid his eye in pledge.

not before
in

So

it

is

said

Voluspa
I

"Well know
in the

Odinn
hid,

mead drinks Mimir


every morning

where thou thine eye hast


'tis

mere

from Valfadir's pledge;


are ye wise yet or what?"

Mimirspring;

The

third root of the Ash standeth in heaven,


that

and under

root

is

the

spring

that

is

right

holy hight Urfr's spring; there hold the Gods their


Gjrlfi's

Mocking.

18

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
ride the Asa

doom, every day


fraust,

up

thither over Bi-

Avhich

hight
thus;

also Asbridge:

the horses of

the

Asa

hight

Sleipnir

is

best,
is

him hath
GlaSr, the

Odinn he has eight

feet,

the second

third Gyllir, the fourth Gler, the fifth SkeiSbrimir,

the sixth Silfrinntoppr, the seventh Sinir, the eighth


Gils,

the

ninth

Falhofnir,

tlie

tenth

Gulltoppr,

Lettfeti

the eleventh; Balldr's horse was burnt Avith


to

him; but for walks


rivers hight thus.

the

doom and wades

those

"Kayrmt and Avrmt,


and Kerlaug twain,
those shall porr wade

Every day;
that he fares to

doom

at Yggdiasil's ash;

For Asa-bridge

burns

all aflre,

the holy waters boil."

Then

said Gangleri;

Burns
seest

fire

over Bifraust?
in

Har answers:
burning
fire;

That thou
the

red

the

bow

is

Riinegiants

and

the

Hillogres
to

(Hriml>ursar oc Bergrisar)

might go up
free to all

heaven

were
fare
in

path

on Bifraust

who would

(thither).

Many
all

fair

homesteads are there


is

heaven and for


stands

there

a godlike

ward

set:

there
spring,

one
out

fair hall under the Ash

by the

and

of that hall

come three maidens


Skulld, these
call

hight thus, UrJ>r,

Vcrfandi

maids
yet

shape the

lives

of men,

them

we Nornir;

CVLFI'S MOrKtNC.
are
that

19
to

there beside
is

Nornir
shape his

who come
life,

every

man

born

to

and of these (some)

are

known
and

to

be godlike;
third

but others are of the


as

Elfrace,
is

kind of the dwarfstockj

here said
"Born
far asunder

some of the Askin are,

methinks the Nornir are,


they have not the same stock;

some of the Elfkin are,


some Dvalin's daughters."
If

Then

said

Gangleri;

the Nornir rule the

weirds of men, then they deal them very unevenly,


for
little

some have
gifts

good

life

and a rich,
life,

but some

or praise,

some long

othersome short.

Har answers: Good Nornir and well akin shape good


lives,

but those

men who

are weighed

down with

mishap, against them bad Nornir wield their might.

16.

Then

said Gangleri

What more
Har

Avonders

are there to be said of the Ash?


is

says;

Much
boughs

to

be said thereof;
is

an eagle
wise in

sits

in the

of the Ash, and he


his
rel

much; but between

eyne
bight

sits

the

hawk

hight Vef>rfavlnir; the squir-

Ratatoskr

runs

up and down along

the

Ash,

and bears words of hate betwixt the eagle and


(the dragon)

NiShavgg;

and beside four harts run


bite the

-^

amid the branches of the Ash and

buds,

^^

they hight thus Dainn, Dvalinn, Dunneir, Durajror;

20

GYLFl's mOCKING.
in

but so many worms are


that no tongue
"Yggtlrasil's ash

Hvergelmir with NiShavgg


as
is

may

tell,

here said,
hai-t bites

The
wit

above
it

beareth hardships
nioi-e

but at the side


of.

i-ots,
it

than

men

Ni&havgg

scores

beneath."

and

so again

it

is

said.

"More worms
than every

are lying

Goinn and Moinn,


(They're Grafvitnir's sons)

under Yggdrasil's ash


silly

ape thinks of; Grabakr and Grahavllu^r.

Ofnir and Svafnir,

methinks must for aye gnaw


the boughs of the tree."

Again

it

is

said,

that those Nornir

who

abide

by

UrJ>r's spring draw every day water from the

spring,
Avcll,
its

and

take

the

clay

that

lieth

round the
for that

and sprinkle them up over the ash


sliould

boughs
is

not wither or rotj but that

wa-

ter

so holy that all

things which

come

into the

spring
(skiall)

become
whicli
is

as
lieth

white as the skin

hight shale,

within and cleavclh to an egg-

shell.

As

here said.
I

An

ash ken

besprent

Thence come the dewdrojis


that fall in the dales,

hight Yggdrasil's,

high (stands) the holy tree,


with white clay,

green for aye stands

it

otir

Urpr's wellspring.
that

The dew

falls
it

thence on the earth call


feed bccflysj fowl twain

men

honey-fall and on

CYLFl's MOCKING.

21

arc fed in Urfr's spring they hight Swans and from


those fowl have
17.

come

the kind so hight.

Then
tell

said Ganglerij Mickle tidings cans't


Avhat

thou to
there

of heaven,
at

more headseats are


Har
one
answers:
is

than (that)

Urfr's spring?
are

Many famous homesteads


called
elves,

there,

that

Elfheim,

there dwell the folk hight Light-

but the Darkelves abide beneath in earth,


in look, but

and they are unlike


like
in deeds,-

much more un-

the

Lightelves are fairer than the

sun to look on,


pitch.
J^ablik

but the Darkelves swarthier than


also the stead

There

is

which

is

called Breiis

and none
Glitnir,

fairer
it's

is

there.

There

also that

hight
are

and

walls
it's

and

pillars

and posts

of

red

gold but

roof of silver.

There

is

again

the

stead

hight Himinbiorg,
at

that stands

on

heaven^s

edge

the bridge end

where
a

Bifraust

toucheth

heaven.

There

is

beside

great

stead

hight Valaskialf,

that stead hath Odinn, the


it

Gods

made
in

it

and thatched
hall
is

with sheer

silver,

and there

that

HliSskidlf the highseat thus hight,


that seat he seeth over

and when

Allfadir sitteth in

the whole world.


is

On

the southern edoe of heaven


of
it

the hall that

is

fairest

all

and brighter than


stand Avhen both
'^-^

%^f

the

sun

Gimle

hight,

shall

c?it^Jij,^>^Uvt

heaven and earth have passed away, and good and

r;fV\rJ^

Yk^

22
righteous
ages.

GYLFl's MOCKING.

men
is
it

shall live

in that stead

through

all

So

said in Voluspa.
wis.

"A

hall stands

There

shall

doughty

than the sun fairer,

men

abide,
all

than gold better,


in

and through
bliss enjoy."

days

Gimle

aloft;

Then
Avhen
says:

said

Gangleri

"What guards

this stead

Surtr's

fire
is

burns

heaven and earth?


is

Har

So

it

said

that there
this

a second

heaven

southward up above

heaven, and that heaven


is

hight Andlangr; but the third heaven


this,

again above

and hight ViSblainn, and


this

in

that heaven

we

think

stead

is,

but we deem that the Lightit

elves alone abide in

now,

18.

Then
is

said

Ganglerij

Whence comes
may he

the

wind? He

so strong that

he rears great seas and


not

c.*^(ju

fans

fire,

but strong though he be, yet


is

be seen, therefore
answers
Har.

he wonderfully shapen. Then


I

That can

well

tell

thee;

at

the

northern end of heaven

sits

a Giant Hra^svclgr hight,

he has an eagle's
to
flight,
is
it

featliers,

but when he bouns him

then

arise

the

winds under

his

wings:

here

so said.
from his pinions

Hraesvelgr higUt

he who

sits

at heaven's

end

they say the wind comes


all

a giant in eagle's guise,

mankind

over.

GYLFl's MOCKING.
19.

23
skills
it

Then

said

Ganglerij
hot,

Why

so

much
Har

that

summer should be

but winter cold?

answers:
all

Not thus would a wise


to
tell

man

ask,

for this

know

of,

but

if

thou alone hast


it,

been so slowwitted
I

as not to

have heard

then

will rather forgive,

that thou shouldst once ask

unwisely,
a
dolt
in

than that

thou

shouldst
to

go on longer

what thou oughtest


is

know.

SvasuSr

(SweetsuSr) hight he that

father of

Summer, and
warmth
that

he

is

of
is

easy

life
is

so that

from

his

which
winter
is

mild

called sweet 5

but
or

the father of

has two names, Vindloni

Vindsvalr, he

Vasafar's

son

and

all

that kindred

were grim

and of icybreath, and winter keeps their mood.

20.

Then
are

said

Gangleri;
to believe

Who
Asa.

are the Asa

that

men

bound
are

on? Then answers

Har.

Twelve

the

godlike

Then
is

spake
their

Jafnhar. Not less holy are the Asynia nor

might
eldest

less.

Then spake

J>riJ>ij

Odinn

is

first

and

of the Asa: he rules all things, and though

the other
like

Gods be mighty, yet they serve him


a father.

all

as children

But Frigg

is

his wife,
tells

and she knows the weirds of men though she

them not before


said to the As

as

it

is

here said that Odin's self

hight Loki.

24
"Mad
and
art thou

G\LF IS MOCKING.
Loki

Weiides

all

reft

of wit

metliinks Frigg

knoweth
them never."

why

stopp'st thou not

Loki?

tliough she telletli

Odinn hight
of
all

Allfadir because he
also bight Valfadir,
all

is

tbe fathei'

Gods,

lie

because his
in fight,

sons

by choice are

those Avho

fall

for

them makes he ready


liight

Valhall and Vingolf, and there

they champions (Einheriai').

He

also

hight

HangaguS or Haptagu^, Farmagu^, and


has

beside he

been

named

in

many ways

while

he was

coming
"I

to king Geirrtifar.
called Grirar,
Sijrhavttr,

am

Si^skeggr,

and Gangni^r,
Herian, Hialaiheri,

SigfavoT, Hniku^r,
Allfav^r, Atri^r, (Farmatyr),

feckr,

f>ri|>i,

Oski,

Omi,

iutv, U^r,
Helhlindi, Har;,

Jafnhar, Biflindi,

Gavndler, Harhar^r,
Svi^urr, Svi^rir,
Jalkr, Kialarr,

Sa^r, Svipall,
Sann-getall,
Hertcltr, Hnikarr,

YiPurr,

^ror, Yggr, fundr,

Bileygr, Baleygr,

Vakr, Skilvingr,

Bavlverkr, Fiulnir,

Vafu^r, Hroptatyr,

Griinnir, Glapsvi^r, (Fiidsvi^r). Gautr, Veratyr."

Then
ye
given

said Gangleri;

Very many names have

him, and by

my

troth

wis that will

be a micklc wise (man), who can here weigh and

deem what chances liappencd


these

to

him

for each
skill
is

of
is

names.

Then answers Har: Much


to

needed rightly

find out that,

but yet

it

shor-

CYLFl's MOCKING.
test

25

to

tell

thee, that

most of these names have

been

given for the sake, that, as there are

many

branches of tongues in the world,


thought
it

so all peoples

was needful

to turn

his

name

into their

tongue, that they might call on


of

him and

ask boons

him

for themselves
befell

but some chances of these


wayfarings, as
is

names

him

in

his

said

in

old tales, and never mayest thou be called a Avise

man
fjreat

if

thou

shallt

not

be able to

tell

of those

tidinj^s.

21.

Then

said Gangleri;

What

are the

names
what
is

of the other Asa?

What

is

their business, or
]^6rr

have they brought about? Ha r answers:


foremost of them, he
is

the

called Asaf orr or OkuI>6rr,

he

is

the strongest of all

Gods and men

he hath

that

realm
iii

hight

f>rii5vangr,

but his hall hight

Cilskirnir,
flooi's,

that hall are five


is

hundred and forty

that

the greatest house Avhich


it

men have

made.

So

is

said in Grimnismal.
floors

"Five hundred

and forty mo
are in bowed Bilskirnir I trow;

of those houses
that roofed I

know
I wis."

my
f>6r

son's

is

most

has

two goats

hight

thus

Tanngniostr
in,

and Tanngrisnir, and a car which he drives

but

26
the
goats

GVLFl'S MOCKING.

draw the

car,

wherefore

he

is

called

OkuI>6rr.

He
them

has also three things of great price,


is

one

of

the

hammer

Miollnir which the


it

Rimegiants and Hillogres know when


aloft,

is

raised

and that
of
their

is

no wonder,
or
is it

it

has split the

many
second

a skull
costly
belts,

fathers

friends:

thing that he has

the

best

of strength

and when he girds


one half;

about him then Avaxes but the third thing he


is

his

godstrength

has, in

which

is

great worth,

his irongloves those

he
is

may

not miss for his hammer's haft: but none


I

so wise as to say all his great works, yet can

tell

thee so

many

tidings of
all
is

him

that hours might

be whiled away ere

said that I

know.

22.

Then
Asa.

said Gangleri;

wish to ask tidings


of

of
is

more

Har

says:
it

The second son


is

Odinn
is

Balldr and of

him

good
is

to say,
fair

he

the

best and

him

all
it

praise,
glistens
it

he

so

of face and
is

so bright that

from him, and there


likened to Balldr's
whitest,

grass so white that


that
is

is

brow,

of

all

grass
his
tjie

the

and

thereafter

mayst thou mark

fairness both in hair

and body.

He
H^lff'/U-

is

wisest

of

Asa and
is

fairest
liini

spoken and

mildest; and that nature

in

that none

may
higlit

withstand his doom; he abidcth in the place

GYLFl's MOCKING.
BreiSablik,
that
is

27
that stead
said.

is

in

heaven

in
is

may

naught be that
"Brei^ablik hight

unclean, as

here

In that land

where Ballder hath


for himself reared a hall;

where

wis there licth

least loathliness."

23.

The

third As

is

the

one called NjorSr,

he dwelleth in heaven

in

the place called Noatun,


stilleth

he ruleth over the going of the wind and


seas

and

fire;

on him
is

shall (men) call in seafaring

and
give

fishing:

he

so rich

and wealthy that he can


to those

broad lands
for

and goods

who
in

call

on

him

them.

He was born and bred

Vanaheim,
Gods,

but the Vanir gave him as an hostage

to the

and

took

instead
it

for

an

Asahostage
set

him hight

Ha>nir5 and he
at

was that
NjorSr

the Gods and Vanir

one

again.

has
of

that

woman
giant,

to

wife
Ska'Si

hight
will
it

SkaSi

daughter

I>iazi

the

have the abode that her father erewhile had,

is

on some

fells

in the parts called

I>rymheimrj
it

but NjorSr will be near the sea; they settled


last

at

in

this

wise,

that they should be nine nights


in Noatiin;

in

J>rymheim and then three

now when
fells,

NjorSr came back to Noatun from the


sang he this,
"I was sick of the
I

then

fells.

The wolfs howl


methought sounded
ill

was not there long

nights only nine;

after the swan's song."

28

CYLFl's MOCKING.
this,

Then sang SkaSi


"Sleep can
in
I

never

he waTieth me,
as

my Led

on the strand

he comes from the sea,

for the seafowl's cry,

every morn, the mew."


fells

Then
in

fared

SkaSi up to the

and abode

frymheim; and she goes much on snowshoon


a

and bears

bow and

shoots beasts,- she hight the

snowshoe Goddess or Avndurdis.


"prymheimr hight
where piazi abode

So

it

is

said.

Bnt now Ska^i dwells in,


the snowshoe hride good,

he that mightiest Giant;


24.

her fathers old hall."

NiorSr

in

Noatun

begat

afterward two

children, a son hight Freyr and a daughter Freyia,

they were

fair of face

and mighty: Freyr

is

most

famous
shine

of the
also
is

Asa,

he rules over rain and sun-

and
it

the fruitfulness of the earth,


to call for harvest

and

on him
and he
is

good

and peace j
But Freyia

also

sways the Avealth of men.

most famous of the Asynia she has that bower

in heaven hight Folkvangar,

and whithersoever she

rideth to the battle, then hath she one half of the


slain,

but Odinn the other.

As

is

here said

"Fcilkvangr hight (ninth)

half the slain she chooseth

and there Freyia

riileth

every day

choice of seats in the hall.

and half Odin hath."


it

Her

hall

is

Sessry'mnir

is

great and

fairj

but when

she

fares

abroad she drives cats twain

CYLFl's MOCKING,

29

and

sits

in

caij

she lends an easy ear to the


is

prayers

of

men,

and from her name

that title

that rich
loveditties

women

are called Freyiorj she likes well


it is

and on her

good for lovers

to call.

25.

Then

said Ganglerij

Great methinks are


is
it

these

Asa in themselves, nor

wonderful that
are able to scan

mickle craft follows you, ye


the

who

Gods,

and know whence

to ask

your boons

but are there yet more Gods ? Har answers. There


is

beside the As hight Ty'rj he

is

the most daring

and best of mood, and he sways much the victory


in
fight;
is

on

him

it

is

good for wrestlers


is

to
is

call.

Thei^e

a saw that he

tyrstrong Avho

before

other
that
is
it

men and
is

never
is

yields,-

he

is

also so
is

wise

said,

he
his

tyrlearned
daring,

who

wise.

This

one mark of

when

the Asa beguiled

Fenris-wolf

to lay

about him the fetter Gleipnir


that they
his

he trusted them not,


before
pledge;

would loose him,


as a

they

laid

in

mouth Tyrs hand


would not
loose

but

when

the

Asa

him

then bit he the hand off at the part


joint:

now

hight wolf's

and

Tyr

is

onehanded

and not called

peacemaker among men.


26.

Bragi higlit

one

(As,)

he

is

famous

for

wisdom and

best in tongue-wit

and cunning speech.

30

GYLFl's MOCKING,
it

He knows most about song and from him

is

m^

that songcraft

is

named

Bragr.

And from

his

name
wit

we
in

call

those "braga" churl or wife,

who have

words before other men and women.


IJ>unn

His wife

-%

hight

she keeps in a chest the apples that

the Gods must bite

when they grow

old,

and then
it

become they
all

all

young again, and

so

must

be

until the twilight of the

Gods (Ragnaravk). Then

said Gangleri.

Much

indeed methinks have the Gods

under

the

care

and truth of Ij>unn.

Then

said

Har and laughed. They


I

lay near a great risk once.

may be

able to

tell

thee thereof, but thou shallt

first

hear the names of more Asa.

27.

Heimdallr
is

hight

one,

he

is

called the

white As, he

great and holy,


all

him

their son bare

maidens nine, and


skijii

sisters;

He

also hight Hallinhis

and Gullintanni
hight

his

teeth

were of gold,
in

horse

Gulltoppr;

he

abideth
is

the place

hight Himinbiorg by Bifraust, he

warder of the

Gods, and sitteth there at heaven's end to keep the


bridge against the Hillogres; he necdeth
less

sleep

than a bird, he seeth day and night alike an hundred miles from him,

he heareth be

it

grass that
all

c% ffiiitH/Vtf'

groweth on earth, or wool on sheep and


louder than these;

things
Gicill,

he hath the

horn hight

CYLFl'S MOCKING.
and
it's

31

blast

is

heard in

all

worlds; the
is it

head

is

called Heinidall's sword;


"Himinbiorg hight
there where Heimdall

Thus

here said

There the God's wardei- drinks


in mirthful halls

they say rules the house;

gladsome the good mead."

And again he

says of himself in Heimdall's song,


"child
son

am
I

of maidens nine

am

of sisters nine".

28.

HavSr hight one As,

he

is

blind;

very

strong

is

he, but the Gods would wish that this As


to

might never need


Avork
will

be named, because

his

handy-

long be

had

in

mind both by Gods

and men.
29.

Vifarr hight one, the silent As; he hath


is

a very thick shoe; he

next in strength to
trust

]^6rr,

on him the Gods have much


30. Ali
is

in all straits.

or Vali hight one, son of Odin and

Rindar; he
31.

daring in fight and a very happy shot.

Ullr hight one, son of Sif for's stepson,

he

is

so

good

bowman,

and

so

fast

on
he

his
is

snowshoon, that none


fair
is

may

strive

with him;

of face, and hath a warriors mien; on


to call in

him

it

good
32.

single combat.

Forseti

hight the son of Balldr and

Nanna

Nep's daughter, he hath that hall in heaven hight


Glitnir,

and

all

that

come

to

him with knotty

32
lawsuits

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
go
all

away

set

at

one again, that


so
is

is
it

the

best doomsteacl with


said.
"Glituir hight a hall

Gods and men;

here

But Forseti abideth


there for aye

with gold

'tis

stayed,

and

silver thatcht the

same;

and

stilleth all suits.

33.

He

is

besides

told with the Asa

whom

some

call

the backbiter of the Asa, and spokesman


all

of evil redes, and shame of


that
is

Gods and men; he

named Loki
his

or Loptr, son of Farbauti the


is

Giant,
are

mother

Laufcy or Nal,
Loki
is

his

brethren

Byleistr
ill

and Helblindi:
in

free

and
;

fair

of face^

temper and very

fickle of

mood

he

hath

above

all

men

that craft called sleight

and

cheateth in

all

things; full oft hath he brought the


straits

Asa into great

and

oft

set

them

free

by cun-

ning redes.
or Narvi.
34.

His wife hight Sygin,

their son Nari

Yet more children had Loki;


witcli

Angrbofa

hight

in

Jotunheim, with her gat Loki


first
is

three children; the

was Fenriswolf, the second


,

Jurmungandr,
Hel.

that

IMiSgardsworm

the third
this

is

But when the Gods wist that


in Jotunheim,

kindred

was being bred up

and the Gods found

ont by spaedom, that from this kindred

much moan
and

GVr. Fl'S

M
to

Of;

KING.
5

33
that
for,

and mishap must


from
first

arise

them
ill

and thought
to
still

all

of them
the

much

was

be looked

by

mother's side and

worse by the

father's,

then sent AlKadir some of the Gods thither

to

take the children

and bring them

to

him:

and
0.
.,

when
into

they
the

came
sea

to

him then
lieth

cast

he the wornx
all

deep

tiiat

about he

lands;
in

and

the

worm

waxed round

so,
all

that

lieth

the midst
tail

of the sea

the earth

and holdeth his

with his teeth. Hel he cast into Niflheim, and gave


her power
all

over nine worlds, that she should share

those

abodes

among

the

men

that are

sent to
:

her,

and these are they who die of sickness or eld


hath
there
great

she

domains, and her yardwalls

are of strange height


nir hight her hall,
knife,

and her

grates

huge

EliuS-

hunger her dish, starving her

Ganglati her thrall Ganglot her maid, (tliey

can

scarce

creep for sloth)


of

beetling cliff

is

the

threshold
bale

her

entry,
of

care
hall
5

her bed,
she
is

burning
blue

the

hanging

her
flesh,

is

half

and half the hue of

therefore

she easy to

know, and (beside) very stern and grim.

The wolf
alone

the

Asa bred up at home, and Ty'r

had the darinj?

Do
to

jro

to

him and

jjive

him

meat; but when the Gods saw


Gylfl's

bow much he waxed


-^

Mockins'.

34
each day, and
to scathe

CYLFI'S MOCKING.
all

spells said

he must be raised up
this

them, then took the Asa

rede, they

made
{>ing;

a fetter

very strong which they called Laeit

and

bare

to

the

wolf,

and
but
it

bade

him
to

tiy

his

strength

on

the

fetterj

seemed

the wolf not above his strength so he let

them do

with
,

him

as

they
(it)

listed

the

first

time the Avolf


so

spurned
loosed
fetter

against

the fetter broke,

was he

from Laefing.

Next made the Asa another


which they called Dromi,
this
fetter,

half as strong again,

and bade the wolf prove

and told him


if

he must be very famous for strength

such great
the

sinilhswork

might
fetter

not

hold

him;

Now
waxed

wolf
at

thought

this

was

very

strong,

but

the

same

time

that

his
it

strength

had
into

since he
that

broke Lael^ingj and

came

his

mind
so

he
let

must

run
lay

risks

if

he would be famous,

he

them
told

the

fetter

on

him;

and when the Asa


then the wolf shook
fetter

him they were ready,

himself,

spurned against and dashed the


so

on

the

earth,

that

the

broken

bits

flew
it

far;

thus

freed

he

himself

from
to

Dromi,

and

has been

since held as a

saw

say "loose out of Lamping,"

or
sing

"dash out of Dromi,"


hard.
After
that

when any

thing

is

pas-

the

Asa were afraid they


then
sent

should

never get the wolf bound;

All-

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
fadir a vouth
\\liO is

35

named

Skirnir, Frcyr's messen-

ger,
ves,

downwards
and
let
it

into

Swartelfheiin to certain

dwarbight
of

there

be

wrought the
six

fetter

Gleipnir;
cat,

was

made of

things,

footfall

beard of
fish,

woman,
and

root of stone, sinew of bear,

breath of

spittle of bird;

and though thou

knewest not these tidings aforetime, yet may'st thou


speedily
thee;
find

sure

proof

that

lies

are not told has no


j^'"-^ "^.

thou
that

must have seen that


there
is

woman

beard;

no din when the cat leaps,

^U^M
/''t-M-

^
rl
'

nor
wis

any
all

roots
I

under stones,
have told thee
that

and by
is

my

troth

that

just as true,

though

^MA-vvV^-V*'''?

<^1

there

be
said

some things

thou
I

canst not prove.


skill

"^C.t
Q> ^ iiX

Then
sight,

Gangleri; This
I

may
see

to

be true at

*^

v^

these things can

which thou hast taken


the
fetter

uvui-f" Vf-\ ^.^

for

proof;

but

how

was
I

smithied?

Har answers;
smooth and

That can
as

well say, the fetter

was

soft

a silkenstring,

and

so trusty

and

strong as thou shallt

now
Asa

hear.

When

the fetter

was brought
senger
the

to

the

they thanked their mes-

well for his pains;

then fared they out to


to

water hight Amsvartner,

the island that

is

called

Lyngvi, and called the wolf to go along with

them
break
it

showed
it,

him

the
it

silkenband

and bade him

and quoth
look
to

was somewhat tougher than


it's

might

be for the sake of

thinness;

30
then
its

CtLFl's MOCKING.
they

handed
wilh

it

one to the other and


hands,

tryecl
it

strength

their

and broke

notj
it."

"hut, qnoth they, the wolf tnust be able to snap

Then answers
to

the wolfj "As for this thread


1

it

seems

me

can get no fame tliough

break asunder
with
craft

so

limber a
guile,

band,
little

but an

it

be made
that

and

though

it

look

band conies
that he

not on

my

feet."

Then

said

the Asa

must

he able to snap asunder in

a trice a

limp silkenband,

he

who had

before burst great ironfellers.

"But

if

thou'rt unable to break this

band thou canst never

be able

to

cause the Gods fear, and

we

will loose

thee straitway."
so that
it
1

The

Avolf

answers: "If ye bind

me

cannot get loose, ye would behave so that


late

would be

ere
to

had
this

to

thank you for your


laid

help; loath

am

lei

band be

on mc,
let

but rather than ye should doubt

some
a

one of you
this

lay
is

his

hand

my bravery, in my mouth
falsehood.''

for

pledge that

done without

But
there

each As looked at the other, and thought

now

was a choice of two

evils;

nor would any throw

away
and

his

hand, befoie Tyr put forth his right hand


it

lays

in

the

wolf's

mouth.

But Avhen the


stifF

wolf spurned

the

band grew more


it

and the

harder he strained the tighter


all

got; then laughed

save Tyr,

lie

lost

his

hand; when the Asa saw

CYI.F IS
tliat
liigiit
llie

MOCKING.

37
cliaiti

woIF Mas fully bound, thev took the


-which
a

Gelgia,
it

was

fixed

to

the fetter,

and and
then
it

drew

through
the

great

rock
in

hight Gitill,
the earth:

fastened

rock

deep

down

took they a niickle stone higiit


still

J'viti,

and drove
this

deeper into tlie earth,

and used

stone for
twisted

holdfast.

The

wolf gaped

amain and
to
l)ite

him

about

much and wished


mouth
a certain

them; they
hilt

thrust into his


in
is

sword, the
in

stuck
that

his nether
his

jaw but the point

his upper,

S^gi he howls fiercely and slaver runs out


is

of his mouth, that

the river hight

Yon

there lielh

he

till

the twilight of the Gods.


ill

Then
iiad

said Gangleri

Right

children

of his

own

Lokij
j

and yet
but

all that kindred are strong

and mighty

why

slcAv

not the Asa the Avolf

when

ill

was to be lookset

ed for from
store

him? Har answers. The Gods

such

on their holiness and that sacred place, that

they

would not

stain

them with

the blood

of the

wolf, though

their spaedora says

he must

become

the bane of Odin.


35.

Then

said

Gangleri;
is

Which

are the Asynia

Har answers: Frigg


Fensalir,

first,

she has the

bower hight
is

and

it

is

right lordly.

The second
that
is is

Saga,

she

dwells

at

Saukqvabeck
third
is

and

mickle
leech.

homestead.

The

Eir she

the best

38

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
rouilli
is

The

Gefiun, she they


a

is

maid and her handmaids.

maidens are
Fulla,

all
is

who

die

The

fifth

is.

she

still

maid,

and

fares

loosehaired

with a goldband about her head, she bears Frigg^s


chest,

and keeps her shoon, and knows her hidden


Previa
is

redes.
to the

ranked with Frigg, she

is

wedded

man
is

hight CfSr; their daughter hight Hnoss,


she,
that
is

so
fair

fair

from her name


called

that

which

is

and winsome
a

Hnoss,

OSr

has fared

abroad

far

Avay, but FreyFa

greets for liim

and

her tears are red gold.

Freyia hath
is,
tli

many names

and

the

leason

of

this

that she gave herself

many names
rn

as she

fared

rough unknown peoples


Mardavll and Horn,
the necklace Brisingr;
is

search

of

OSr:

she hight

Gefn (and) Syr. Freyia halh


she
is

called
to

Vanadis.

Seventh

Siiifn

it

liketh

her

much
alike,

turn the
love;

mood

of

men, woman and


a
is

man
led

to

from her name


is

wooer
so

is

cal-

Siafni."
to
call

Eighth
on,
that

Lofn,

she

mild and

good

sbe gets leave

from Allfadir

or Frigg to bring
that be
is

men and women

together, though

forbidden or under a ban before; for this


after

"love" called
is

her name,

and

so also
is

that

which

much
listcth

"loved" by men. Ninth


to

Vor of
troth,

Var, she
that

the oaths of

men, and the

men and women

plight

between one another;

gylfTs niocKiNC.
llierelore

39

those

vows hight "varar,"

and she takes

vcn<Teance on those

who break them.


that

Vor

is

wise

and
it

searching,

so

no thing may escape her;


"var" (ware) ol

is

a saw that a

woman becomes
wise. hall
in
;

what she becomes


the

Tentli

is

Syn
(it)

she keeps.

door

in

the

and locks
and in

against those
she
is

who

should not go

trials

set

over

those suits, in

which (any)

man
is

forswears himself;
set
is

Avhence
a

is

the saw that "syn

against

it''

when
is

man

denies

aught.
those

Eleventh

Hlin she
will

set

to

Avatch

over

men whom Frigg


ihence
is

loiethat

warn

against

any

peril;
is

the saw,
is

he "hleinir"
she
is

who

forewarned. Twelfth

Snotra,

wise and courtly, from her


that are wise are called

name men and


Thirteenth
Avorlds

women
(is)

Snotr.

Gna, her sendeth Frigg


errands;
air

into

many

on

her

she

hath

the

horse

that

runneth
it

through

and water hight


as she di'ove,

Hofvarpnir;

fell

once

on a time
in

certain Vanir saw

her car

the

lift;

then quoth one,


flyeth there,

"What

what fareth there,


or in the
lift

glideth?"

She answers,
"I
fly

not,
I

K" Hofvarpnir,

though

fare

whom

Hamslcerpir

and

elide through Uie lift

gat with Gar^rofva.'*

40

GYLFIS MOCKING.
From
Gna's

name

it

is

said
Bil

that

Avhat

lares

high
the

(ill

air) "gnaefi."

Sol and
natui-e

are told with

Asynia,

but

of their

it

has been said

before.
36.
it

1'here are beside, the others -whose duty

is

to

serve in

Valliall,

bear drink and tend the


so

boardgear

and

alehornsj

are

they

named

in

Grimnismal.
"Hrist and Mist will
1

Hilldr and filler,

should bear

me

the horn,

Hhick and

Herfiotiir,

Skeggiold and Skavgul

GavU and Geirahav^,

Randgrl^ and Radgri^,


and
Reginleif;.

They bear

the clianipions ale."


tcf

These hight Valkyriur; them sendeth Odin


every fight,
they

choose

those

men

tliat

are fey^

and sway the

victory.
higlit

Gu'Or and Rota,

and the

youngest Norna,

Skulld,

ride also to choose


.lord

the slain and turn

the battle,

(earth) l^orr's

mother, and Rindr Vala's mother are told with the


Asynia.

37.

Gymir

hight a man, aud his wife AvrboSa,^


Hillogres

she

was of the

kinj

their

daughter

is

GerSr,

who

is

fairest

of all

women.

There was a
saw-

day when Freyr had gone into Hli^skialf and


over
all

worlds; but

at,

he looked toward the north

GYLFl's MOCKING.
parts,

41

then saw he in an hamlet a mickle and lair

house, and to this house Avent a


lifted
it

woman, and

as she

her hand and

opened the wicket before her,


hands both
in

glistened

from
all

her

the sky

and

water, and

worlds were bright from her:


pride,
in
that

and
in

then
that

his

great
seat,

he had

sat

him

holy
full

was so ywroken on him that he went

away

of grief.

Now when

he came home, he

spake not,

neither slept

he nor drank;
:

and none
Nicirdr be

dared to crave words of him


called
to

then

let

him Skirnir,

the
to

\outh go
to

who

waits on

Freyr,

and begged him


speak,
that

Freyr and pray


he was
so

him

to

and ask him with

whom

Avralh

he spake not to men. But Skirnir quoth

he

would go,
to

though he was loath;

and

said

ill

words were
he
so

be looked for from him. jN'ow


to

^vdien

was come
close

Frevr,

he asked

why Freyr was


Then answers
a
fair

and spake not with men.


said

Fi-eyr

and

that

he

had seen

woman,

and
not

for
live

her sake was he so woeful that he could

longer

if

he might not have her:

"and

now
have
no,

shallt

thou go and ask her hand for me, and

her

home
I

hither whether her father will

or

and

will

well

i^epay

thee."
will

Then answers
fare
his

Skirnir,

and

says

that

he

forth

on

his

errand,

but Freyr shall give him

sword;

that

42
is

C VLFl'S

MOCK INC.
it

so

good

sword
let

that
this

wields

itself

in

light

and Freyr did not


the

fall

short,

but gave him

sword.

Then

fared

Skirnir

and begged the

woman
after

for him,

and got her word and nine nights

should

she
to

come

to

the

isle

hight

Barey,

and go then

the

wedding with Freyr.

Now when

Skirnir told Freyr

how

he had sped, then quoth he


Often one month

"Long

is

one night

long are two nights

seemed
three;

to

me

less

how can

last out

than this half night of love."

This
less

is

the reason

that

Freyr was

so

weapon-

when he fought with


horn.

Beli,

and slew him with

a
it

hart's
is

Then

said

Gangleri; Great wonder


is,

that such a lord


so that

as

Freyr

would give away

sword
5

he

had not another as good every


loss

whit

very great

was

that to

him when he

fought with him hight

Beli,

and by

my

troth

wis

he must then have repented

him of

that gift.

Then

answers Har:
Beli

Little

matter was that when he and


^

met, Freyr could have slain him Avith his hand


the

(but)

time shall come when Freyr will

think

himself in a worse plight, as he misses his sword,

when

the sons of Muspell

fare

forth to the fight.

38.

Then

said

Ganglori

Thou
fight

sayest that all

those

men,
of

that have fallen


liie

in

from the beto

trinninji

world,

are

now come

Odin

in

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
Valhall,-

43

what has he

to give

themtoeal? niethinks

there should

be there a very great throng.

Then
a

answers
great

Har:

True
is

it

is

what
but
will

tliou

sayest,

very
yet
little

throng

there,
still

many more
it

shall

come, (thither) and

be thouglit too
is

when
a

the wolf cometh

but never
,

there so great

band

of

men

in

Valhall
is

that the flesh


left

of the

boar that bight Saerimnir


to

not

over and above

them

he

is

sodden every day and whole again


asking that thou
as to

at even,

but

this

now

askest,

nietell

thinks few would be so wise


thee the truth hereof:

be able to

Andhrimnir hight the cook


is
it

but Eldhrimnir the kettle; so


"Andhrimnir serveth
in

here said,

best of flesh;

Eldhrimnir

but that few wot of,

Srehrimnir sodden,

on what the champions feed."

Then
as

said

Gangleri; Has Odinn the same food

the

champions.

Har answers:

The meat

that

stands

on his board he gives to two evolves which


hight so Geri and Freki,
is

he

hath,

and he needs
j

no meat, wine
is

to

him both meat and drink

as

here

said.

"Geri and Freki,


sates the

But with wine only,


lordly in arms,

wartamer

the famous Father of hosts.

Odinn

for

aye

lives."

Ravens

twain

sit

on

his

shoulders

and

say

into his ear all

tidings that they see or hear; they

44
liight

G Y LF

I'S

KI

IN

C.

thus, Hug'inn and JMiininn.*

(mind and meto


fly

mory)

them sendeth

he

at

dawn

over

tlie

Avhole Avorld, and

they

come hack
in

at breaklast tide;
tidings,-

thereby becomes he
call

Avise

many

for this
as
is

men him
said.

the Raven's

God (Hrafna-GiiS)

here

"Huginu and Muninn,


ily

It grieves
lest

me

for

Huginn

every clay

he should not come hack,


I

earth's fields over;

hut

look more for Muninn."

39.

Then
drink

said

Gangleri;
lills

What have

the

chamas

pions to
their

Avhich
is

them

as bountifully

meat? Or
Harj

water there drunken? Then anaskest

swers

Wondrously now
bid
to

thou,
earls

as

if

Allfadir

would

him kings and

and
to

other

great

men,

and
troth

would
1

give

them water
of these

drink; and by
to

my

wis

manv

come

Valhall

who would
if

think they bought their wa-

terdrink dear,

there were not better fare to be

had

there

at

will;

they

who had

before borne
I

wounds and
tell

toil

unto death;

other tidings can

thee thereof, the shegoat hight Ilei^run stands


Valhall,

up alove

and
is

bites

the

buds

oif the

bran-

ches of tree that

very famous

hight

Lera^; but

out of her teats runs mead, so that she fdlsastoop

every day, which


are

is

so

great that
il.

all

the

champions

full-drunken

out of

GYLFl'S MOCKING.

45

niiglity useful

goat
that

is

she to them, (and) a right


off.

l>rave tree

must

be that she bites


of

Then

said

Har:
wiio

Still

Avortliier

mark

is

the hart Eikfyrni

stands

over

Valhall and bites off the boughs


fall so

of this tree, but from his horns


that they
fall

many

drops,

come down

into Hvergelrair,
Si^S,

and thence

the

rivers so

hight;
,

ViS, Sekinn, Ekinn,

Svol, Gunnl>r6, Fiorm

FimbulJ>ul, Gipul, Gupul,

Gcimul, Geirvimul; these run about the Asa abodes.

These are

also

named
Nyt,

f^yn,

Vin, foil, Boll, GraS,

GunnJ>rainn,

Navt,

Navnn,

Hronn,

Vina,

Vegsvinn, |>i6'5numa.
40.
tidings,

Then

said

Gangleri

These are wondrous


very great house

which thou now


be,

sayestj a
a

must

Valhall

and

great throng

must there
j

often be before the


askest thou
hall,

door? Then answers Har

Why
then

not

how many
If

doors there are in Valsaid,


if

or

how

great?

thou hearcst that


it

mightest
will
is

thou

say that

is

wonderful

he

who
it

may

not go out and in;

but sooth to say

not
its

less

roomy
of

as

to

its

shape inside,

than as hear
in

to

ingoing;

this

mightest

thou

Grimnismal.
"Five hundred doors
eij,'lit

lumdred champions

and forty m
are there in Valhall I trow;

go at once tlirough one door,

when they

fare

forth

to

war

with the wolf."

46
41.

G-VLFl'S

MOCKING.
A mighty band
(and) so by
of

Then
there

said

Gangleii;
in

men must
troth
I

be

Yalhall,
is

my

wis that Odinn

very great Lord


is

when

he steers such a mickle host; but what


time of the champions,

the pass-

when

they drink not? Har

answers; Every day when they have clothed them,


they put on their arms, and go out into the yard

and

fight

and
it

fell

each other;

that

is

their play:

and when

looks toward mealtime, then ride they

home

to

Valhall

and

sit

down

to

drink;

so

is

it

here said
"All the champions,
Odin's town within,
are the slain they choose,

and ride from the fray;


then
sit

hewn

at each day;

they in friendship together."

But that thou sayest


in
it

is

true,

great

is

Odinn
so
is

himself;

many

proofs are found of this;


Asa.

here said in the very words of the


"Yggdrasil's ash
it is first

Odin of Asa,
but of steeds Sleipnir,
Bifraust of bridges;

of trees,

but Ski^hla^nir of ships;

But Bragi of bards,


Hahrolv of hawks,

but of hounds Garmr."

42.

Then
or

said

Gangleri
is

Who
to

hath that horse

Sleipnir?

what

there
skill

say of him.^

Har

answers: Thou hast no


west

of Sleipnir, nor knoit

thou

b\

what chance he came; but

must

GYLFTS MOCKING.
seem
time
to

*>

thee
the

worth

to

hear
tlie

tell

of.

Once on

Aviien

town of
set

Gods was abuilding,

when

the

Gods had

Mi^gar'S and

made
to

Valhall;

there came a certain smith, and bid


a

make them
it

burg
true

in

three half-years so good that

should

be

and

safe

against

the

Rimegiants
in

and

Hillogres, though they should

come
that

by

IVIiSgarS.

But

he

asked
for
his

for

liis

hire,

he should have

Freyia
the

own,

and (beside) he would have

Sun and Moon.


took
their

Then went
and
the

the Asa to talk,

and

redej

bargain was

made

with the smith that he should


if

have what he asked,


in

he could get the burg done


first

one winter, but

the

summerday
his

if

aught

of the
off;

burg

was

undone, then
side)

bargain should be

(and bethe

he should get help from no

man toward
these

work.

And when they


to

told

him

terms, then

prayed he them
have

give

him

leave,

that

he

might

help of his horse


that

who

SvaJ'ilfori

hight;

and

by Loki's rede
set

was also granted to

him.

He
the
it

to

work the

first

day of winter
to

to

make

burg,
with

but by night he wont


his

draw

stone for

horse;

but

it

seemed a great wonder

to

the Asa

how

great stones that horse drew, and the

horse did one half more of the toilsome

work than

46
witness and
safe
if

GVLFI'S

MOCKING.
it

much
giant

swearing, for that


to

seemed not

to

the

be

among

the

Asa truceless

forr came home^


to
fight

but then he was faring east-

ward

Trolls.

Now

as the

winter \vent by
it

the burg-building was far on, and

was

so

high

and strong

that

it

could in no wise betaken,- but


vet

when

there
(the
sat

were

two or three days


to

to

sum-

mer
Then
rede,
to
lift

work) was come almost


the

the burggate.

Gods on

their

doomstools and took

and asked each

other, avIio had given the rede


in

give Freyia

away

Jotunheim, or so spoil the


take thence

and heaven,

as to
to

Sun and Moon,


all

and give them

the giant^
lie

and

were of one

voice that this rede

must have given,

who

gi-

veth most

ill

redes,
ill

Loki Laufey's son, and said he


death
if

was worthy an

he could not

hit

upon

some
gain;
Loki,

rede, so that the smith

might be
to

off his bar-

and they
But
as

Avcre

just

about

lay hands

on

he

became then afraid


so bringf

he

sware
that
cost

an oath that he would


the

thinijs about,
it

smith

should
the

lose

his

wages whatever

him.

And

same

even when the

smith drove

out after stone with the horse SvafJilfori, there ran out
at

of

a
:

Avood a

mare
the

to

the horse and

neighed

him

but

Avhcn

steed

knew what kind of


burst asunder
the

horse that was, then

he grew

mad and

r.YLFl'S
tlie

MOCKING.
tlie

49

rope,
the

aiul

ran

to

nicire,

and she away


and will

to

wood;
his

and the smith after them,

catch

horse; but these horses ran


tarried

all night,

and
at

the smith

there

the

night,

and afterAvard

dawn so much was not smithied as had been wont


before.

And when

the smith sees that


falls

it

will

not

be ended with the work, then

he into the giantit

mood.
a

But when
that

the

Asa saw surely that


in

was

hillogre
for

had come
oaths,

thither,

they
J^orr

s])ared
;

not

their

but

called

on

and
lift-

quick
ed
the

as

thought came he,

(and) next

of
so

all

hammer

Miollnir

aloft,

and

paid
j

the

smith's hire,

and not with the Sun and Moon


in
first

but

forbade him even to dwell

Jdtunheim, and that

was
skull

easily

(done) by the
small
bits,

blow

that

broke

his

into

and sent him beneath under

Niflhel.
J'ilfiiri,

But Loki had


that

run such
after

race with
foal,
it

Sva-

sometime

he bare a
is

was

gray and had eight

feet,

and that
is
it

the best horse

with Gods and men; so


"Tlien went the powers
to their stools
i'

said

in

Voluspa.
oaths,

all

Gone were then

the rack,

Gods right-holy, and of that took rede, who had the lift all
with guile blended,
or to the giant kin
OS'r's

words and swearing, all speech of might


that past between them; P6rr alone wrought this,

swollen with anger,

seldom

sits

he

still

may given?
Mocking.

when he hears the

like talktof.'

Gylfi's

50
43.

CVLri'S MOCKING.

Then

said

Gangleri,-

What
is

is

(there) to
(*

say of SkiSblaSnir, that (you say)


is

best of ships

there

not

ship

even

as

good

as she or
is

even

as

great?

Har answers: SkiSbla^nir


but

best of ships,

and

made with most cunning,


ship,
that
is

Naglfar

is

the

greatest

in

Muspell.

Some Dwarves

sons

of Ivaldi

made SkiSblaSnir, and gave Freyr


is

the ship; she

so

great that all the Asa with their

Aveapons and wargear

may
sail
is

find
set

room on board
she has a
is

her,

and

as

soon as the
she
shall

fair

wind

-whither

go;

and when there


is

no need

of faring on the sea in her, she

made

of so

many

things and with so


fold

much

craft,

that he (Freyr)

may

her together
44.

like a cloth

and keep her

in his bag.

Then
but

said Gangleri;

A good
spells

ship

is

SkiS-

bla'Snir,

many cunning

must have been

had

to her,

ere she was so made.

Has

f^orr ever

fared any whither, so that he has found against

him

aught so strong or mighty, that

it

has been an over-

match

for

him

either

for
said
it

the sake of strength or

cunning spells?
can
tell

Then
and yet

Har:
hath
it

Few men

wis

of

this,

many

a time fared

hard

with
thing

him;

but though

hath been so that


J>6rr
to

any
has

hath been so strong or stark that


the
for

not

gotten

mastery,
that

there

is

no need

speak

thereof;

there

are

many

proofs of

GVLFl's MOCKING.
this,

51
is

and

for

that all
said

are

bound

to

trow that forr


to

mightiest.
I

Then

Gangleri,- It looks

me
is

as

if

had

askt
of.

you of a thing that none (of you)

able

to

tell

Then spake Jafnhar:

We
to

have heard

say of

some chances, which seem

us past belief
sit

that they should be true,

but here must


say

one near

who

will

know

how

to

sooth tidings hereof,


that he will lye

and thou mayest not believe of him


now^ the
said
first

time

who never
I

lyed before.

Then
if

Gangleri;

Here will
to

stand and listen

any
I

answer
call

be

given
to

these

words;
if

but otherwise
tell
it

on you
1

be overcome,

ye cannot

me

what
that

ask.

Then spake

friSi:

Easy

is
it

to see

he will
not
fair

know
to

these

tidings, thouirh

thinketh
thine to

us

speak of them,

but

it

is

hold thy peace thereof.


is,

The beginning
forth with
is

of this story

that

Okuforr

fared

his hegoats

and

car,

and with him the As who


at

called Loki; they


a night's

came

even to an husband, and get there

lodging,
liegoats

and and

when even was come


them both
,

J>6rr took his after


that,

killed

and

they
it

were
(the
sat

flain

and

borne to the kettle;


then

but when
his

flesh)

was sodden,
to

^ovv and

fellow

them down
the

supper. J>6rr bade to meat with


his wife

him

husband and

and their children,

the man's son

hight fialfi, but the daughter Ravsqva.

52
Tlien
laid

GVLFl'S MOCKING.
forr
the

goatskins
his

away from

the fire,

and
cast

told

the husband and

household they should


|>ialfi

the

bones

into

the

goatskins.

the son
goat,

of the busband took bold on the thigh of the

and

struck

it

with

bis

knife

and broke

it

for
at
,

the

marrow,
of
his

forr tarried there the night, but

peep
took

dawn

before day he arose and clothed him

hammer

Miollnir

and

lifted

it,

and ballowed

the goatskins; tlicn stood

up

the goats, and one of


bindfeet:
that
{^orr

them
found
bis

was
(ovit),

bait

in

one of

it's

and

said

that the

husband or some of
the

folk

could

not

have

dealt skillfully Avith

leg
en.

of the goat, (for) he


It

knew
say

the thigh was brok-

needeth

not

to

much,

for

all

may

know, how frightened the husband must have been

when

he

saw

that

forr

let

his

brows sink down

over his eyes, but what he saw of the eyes,

made

him
lie his

think
(J^orr)

he

must

fall

down
baft

at

the sight alone:

clutched

the

of his

hammer

with

hands, so that the knuckles Avhitenedj but the


to

busband did what was

be looked

for,

so

that all

the household cried out amain, begged for peace and


l)ade

for

an atonement
fear,

all

they had.

But

Avlicn

he

saw
he

their

then his wrath went from him and

was

softened,

and

took

from them for ransom


,

their

children

fialfi

and

Ravskva

and

the\

were

G V LF
tlins

I'S

M OC K1

!N

G.

53
tlicy

inacJc

l^oi r"s

bond-servants and

follow hiiu

always since.
45.

He
his

left

after

this

liis

goats there,

and
all

went
to

on

way eastward
and
then
he

into

Jdtnnheim and

the

sea,

fared

he
to

on over that the


land then went he

deep sea; but

Aviien

came
and

up and

with

him,

Loki
a

fialfi

and Ravsqva;

when thcj had gone


them
dav
a
till

little

Avay,

there was before


it)

great wood, and

they went (through


all

all

dark.

J'ialfi

was of

men

fleetest

of foot,
a

he bare forr's bag; but the wood was not


place
for

good

food.

When

it

was dark,

they spied

about them for a night's lodging, and found before

them

hall

very great,
as

the door was at one end,


there they looked

and as
out a

broad

the

hall;

them

place to sleep in.


a

But about midnight there

was

great

landquake,
a slip,

and the earth went from and the house shook; then
on
an
his

under them with


stood
spied
J>6rr

up and
and
midst
in

called

fellows,
at

and they
the right
thither.

about,
in

found
of the

ofFliouse

hand
f>6rr

the

hall,

and went

sat

him

the

doorway, but the others they


;

were within away from him and wei-e afeard


J^orr

but

held

his

hammer's
a

haft

and thought

to

guard

him; then heard they


ing.

mighty groaning and roarthen Avent J'orr

Kut

when

the

dav n came,

54
out,

OYLFl'S MOCKING,
and saw where
and
a

man

lay close lo

him

in the

wood,

he was not
J'orr

little;

he slept and snored

stoutly; then
noise
it

thought he had found out what

was they had heard overnight, he spanned


his strengthbelt,

round him
but
strait
in

and

his

Asmight waxed;
woke, and stood
at

the

mean while
it is

the
said

man

up, and then

forr forbore

once
his

to smite

him

Avith

the

hammer, and asked him


called
to

name;
"But
I

but

he

(the

man)

himself Skrymir.
I

need not, said he,


art AsaiE>6rr;

ask thee thy name,

know thou
away

but whither hast thou drawn

my
was

glove?"

Then
his

Skrymir raught out

his

hand and took up


that

glove: (ant!) then

sees |>6rr
a

what he had taken overnight


Avas

for

hall,

but the olThouse, that

the

thumb

of the glove.

Skrymir asked,
and
I>6rr

if

J>6rr

would have

his

fellowship,

said

yea to this;

then took Skrymir and


to eat
his

loosed his

wallet,
in

and

began

breakfast,

but I'orr
then

another place and his fellows. Skrymir

bade they

should lay their store of meat to-

gether, and i'orr said yea; then


their

bound Skrymir
laid
it

all

meat

in

one

bag,
all

and

on his back;

he went before them


very great
strides;

the day through, and took

but

afterward

at

even Skrymir

looked out for them a night's lodging under a great


oak.

Then

said

Skrvmir

to Jjorr that he

will lay

GYLFl's MOCKING.

55

him

down

to

sleep,

"but

take

ye the wallet and

make

ready your supper."


fast,

Then next slumbered

Skrymir and snored


and
it

but ^ovv look the wallet


it

shall

loose

it

but so must
that

be

said,

though

may seem

past

belief,

he could get no knot

loosed, nor
it

stirred

one end of the strings so that

was Jooser than before: and Avhen he saw there


thrift

was no

in

this

work, then became he wrath,

grasped then Miollnir with two hands, and stepped


Avith

one

foot
it

forward thither where Skrymnir lay,


(the

and dashed

hammer)
asks

against his head;


leaf fell

but

Skrymir
his

wakes

and

whether any

on

head, and whether they had supped, and were


J>6rr

ready to sleep?
to
sleep.

answers, they were just going


oak, and

They went then under another

sooth to say there Avas no fearless sleeping.

But

at

midnight

when
fast,

J>6rr

hears
that
it

that

Skrymnir snores
in

and

sleeps

so

thunders
to

the Avood

then stands he

up and goeth

him,
it

clutches the

hammer
middle
the

tight

and hard, and dashes


crown,-

doAvn on the

of his

he knows that the head of


into
said.
his" skull.

hammer

sank

deep

But just
noAv,
fell

then Skrymir Avakes and

"What

is't

an
thee

acorn on

my
But

head?
l>6rr

Or

Avhat's

the

news

Avith

forr?"

Avent

away

hastily,

and

ansAvers that he

was

just then

ncAvly aAvaked, (and)

56
said
it

GYLFl'S MOCKING.
was then midnight,
{>6rr

and

slill
if

time to sleep.

Then
to

made up
strike

his

mind,

he should

come

be able to

him

the third
lies

blow, that he

should never see him more: he


es
if

now and watchbefore day

Skiymir
hears
stands

slept

fastf

but

little

then
then

he that Skry'mir must have slumbered; he


all

up and runs
his

to

him,

grasps the
it

hammer
cheek

with

strength, and dashes

on the

that
to

he

saw

upmost;

then sinks the hamsat U|)

mer up

the haft.

But Skrymir
''Be

and stroksitting

ed his cheek and


in

said.

there any
as
I

birds

the

tree

over

me?

Methought
fell

woke some
:

moss from the branches

on

my

head
to

what, are

you awake

|>6rr!

It

must be time

stand
a

up and

clothe ones's self: but ye have not

now

long

way

before
1

you

to

the

buig

that

is

called

Utgar^.

have
I

heard

you
a

whispering
little

between yotirselves,
in

that

was

not

man
if

growth,

but

ye

shall see

there greater
I

men
a

ye come into UtgarS.


rede,

Now
make

will

give

you

wholesome

do not
the

too

much

of yourselves,

not well would

thanes of Utgar^'s Loki brook the boasting of such

mannikins;

otherwise

turn

about,

and

that

wis

were the best way ye could take;


fare

but an ye will
1

forward, go strait on eastward, but

have now

my

path

northward

to

those

fells

which ve may

GYLFI'S MOCK INC.

5?
it

now
on
into

see."
liis

Skrymir takes the


and
5

wallet, and casts

back,

tuins thwart
it

away from them


said

the

wood
fall

and

is

not
in

that the

Asa

prayed to
46.

on him again
fared

health.

forr

forward on his way and his


till

fellows (with him),

and went on

mid day
and

then

saw they

burg stand on some

vales

set their

necks on their backs behind


see

them, ere they got to


to

up over
a

(it).

They go

the burg^
fast
>et

and there

was
went
but

grating before the gate and


to

locked: J>6rr
it

the q-ratinjj and

could not

unlocked,

as

they

strove

to

come

into

the

burg, they
so

crept at last through

the

bars,

and

came

in:

then

saw

they a great hall and went thither;


in,

the

door was open, then went they


folk

and saw much

on

two

benches, and the most hugely great


Utgar^'s

next straitwav come they before the king


Iioki

and hailed him, but he looked slowly on them,


smiled scornfully
"It
is

and
said.
if
it

and

showed
of a

his

teeth, and

late

to ask

tidings
I

long way,
this

or

be

otherwise
is

than

think, that

stripling

thrall

here

Okuforr? but thou may'st be

taller than

thou look'st to

me

or what are the feats thou and

thy fellows think yourselves skilled in?

None

shall

be

here

with us

who

kens not some trick or cunning

befove the most of men."

Then

savs

he that went

58
last,
liight

CYLFI'S MOCKING.
Loki.
prove,shall
''I

ken a
there

feat
is

which
no

am

qnite

ready
in,

to

that
his

one here withI."

who

eat

meat swifter than


is

Then
if

said UtgarS's Loki. "That

feat

(indeed)
tried

thou

keepest thy word,

and

it

shall

be

forthwith."

(So he) called towards the farther end of the bench,


that

he hight
his

Logi

shall

come

forth on

the floor
ta-

and try
ken
filled

(strength) against Loki.

Then was

trough

and

borne
sat

in

on
at

the hallfloor and

with

flesh:

Loki

him

one end but Logi


as
fast

at

the other,

and each of the twain eat


in

as

he could, and they met

the midst of the trough;


all

then had Loki eaten the flesh

off the bones,

but

Logi

had both eaten


the

all

the flesh,

and the bones


it

and
as
if

trough

beside:

and now seemed

to

all

Loki had
5

lost

the game.
that

Then asked UtgarS's


?"

Loki

"What game

young man yonder could


run
a

But

J>ialfi

says he will try to

race with any-

one

whom

Utgar^'s Loki
is

brought forward.
a

Then

UtgarS's Loki says that


besides,
it

good

feat,

and quoth

were

to

be hoped he was very ready in

swiftness

if

he would win this

game

but he would
stands

take care this should soon be tried.

Then

up

Utgar^'s Loki,

and goes out, and there was good


flat

ground
to

for

running along the


a

vale.

Then

called

him

Utgar'S's Loki

serving-lad

who

is

nanied Hugi

GVLFI'S
and bade him run
they the
first

MOCKING.
witli
is

59
Tlien
take
that

match

J>ialfl.

heat,
to

and Hugi

so

much ahead

he turns back
UtgarS's Loki:

meet him

at

the

goal: then said


to lay thee
vet,

"Thoa ueedest
willt

J^ialfi!

more
soofh

forward an thou
it

win thegame^ but

is,

there

hath

not methinks

come

hither a

man

swifter of foot than this." Then] take they again a se-

cond
turns
l^ialfi.

heat,

and Avhen Huiji

is

come

to

the ijoal and

him about, there

Avas

a long spearthrow to

Then
heat

said

UtgarS's Loki:

"Well
I

methinks

has
that
as

thy

been

run;

though

trow not now


it

he wins the game; but

now

shall

be proved
yet

they

run the third heat."


is

Then take they

one heat, but when Hugi


turns

come
not
that

to

the goal
to

and
midst

round,

then fialfi

is

come
this

the

of the course: then say

all

game

has been

enough
those

tried.

Then UtgarS's Loki

asks forr,

what

feats

may be which

he would be willing to
to the tales
said

show before them, answering

men had
he

made
Avill

of his great works.

Then

J'orr that

rather

begin
says

drinking-bout
that

with any man.


be, and goeth
bids

UtgarS's
into

Loki
hall

may
his

well

the

and

calls

cupbearer,

him
to

take the horn of

harm

that his thanes are

wont

drink

of.

Then

straitway comes forth the cupbearer


it

with the horn and gives

into

f>6rr's

hand.

Then

60
said

GYLFl'S niOCKlING.
UtgarS's Loki: "Of this liorn
if
it
it

is

thought well-

drunken,

goes olT
off in

in

one draught, though some


is

men drink

it

two, but no one


it

so
in

httle a

man
J'orr

in

his

drink that
at

goes
it

not ofF

three."

looks
it

the horn,

and

seems not mickle,


is

though
(so)

be rather long,
takes
it

but he

much

athirst:

he

and drinks,
shall

and
to

swills very

much,

and thinks

not

need

bend oftener than

once over the horn; but when he was tired of the


thing and set

down
it

the horn, and sees

how

it

went

with the drink,


ther
it

seems to him hard to


in the

tell

whe-

were now any lower


said

horn than before.

Then

UtgarS's

Lokij

"Tis

well

drunken and
had
it

(yet) not

much,

would not have

i)elieved,

been told me,


a
it

that

Asaforr could not have drunk


I

greater draught; but


off
at

wis thou must wish to drain

the second
his

drink."

Jorr answers naught,


shall

sets

the horn to

mouth, and thinks now he

drink a greater draught, and drinks deep as he was

wont;
not go
the
if

and

yet
so

sees

that the tip of the


likes,
it

horn will

up

mucli as he
his

and when he took

horn from
he

mouth,
less

seems to him now as


the
first

had drank
could

than

time,

but the

horn
said

now be borne without

spilling.

Then

UtgarS's Loki:

"How now
in

forr! thou must not


skill;

spare thyself more

drink than befits thy

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
SO
it

61 diink ofTlhe
to

seems to me,
tlie

if

thou shallt
tliou

now
strive

liorn

third drink,
all:

must

make

this

most of
us

but never
great a

willt

thou be

called

among
if

here

so

man

as

the Asa say,

thou
it

makest not more


seems to

of thyself in other

games than

me

will

be (the case)
the

in

this."

Then was

I^orr wrath, sets

horn

to

his

mouth, and drinks


to

amain

the

best

he can,

and held

the drink as
into

long as might be; but

when he saw

the horn,
it
5

now

at

last

some small change had come upon

and then he gives


more.

up the horn, and will drink no


UtgarS's Loki. "Easy to see
is is it

Then
tliat

said

now,
but

thy might

not so mickle as
It

we thought

willt

thou

try

more games?

may be

seen
f'orr

thou

takest

no gain away with you hence,"


it

answers; "I will try more games yet, but

would

seem

wondrous
if

to

me when

was

at

home with
little;

the Asa,

such draughts were called so


Avillt

but

what game

thou

now

bid

me?''

Then answers
is

UtgarS's Loki: "That do young lads here, Avhich


of
little

mark
cat;

to

think
I
if

of,

they

lift

up from

the

earth
a

my

but

could not dare to talk of such


I

thing to AsaJ>6rr,

had not
I

first

seen that thou

art

much

less

in

thyself than
a

thought."

Then

next,

sprang forth on the hallfloor one;


but ^6vr went

gray cat and a very great

up

to

him and took him beneath

62

GYUFl'S MOCKING.
his

under the middle of the belly with

hand, and

would
as

lift

him up, but


his

the cat bent his back just


5

J>6rr

raised

hands

but when I>6rr had got

them

as

high as ever he could, then the cat lifted


foot,

up

one

and
said

J'orr

did

not carry this

game

farther.

Then
I

Utgar'S's
is

Loki: "So

fared this

game
is

as

thought, the cat


little

very mickle, but J>6rr

low and

by the great men that are here with


J'orr:

us."

Then

said

"So

little

as ye

call

me,

let

any one of you now come hither and wrestle with


me,

now am
looked

wrath." "Then answers UtgarS's Loki,

and

about on the benches and said: "I see


here within,
wrestle with
see
first,
let

not the
a
trifle

man
to

who would
and

not think

it

thee;"

again he said
the carlin

"Let
nurse

me
Elli,

call

me

hither

my

and

|>6rr wrestle with

her
to

if

he will,
not less

she has felled

men who have seemed


is."

me

strong than I>6rr

Then next came


UtgarS's

into the hall


said
is

an old
shall

carlin:

then

Loki

that

she

take hold on

AsaJ^orr.

The

tale

not long:

so fared the grapple that the harder forr tightened


his hold

the faster she stood; then began the carlin


herself,

to

bestir

and then became forr

loose

on
it

his feet,

and there were very hard


|>6rr
fell

tussels,

and

was not long ere

down on one

knee.

Then

went up UtgarS's Loki and bade them

leave their

CYLFl's MOCKING.
hold,

63
to bid

and

said
lo

that

f oit could not need

any

men

beside

try a night.

hug

in

his

hall,

and

it

was
J'orr

then close

on

Utgar'S's

Loki

showed

and

his

fellows to seats, and


in

they tarried there the

night through
47.

good

fare.

But in the morning so soon as

it

dawned
them

stands forr

up and
to

his

fellows;
strait:

(they) clothe

and are ready


Utgar^'s Loki,
there

go away
let

then came thither

and

board
fare,

be

set

for

them

was no lack of good

meat and drink,


to their

but after they had eaten they betook them

way. UtgarS's Loki, leads tiiem out, (and) goes with

them

away out

of

the burg;

but
asks;

at

parting Ut-

garS's Loki spoke to I^orr,


his

and

"How

he thinks

journey

had

turned out,

and whether he bad


I>6rr

met any stronger man than himself?"


that

answers

he

will
in

not say,
this

that

he has not fared very

shamefully
call

meeting;

"but

I I

know

ye

will
ill."

me

man

of

little

worth, and

brook that
I

Then
truth,
if

said UtgarS's

Loki:

"Now

shall

tell

you the
that

since

thou art come out of the burg,

live

and may have


into

my way,
it:

then

shallt

thou
I

never

more come
never

and by
if

my

troth

wis

thou hadst

come

in,

had known before


thee,

thou hadst so

much

strength

in

and that thou


But

wouldst have brought us so near to great mishap.

64
I

CYLFI'S MOCKING.

have
fust
to

made
time

against

tlice
I

mocking shows, so
in

that
I

the

Avhen

found thee

the

wood,

came

meet you;
had

and when thou shouldst loose


I

the wallet, then

bound
it

it

with

iron-thread,

but thou foundest not where

was
tlie

to

be o{)ened.
three
it

Next of
blows,

all

thou gavest
first

me

with

hammer

and the
tliat
it

was
liave

least,

and yet was

so
if

mickle
it

must

ended

me

to

my bane

had

fallen

on

me
set,

but

when thou

sawest by
it

my

hall

a rock

fast

and there above sawest

clov-

en into three dales and one the deepest, those were


the dints of thy
fore
it

hammer:

the

rock

brought be-

tlie

strokes,

but that thou sawest not.

So was

also

with

the

games
then

that

ye

played with

my

thanes: the

first

was that which Loki made;


and
eat
fast,

he

was

very

hungry

but he hight
trough not
J>ialfi

Logi was wildfire,


less

and he burned
flesh.

the

soon

than

the

And

when
was

tried

his

race with
it

him hight Hugi,


to

that

my

thought,

and
strive

was not

be weened by
that.

J>ialfi

that he could

in swiftness

with
it

But when thou drankest


to thee to sink slowly,

of the horn, and

seemed

by

my
horn

troth

wis

that

was then

wonder which

never

could have trowed might be; the other end of the

was

out

in

the sea,

that sawest

thou

not,

but

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
but
willt

65
then

now when

thou comest to the seashore,

thou be able to see what a sinking thou hast


in

drunk

the sea, that


he,-

is

now

called the ebb."


it

And

again said

"Nor methought was up


the cat,

less

worth

when thou
then
with
not as
all

liftedst

and

to tell thee sooth,


liftedst

feared
foot

who saw how thou


oiF the
to

him
Avas

one
it

ground,

for that cat

seemed

thee,

that was Midfifardsworm

who
is

lieth

about the wliole earth,

and

bis length

barely
tail,

enough
and thou

to

take

in

earth with his head


so

and

raised

him
to

far up, that there

was but scant room then


also a great

heaven.

And

it

was

wonder about

the

wrestling match that

thou

hadst with Elli (Eld), for that

none hath yet

been, and

none
all

shall

be, that eld doth not come


if

and

trip

them

up,

they be so old as to bide

her coming.

And now
fall

sooth to say

we must

part,

and

it

will

out better for both of us twain,


oftener to seek me,
I

that ye

come not
another
so

will

guard

my

burg

time

with

the

same or other

sleights,

that

ye will not get any power over


this

me." But when J>6rr heard

tale

he grasped his

hammer and brought


dash Lokij
it

it

aloft,

but when he should


UtgarS's

forwaid,

then sees he nowhere


to

and when he turns back

the

burg,
5

and

Gjlfi's Mocking.

66
will

GYLFl's MOCKING.
forthwith

break

down
fair,

the

burg,

then sees

he there vales wide and

but no burg.

Then
came
even
look

turns he back, and fares on his

way
is

until he

back to J'riiSvangrj but sooth


then

it

to say, that

he
if

had
he

taken

rede

with

himself

to

about,

might

find

that

meeting with Mid-

gardsworm
that

Avhioh afterward
tell

happened.

Now

trow

none can

thee truer tidings of this journey

of povr.
48.
self
is

Then

said
,

Gangleri;

Almickle

in

him-

UtgarS's Loki

though he deals much with


but
it

sleight

and cunning
great in

spells,

may be

seen that

he

is

himself,

in

that he has thanes


J^orr
It
is

who

have mickle mightj but has not


self

avenged himnot

for

this?

Har answers:

unknown,

though there be no wise men (to

tell

thereof), that
of,

forr

set

right this journey just spoken


at

and he

dwellt not long

home
he

ere he went off so hastily

on

his
his

way,

that

had

not (with
fellow.

him)

his

car,

nor
of

hcgoats,
in

nor

any

He went out

Midgnid

the guise of a
at

young

man,

and
is

came one even


<al!c(l

dusk

to

certain

giant
a

who

Ymir:

f'orr

tarried

there

as

guest

the

night over, but at

dawn Ymir
to

stood
5

up and made
J>6rr

ready
^

to

row out
was soon

sea

to

fish

now

sprang

up and

dressed,

and begged

that

Ymir

CYLFl'S MOCKING.
^^olllcl

67
with

let

him
that

roulittle

out

to

sea

him
had

but

Ymir
him
he)
far

says,

help was to

be

from

as he

was so
willt

little

and but
if
1

a lad,
sit

"and (qnoth
lon^'

thou
out

"ct a

chill,

so

and

so

as

am

wont."
land
for

But J^orr said he could


all
t!iat,

row
not
to

from
sure

the

and

that

it

was
pray

whether
5

he

would
so

be the

first

to

row back
it

and forr was


ll)en

wrath with the giant


let

that

Mas nigh
his

that

he had

the

hammer

ring on

pate straitwav; but


to

he bore with him,


his strength

because he thought soon

try

some-

where

else.

He asked Ymir what

they should have

for bait,

but Ymir bade him get bait for himself;


forr

then

turned
of

away

thither

where he saw an
he took
ofT the

herd

oxen, which
ox
hight

belonged to Ymir:
Himinbriofr, and
it

the biggesf

cut
j

head, and went with

to

the

seashore

Ymir had

then sho\ed
sat

otF the

skiff,

forr went on board and


(and)
took two oars
fast

down

in

the afterroom,

and pulls, and Ymir thought they went along

from

his

rowing

Ymir

pulls in

the

bow

forward,

and the rowing was soon ended,- Then


that

said

Ymir,

they were come to those waters, where he was


to
sit

wont
will
swift

and diaw up
farther;

flatfish:

but J>6rr says he

row much
row;

and then they took again a


said,

Now Ymir

that

they were

come

so

68
far

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
out,
that
it

was perilous

to

sit

out for the

Midgarclsworm, but
bit,

J>orr says he

will

row

(yet) a
sad.

and

so

he did, but Yniir was then very


I'orr
laid

Now when
line

up

his oars,

he got ready a
less

very strong, nor was the angle

nor weaker,

then
it

put forr on the angle the oxhead,

and

cast

overboard,
so, sooth
less

and the angle went


it

to

the ground:

and
a

is

to

say,

that

J>6rr beguiled

not

whit

then

Midgardsworm,
J>6rr

than

UtgarS's
the

Loki

had
in

mocked
his

when he heaved up

worm
over

hand.

Midgardsworm gaped wide


but
the
the

the

oxhead,

angle

stuck

in
this,

the

worm's gum:
tugged
against
so

Now when

worm knew
fists

he

hard that both


but
his

I>6rr's

were dashed

the gunwhale,

then

was forr wrath,

and he took on him


against
(the
the

Asmight, and so spurned


dashed both his feet
the ground,

worm),
ship

that he

through
tlien

and

spurned

and

drew
said,

the
that

worm up on
no one
that,

board.
seen

And

it

may
who

be

hath

ugly

siglits

might
the

not sec

when

forr whet his eyes on


stared
at
is
it

worm, but

the Avorm

him from besaid

neath
giant

and blew venom.

Then

that the

Ymir changed

hue, paled,

and qvakcd, when

he saw the worm, and that the sea ran out and in
the skilT^

and

just

as

forr grasped

his

hammer and

CYLFl'b MOCKING.
brought
it

69

aloft,

then
off

the

giant

fumbled

at

his

fishingknife,

and cut

|>6i'r's

line at the board,

but the

worm
after
at

sank in the sea,

and forr

cast the

hammer
off

himj and

men
but

say he took the head


I

him

the ground,

think

it

were true

to tell

thee that
sea.

Midgardsworm
J>6rr

lives yet,
fist

and
and

lies

in
it

the

But

clenched his

set

on

Yniir's
(|>6rr)

ear, so
sees
his

that

he tumbled over boaixl

and

feet (last)j

and

J6rr

waded

to land.
49.

Then

said

Ganglerij

have any more

ti-

dings been with the Asa?

hard and famous deed

wrought

f'orr

on that journey.
said

Har answers

It

must now be

of those tidings

which the Asa


this

thought of more worth.


tale
is,

But the beginning of

that Balldr the


life:

good dreamt dreams great and

perilous for his

but he told the Asa the dreams.


together, and that was

Then

took they their rede

done, that they should pray peace for Balldr, against


all

kinds

of

harm

and Frigg took an oath


of
fire

that

they would spare Balldr,

and water,
trees,

iron

and

all

kinds of ore, stones, earth,


birds,

sicknesses,
this

beasts,
Avas

venoms, and worms.


then was
it

But when

known and done,

the passtime of

Balldr and the Asa, that he should stand

up

in their

meetings, and that

all

the others should

some shoot

70
at

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
sonio
Iicav

him,

at

liim,

some smite him with


to

stones;

but

whatever

was done
all

him

he took

no scathe,

and

this

thought great gain.


it

But
ill

when Loki
that

Laufey's son saw that,

liked
to

him

Balldr was not scathed.

He went

Fensalir

to Frigg,

and turned him


if

into a

woman's likeness:

then asks Frigg,

the

Avoman knew what the Asa


She
said,

did

at

their

meetings.

that all shot at

Balldr and

that

he

was not scathed.


tree

Then

said

Frigg: "No
oath have
I

weapon nor
taken of
all all

may

hurt Balldr, an

of them."

Then

asks the
to

woman,
Balldr?"

''Have

ihings

sworn an oath

spare

Then

ans\^crs Frigg,-

"There grows one


is

treetwig eastward of Valhall that


that

called

mistletoe,

methought

too

young

to

crave

an

oath

of."

Then

next went the


it

woman
off,

away,-

but Loki took


to

the Mistletoe, cut

and went
in

the meeting'.

But HavSr stood without


that

the

ring of

men,

for

he

was blind;

then

said

Loki to him

"why

shootest thou
I

not at Balldr ?"

He answers;
is,

''Because

am

blind and sec not where Balldr


1

and another
said

thing because

am

\\cai)onlfSs."

Then

Loki;

"Do

thou after the likeness of other men, and shew

Balldr worship as other

men;

will sliew thee

where-

about he stands, shoot thou

at

him with
shot at

this

wand."

HavSr took

the

mistletoe and

Balldr under

GYLFl's MOCKING.
the guidance of Loki: the shaft

71
right through
that
is-

flew
5

him,

and

he

fell

dead

to

earth

and

the

greatCvSt

mishap

that hath

befallen

Gods and men.

When
and

Balldr was fallen, then failed the

Gods words

and speech,

and

bands too
at

to

take hold of himj

each looked

the other,

and they were

ail

of one mind toward him who had done the deed,

but none might avenge


But
a the

it,

that

was

so holy a place.
it

when

the

Asa strove to speak, then


first,

was that
tell
;

wailing
others

came up
of
his

so

that

none might

grief with

words;

and Odin as
all,

was

meet

bare this scathe

worst of them
a mickle loss
in

for

he could best

deem what
to

and lessen-

ing

there

was

the Asa the

the falling
to

away of

Balldr.

But when

Gods came

themselves,

then quoth Frigg and asked;


with the Asa,

Who

might be there

who would win

for his

own

all

her

love and good-will, "and (this, said she, he shall have)


if

he will ride on the way to Hell and try


Balldr, and
fare

if

he can

find

bid
to

Ilel

ransom

if

she will let


is

Balldr

home

Asgard.*'

But he that
lad,

na-

med
ready

Hermofr
to

the

brisk,
this

Odin's

he

was

undertake

journey;

then was taken

Sleipnir Odin's horse, and led

forth;

and Herm6|>r

got

up on

that

horse and galloped away.


it

Now

the

Asa took Balldr's body and bore

to

the seashore;

72
Hriiighorn
of
all

CYLFl's MOCKING.
higlit

Balldr's

ship, she

was the biggest

ships,

her would the Gods launch forth and


Balldr's
balefire,

make thereon

but the ship went

not forwards 5 then (one) was sent into Jotunheim,


after the witch
that
is

hight Hyrrockinj

but when

she came, she rode on a wolf and had adderwornis


for reins; then leapt she from her steed, but called
/"
%

Odin
and
him.

for four Baresarks to

mind

the horse,
felled

th^y
I

could

not

hold him before they


to

\^\

Then

went
it

Hjrrockin

the

stem of
first

the ship,

and shoved

forwards so the
rollers,

touch, that fire


the land shook:

sprang out of the

and

all

then was forr wrath and grasped his hammer, and

would forthwith break her head,


asked peace for her.
ship Balldr's body, and

till

all

the

Gods

Tiien was borne out on the

when

his wife

Nanna Nep's
grief,

daughter saw

that,

her heart was broken for


to the pile

and she died; she was borne


into

and thrown

the
pile

fire.

Then

stood J'orr

up and hallowed
his
feet

the

with Miullnir,
t])at is

and before
liitr,

ran

certain dwarf,
at

named

but forr spurned


fire,

him

Avith

his

foot,

and dashed him into the


folk

and he was burnt. But many kinds of


this

sought

burning,-

first

is

to

say of Odin,

that with

him
but

fared Frigg and

the
a

Valkyriur and
car

his ravens;

Frcyr

drove

in

with

the

boar that hight

GYLFl's MOCKING.
Giillinbursti

73
Heimdall
rode

or

Sli'Sriigtanni,

and

the horse hight


cats:

GuUtoppr, hut Freyia (drove) her


also

thither

came

much

folk of the Riniegiants pile

and

Hillogres.

Odin

laid to
it

on the

the goldring
that

that hight

Draupnir,
every

followed

since

na-

ture,
it

that

ninth night there dropped from

eight goldrings of even


to

weight; Balldr's horse was

led

the pile with all his gear.

But of Herm6j>r

it

is

to

be

said,

that he rode

nine nights (through) dark dales and deep, so that

he saw naught, before he came to the river Gioll,

and

rode

on

the bridge over Gicill;

it

is

thatcht

with shining gold.

MoSgu'Sr

is

the

maid named who

keeps the bridge. She asked him his

name

or kin,

and

said

that

the day before

there rode over the


**but

bridge

five

bands

of

dead

men,

my

bridge

rings not save under thee alone, and

thou hast not here on

the

hue

of

dead

men;

why

ridest thou

Hel's Avay ?"

He answers

"I shall ride to Hel to look

for Balldr, but hast thou


Hel's

seen aught of
that

Balldr

on

way?

And

she

said

Balldr had ridden

thither over Gicill's bridge "but beneath

and north-

ward
till

lieth

Hel's way."
to

Then rode HermoJ'r thereon


grate;

he

came

Hel's

then
got

got he off his

horse and girthed him

up

fast,

up and cheered

74

GVLFl'S MOCKING.
M'ith

him

his

spurs,

but

the horse leapt so hard


it.

over the grate that he came never near

Then

rode HermoJ'r home to the


the horse,
his

hall,

and got down from


saw there

went within
sit

into the hall, and


in

brother Balldr
there
the

the

first seatj

and Hermof r
at

tarried

night over.
of Hel, that

But

morn then
should ride

begged

Hermofr
with

Balldr

home
with

him,

and

said

how

great wailing was


that
it

the Asa.

But Hel said,

should
is

now
said,

be

tried

whether Balldr were


she)
if

so
in

beloved as

"and (quolh

all

things

the Avorld, quick

and dead weep


to

for

him;
kept

then shall he fare back


with

the

Asa;

but

be

Hel

if

any speak

against

him or

will not weep,"

Then

stood

HermoPr
and took

up, but Balldr led


the

him out of
sent
a

the hall,
it

ring

Draupnir, and

as a

keepsake to

Odin, but Nanna sent Frigg


gifts,

shift

and yet more

(and)

to

FuUa
on
his

her

thimble.

Then
to

rode

Hermofr
and
Next
told
to

back
all

way and came

Asgard,

the tidings that he had seen and heard.


the

that
to

Asa

sent over the

whole world

messengers
of Hell,
earths,

pray that Baldr might be wept out


did that,

all

men and
trees,

things quick, and


all

and
must
they

stones,

and
seen

and
all

ores; just as

thou

have

that
frost

these

things
heat.

weep

when

come out of

and into

When

GYLFl's

MOCKING.
home, and
a

75
liad

the messengers were a-faring


clone their errand; they (Ind
a

well

certain cave wherein

hag

sat,

she

is

named

fJavok;

they pray her to

weep Balldr out of Hell, she answers,


"^avlv will bewail
w-ith

Nor quick nor dead gain


by man's son;

dry tears
balefire;

Biilclr's

Let He! bold what sbe has!"

But
son,

men

guess

that

there was Loki


ill

l.aufey's

who
50.

has wrought most

among

the Asa.
ill

Then

said

Gangleri; Very
in that

much

brought

Loki about,
next,
in

iirst

ofall,

Balldr was slain, and

that
at all

he was not loosed out of Hell;

but
It

was

this

ywroken on him? Har answers:


will

was repaid him so that he


the

long

feel

it;

when
to

Gods

were

so

wrath with

him

as

was

be

weened, he ran away, and hid him


(and) made
so

in a certain fell,

him there an house with four doors,


all sides;

that

he might see out of the house on


in

but often
ness of
hi<fht

the day he turned

him

into the like-

salmon, and then hid him in the water


then
thouo^ht

Frananijr force;
tiick

he to himself

what
force;

the
as

Asa would (ind out to take

him

in the

now

he

sat

in

his

house he took

flax

and

yarn, and wrought (them) into meshes, as nets are


since,

but a

fire

burned before him: then saw he


him,

that

the

Asa were hard upon

and Odin had

76

GVLFl'S MOCKING.

seen out of Ull^skialf whei-e he Avasj he sprang uj^

straitway and out into the river, and cast the net

from (him)

into the

fire.

But when the Asa came


.

to the house, then

went

first

in he

who was

wisest

of

all

hight Kvasir, and

when he saw on

the fire

the ash of the net that had been burnt, then skilled he that must be a trick to take
fish,

and told
a

the
net,

Asa

then

next

they

took

and made them

after that

which

they

saw

in the ashes that

Loki had madej and when the net was ready, then
fared
the

Asa

to

the river

and

cast

the net into

the force: forr held one end, and the other held
all

the Asa, and (so they)

drew

the net. But Loki


stones,

fared before,

and

lay

him down between two

they drew the net over him, but


thing quick was against
(it)^

knew

that

some-

and they

fare

another

time up to the force, and cast out the net, and bind

up with
be able
netj

it

something so heavy that nothing shall


pass under.

to

Then
it

fares Loki

before the
to

but Avhen he sees that

was a scant way


the top of the

the sea, then leaps he

up over

net

and runs up
ther
force,

to

the
so

force.

Now

saw the Asa whi-

he

went,
shift

they fare once

more up

to

the

and

the folk into two bands, but porr

Avades

now along
the sea.

the midstream,

and
sees

so

they fare

toward

And now Loki

two choices.

GYLFl's MOCKING.
it

77
to sea,

was the

risk of his life

to

swim out

and

the other was to leap again over the net; and that

did
the

he,
top
tried

(and)

leapt

as speedily as
net.

he could over

cord
to

of the

f>6rr grasped at him,

and
his

take hold

of

him,
first

but he slipped in
stayed at the tail,

hand, so that the hand


for this sake
is

and

the salmon thin behind.

Now
and

was Loki taken truceless, and they went with him


into a certain cave; then took they three rocks
set

them up on edge,

and

bored a hole though

each rock; then took they Loki's sons Vali, and Nari

or Narfi, the Asa turned Vali into a wolf's likeness,

and he tore
his

his brother Narfi;

then took the Asa

guts

and

bound Loki

Avith

(them) over

the

three stones, one under his shoulders, another

un-

der his

loins,

the third

under

his

hams, and made

those bands into iron.

Then took SkaSi an adderup over him,


so

worm and
venom
but Sigyn

fastened

(it)

that the
his

should

drop

from the

worm on

face;

his wife stands

by him and holds a dish


is

under

the

venomdrops; and when the dish

full

then goes she out, and


Avhile

pours away the venom, but


his
face,

the

venom drops on
it,

then

is

he so
that

racked with
call

that

the

whole earth shakes,


till

ye earthquake. There lieth he

the twilight

of the Gods.

78
51.
to
I

CYLFTS IWOIKING.
Then
of
the
said

Ganglciij
of the
H;'ir

What
Gods?

tidings

arc

say

twilight
before.

of this have
IMickle
j

not

heard
tidings
is,

answers:

and
of

much
these

are

to

be said thereof

the

first

that

then comes the winter called Fimbulall

wiuterj then drives snow from


are then

sides,

the frosts

mickle, and the winds keen, nor any joy

of the sun,

then

come

three winters together

and

no

summer between;

but

first

come
all

three other

such winters, that then are there


great strifes,
gain's sake,

over the world

then

brothers slay one the other for


in that

and none spareth father or sons


is it

manslaughter and sibslaying: so


"Bi'otliers shall fight together,

said in Vtiluspa.
m;uiy,

Whoredoms
an axeage,
a

and be one

tlic

other's bane;

swordage,

sister's ciiildren

shields are cloven,


a

their sib'shall spoil;

windage,

a wolfage,

hard

is't

with the time,

ere the world stoops to

doom."

Then
tidings,

happens
the

what

is

to

be thought great

that

wolf swallows the Sun, and

men

think

that

great

moanj

then

takes the

other wolf
5

the Moon, and he too maketh great harm


are
that

the stars
tiding
that

hurled
the
trees

from

heaven

then
all

is

also

that

whole

earth

and

rocks shake
5

so,

the

are torn
all

up from
fetters

the earth

but the rocks

are rent, and

and bonds are then broken

and snapped: then becomes Fenriswolf loose; then

GYLFI'S MOCKING.
boils

79
for
that

up

the

sea

over the

land,

then

Midgardsworm
the

turns

him
it

in

giantmood, and seeks


is

land:

then

happens
it

that Naglfar

loosed,
nails,

the ship so

hight,

is

made of dead men's


worth warning,
if a

and
with
stuff

for this sake

is

it

man

die

unshorn
towards
wish
floats

nails,

that

man

helpeth

with

much

the

ship

Naglfar,

which
5

Gods and
but in this

men
flood

may be
Naglfar,

ujade ready late

Hry'mr

bight the giant

who

steers Naglfar.

Fenriswolf fares with mouth a-gape,


is

and the upper jaw


earth,

at

heaven and the lower on


fire

he would gape more were there room;

burns

out

of

his

eyes
so

and

nostrils.

Midgardsthat

worm
fileth

breatheth
all
is

forth

much venom
and be
is

he de-

the air and water,

very ugly,
In
this

and he

on the other
is

side

of the wolf.

burly the heaven


sons;

cleft

and thence ride Muspell's

Surtr rides
(is)

first,

and both before and


his

after

him
(and)
but

burning
sheen
ride

fire;
it

sword

is

very good,

the

of

brighter
Bifravst

than of the sun,


then breaks
it

as
is

they

(on)

as

before

said; Muspell's offspring seek


that

the field of

meeting

VigriSr bight, thither come also

then

Fenriswolf and Midgardsworm, thither are also then

come Loki and Hrymr, and with him


f>ursar,

all the

Hrim-

and

all

the friends of Hel follow Loki; but

80
Muspell's
selves,
it

G Y L F I'S M
sons
is

K 1 N G.

have

their
:

band alone
the

by themis

very

bright

held Vigri^r

an

hundred miles wide every way.


But
stands
Gioll,

while

these tidings arc happening,


into his

then

up Heimdallr and blows amain


and awakens
together.
all

horn

the Gods,
rideth

and they hold a

meeting

Then

Odin

to

Mimirs

spring, and taketh


his folk
is
5

rede of Mimir for himself and


Asli,
j

then shaketh Yggdrasil's


fearless
all

and no thing
the

then

in

heaven or earth

Asa
to

arm
the
fair

them, and
field
:

champions,

and speed

forth

first

rideth

Odin with golden helm, and

byrnie,
against
his

and

his spear

Gungnir

hight;

he

stands

Fenriswolf,

but forr (stands) forward

on

other side, and

may

not help him, for that he

hath his hands full in fighting Avith Midgnvdsworm;

Freyr

fights against

Surtr,
falls,
it

and
is

there
his

is

hard

struggle

ere

Freyr

bane that he

misses that good sword of his which he gave Skirnir.

Then
is

is

also

become

loose the

hound Garmr,
is

that

bound before the cave Gnipaj he


he
hath

the greatest

plague,
are

the fight against Ty'r,


I>6rr

and they
for

each

other's scathe.

bears ofF praise

Midgardworm's
nine
feet,

banc,
falls

and steps away

from

him

then

he dead to earth for the venom


that

G\LFl's
that the

MOCK ITS G.
liiiii.

81

worm blows
is

on

Tlie

moH

swallows

Odin,
Vil'arr,

that

his

bane,

but

straitway coinrs on
the

and

steps

with one foot on


that
foot

nether jaw
for
is

of

the

wolf,

on

hath he the shoe,


in
all ages,

which

stuff hath

been agathering

this

those strips of skin which


for
cast

men

cut out of their shoon


shall

the toes

or

heels,

for this sake

the
to

man
help

away

those strips,

who

thinks to

come

the Asa; with one hand

takes he
his

upper jaw of the

wolf and rends asunder


wolf's bane.

gape,

and

that

is

the

Loki hath
other's

strife

with Heimdallr and

they

are

each
fire
is

bane.
earth

Then
and

next

Surtr
all

slingeth

over
it

the
in

burneth

the

world; so

said

Voluspa.

"High blows Heimdallr,


the horn
is

What
what
is't

is't

with Asa?

aloft,

with Elves?

Odin speateth
at

roareth all Jotunheim,

Mimir's head,

The Asa

are met;

shaketh Yggdrasil's
ash straitstanding,

Dwarves are howling


before their stonedoors,

groaneth the old tree;


but the giant
is

witty in rock walls;


are ye wise yet or what!

loose."

Hrymr

drives east fro

the

worm

smites the waves

holds his shield before;

but the eagle screams,


the pale beak tears corpses,

Jorraungandr turns him


in giantmood,

Naglfar

is

loose.

GylJTs Mocking.

82

GYLFl'S.
keel fares east fro,

MOCKING.
Odin's son goeth
to

A
will

Muspell's peoples

war with the wolf,


his

come oer the

sea,

Viparr on

way

but Loki steereth,


there are
fell

to the wild beast.

powers

He
his

to the giant's child

with Frcki
to

all,

lets in the

heart stand

them

is

his

brother

hand-drawn sword,
his sire.

Byleistr in front.

when he venges

Surtr fares south fro

Goeth the famous


offspring of

with blazing brand,

Hlodyn

from the sword of the sphere-God scarce from the adder


shineth a sunbeam;
the champion of gloom,
ere

rocks dash together,


giants totter,

from

his

wrath drops

Midgard's warder;
then will
all

men

tread the way to Hel;


is

mankind

but heaven

cleft.

from liomesteads be hurled.

Then comes
when Odin
to

to

Hlyn

Sun

shall be swart,

another woe forward,


fares

fields sink

in sea,
stars

and the bright

war with the wolf;


tlie

from heaven be
firebreath rageth

cast;

and

bright bane

of Beli with Surtr,

round time's nurse,


the high heat playcth

then will

fall

Frigg's dearest

God.

with heaven itself"

Heie loo

Is

it

th
a field,

"Vigrigr bight

where will meet

in

figiit

Surtr and the sweet Gods;

an hundred miles
is

it

every way;
is

that

their fated field."

CYLFl's MOCKING.
52.
after,

83
conies then
all the

Then

said
is

Ganglerij

What

when heaven
all

burnt and earth, and


all

world, and

the

Gods dead and

champions,

and
that

all

the folk

of

men?
live

for
in

ye have already said


for all aees.

each

man

shall

some world

Then

answers

Har:
;

Many
best

abodes are there then


is
it

good, and
in
is

many bad

then to be in Gimle

heaven with Surtr; and great store of good drink


there
for

them Avho think


it

that

joy in the hall


is

bight Brimir,
a good
hall
it

stands also in

heaven. That
Ni|>a-fells

also

which stands on

wrought of

red gold,

hight Sindri, in this hall shall abide

good
mickle

men and
hall
it

wellminded.
a

On

Na-strand

is

and
also

bad, and the doors look northaltogether of adderbacks


all

ward;
like

is

Avrought

a wattled

house; but the worm's heads

turn

into

the house, and

blow venom

so that rivers of
rivers

venom

run along the hall,


all

and those

wade
it is

murderers and
here
said.
hall stands
I

who

forswear themselves, as

"A
far

wis

that hall

is

woven

from the sua

with bacts of worms,


there shall wade

Na-strand upon
north look the doors:

the heavy streams

venom drops

fall

men

forsworn

in through loopholes.

and menslayers."
is

But in Hvergelmir

worst

"There quells Ni^havggr


the bodies of the dead."

84
53.

GYLFTS MOCKING,
Then
said

Gangleri; Live any Gods then


?

or

is

there

any earth or heaven

Har answers; The


and
it

earth shoots

up then from the

sea,

is

green

and
live,

fair,

the fields
that

wax unsown.

ViJ>arr

and Vali
fire

so

neither the sea nor Surtr's

hath

harmed them, and they dwell on


Asgard

lI>avollr,

where

was before;

and thither come forr's sons,


there Miollnir; then next
all

Mofi and Magni; and have

come

Balldr and Hav'Sr from Hell; then they set


call to

together and talk, and

mind

their old tales,

and rede of the

tidings

which happened aforetime,


find

and of Midgardsworm, and Fenris-wolf: then

they in the grass those golden tables which the Asa

once had: so

is

it

said.

"Vi|>arr and Vali


abide in the God"s house

Miifi and Magni


shall have Miollnir

when

Surtr's fire

is blacli,

of Vingnir to stay fight."

But

in

the

place hight Hodmimir's holt two


fire,

men

lie

hid during Surtr's

hight thus Lif and


for

Leifl>rasir,

and they have niorningdew


so

meat

but

from these men comes

mickle kinsfolk that they


it

dwell over the whole world, as


"But Lif and Lciff>rasir
tliey will lie

is

here said.

Dew
is

of the morning
for

hid

what they

meat have,

in Hodmiinir'.s holt,

hnt thence come the races."


lo

But what will seem


the sun

thee

wondrous,

is

that

forth a daughter not should have brought '&

GlfLFl'S
less

MOCKING.
and she
is

85
ihen in the

fair

than

herself,
as

fares
said.

steps of her

mother^

here

"Daughter one
bears AlfravPull

That maid

shall ride,

when the Gods are dead,


on her mother's way."

ere Fenrir takes her;

But
I

now

if

thou knowest aught farther to ask,

wis not whence that can


I

come

to thee;

for that

never heard
faring,

any man

tell

longer of the worldshast heard as

and

enjoy

now what thou

thou canst.

Then

next heard Gangleri a great din every


all

way around him, and he turned and looked on


sides,

and when he
flat

sees

more about him then


and he
sees

stands

he without on a

vale,

then no hall

and no burg: then goes he away on


comes
that

his road,

and

into

his

kingdom,

and

says

those

tidings

he has seen

and heard,

and

after

him each

man

told others these sayings.

'

6-?C<.VV'"i/

-^ ^U<.

y^^,^

#W*VW

86

BRAGFS TELLING.
1.

One man
isle

is

named

yEgir or Hler,
Hler's isle,
his

lie

abode

ia

the

that

is

now

called

he was
to

very skilled in
gard,
treated

spells.

He went on
Asa

way

As-

but

Avhen

the

wist of his

coming they

him

with good

fare,
false

tiiongh

many
and
at

things

were then

wrought with
should drink,

shows
let

even

when
into
it

they
the

then

Odin be borne
tliat

hall

swords, and they were so briglit

glistened

from them, and there was no other


set

light
tlie

had while they were

down

to drink

then go

Asa to their guild, and (he twelve Asa who are wont
to

doom

set

them on
I>6r,

their

liighseatsj

and so were

they named.

NjorSr,

Freyr,
H;TcnIr,

Tyr, Heimdallr,
Foiseti.

Bragi, ViJ'arr, Vali,

UHr,

And

like-

wise the Asynia with them:

Frigg,

Freya,
It

Gefiun

Ifunn,
grand
the

Gcrfr,

Sigun,

Fulla,

Nanna.

seemed

to yEgir to look about him, the pannels of


all

wall were

tiled

with

fair

shields

tlicrc

was

also swingeing strong

mead and they drank deep;


Bragi,

next
talk

man

to

^gir

sat
tiieir

and they had

much

together over
tidings

drink: Bragi spake to /Egir

of

many

which had befallen the Asa.

BRAGl'S TELLING.
2.

87

He began then with

the talc,

how

three

Asa,

Odin and Loki and


fells

Hasnir, fared

from home,
off

and fared over


for
dale,

and heath and were badly

meat,

but

as

they

came down

in'to

certain

they see there a flock of oxen, and take one


set

ox and

about seething

itj

now when
lift

they think

the flesh shall be sodden, they

the lid off the

broth, and

it

was not yet sodden


lift

and the second


little

time when they


gone, and
themselves
it

the

lid,

after a

time was

was not yet sodden, they talk


tiiis

among
Then
that

how

thing

could

happen.

hear

they a voice in an oak

up above them,
it is

said he
in

who

sat

there sways so that

not sodden
sat

the seething, they

looked thither,

and there

an

eagle

and

no

little

one:

Then

said the eagle


fdl

"An ye
then

are Avilling to give


it

me my

of the ox,

shall

be sodden
then he

in

the seething."

To

that

they said aye:

let

himself sink

down out

of the tree, and set him to the seething, and snatches

up

straitway

first

of

all

two thighs of the ox and

both shoulders:
a

then was Loki wrath and grasped


it

mickle stock, and swings


eagle's
flys

with
;

all

his

might,

and smites against the

body

the eagle shakes

him
fast

after the

blow and

up, then was the stock


at

on the body of the eagle and Loki's hands

the other end: the eagle flys just so high that Loki's

88
feet
liis

BRAG
take

I'S

TELLING.
trees,

hold below on stones and rocks and


lie

hands

thinks will

be torn from his shoulderbeTs

blades: he calls out, and


estly

the eaijle most earn-

for peace,
loose,

but he says that Loki shall never


oath
to

get

unless he takes an

him

to

come

along

with
is

Ifunn and her apples out of Asgard:


willing to do this,
fellows,

but Loki

then
is

is

he loosed

and goes

to his

and

it

not said farther

how

they

fared

before they

came home.

But

at

the time spoken of Loki lures if'unn out of Asgard


into a

certain

wood, and
she

says that he has

found

some apples
and begged

Avhich
that

will

think of great price:

she should have with her her apples


these.

and put them alongside


flazi

Then comes
and
takes

thither

the
flys

giant

in

eagleshape,

ll'unn
to his

and

away with her, and has her home


Asa were
ill

abode,- but the

at ease

for the loss of

ll^unn,

and became soon gray and

old.

Then held
last

they a meeting, and ask each other what was

known about

ll>unn,

and
witii

it

was
:

last

seen that she

went out of Asgard


and
pain
afraid

Loki

then was Loki taken

brought

to

tiie

meeling, and death or strong

was
then

tlireatencd

him,
he

but

when

he became

he
if

said

A\oiiId

seek after

ifunn

in

Jtitunheim,
that she

Freyia will lend

him

the falconshape

halh:

and

when he

gets the

falconshape.

BRAGI'S TELLING.

89

he
to

flys

north into Jotunheim,


the giant's,

and comes one day


sea,

fiazi

he
at

was rowing on the

but
into

ifunn was alone


the likeness
flys

home:

Loki turned her


in

of a nut,
fast

and held her

his
J'iazi

claws,

and

as

as

he can.

But when
his

came home and


shape and
in
flys

misses ifunn,

he takes

eagle-

after Loki,

and the eaglewings gained

the flight.

But when the Asa saw that the falcon

flew with

the nut, and

where the eagle flew, then


and
bare
thither

went

they
of

out

under Asgard,
for
firing

bundles

chips
falcon

(Logaspoenir).

And

when
let

the

flew

within

over the burg and

himself sink
fire

down

inside the burgwall, then the

Asa set

to the chips,

but the eagle could not


the falcon,

stop himself

when he missed

and then
and took

the fire caught the feathers of the eagle,

from
slew
that

him
J>iazi

his

flight:

then were the Asa near and

the

giant
is

within

Asgard's grates,

and

slaughter

all-famous.

But Skal>i daughter

of

I>iazi

the giant took

helm and byrnie,


Asgard
to

and

all

wai'gear,

and comes
Asa
first

to

avenge her father^


and
ransom,-

but

the

bade
thing

her
is,

atonement

and the

that she shall

choose her a
feet

man from among


and
feet

the

Asa,

and choose by the

see

no more of him: then saw she one man's


fairj

wondrous

and

said,

"This one choose

I,

90
few

BRAG IS TELLING.
things will be loathly about Balldr.''

But
this

it

was NjorSr out of Noatiin.

She had

also

in

her deed of atonement, that the Asa should do that

which she thought they would not be able,


this

and

was

to

make her laugh; then


string
to
his

did Loki this,


the

he tyed a
other

to

the beard of a goat, and

end

own body, and

afterward one

pulled this

way
then

the other that,

and both shrieked


fall

out

loud:

Loki

let

himself

on

SkaJ^i's

knees, and then she laughed, and so the atonement


Avith

her

at

the
so
it

hands
is

of

the

Asa

was brought

about:

and

said

that

Odin did over and


fiazi's eyes

above what she asked, in that he took

and

cast

them up

into heaven,

and made thereof


Mickle
Aviiat

stars twain.

Then spake ^gir;


in

methinks

was
Bracfi

I'iazi

himself;

biit

of

kin

was he?
and
it

answers: Avlvaldi
to the

hiirht
if I

his father,
tell

will

seem

worth mark
in

thee of him.

He
his

was very rich

gold

but when he died and

sons should share their heritage, they had this

meaeach

sure

for

the

gold

which they

shared,

that
all

should take his mouthfull in turn, and

even as

many. The
the
third

first

of them

was

fiazi,
it

the second if i,

Gangr;
to
in

but

we have
the

now

as a

saw

among,
giants,

us,

call

gold

mouthtalc

of these
this

but

runes or songship

we wrap

up

BRAGI'S TELLING.^
SO,

91

that

we

call

it

the

measure,
said

or

saw,

or tale
is
''"(

of these giants.
well

Then
runes.

TEgir,"

metliinks that

t ;*

hidden
3.

in

I^IHiMM^ ^
J5]gir;

And
that

again

said
call

Whence

have ye

^'^C*^*^{/t^^V*-

that
It

craft

ye

songship?

Bragi answers;

Wv

M/Ti

A\as

the beginning to this that the the


folk

Gods had

feud

with

that bight
a

Vanir, but (at

last)
it

they held a meeting about


in
it

peace, and settled

this Avise, they Avent both to a jar

and

spat into

their

spittle;

but

at

parting then the Gods took


let
it

it,

because they would not

that
a

mark of peace

perish,

and
he

shaped
is

out

of
that

man,
asks

who
him

hight

Kvasir:

so

wise

none
to

any

things that he
fared

knows not how


to

answer;

and he

wide about the world

teach

men wisdom,
to

but

when

he

came

at

their

bidding

certain

dwarves, Fialar and Galar, then called they him to


speak aside with them, and slew him, (and)
let his

blood run
they
called

into

two

jars

and one
jars

kettle,

and

this

O^raerir,

but the

hight Son and

BoSn:

they

blended

honey with the blood,


that

and

thereof Avas
of
it

made such mead,

whosoever drinks

becomes bard or wiseman. The dwarves told


choked
so in as
his

the Asa that Kvasir had


that

wisdom, for
be able
to

no one was there

wise

to

ask

him enough about

learnincf.

92

BRA
Then

CI'S

TELLING.
to

bade these dwarves


his
to

them the giant


the dwarves bade

hight Gillingr and

wife, then
sea

Gilh'ngr to

row out

with them, but as they

fared forth along the land the dwarves rowed against


a blind scar and

overturned the

skiffj

Gillingr was

no

swimmer and was drowned;


their
this

but the dwarves


they told
it

righted
his

skiff

and

rowed to land:

wife

mischance, but she bore

ill

and

wept

aloud.

Then

Fialar
if

asked

her,

if

it

would

make her mind

easier,

she were to see out on


j

the sea the place where he had sunk


it

and she

said

would;

then

spake he

with Galar his brother,


the

that he should go

up over

doorway

as she

went

out,

and

let

the quernstone

fall

on her head, and


so he did.

said he

was weary of her weeping; and

Now when
this,

Suttungr the giant Gillingr's son heard

he

fares thither
to

and took the dwarves,

and
scar

bears
flooded
their
his

them out
at

sea,

and

sets

them on

high tide, they pray Suttungr to spare

lives,

and bid him (take)

in

atonement for

father's

blood the dear mead; and that was for them.


it

an

atonement between

Suttungr bears the


the stead hight Hnitit

mead home, and hoards


biorg,

in

and

sets

there
this

to

guard

his

daughter
Kvasir's

Gunnlavfa.

From

call

we songship
I'lll;

blood, or dwarves drink or

or some kind of

BR A GI'S TELLING.
liquor of OSraerir or
freight,

93
or the dwarves
life-

BoSn or Son

(because that

mead brought them a


or
Suttungr's

ransom

from

the

scar)

mead,

or

Hnitbiorg's liquor.
4.

Then
call

said

^girj

Methinks

it

is

darkly

said,

to

songship by these names.


to

But

how

came

the Asa

Suttungrs mead?
is,

Bragi answers:

The

story about this

that

Odin fared from home


were a-mowing

and came thither where


hay,-

thralls nine

he asks

if

they will that he should whet their

scythes; to this they said yea; then takes he a

hone

from

his belt,

and whetted them, and


to

their scythes

seemed
if

to

them

bite

much

better,

and they asked

the
it,

hone were for


that he
it,

sale;

but he put such a price


it

on

who would buy


all

should give a

fair

sum
it),

for

now

quoth they were willing (to give


sell
it

and (each) bade him

to

him, but he

cast

the hone

up

aloft;

and

as all

wished to lay hands


it

on
his

it,

they scrambled so about

that each

brought

scythe on the other's neck.


at a giant's

Odin stopped for


Baugi hight, Sut-

a night's lodging

that

tungr's brother.

Baugi said his housekeeping had


told

gone
slain

ill

and

him

that his nine thralls

had

each other, but that he had no hope of (other)

workmen.

Now Odin named


he offered
to

himself (when) with


take

him Bavlverkr;

upon him

the

94

BRAG I'S TELLING.


for

work of nine men


hire

Baugi,

but

asked for his

one drink of Suttungr's mead.

Baugi quoth

he owned no sway over the mead, (and) said that

Suttungr would have

it

all

alone,

but he said he
if

would
oet the

fare

with Bavlverkr and try

they could
the

mead.

Bavlverkr
for

won

durinij

summer

nine

men's work

Baugi,

but

at

winter asked

Baugi for his wages.

Then

fared they both


his

away:

Baugi told

his

brother

Suttungr

bargain with

Bavlverkrj but Suttungr denied stoutly even a drop


of
the mead.

Then
try

said

Bavlverkr to Baugi, that


if

they

should

some

trick

they might get at


:

the mead, and Baugi was ready enough


forth

then

drew

Bavlverkr the borer hight


shall

Piati,

and

said that
bite

Baugi

bore

the rock
says Baugi

if

the borer will

he did so: then

that the

rock

is

bored

through,
the

but

Bavlverkr blows

into the

hole that

borer

had

made,

and

the
that

splinters flew

up

against

him; then found he

Baugi would cheat

him,

and

he

bade him bore


5

through the rock:

Baugi bored again

but when Bavlverkr blows the

second time, then the splinters were blown inward.

Then Bavlverkr turned him^into


and crept
Baugi
into the hole
after

worm's

likeness,

made by

the borer,

but

stuck

him with the borer and missed

him

Bavlverkr fared whither GunnlavS was, and

BR A Gl'S TELLING.
lay

95
then
she

with
leave
first

her
to

three

nights,

and

gave

him
the

drink

of

the
all

mead three drinksj


out of OSrcerir, the
all

drink he

drank

second

all

out of BoSn, the third


all

out of Son,

and
into

so

had he
eagle's

the

mead

then turned he him


off as
fast

an

shape

and flew

as

he

could.

But

when Suttungr saw


him
an
eagle's

the eagle's flight,

he

took

on

shape and flew after


flew,

him; but when the Asa saw where Odin


set

they

out

in

the of

yard

their jars:

now when Odin


up
the

came

inside

Asgard
it

he

spewed

mead
that

into the jars,

but

then so near befell

him

Suttungr had caught him, that he sent some of the

mead

after

him backwards, and no care was taken

of that, he
call

who would might have

it,

and that we

the share of silly bards;


to
it,

but Suttungr's mead


those

gave Odin
wit
to

the

Asa,

and

to

men who have

use

therefore

call

we songship Odin's
and
his gift,

prey,

and

find,

and

his drink,

and

the Asa's drink.

96

FOREWORD TO THE
1.

EDDA,
beginning

Almighty

God
and

shaped
all

in

the
that

heaven

and

earth,

things

belong to

them, and
races are

last

(of all)

men

twain, from

whom

the

come, Adam and Evej


more,

and

this

kindred
all

waxed

more and

and was spread over

the world.
the folk of

But as the times went by, then became

man uneven, some were good and

right-

trowing, but
of
the

many more
and
took

turned then after the lusts

world,
this

no heed of God's laws:


the

and for

drowned God
was
quick

world

in

the flood,

and

all

that
in

on the world save those

who were

the ark with Noe.

After Noe's flood eight

men were
and

alive,

they

who
the
that

abode
stock of

in

the

world,

from

them came
as

men,

and

it

chanced now

before,

when
over,

mankind

waxed,

and
a

the

world was

dwellt
of

then was there


the greed

very great throng

men, who loved

of gain and power,


to

but went away from listening


so

God, and did

this

much,

that

at

last

there was none there

who would
tell

name God, and who was

who could

his

sons

FORRNVORU TO

TH

F,

EDDA.
so
it

97

sons of God's great wonders?

And

came

tliat

they

tint

God's name,

and

wide over the world


say truely

there was not found the

man who could


not the
less

who shaped
them
earthly

him.
gifts,

But

did

God

give

wealth
in

and happiness,
;

which

should be with them

the world
that

he shared also

among them wisdom,


all

so

they skilled to

know

earthly things, and


the
lift

all

kinds that might be seen

in

and on

earth.
at,

This they (men) thought

upon and wondered


the

how

it

might happen that

earth

and

beasts

and fowl had the same nain shape.

ture in
It

some
one
be

things,

and yet (were) unlike


of
this

was

mark

nature,

that

the earth

might
water

delved

into

on

high fellpeaks and the


it

sprang up there,

and

needed not
5

to

dig
just

longer there for water than in deep dales


so

and
to

with

beasts

and fowl,
in

it

is

no farther

the

blood in the head than

the feet. Another (proof


is

of this) nature of the earth

it,

that every year

waxes on the earth grass and bloom, and the same


year
falls

that

all

away and

rotsj so

also

on

beasts

and fowl waxes hair and


year.
is

feathers,

and

falls off

every
it

The

third nature of the earth

is

that

when

opened and delved,


which
is

then groweth grass on the


earth.

mould

uppermost on the

Rocks
t

Foreword

to tke Edila

FOHEU'ORO TO THE EDDA.


set
ofl'

and stones they


of

against
these

the bones

and

teeth

things

quick.

From

things they deemed


life in

that the earth

must be quick, and that she had


wist that she

some manner; and they


fully old
in

was wonderin

the tale of her ages,


all

and mighty

her
ail

kind; she fed


that died:

things quick and took to herself

for this sake

gave they her a name, and


to

told

(back)

their

race

her. that

This also learned


after

they of their old kinsmen,

many hun-

dred

winters

were

told

back,

the goings of the

heavenly balls were uneven, some had longer goings


than olliersome.
th.K
l);d!s,

From

suchlike things guessed they,


steerer of the heavenly

some one must be the

who could
that

stay

their

going at

his

own

will,

and
this

he

must be strong and mighty;


they,
if

and of
first

one weened

he swayed

(these)

shapes, that he must have been before the heavenly


balls yet were,

and they saw that

if

he ruled the

goings

of

the heavenly balls,

he must

sway

the

sun's shine, and

heaven's dew,

and

earth's growth,

which follow them;


lift,

and

so

also

the winds in
sea.

the

and

with them the storms of the


his

'JMiey

knew not where


that he

realm was, but

still

they trowed
the
lift,

ruled

all

things, on

earth and in
balls,

of

lieaven

and

the

heavenly

of seas, and

v\eathei-.

Rut for ihnf these things might be better

FOREWORD TO THE EDDA.


told

99

and

kept
Avith

in

mind,

then gave they him the

same name
changed
in

themselves, but this belief has been

many

ways, just as the peoples shifted

about, and tongues arose.


2.

In

his

old age shared

Noe

the

world with
lands,

his

sons;
for

for

Cham

he

meant

the western

and

Japhteth the northern lands, but for


tliose

Sem

the southern lands, with

parts that will after-

ward be

marked out

in

the trithing of the earth.

In the time that these men's sons were in the world,

then

fjrew
for

stronc;

forthwith the fjreed of frain

and

power;

that

ihey

knew then many

crafts

which

beforetime had not been found out, and each was


puffed

up with

his

own handy work.

And

so

long

forward carried they their pride, that the AfFricans,

sprung from Cham,


world that Sem's

made war on
their

that lot of the


in;

oflTspring

kinsmen abode
it

and when they had overcome them,


that

seemed

to

them

the world

was too small for them, and they


with
to
tile

smithied a

tower

and

stone,

which they

meant should reach


Senniar.

heaven, on the vales called

And when
it

this

smithying was so far forair,

ward

that

almost stood above the


less

and they
the

had not a whit

eagerness to hold
sees

on with

work;
liigh,

and

when God

how

their pride

rages

then sees he that he must in some way beat

100
it

FOREWORD TO THE ED DA.


thougii
all
lie is

down. And the same God,


might have
cast

all-powerful,
in

and

down

their Avork

the

tAvinkling of an

eye, and

made themselves become

dust,

yet
in

willed
this
in

he
wise,
that

rather to set at naught their


that they

purpose

might know their


skill to

own

littleness,

none

of

them should

understand what the other talked, and in that none

knew what

the other bade

him

do, but one broke


5

down what
they strove

another wished to raise up

until

that

among

themselves,

and with

this their

purpose

in

beginning the smithying of the tower

came

to

naught.
he
the

And he
laughed

that

was foremost hight


he

Zoroastrcs,

before

wept when he

came

into

world, but
so

the master-smiths Mere


since
giants

two and seventy, and

many tongues have


,

been spread over the world


shifted
their seats over
full.

after that the

the

land,

and the peoples

waxed

On

this

same place was made one

bura' the

most famous,

and

it's

name was taken


it

from the name of the tower, and


bilon.

was called Ba-

And

it

was

so

when
the

the mingling of tongues

was, then
things,

waxed many
that

names of men and other

and

same Zoroastrcs had many names,


that his pride
still

and though he understood


low

was

laid

by

the

said

smithying,

bore

he on to

worldly

power,

and

let

himself be

chosen king

FORKAVORl) TO THK EUUA.


u\cr
tlie

lUl
liiiu

many

peoples of the Assirians; IVoni


of
false

arose

bewildeiing

Gods,
13aal,

and

after he -was
call Bel

worshipped, he was called


he had
also

whoni we

many

other names,

but as the names


tint

waxed many, then the truth was


same time, and from
every
this
first

along

at

the

sin then

worshipped

man

that

came

after his foregoers,


balls,

and beasts

and fowl, the


Jifeless

lift

and heavenly

and countless

things; until this bewildering went over the


so
his

whole world; and


that

carefully tint they the truth,

none

knew
the

shapcr save those

men alone

who spake
fore

Ebrew

tongue, that which passed bealbeit they


lost

the

smithying of the tower;


bodily
gifts

not the
for
that

that
to

were alloAvcd them, and

they

skilled

deem

of all things Avith

earthly

skill,

for

wisdom of

the soul was not given


all

them, so they deemed tbat


of some one
3,

things were smithied

stuff.

The
from

world was shared

into three parts;

(one)

the south westward


lot

and

till

the

Midthe

land-sea,

tbat

was
share
lot

called
is

Affrika,

but

south
sun.

side

of this

hot and
llie
is

burnt by the
west
until

The

second
to

from
that

the

north and

up

the sea,
side

called

Evropa or
that grass

Enea, the nether

of this
it

is

cold,
in.

so

grows

not,

nor

may

l)e

duellt

I'rom

the

102

FORK WORD TO THE

E1H)A.
all

north and round the east country


that
is

to

the south,
is

called

Asia,

in

that lot

oF the

world

all

fairness,

and pride, and wealth from the

fruitCulncss
is

of the earth, gold and gemstones: there

also the

midworld, and
better kind than

as the earth
in

is

there fairer

and of

other steads, so was also the folk


with
all
gifts,

of

man

there most furnished


fairness

wisdom

and strength,
4.
^-

and

all

knowledge.

Near the

middle of the Avorld was made


the

''.

*4X<

the
t'l^t

house

and

inn,

most famous ever made,


in

'

(>TOl</(

^vas called

Troja,

there

the land

we

call

Tyrkland.
,.Ap

This homestead ^>as made

much

bigger

than

others,

and with

more

craft

in

many

ways,

with cost and


Avere twelve

riches that

were there about.

There

kingrloms and one ovcrking, and

much
there

folk

and
in

land
the

belonged

to

each kingdom:

were

burg twelve
all

lords;

these lords have


in

been
in
all

before

men who

have been

the world

manly

things.

This every sloiytellcr that halh


not in
great
the least gainsay,

said

of these things doth


this
tell

and for
country
the
tale

sake, that all

men

of the north
set

back their race thither, and


the
as

among
of the
self

of

Gods,
of

all all

who were Lords


they
set

town,

just

first

Priamus'

in

Odin's stead: nor

may

that be

called wonderful, for

Priamus

was come of Satiirnus,

the

same

whom

FOKKSVORi) TO THE
the

KII>A.
to

1<)3

north

country longtime trowed

be hinjsell

God.
5.

This

Satiirniis
hi<>ht

waxed
Krit,

up
lie

in

tliat

island

in

Greekland's sea
fairer

was

sfreater

and
was

stronger and
his

than other men.


that

So
like

also

wisdom before
gifts;

of

all

men,

his other

natural

he found also
lie

many
was

crafts

which before
mickle
in the

had not been found out;


black art that he
also that

also so

knew

things about to be; he found

red thing in the earth from which he smelted

gold,

and

from

such
he

things

as

these he
also

became
and

speedily

powerful;

foretold

harvests

many
other
isle,

other

hidden things, and for


took

this

and many

deeds

they

him
steered
all

to
it

be Lord over the


a little space,

and when he had

then

was there soon enough


passed

kinds of plenty.

There
a store

none other coin save goldpieces, such


was
there;

of

gold

and

though
crops

there were hard

times in
so that

other

lands, no

ever failed there,

men might

seek thither for all the things

that

they needed to have:


other unsearchable

and

so

from these and

many

gifts

of might that he had,

they trowed

him

to

be God, (and from him arose

another bewildering
donians,
just as the

among
first

the

Kritmen and Macethe


Assirians

among

and

Challdeans from Zoroastres) and when Satiirnvis finds

104
liow
great

FOREWORD TO THK EUDA.


streiiglh

the that

folk

tliink
is

thoy

have in
calls

him,

then

says

he

he

God,
all

and

himself the steerer of heaven and


6.

things.

Once on

a time fared he in a ship to

Greek-

land, for that there was a king's daughter on

whom

he had

set

his

mind, he got her love in

this wise,

one
then
lay
that

day
took

as

she

was ont with her handmaidens,

he

on
in

him
the

the likeness of a bull

and

before
a

her

wood,

and

so

fair

was he

golden

hue was on every

hair:

and Avhen

the king's daughter sees him, then patted she


the

him on

mouth, he springs up and threw

off the bull's to the

shape, and took her in his


ship,

arms and bare her

and had her home

to Kri't,

When

his wife

Juno

(inds out this, he turned her (the king's daughter) into

the likeness of a heifer, and sent her eastward the Nile country, and
lot

into

the

thrall

hight Argulus

lend

her,

tliere

was

she

twelve

months ere he
he like this,
the
first

changed her shape.


or

Many

things did

more wondrous.

He had

three sons,

higlit

Jupiter, the second Ncptunus, the tliird Phitus.


all

They were

mighty men,
a

yet was Jupiter long

before them, he was

man

of

war and won many


like
liis

kingdoms^
took

he was also crafty

father,

and
so

on

him the likeness of many


for

beasts,
is

and

he wrought out much, that

mankind

unable

FOREWORD TO THE EDDA.


to

105
thinijs,

be done: and
all

in

this

wise and

by other
is

he awed

peoples, so that

Jupiter

set in foir's

stead, since all evil


7.

beings fear him.


let

Satiirnus

be

raised

up

in

Krit two
fast-

and seventy burgs, and when he thought him


seated
sons,
in

his

realm, .then
set

shared

he

it

with his
as

whom
to

he had

up with himself

Gods:

and

Jupiter gave he the realm of heaven, but to


earth,
lot

Neptunus the realm of


seemed
to

and

to

Plutushell,

it

him
his

that

was the

worst,

so

he

gave him

hound, which he called Serberus, that


hell
;

he might guard

this

Serberus the Greeks say

Erkulus
though

dragged
Satvirnus

out

of hell

up

to

earth.

And

had

shared to Jupiter the realm


for

of heaven, yet was he not less greedy to have


his

own

earth also,

and now makes war on the


and
for

realm

of his father;
geld

so

it

is

said

he
like

let

take

and
says
let

him,

and
;

great

works

this

he

he
the

is

God

and the Macedonians

say that he

parts

be taken

and
they

cast

out into the sea;


thereof had been

and

longtime
a
in

trowed
,

that

made
her

woman
the

whom
of

they called Venus, and set

tale

the

Gods, and

for that hath

Venus eversince been

called the

Goddess of love, for


all

they trowed that she might turn

hearts of

men

and

women

to

love.

When

Satiirnus

was gelded

106

FOREWORD TO THK
his son,

EI)

DA.

by Jupiter
Kiit,

then fled he from the east out of


into
Italy;

and hither

there abode then such

kind of people as worked not, but lived on acorns

and

grass,

and

lay

in

caves or holes

in

the earth:

and when Satiirnus came


his

thither, then
,

changed he

name, and called him Njor^r


thought
out.
his

for the sttke that

he

son

Jupiter might afterward seek

him

He

first

taught the

men

there to plough

and plant vineyards; there was good land and raw,

and there were soon great crops,


for their

they took

him

lord, and so got he

all

the realms there

about, and let build there


8.

many
many

burgs.
sons from

Jiipiler his

son had
his

whom
his

the

races

are

come;
his son

son

was Dardanus,
son llus,

son Herikon,

Tros,

his

his son

Lamedon,
had many
been most

father of

Priamus the headking. Priamus

sons,

one of
of

them was Ektor, he has

famous

all

men

in

the

world for
all

strength and growth, and grace, and for

manly

deeds of knightly
that

rank;

and
all

it

is

found written,

when

the Greeks,

and

the strength of the


the Trojan

north and east country, bore


they

down on

men,

had
called

never

been overcome unless the Greeks


so

had
that

on the Gods, and

went the answers

no strength of man might overcome them, unless


by
Llicir

they were biokeii

own men, which

after-

FOREWORD TO THE
ward
was done.
after
just

EDl>A.

107

And

from their fame men that


titles,

came
first,

gave
the

themselves

and among the


tlie

as

Romans have been


days
in

most famous
so
it

men
that

after their

many
the

things,

is

said their

when Piome was


and
laws,

built
as

Romans turned
as

customs
after

near

they could come,


their forefathers

those

which the Trojan men

had.

And

so mickle

might followed these men, that


a leader of the

many

ages after

when Pompeius

Romans
away
then

berried in the east country,

(and) Odin

fled

out of Asia, and

hither
his

into the north country,

gave he himself and

men

their
bis

names, and said

Priamus had bight Odin but


from
this

queen Frigg, and


it's

took the realm since


bur<j

name, and there


Frigia.

where
whether

the
it

stood

was

called
tliat

And

be that Odin said


it

of himself out of

boasting, or that

had been so

in

the

mingling of
that
for a

tongues, yet

have

many

wise

men

held

sooth saying, and for a long time after every great


lord took for himself a pattern
9.

therefrom.

A king

in
a
,

Troja bight

Munon

or

Mennon,

he bad (to wife)


she bight Troan

daughter of Priamus the headking,


they had a son,

who

bight Tror,
in

(him

call

we

forr) he was in fostering

Traci'a

with the duke


he

who

is

named
old

l.oricus.

Now when
bis

was

ten

winters

then

took

be to him

108
lather's

FOaEVVOUl) TO THE
arms; so
as
fair

1> I)

A.

of face was he
ivory
is

when

lie

stood

by other men
is

wlien

set

in

oak, his hair

fairer

than

gold.

When
once,

he

was twelve years


he from earth

old he had full strength, then ten


bear's

lifted

hides

at

and then slew he duke

Loricus his fosterfather, and his wife Lora or Glora,

and
call

took

for

his

own

the

realm of Tracia,
fared

that

we priiSheim.
and

Then

he wide over the


the world,
all giants,

land

knew

the
all

countries

of

and

quelled then alone

baresarks, and

and

one

the
of

biggest dragon, and


the

many
he
that

beasts.

In the

north
Sibil,

world
call

found
Sif,

spaewife hight
to wife.

wiiom we
tell

and got her


was of
their
all

None
fairest,

can
her

Sif's

stock, she
as

Avomen

hair
like

was
his

gold,
his

son

Avas

Loride

who

was

father,

son was Hcnrede, his son

Vingel'or, his son Vingener, his son


his

Moda,

his son

Magi,

son Cesphcth, his son Bcdvig, his son Atra,


call

whom

we
his

Annan', his son Itrman,

his
call

son Heremod,
Skiold, his son
his son

son

Skialldunn,

whom we

Biaf,

whom we
Fiarleif,
is

call Biar,

his son Jat,

GuSolfr,

his son

wliom we

call

Frifleif, he had the

son
lie
his

who
Avas
Avife

named
famous

V6j>inn,

him

call

y\c
all

Opinn,
ciafl,

man

for

Avisdoin
call

and

highl

Frigi'oa

who we

Frigg.

FORRNVORD TO THE KDDA.


10.
Ol'iii

109
his
his

had spaetlom, and so also

wife,

and from

this

knowledge found he out that


in

name

would be

held high

the north part of the world,


all

and worshipped beyond


he eager to go on
his

kings; for this sake was

way from Tjrkland, and he


young men and

had with him very much people,


old,

churls and wives, and he had with him


things.

many

costly

But whithersoever

tljey

fared over the


so

land

much fame
to

was

said

of

them,

that they

were thought
stayed
into

be liker Gods than men: and they


faring
that
is

not

their

till

they came northward


called

that

land

now

Saxland,
far

there

dwelt

Opinn longtime, and had


his

that land

and

wide for
sons
to

own.

There

set
is

Ol>inn three of his

keep the land. One


strong

named Yeggdegg, he
over
East Saxland,

was
his

king

and

ruled

son was \itrgils, his sons were these, Ritta faof

ther

Heingez,
call

and

Sigarr

father of

Svebdegg,
of Oj'ina

whom we
land

Svipdag.

The second son


call
his

bight Beldegg,

whom we
Vestfal,

Balldr, he

owned

that
his

now

bight

son was Brandr,

son Frio|>igar,
Freovit, his son

whom we

call

Frof a

his

son was
call

Yvigg, his son Gevis


is

whom we

Gave. Tlie third son of Ol'in


Verir.

named
in
is

Siggi, his son

These

forefathers

swayed

the land

now

called

Frankland, and from them

come

the race

110
that
aiul
is

FOREWORD TO THE EDO A.


called

Vavlsiingar.

From

all

these are groat

many
II.

races come.

Then went Ofinn on


into the

his

way northward,

and
land,

came
and

land that they called Rei^gotahis

had
set

for

own

in

that land
his

all

that

he would, he

up

there in the land

son that
is

hight Skiolld, his son hight Frifjleif; thence


race

the

come

that

hight Skicilldiingar, those

are the

Danekings, and that hight


then called ReiSgotaland.
After
that

now

Jotland

which Mas

fared

he northward thither

to

the

land
is

now

hight

SvifioS,

there was the king


learnt
the

who

named

Gylfi, but

when he

faring of

these

Asiamen,

Avho were called Asa,

he fared to

meet

them

and
in

bade

that
as

Of inn

should have so
5

much power

his

realm

he himself willed

and

such luck followed their path, that wheresoever they


dwcllt
in

the land,
all

then was there plenty and good


5

peace
this

and

trowed that they swayed these

and

too the

mighty men of the land saw, that they


other
wit.

were

unlike

men whom
that land

they

had

seen in

fairness

and

In

Ol>inn thought there


for himself a stead for
Slgtiinir,
as
in

were
a

fair lands,

and he choose
it

burg, where
lords,

is

now

called

he set

up
in to

there

in

the

same

likeness

had been
the
stead

Troja,

and

set

twelve

headmen

FOREWORD TO THE
doom
rights the
as

F.DDA.

Ill
all
tlie

law of the land, had

and he so moulded
in

been

before

Troja,

and

as

Tyrks were wont.


After
that

fared

he
tiiey

northward
trowed
to

until
lie

he

fell

upon
lands,

the sea,

which

about

all

and

set

up there
is

his

son over the realm

now

hight
kings

Norway; he
tell

called

Saemingr, and Norway's

their

race

up

to

him, and so also earls


is

and
but

other miglity men, as

said

in

Haleygiatale

Oj>inn

had

with

him

that
in

son of his

who

is

named Yngvi, who was king

Svifiod, and from


called Ynglingar.

him are come the stock who are


These Asa took
land,
full

to

them wives there within

the

but some for their sons, and these races waxed

many,
the

so

that

ahout

Saxland, and
they

all

thence
the

about
tongue
all

north country

spread

so,

(hat

of these lands;
tliat

Asiamen was the true tongue over

these

and men think they can deem from


the

the

way

names names

of

these

forefathers are
to
this

written,

that

these

have

belonged

tongue, and (that) the Asa brought the tongue hither


into

the

north country; into

Norway and
Saxland; but

into Sviin

Jiod,

into

Denmark and
are old
skill

into

Eng-

land

there

names of the land and towns,


to

which one may


given
in

know

that
this.

they have been

another tongue than

112

AFTERWORD TO
But the Asa
tlieir

GYLFl'S MOCKING.

set

them now
mind
all

to

talk,

and take

rede and

call

to

these tales that

were

told

him, (Gylfi) and give these very same names,

that are

named
5

before, to the

men and
when long

steads that

were there
by,

for

the sake that

times pass

men

should not doubt, that those Asa of

whom
the

these tales

were now
Avcre

told,

and these
all

to

whom

same names
there

given,
I'orr,
r,

were

one.
is

Then was
the
those

(one)

called
is

and he
to

Asajorr,

old one he

Okufoi

and

him are given


in

great deeds that Ektor Avrought

Troja; but

men

think that

the

Tyrks have told about Ulyxes, and


because the Tyrks were his

have called him Loki,


!'reatest

foes.

AFTER-

113

AFTERWORD TO THE
1.

EDDA.

Cut

this

is

now

to

be said to young bards,

to tliose

who

are eager to take to them speech meet


fill

lor

song, or

their store of

words with old names,


is

or

are wilh'ng to skill to understand what


that

sung

darkly;

they must master this book for their


:

learning and passtime

but these sayings are not to


as to take

be so forgotten or disproved,

away from

songship names used of yore, which great bards have

been pleased with; yet should not christian

men trow

on heathen Gods, nor on the truth of these sayings,


otherwise than as
is

found
said

in

the beginning of the

book,
the

where
of

it

is

of the chances which led


the true belief,

folk

man away from

and

next to that of the Tyrks,


are called
Asa, falsed
in

how

the Asiamen

who

the tales of the tidings Avhich


for

were done
trow

Troja,

that

the landfolk should

them
2.

to

be

Gods.
in

Priamus king

Troja

was
his

a great lord

over

all

the Tyrkish host,


all

and

sons were most

worshipped of
the

his

host,-

the famous hall, which


that

Asa

called

Brimir's

hall or Biorsair,

was

king

Priam's hall;
to the

but as for
Edda.

the long

story they

Afterword

114

AFTERWORD TO THE EDDA.


of

made

the

twilight

of

the
that

Gods,
which
is

that

is

the

wars of the Trojan men;


Ukul>6rr
angled
with

said,

how
on
life

an

oxhead,
the

and

drew

board Midgardsworm,
so
this

but
the

worm
that

kept his
is

that

he

sank

into

sea;

said

from

pattern, that Ector slew Volukrontes a famous


in

champion,

the

sight
to

of

the

mighty

Akillevs,

and so drew him on


slain,

him with the head of the


to

which

they

likened

the head of

the ox

which

<)ku|6rr

had
this

torn ofF:
risk

but when Akillevs


his daring,

was drawn into was


ful
it

through
fled
it

then

his life's

help that he

before the baneso

stroke of Hector,
it

and

as

was wounded:

also

is

said

that

Ector waged the war so mightily,


his

and so mickle was


that

rage

when he saw
that
it

Akillevs,

no

thing

was so strong

might stand

before him; and


his

when he
wise,

missed Akillevs he soothed

wrath

in

this

that

he slew the champion

hight Roddrus; (and) so say the Asa that


t>6rr missed the worm, then slew he

when ()kuthe giant.

Ymir

But

in

the

twilight

of

the

Gods came Midgardsand blew on him with


his

worm unawares upon


venom
and struck

J>6r,

him

to

bane,

but the Asa

could not make up their minfis to say ihat ()ku|>6rr


liad

so fared,
it

that

any

one stood over him dead,


but they hurried over old

thou'd) so

had been,

AFTERWORD TO THE EDDA.


tales

115

more than was


took

true,
his

when

they said that Mid-

gardsworm
this,

there

bane,

and they added

that

though

Akillevs

bore away the fame of

Ector's death, yet lay he dead on the


the

same

field in

same way
this

that

was the work of Elenus and


call

Alexander,
that he

Elenus
his

the Asa Ali.

They say

avenged

brother, and he lived


fire

when

all

the

Gods were dead and the


was
burnt and
they
all

was slaked, when

Asgard

the goods of the


to

Gods:
slew

but

Pirrus

likened

Fenriswolf,

he

Odin,belief,

but Pirrus might be called a wolf in their


for

that he spared

not holysteads

when he
altar.

slew

the

king

in

the

shrine

before
is

J>6r's

That which they


But

call

Surtr's

fire,

Troja's burning.

M6j>i and Magni Okufor's sons


is

came

to crave

land of Ali or Vifarr, he

Eneas, he

came away

from Troja and wrought afterward great works. So


is
it

also said
set

that Ector's sons

came

to

Frigialand

and

themselves

up

in

that

realm

and

drave

away Elenus.

FINIS.