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# CHE3044F, 2013

TUTORIAL 1

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## CHE3044F, 2013 : Reactor Design 1 : TUTORIAL 1

1. (adapted from Fogler, 2006, P1-14). The smog in the Los Angeles basin can be described by a reactor model. Consider the basin inversion layer to have a volume of V [m3 ] and assume that this volume is well mixed, that is it can be considered as a CSTR. The Santa Ana wind blows into the basin at a volumetric ow rate of 0 [m3 .s 1 ] and this ow rate can be assumed to be constant across the basin and equal to the ow rate leaving the basin. The carbon-monoxide concentration level of the air in the Santa Ana wind entering the basin is CCO,0 [mol.m3 ]. The cars in the early morning trac in Los Angeles produce carbon monoxide at a constant ow rate given by FCO . The concentration of carbon monoxide in the basin before the trac starts is CCO,0 . (i) Sketch the reaction system indicating all ow into and out of the system. Decide if there is a reaction occurring in the reaction volume or not. (ii) Derive the dierential form of the mole balance for this system. (iii) Solve the mole balance equation in (ii) to obtain the concentration of carbon monoxide as a function of time. (iv) (for interest). Realistically, the carbon-monoxide emissions follow a cyclic pattern, t e.g. FCO = 1 with t in hours. Can the design still be integrated 2 FCO,0 1 + si n 2 24 to yield the concentration of carbon-monoxide? (Hint : consider Laplace transforms) 2. (Fogler P1-15). The liquid phase reaction AB is carried out isothermally in a PFR, CSTR and batch reactor. Calculate the volume necessary to consume 99% of A (CA = 0.01CA0 ). The ow rate of A entering the CSTR and PFR is FA0 = 5 [mol.h1 ] and the total volumetric ow rate is 0 = 10 [l.h1 ]. For V and the batch reactor assume that the batch reaction time is given by tbatch = 0 P F R FA 0 that the starting concentration in the vessel is CA0 = . 0 (i) rA = k with k = 0.05 [mol.h1 .l 1 ] (ii) rA = kCA with k = 0.0001 [s 1 ]
2 (iii) rA = kCA with k = 3 [l.mol 1 .h1 ]

3. (adapted from Schmidt, 2005). Wine stored for ageing has been contaminated by 200 ppm of a chemical (A) that gives it a garlic avour. After 1 year of storage, the concentration of this chemical has been reduced to 50 ppm. Taste tests show that once the concentration of this chemical falls below 10 ppm, it can no longer be detected. (i) Assuming a rate equation of the form rA = kCA , estimate how long the wine must be aged before the garlic taste can no longer be tasted.
2 (ii) The chemist in the lab suggests that a rate equation of the form rA = kCA closer approximated the decomposition of the chemical, estimate how long the wine must be aged before the garlic taste can no longer be tasted.

CHE3044F, 2013

TUTORIAL 1

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(iii) We do not trust the chemist in the winery laboratory and decide to measure the concentration of the chemical after 2 years. The concentration is 15 ppm. Which of the two reaction rate models, (i) or (ii), does this measurement support. 4. (Test question, 2012, the answer is obvious and straight forward). A CSTR with recycle can be represented by gure 1. Assume that the volumetric ow rate does not change and is constant at 0 . The reaction rate in the reactor is rA . The recycle ratio, R is dened cle as R = r ecy 0 . Derive the mole balance for the CSTR with recycle using basic reaction 0 FA and any other engineering principles in terms of FA0 , the overall conversion X = FAF A0 variable that you think might be needed. How is the conversion entering the CSTR related to the overall conversion, X . (8)

Figure 1: 5. (Test question, 2012, this question requires some challenging thinking, especially 5(ii)). The reversible reaction A B takes place in a plug ow tubular membrane reactor (PFTMR). The reactor is represented by gure 2. The inner tube is the reactor where A reacts with an instantaneous reaction rate of rA . The wall of the reactor tube is a membrane that allows only B to pass through with a instantaneous ux, NB [mol.m2 .s1 ] where the area S for the ux is based on the the geometry of the reactor, A VR , where AS is the surface area of the reactor tube and VR is the volume of the reactor tube.

Figure 2: (i) Derive the mole balance for A and B using basic principles. (6)

(ii) If the ux of B through the membrane is given as NB = kc CB , where CB is the concentration of B in the reactor, and the reaction rate equation is given by rA = CB k CA K , expand the mole balances for A and B from problem 5(i) in terms of C the molar ow rates of A and B (FA and FB ) and the volumetric ow rate, 0 . (do not attempt to integrate) (6) (iii) For this reactor, is it possible to achieve 100% conversion of A if the reactor could be made long enough. Justify your answer. (2)