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K’EQCHI’ GRAMMAR
An Introduction

George Max
ISH TZ’IB’ANKIL RU K’EQCHI’
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George Max

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K’EQCHI’ GRAMMAR
An Introduction

Ish Tz’ib’ankil ru K’eqchi’

George Max

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K’eqchi’ title: Ish Tz’ib’ankil ru K’eqchi’
English title: K’EQCHI’ GRAMMAR – An Introduction

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CONTENTS
CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................5

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................7

PREFACE.........................................................................................................................................................8

SUBJECT PRONOUNS .................................................................................................................................9

VERBS .............................................................................................................................................................9

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE......................................................................................................................9


ACTIVE AND ANTIPASSIVE .............................................................................................................................9
Active Verb Form ................................................................................................................................10
Antipassive Verb Forms .....................................................................................................................10

TENSES .........................................................................................................................................................10

TENSE MARKERS .........................................................................................................................................10


PRESENT TENSE ..........................................................................................................................................11
PAST TENSE ................................................................................................................................................12
PRETERITE ...................................................................................................................................................12
FUTURE TENSE ............................................................................................................................................13

CONTINUOUS AND PROGRESSIVE .......................................................................................................14

PSEUDO-PERFECT ......................................................................................................................................15

PASSIVE VOICE ...........................................................................................................................................16

MODALS ......................................................................................................................................................17

IMPERATIVE MOOD ...................................................................................................................................18

PRONOUNS ................................................................................................................................................19

SUBJECT .....................................................................................................................................................19
OBJECT ......................................................................................................................................................19
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (WITH A NOUN)....................................................................................................19
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (WITHOUT A NOUN) ............................................................................................20
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS................................................................................................................................20

NOUNS ........................................................................................................................................................20

PLURAL NOUNS ..........................................................................................................................................20


COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS .........................................................................................................21
NOUN SUBSTITUTES ...................................................................................................................................21

ARTICLES ......................................................................................................................................................22

ADJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................................22

COMPARISONS ...........................................................................................................................................22
SUPERLATIVES .............................................................................................................................................23
ANY/SOME ................................................................................................................................................23

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MANY/A LOT OF ....................................................................................................................................... 23


A LITTLE/A FEW ......................................................................................................................................... 23

PREPOSITIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 24

ADVERBS ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY .......................................................................................................................... 24


VERY/TOO................................................................................................................................................. 25
ALREADY/YET/NOT YET ............................................................................................................................. 25
SINCE/FOR................................................................................................................................................ 25

DEMONSTRATIVES .................................................................................................................................... 25

BE, HAVE, THERE IS/THERE ARE ............................................................................................................. 26

USEFUL TIME EXPRESSIONS.................................................................................................................... 27

QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 27

YES/NO QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 27


INFORMATION QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 28
TAG QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 28
NON-VERB QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 29

SPELLING .................................................................................................................................................... 29

ACTIVE AND ANTIPASSIVE VERB FORMS ..................................................................................................... 29


Active Verb Form ............................................................................................................................... 29
Antipassive Verb Form ...................................................................................................................... 30
PRESENT PARTICIPLE ................................................................................................................................... 30
PAST PARTICIPLE ........................................................................................................................................ 31
Present, Past and Preterite ............................................................................................................... 31
Future .................................................................................................................................................. 31
Continuous ......................................................................................................................................... 31
IMPERATIVE ................................................................................................................................................ 32

CAPITAL LETTERS ....................................................................................................................................... 32

TITLES ........................................................................................................................................................ 32

COMBINING SENTENCES ....................................................................................................................... 33

WRITING GOOD SENTENCES ................................................................................................................ 34

WRITING GOOD COMPOSITIONS ....................................................................................................... 35

ESTEBAN AJ TZOLONEL .............................................................................................................................. 35

APPENDIX 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 36

K’EQCHI’ TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS ............................................................................. 36

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TRANSITIVE VERBS ................................................................................................... 36


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INTRANSITIVE VERBS ................................................................................................ 53

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADJ = adjective PA = Possessive Adjective
ADV = adverb PART = Participle
AFF = affirmative PPERF = Pseudo-Perfect
AUX = auxiliary word PP = Possessive Pronoun
COMP = complement PRES or PRS = Present Tense
CONT = continuous aspect PRET = Preterite
DO = direct object PROG = progressive aspect
FUT = future tense PAST or PST = Past Tense
IMP = Imperative Mood QA = question auxiliary word
KC = K’eqchi’ QI = question interrogative word
MOD = modal QW = auxiliary / interrogative word
NEG = negative word SPK = spoken
OBJ = Object TAM = Tense, Aspect, Modal
OPT = optional

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PREFACE

K
’EQCHI’ GRAMMAR – An Introduction aims to put together a simple
yet concise and precise grammar for the K’eqchi’ Mayan Language of
Guatemala (hereinafter KC.) It formally introduces the grammatical
rules of a language that had remained only spoken for a yet undeter-
mined period. Hence, the main emphasis of this book is on writing correct KC
phrases and sentences.

Firstly, it begins with a brief presentation of subject pronouns and an intro-


duction to the main verb forms. This is followed by sections presenting the main
tenses and other that characterize this natural language. Then, a good portion of
the book covers the organization of the parts of speech inherent to KC. Lastly,
sections on building questions, spelling, and combining and writing sentences
can be found at the end.

Overview of KC’s grammar:

• The main grammatical tenses are the Present, Past, Preterite and Future.
These are followed by the Continuous and Progressive aspects and then
the Pseudo-Perfect, Modals and Imperatives.
• The Passive Voice constitutes the third grammatical construction in KC
after the active and antipassive voices.
• The main parts of speech include Pronouns, Nouns, Articles, Preposi-
tions, and Adjectives.
• Two main types of questions are defined in KC: Yes/No and Information
questions.
• The main rules to derive the different verb forms used in the three
grammatical constructions of KC; namely, the active, passive and anti-
passive voices, are defined under Spelling.
• Combining Sentences and Writing Good Sentences provide guidelines to
build phrases and sentences following the proper KC syntax.

The organization of this grammar guide allows an overall study of the struc-
ture of the K’eqchi’ Mayan Language. Only basic information is provided in
each section in order to keep the introductory character of this book. Neverthe-
less, there are conjugation sets, classification tables, sentence structures and plen-
ty of examples that successively illustrate different aspects of the language as
much as possible. The definition of the spelling framework and the provision of
methods on combining sentences are also important parts in the constitution of
this grammar book. Lastly, an Appendix contains a selected list of transitive and
intransitive verbs along with other derived verb forms as a reference for the study
of KC grammar.

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SUBJECT PRONOUNS

A subject pronoun in KC is used as the subject of a verb. Both singular and plural subject
pronouns are presented in the table below. Refer also to PRONOUNS for a complete classification of
KC pronouns.

K’EQCHI’ SUBJECT PRONOUNS


SINGULAR Lain I laat you Aan he/she aan it
PLURAL lao we laesh you aanheb’ they

REMARKS: The capitalization of the first and third singular persons Lain and Aan is here first introduced. For the for-
mer, to make it relevant within a sentence and for the latter to differentiate it from aan (it) which refers to inanimate ob-
jects, animals or things in general.

VERBS
KC verbs exist in infinitive form proper of which the intransitive ones still constitute a great
amount. All other verb forms are derived from the Infinitive including mainly those for the ac-
tive, passive and antipassive voices. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of Infinitive verbs.

Transitive and Intransitive

W. Sedat (1955) first set apart these verb types in KC. However, not all verbs have yet been
documented, let alone be distinguished into transitives and instransitives. Nevertheless, it appears
that transitive verbs make up most of them in KC. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of transi-
tive and instransitive verbs.

Active and Antipassive

These verb forms take part in the grammatical construction of the antipassive and active
voices of KC. While the active verb form is a completely derived form, the antipassive verb form
can be a derived form or the base form (infinitive). Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a list of these verb
forms.

The active and antipassive verb forms are integral parts in the construction of the active and
antipassive voices in KC. However, they only work in conjunction with the tense marker sets
(see TENSE MARKERS below) defined for them. These verb forms cannot be exchanged from one
voice to another.

REMARKS:
Generally, infinitive verbs that end in k, preceeded by a vowel (e.g., b’onok, cutuk), do not undergo any change and are
used in their basic form for the antipassive voice and those that end in -nk, preceeded by a vowel (e.g., iqaank,
tyab’asiink) are changed. For the active voice, the basic verb form is changed according to the spelling rules outlined in
this book under SPELLING.

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Active Verb Form

This is a derived verb for building the active voice in KC. According to the spelling rules de-
vised here, most of these verbs have a double vowel end (long sound representation) that helps
define and identify them for the active voice. Other verbs particularly may have a -v+b’ ending
(v = vowel). See the following 3rd and 4th examples.

• Aanheb’ enkesh mesuu li Na’jej. PRES They are sweeping the place.
• Ish Petra ish cuartesii lish C’uulal. PST Petra put her baby to sleep.
• Aj Alberto nash ch’utub’ li Si’. PRES Alberto is gathering the wood.
• Laat sha ach’ab’ li Ac’ach. PST You set the turkey free.

Antipassive Verb Forms

These verbs are comprised by a derived form and a base form. Most frequently, however, on-
ly the base form (Infinitive) is used in all tenses (except for in the future tense) in either spoken or
written KC. This particularity can with certainty identify the antipassive voice in sentences such
as the following.

• Li Cuiinq na jorrok Si’. PRES The man chops wood.


• Aanheb’ sheheb’ elk’aank re li Hal. PST They are the ones that stole the corn.
• Laat inkat lak’ab’aank reheb sa’ Ch’aat. PRES You are the one that puts them together in the bed.
• Li ishq ish puch’uk sa’ li Nimha’. PST The woman washed (clothes) in the river.

The derived verb form for the antipassive voice is less known in either spoken or written KC
and it is thus first formally introduced here. It can only be formed with verbs ending in -v+nk.
When changed, these verbs have a -v+n ending (v = vowel).

• Aanheb’ enkheb’ c’atyin Pish sa’ li C’atyil. They sell tomatoes in the market.
• Lao inko shaqab’an Ochoch re li Neb’a’. We erect houses for the poor.
• Lain in b’atz’un ric’in lin Cuitz’in. I play with my little brother.

TENSES

Tense Markers

A tense marker in KC is an auxiliary word that indicates tense and person for any conjugated
verb. Importantly, a tense marker is unique for each person and tense set. Syntactically, all tense
markers go before the verb in any tense. Furthermore, tense markers are divided into active and
antipassive as presented in the following tables.

CLASIFICATION OF ACTIVE TENSE MARKERS


PRESENT PAST PRETERIT FUTURE
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Lain in lao inqa Lain shin lao ishqa Lain kin lao kiqa Lain tin lao taqa
laat inka laesh enke laat sha laesh she laat ka laesh ke laat ta laesh te
Aan nash aanheb’ enkesh Aan ish aanheb’ shesh Aan kish aanheb’ kesh Aan tish aanheb’ tesh

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CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIPASSIVE TENSE MARKERS


PRESENT PAST PRETERIT FUTURE
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Lain in lao inko Lain shin lao sho Lain kin lao ko Lain tin lao to
laat inkat laesh enkesh laat shat laesh shesh laat kat laesh kesh laat tat laesh tesh
Aan na aanheb’ enkheb’ Aan ish aanheb’ sheheb’ Aan ki aanheb’ keheb’ Aan ta aanheb’ teheb’

Note that the tense marker of the first-person singular is the same for both voices in all tenses.
The one for the third person singular is also the same but only in the past tense.

NOTE: Tense markers of the future tense set behave much more like the auxiliary verb will in English. Those of the pre-
sent, past and preterit, however, have other connotations to be explained and categorized under this grammar introduc-
tion.

Present Tense

The present tense in KC describes habitual or repeated actions. We can also use it to give
general information. Auxiliary words and a verb form are used to define the voice – active or
antipassive, which we want to use for the present tense. Refer to TENSE MARKERS above and to AP-
PENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use verb forms. Study the following conjugation set.

Verb: jalok – to change; Conjugated verb form: antipassive (base form)


SINGULAR Lain in jalok laat inkat jalok Aan na jalok aan na jalok
I change you change he/she changes it changes
PLURAL lao inko jalok laesh enkesh jalok aanheb’ enkheb’ jalok
we change you change they change

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Lain in atinak K’eqchi’. I can speak K’eqchi’.


• Aan na b’atz’un B’olotz-oq sa’ B’ee. He/she plays soccer on the street.
• Li Tz’i’ na kwob’ak Chik’eq. The dog barks at night.
• Aj Diego na tzolok chi tz’ib’ak. Diego learns how to write.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’a’ (literally not) before the verb in a sentence.

• Laat inc’a’ inka naw ilok ru Hu. You don’t know how to read.
• Aj Manuel inc’a’ na wulak chi C’anjelak. Manuel does not go to work.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the present tense, we use the auxiliary particle ma at the be-
ginning of the sentence (like using do in English). Other questions asking for information use
interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Aj Felipe na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq. Felipe goes to study at night.

• Ma na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq aj Felipe? Ehe’. Does Felipe go to study at night? Yes.

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• Ani na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq? Aj Felipe. Who goes to study at night? Felipe.
• B’ar na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq aj Felipe? Where does Felipe go to study at night?

Past Tense

The past tense in KC describes a completed action. Auxiliary words and a verb form are used
to define the voice – active or antipassive, which we want to use for the past tense. Refer to
TENSE MARKERS above and to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use verb forms. Study the
following conjugation set.

Verb: b’onok – to paint; Conjugated verb form: antipassive (base form)


SINGULAR Lain shin b’onok laat shat b’onok Aan ish b’onok aan ish b’onok
I painted you painted he/she painted it painted
PLURAL lao sho b’onok laesh shesh b’onok aanheb’ sheheb’ b’onok
we painted you painted they painted

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Lain shin wulak chi b’eek ecuer. I went out/for a walk yesterday.
• Aanheb’ sheheb’ shajok ecuer Chik’eq. They danced last night.
• Laesh she b’on li Ochoch. You painted the house. [PL]
• Ish Carmela ish lok’ jun ish Ac’ach. Carmela bought a turkey [for herself].

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’a’ (literally not) before the conjugated verb in a sen-
tence.

• Ish Angelia inc’a’ ish c’ul lish Tojbal. Angelia did not receive her payment.
• Lao inc’a’ sho wulak sa’ Tzoleb’aal ecuer. We did not go to school yesterday.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the past tense, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the
sentence (like using did in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative
words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Aan ish wulak chi b’eek ecuer. He/she went for a walk yesterday.

• Ma ish wulak chi b’eek ecuer [Aan]? Ehe’. Did he go for a walk yesterday? Yes.
• Anii ish wulak chi b’eek ecuer? Aan. Who went for a walk yesterday? He did.
• Jok’ee ish wulak chi b’eek [Aan]? Ecuer. When did he go for a walk? Yesterday.

Preterite

The preterite in KC can indicate and express actions and events that took place or were com-
pleted in the past. Thus, it is mostly used for story telling (narrative). It can also be used to tell
the probability of an action and event that must, should, would or could have happened in the past
but it didn’t. We do this with the inclusion of the particle raj.

Verb: awok – to sow; Conjugated verb form: antipassive (base form)

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SINGULAR Lain kin awok laat kat awok Aan ki awok aan ki awok
I sowed you sowed he/she sowed it sowed
PLURAL lao ko awok laesh kesh awok aanheb’ keheb’ awok
we sowed you sowed they sowed

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT

• Lain kin c’ul in B’an re li Rashkehob’. I received a vaccine against malaria.


• Aanheb’ keheb’ shucuak b’an li Caaq. They were frightened by the lightning.
• Arran ki cuan jun nim Ochoch. There used to be a large house there.
• Ish Elena kish tzol kemok sa’ Tzoleb’aal. Elena learned how to weave at school.

We can express probability, possibility and advice in the past using the particle raj in the
Preterite.

• Li Tz’i’ ki cam raj b’an Tyajel. PROBABILITY The dog could have died of a disease.
• Laat kat ok raj sa’ Tzoleb’aal. ADVICE You should have entered school.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’a’ (literally not) before the conjugated verb in a sen-
tence.

• Ish Paulina inc’a’ kish tzol ilok ru Hu. Paulina did not learn how to read.
• Lao inc’a’ ko elelik b’an li Rahshiic’. We did not flee by the violence.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the Preterite, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the
sentence (like using did in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative
words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Li cheekel Ishq ki cam. The old woman died.

• Ma ki cam li cheekel Ishq? Ehe’. Did the old woman die? Yes.
• B’ar ki cam li cheekel Ishq? Where did the old woman die?
• Jok’ee ki cam li cheekel Ishq? When did the old woman die?

Future Tense

The future tense in KC describes an action yet to come, expected. Auxiliary words and a
verb form are used to define the voice – active or antipassive, which we want to use for the future
tense. As noted earlier, auxiliary words for this tense behave very much like the auxiliary verb
will in English. Refer to TENSE MARKERS above and to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use
verb forms. Study the following conjugation set.

Verb: atinak – to talk, speak; Conjugated verb form: inflected


SINGULAR Lain tin atinaq laat tat atinaq Aan ta atinaq aan ta atinaq
I will talk you will talk he/she will talk it will talk
PLURAL lao to atinaq laesh tesh atinaq aanheb’ teheb’ atinaq
we will talk you will talk they will talk

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Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Lao to shik sa’ C’atyil. We will go to the market.


• Ish Josefina tish tyiib’ li Cuaa. Josefina will make the tortillas.
• Aj Juan ta c’atyiinq Keenk’. Juan will sell beans.
• Aanheb’ teheb’ b’atz’uunq sa’ cuib’ Cutan. They will play in two days. [SPORT]

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’a’ (literally not) before the verb in a sentence.

• Laesh inc’a’ tesh shik sa’ C’atyil. You will not go to the market.
• Ish Marta inc’a’ tish lok’ li Cashlan. Marta will not buy the chicken.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the future tense, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of
the sentence (like using will in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative
words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Laat tat pisc’oq sa’ ishb’een li Pim. You will jump over the bush.

• Ma tat pisc’oq sa’ ishb’een li Pim? Will you jump over the bush?
• Anii ta pisc’oq sa’ ishb’een li Pim? Aan. Who will jump over the bush? He will.
• B’ar ta pisc’oq Aan? Sa’ ishb’een li Pim. Where will he/she jump? Over the bush.

CONTINUOUS AND PROGRESSIVE

KC has both grammatical aspects, the continuous and the progressive. They are built by us-
ing an auxiliary word, tyook, that implies "to be doing sth." Then we use chi/ish (continu-
ous/progressive) to connect the verb. Study the following conjugation set.

SINGULAR Lain tyokin laat tyokat Aan tyoo aan tyoo


PLURAL lao tyokoo laesh tyokesh aanheb’ tyokheb’

To create the past continuous/progressive, we insert the particle raj to indicate that the action
was happening in the past as shown in the following conjugation set. Then chi/ish follows.

SINGULAR Lain tyokin raj laat tyokat raj Aan tyoo raj aan tyoo raj
PLURAL lao tyokoo raj laesh tyokesh raj aanheb’ tyokheb’ raj

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT

• Lain tyokin chi ilok ru Hu. PRES CONT I am reading.


o Lain tyokin raj chi ilok ru Hu. PAST CONT I was reading.
• Aj Leo tyoo ish b’onb’al li Ochoch. PRES PROG Leo is painting the house.
o Aj Leo tyoo raj ish b’onb’al li Ochoch. PAST PROG Leo was painting the house.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT

The negative in the continuous/progressive is formed by adding inc’a’ (literally not) before
the auxiliary word.

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• In Na’chin inc’a’ tyoo chi cuaark. PRES CONT My grandmother is not sleeping.
• Eb’ li Mess inc’a’ tyokheb’ ish jochb’al li Ch’aat. PRES PROG The cats are not scratching the bed.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the continuous/progressive, we use the auxiliary ma at the


beginning of the sentence (like using be in English). Other questions asking for information use
interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Laesh tyokesh chi tz’ib’ak sa’ Hu. CONT You are writing on paper.

• Ma tyokesh chi tz’ib’ak sa’ Hu? CONT Are you writing on paper?
• C’arruu tyokesh ish tz’ib’ankil sa’ Hu? PROG What are you writing on paper?
• Anii tyokheb’ chi tz’ibak sa’ Hu? CONT Who are writing on paper?

PSEUDO-PERFECT
The here termed pseudo-perfect in KC uses the auxiliary particle ac before the verb in past
tense, not past participle. In this respect, it differs syntactically from certain modern languages
(e.g., German, English or Spanish) that use have to form the Perfect. Still, in KC it gives the
same sense and direction and shows that an action or task has been completed for the moment.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AC + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

Verb: cua’ak – to eat; Conjugated verb form: infinitive (past)


SINGULAR Lain ac shin cua’ak laat ac shat cua’ak Aan ac ish cua’ak aan ac ish cua’ak
I have eaten you have eaten he/she has eaten it has eaten
PLURAL lao ac sho cua’ak laesh ac shesh cua’ak aanheb’ ac sheheb’ cua’ak
we have eaten you have eaten they have eaten

• Aj Mario ac ish choy lish C’anjel chican. Mario has finished his job already.
• Lao ac sho c’alen junsut. We have grazed once.
• Ish Lola ac ish lok’ cuib’ ish Cashlan. Lola has bought two chicks.
• Li Tz’i’ ac ish cua’ak chican. The dog has already eaten.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting maji’ (literally not yet) before the conjugated verb in a
sentence.

• Ish Josefa ac ish tzol chi tz’ib’ak. Josefa has learned how to write.
o Ish Josefa maji’ nash tzol chi tz’ib’ak. Josefa has not yet learned how to write.
• Aanheb’ ac shesh tzol chi ajlaank. They have learnd how to count.
o Aanheb’ maji’ enkesh tzol chi ajlaank. They haven’t learnd how to count.

IMPORTANT: the pseudo-perfect negative uses a verb in the present tense (underlined).

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AC + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

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To create a Yes/No question in the Pseudo-Perfect, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning
of the sentence. Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the
following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS).
Lain ac shin oksii li Si’ sa’ Cab’. I have brought the wood inside.

• Ma ac sha oksii li Si’ sa’ Cab’? Ehe’. Have you brought the wood inside [the house]? Yes.
• Anii ac ish oksii li Si’ sa’ Cab’? Lain. Who has brought the wood inside? He has.
• C’aput ac shat oksii li Si’ sa’ Cab’? Why have you brought the wood inside?

PASSIVE VOICE

The passive voice in KC can be formed in every tense, aspect and modal as shown in the ta-
ble below. Note that the column labeled as past participle shows two verb forms which should be
derived from the base form. Refer to PAST PARTICIPLE to find out how to derive passive participles.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE PASSIVE VOICE ACCORDING TO TAM*

TENSE VERB WITH -V+K ENDING AUXILIAR PAST PARTICIPLE


PRESENT b’asok / b’as SIT b’ase’ / b’asman
PAST b’asok / b’as SIT base’ / b’asman
FUTURE b’asoq / b’as SIT b’asek’ / b’asmaanq
PRESENT CONTINUOUS AUX + chi b’asok SIT chi b’asec’
PAST CONTINUOUS AUX + raj chi b’asok SIT raj chi b’asec’
PSEUDO-PERFECT ac + AUX + b’asok / b’as SIT b’ase’ / b’asman
MODAL narruu + AUX + b’asok / b’as SIT b’ase’ / b’asman
VERB WITH -V+NK ENDING
PRESENT taqlan / taqlaa SIT taqlaak
PAST taqlan / taqlaa SIT taqlaak
FUTURE taqlan / taqlaa SIT taqlaaq
PRESENT CONTINUOUS AUX + chi taqlaank SIT chi taqlaak
PAST CONTINUOUS AUX + raj chi taqlaank SIT raj chi taqlaak
PSEUDO-PERFECT ac + AUX + taqlan / taqlaa SIT taqlaak
MODAL narruu + AUX + taqlan / taqlaa SIT taqlaak
*TAM – Tense, Aspect, Modal; SIT - Same as in Indicated Tense BUT only those defined for the antipassive voice.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT

TENSE K’EQCHI’ – A: ACTIVE VOICE, P: PASSIVE VOICE ENGLISH


PRESENT A: Aanheb’ enkesh tyiib’ li Cab’ ric’in Utz’aal. They make brown sugar with sugar cane.
P: Li Cab’ na tyib’man ric’in Utz’aal. Brown sugar is made with sugar cane.
PRESENT CONT Lao tyokoo chi chapok Car. We are catching fish.
P: Car tyoo chi chapec’. Fish is being caught.
PAST A: Aj Luis ish c’am chaq li Ishim. Luis brought the maize.
P: Li Ishim ish c’ame’ chaq b’an aj Luis. The maize was brought by Luis.
PAST CONT Lao tyokoo raj chi b’isok Peens. We were weighing allspice.
P: Peens tyoo raj chi b’isec’. Allspice was being weighed.

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George Max

PSEUDO-PERFECT Lao ac sho c’atok na’b’al chi Pim. We have burned a lot of weed.
P: Na’b’al chi Pim ac ish c’ate’. A lot of weed has been burned.
FUTURE A: Tesh tyiib’ junaq chic B’ee. SPK They will build another road.
P: Junaq chic B’ee ta tyib’aaq. Another road will be built.
MODAL A: Laat narruu inka tyiib’ a Ochoch sa’ li Tenamit. You can build your house in the city.
P: Ochoch narruu na tyib’man sa’ li Tenamit. A house can be built in the city.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT

• Cooc’al inc’a’ enke c’ulman sa’ Ch’utam. PRES Children are not allowed in the meeting.
• Ishim inc’a’ tyo raj chi b’isec’. PST CONT Maize was not being weighed.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + SUBJECT + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

• Jok’ee ish chape’ li Cuiinq? PST When was the man caught?
• Ma Pish tyoo chi b’isec’? PRS CONT Are tomatoes being weighed?
• B’ar ta tyib’aaq junaq chic B’ee? FUT Where will another road be built?
• C’arruu ac ish tzole’? PPERF What has been learned?

MODALS

In KC, we can create a modal expressing physical ability using the verb ruuk (can, be able
to). We also use narruu (may, could) and marree (perhaps, maybe) to express probability and
possibility, respectively. In addition, the modifier raj is used to create the sense of to like to and
would like to.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + MOD + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Laat narruu inkat chapok Carr arrin. PERMISSION WITH VERB IN PRESENT TENSE
o You can [catch] fish here.
• Lain narruu tin shik chi b’eek kwulaj Ek’laa. POSSIBILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE
o I might be able to go out tomorrow morning.
• Aan marree tish lok’ junaq ish cashlan sa’ C’atyil. PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE
o He/she might buy a chicken at the market.
• Marree inc’a’ teheb’ c’ulunq. SPK NON-PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE
o Perhaps they won’t come. OR They may not come.

In modals, the particle raj acts as a modifier after a verb so that it acquires equivalent mean-
ing to the English modal should.

• Lao inko c’anjelak raj sa’ commonil. ADVICE, SUGGESTION WITH VERB IN PRESENT TENSE
o We should work together.
• Ac shat c’irraa raj. POSSIBILITY WITH VERB IN PAST TENSE
o You should have healed already.
• Li Mess ki tyolesiik raj b’an li Tz’i’. PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN PRETERITE
o The cat wanted to be chased by the dog.
• Laesh enke c’aytesii raj e rib’ chi ab’iink. ADVICE, SUGGESTION; PRESENT TENSE W / REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
o You should get used to listen.
• Aanheb’ cuankheb’ raj sa’ Tz’alam. STRONG ADVICE, SUGGESTION WITH VERB CUAANK
o They should be in jail/prison.

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Particularly, raj can also be used after the verb ajok (to want, need, require) to give the mean-
ing of would like to in English.

• Aanheb’ teheb’ raj1 raj shik a cuic’in. WOULD LIKE TO


o They would like to go with you.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT / SUBJECT + NEG + MOD + AUX +
VERB + COMPLEMENT / MOD + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

To form the negative in a modal, we use inc’a’ (literally not) before the verb ruuk or the
modal verb narruu. Marree can only be negated by a negative word after it.

Aan inc’a’ na ruu alinak sa’ jumpaat. INABILITY He cannot run very fast.
Laat inc’a’ narruu inkat chunlaa arrin. NON-PERMISSION You may not sit here.
Lain inc’a’ narruu tin shik chi b’atz’uunk. IMPOSSIBILITY I cannot be able to go play. [SPORT]
Marree inc’a’ ish c’ul ish Tumin. SPK NON-PROBABILITY He/she may not have got paid.
Lao inc’a’ inko c’anjelak raj sa’ Sabado. ADVICE We should not work on Saturday.
Inc’a’ enkheb’ raj raj chaalk. SPK NOT TO LIKE TO They would not want to come.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + [MOD] + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

• Ma inkat ruu ajlaank? Can you count?


• Ma narruu to ilaanq arrin? Can we rest here?
• Ma ta cuaj raj shik chi lok’ok ekwuu? Would you like to go shopping in the afternoon?
• C’arruu ta cuaj1 raj? What would you like?

IMPERATIVE MOOD
We use the imperative mood to form commands or requests in KC. No subject is necessary
in an imperative for the second person singular or plural unless we want to address someone spe-
cifically.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]

• C’am chaq la Hu. 2nd S Bring your book/notebook/paper.


• Tyolesii li Cashlan. 2nd S Chase the chicken.
• Mesuu li Na’jej. 2nd S Sweep the place.
• B’anumaq e C’anjel. 2nd P Do your work.
• C’amomaq e Tumin. 2nd P Take/bring money with you!

Negative Sentence Structure: NEG + VERB + COMPLEMENT

Ma/mat and me/mesh (literally do not, active/antipassive voices respectively) are used to
create the negative form of imperatives for the second person singular and plural respectively.

• Ma tz’ap li Uc’al. 2nd S Do not cover the pot.

1The verb ajok is prefixed for each person in the active voice so that it becomes raj for the 3rd person singular and plural.
The complete conjugated set is as follows: Singular: cuaj, cuaj, raj; Plural: qaj, raj, raj.

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• Mat shucuak b’an li Tz’i’. Do not fear the dog.


• Me b’uyub’ li Si’ arran. 2nd P Do not pile the wood there.
• Mesh shik sa’ B’ee. Do not go to the street.

PRONOUNS

KC pronouns are classified into Subject, Object, Possessive Pronoun, Possessive Adjective
and Reflexive. The following table presents these pronouns according to the English classifica-
tion. Although the Object and Possessive Pronouns are similar in writing and pronunciation,
those of the latter are each preceeded by a definite article.

CLASSIFICATION OF K’EQCHI’ PRONOUNS


Subject Object Ob Possessive PA Possessive PP Reflexive
Adjective Pronoun
(with a noun) (without a
noun)
SINGULAR
Lain I cue me lin / in my Ii cue mine cuib’ myself
laat you a cue you la / a your la cue yours a cuib’ yourself
li re his/hers himself -
Aan he/she re him/her lish / ish his/her rib’
herself
aan it re it lish / ish its li re its rib’ itself
PLURAL
lao we qe us li qa / qa our li qe ours qib’ ourselves
laesh you e re you le / e your le re yours e rib’ yourselves
eb’ aan, eb’ lish / eb’ eb’ li re theirs
aanheb’ they them their ribeb’ themselves
reheb’ ish, esh

Subject

Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence in KC.

• Aan na alinak sa’ li B’ee. PRES He/she runs on the street.


• Aanheb’ tyokheb’ chi tzolok K’eqchi’. PRES CONT They are learning K’eqchi’.
• Lao taqa lok’ li Cuyam. FUT We will buy the pig.

Object

Use an object pronoun as the object of a verb or the object of a preposition.

• Aan ta c’amoq e re. FUT He/she will take you. [PL]


• Shin lok’ re jun ish Punit. SPK I bought him a hat. OR I bought a hat for him.

Possessive Adjectives (with a noun)

Possessive adjectives show that something belongs to someone. Use possessive adjectives
with a noun (underlined). Possessive adjectives in KC distinguish between possessed (including
body parts) and non-possessed items (things or objects).

• Aan lish Si’ aj Beto. POSSD That is Beto’s wood.

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• Lin Na’ na c’anjelak sa’ li Hospital. POSSD My mother works at the hospital.
• La Cuesh cuan chirruu li Cab’. POSSD Your pants are against the [house’s] wall.
• Tin lok’ e cuesh sa’ li C’atyil. NON-POSSD I will buy you pants in the market. (PL)
• Junaq raj qa Mess. NON-POSSD I wish we had a cat.
• Majun eb’ ish Ac’ach shesh lok’. NON-POSSD They didn’t buy any turkeys.

Possessive Pronouns (without a noun)

Possessive pronouns show that something belongs to someone. Use a possessive pronoun
without a noun but always with the respective definite article before it.

• Lish Ac’ach cuan sa’ Cab’ ut la cue cuan sa’ Pim. Her turkey is in the house and yours is in the bushes.
• Ain lin Mesleb’ ut aan li re. This is my broom and that’s his/hers.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns in KC reflect on the subject of the sentence.

• Laat inka cuil a cuib’ sa’ li Lem. You see yourself in the mirror.
• Laesh enke tenk’aa raj e rib’ chi tzolok. You should help yourselves to learn.

NOUNS

A noun in KC can be the name of a person, place, thing or idea. Following are some noun
examples listed in several categories:

Person Place Object Abstract


Na’, Tyucua’ Chisec Mesleb’ Usilal
mother, father location broom Favor
Qana’, Qacua’ Chirrepec Cuesh Sahil-ch’olej
Mrs., Mr. location pants happiness
C’uulal, Teelom Rab’inal Tz’umuy Ch’inausal
baby, boy (sex) location anona niceness, beautiful

• Ish Aurelia nash k’aluu lish Tyucua’. Aurelia hugs her father.
• Shin lok’ oshib’ chi Tz’umuy. SPK I bought three anonas.
• Li Mesleb’ ac k’eel chic. The broom is old already.

Plural nouns

The pluralization of nouns follows this syntax: eb’ + li + noun, where eb’ = pluralizer, li =
definite article. A noun should always be preceded by li when we refer to a specific noun in sin-
gular.
SINGULAR PLURAL
li Ochoch the house eb’ li Ochoch the houses
li Ac’ach the turkey eb’ li Ac’ach the turkeys
li Tz’i’ the dog eb’ li Tz’i’ the dogs
li Ishq the woman eb’ li Ishq the women

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• Eb’ li Ac’ach cuankheb’ sa’ li B’ee. The turkeys are on the street.
• Tin tyolesii eb’ li Cashlan. SPK I will chase the chicken.

NOTE: Words already in plural include: li Cooc’al, li Poyanam.

Count and Non-Count Nouns

Nouns in KC can be counted. Counted nouns, however, have no plural form. Syntax: NUM-
BER + CHI + NOUN.

NOUN COUNTED NOUN


Ochoch house oshib’ chi Ochoch three houses
Cashlan chicken oob’ chi Cashlan five chicken
B’ee road cuib’ chi B’ee two roads

• Tin lok’ oshib’ chi Ac’ach. SPK I will buy three turkeys.
• Jun chi Ishq ki ok sa’ Tz’alam. PRET A woman went to prison.

The following examples are non-count nouns and cannot have a number before them or have
plural forms.

Ha’ Ik’ Ch’ooch’ Sahilch’olej Sham Hab’


water wind, air earth, ground, dirt happiness fire rain

• C’ee li Tib’ ut li Cuaa sa’ li Sham. Put the meat and the tortillas in the fire.
• Tiikil Ha’ na moq sa’ li Tzuul. Pure water springs from the mountain.

We use b’ayaq (adj. some) and na’b’al (adj. a lot) as quantifiers for nouns to indicate small
and large amounts respectively. Na’b’al still requires the preposition chi to connect with the
noun.

EXAMPLES: b’ayaq Ha’, some water; b’ayaq Atz’am, some salt; b’ayaq cashlan K’een, some pepper

• C’ee b’ayaq Atz’am sa’ li Tib’elcuaa. Put some salt in the food.

EXAMPLES: na’b’al Tumin, much money; na’b’al Pim, much grass; na’b’al Utz’uuj, much flowers.

• Na’b’al chi Utz’uuj na lok’e’ sa’ K’esaant. A lot of flowers are bought on All Saint’s Day.

Noun Substitutes

Athough KC has no indefinite articles (e.g. a, an), a noun can be substituted by jun (one),
junaq chic (another one; INDEFINITE) or junchic (the other one; DEFINITE). The following sen-
tences illustrate this feature.

• Ish Nela cuan jun ish Ac’ach ut ish Amalia cuan jun re ajcui’.
o Nela has a turkey and Amalia has one too.
• In Na’chin ta raj shik sa’ li C’atyil ain ab’an Lain tin cuaj shik sa’ junaq chic.
o My grandmother wants to go this market, but I want to go to another one.
• Aj Maco ac cuan jun ish Cashlan ab’an tish lok’ junaq chic.
o Maco already has one chicken but he will buy another one.
• Ish Na’ ta raj shik sa’ li C’atyib’aal ain ab’an Aan ta raj shik sa’ li junchic.

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o His/her mother wants to go to this store, but he/she wants to go to the other one.
• Aan na wulak chi ruu li Cuesh ain ab’an inc’a’ na wulak chi ruu eb’ li junchic.
o He likes these pants, but he does not like the other ones.

ARTICLES

The main definite article in KC is li. We can use it with all kinds of nouns: singular and plu-
ral; count and non-count. There are two definite articles for the 3rd person singular in KC: aj and
ish for male and female, respectively. There is no a or an indefinite articles in KC such as there
are in other modern languages (e.g., German, English or Spanish).

• Li ishq ish wulak sa’ li C’atyil. The woman went to the market.
• Li Ochoch naj ish terram. [NO VERB] The house is tall.
• Shin wulak toj sa’ ishb’een li Tzuul. SPK I went to the top of the mountain.
• Aj Miguel cuan sa’ Cab’. Miguel is at home.
• Ish Marta nash naw kemok. Marta knows how to weave.
• Lain ut aj Pedro inko tzolok. I and Pedro study.

Although, li is an article it can also be used as a conjunction for that/the one that. The fol-
lowing examples illustrate this.

• Aan li1 Cuiinq li2 na c’atyin Chacach. That’s the man that sells baskets.
• Ainheb’ li1 Cooc’al li2 tyokheb’ raj chi se’ek. These are the kids that were laughing.

1
) li as a definite article; 2) li as a conjunction.

ADJECTIVES

An adjective in KC describes a noun. It goes before the noun in syntactic terms (e.g., Eng-
lish, German). Study the following examples.

nim B’ee ac’ Chacach chaab’il Hal Ch’ajom Cuiinq chaj Si’
wide road new basket good corn young man pine wood
tzo’ Ac’ach saq Tz’i’ tiikil Ha’ teelom Mess K’eel Punit
male turkey white dog pure water male cat old hat

• Jun camenaq Mess cuan sa’ li nim B’ee. A dead cat is on the road.
• Li cuiinq na c’atyin chaab’il Hal. The man sells good corn.
• Cuib’ chi tzo’ Ac’ach taqa lok’ re K’esaant. We will buy two turkeys for All Saints’ Day.

Comparisons

We can use adjectives to compare two people or objects in KC. Adjectives do not undergo
any change during this process.

Comparison pattern 1: SUBJ1 + JWAL + ADJ + PA-NOUN/AUX-VERB + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2

• Ish Berta jwal nim ish terram chirru aj Manuel. Berta is taller than Manuel.

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• Li Mess jwal naj na pisc’ok chirruu li Tz’i’. The cat jumps higher than the dog.

Comparison pattern 2: SUBJ1 + JWAL + AUX-VERB + […] + CHI US + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2

• Laat jwal inkat ch’eok Marimba chi us chirruu aj Kal. You play the Marimba better than Karl.
• Aj Marcos jwal nash naw tz’ib’ak chi us chirruu aj Ton. Marcos knows how to write better than Ton.

Superlatives

We can use adjectives to compare three or more people or objects in KC. Adjectives do not
undergo any change during this process.

Comparison pattern: SUBJ1 + K’ASHAL + ADJ/ADV + PA-NOUN/AUX-VERB + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2

• Ish Berta k’ashal nim ish terram chirruu eb’ li oshib’ chi Ishq.
o Berta is the tallest of the three women.
• Aj Leo k’ashal ek’laa na cuaclii chirruu eb’ li oob’ chi Cooc’al.
o Leo gets up the earliest of the five kids.

Any/Some

Junaq (any, some, a, an) and b’ayaq (some, a little) are commonly used with question, re-
quest or wish statements. In opposition, majun (literally there is/are not/no […] any/not to have)
and mac’a’ (there is not, not to have) are used in a negative sense to denote the lack of or absence
of a possession or thing, including people.

• Ma cuan junaq ish Ac’ach ish Julia? Does Julia have any turkeys?
• Ma cuan b’ayaq Sak’ee anajcuan? Is there some sun now/today/at this moment?
• C’ee bayaq ish Cuaa li Mess. IMP → REQ Give the cat some food.
• Junaq raj in Hu re tzolok. WISH I wish I had a book to learn.
• Majun Cooc’al cuankheb’ sa’ Tzolebaal. There are no children at school.
• Li Mess mac’a’ ish Cuaa. [NO VERB] The cat does not have food.

Many/A Lot of

Na’b’al (there is many/a lot of, many) and c’ajo’ (there is a lot of) are generally used to ex-
press a large quantity and number for count and non-count nouns.

• Na’b’al chi Carr cuan sa’ li Nimha’. There are many fish in the river.
• C’ajo’ chi Saank cuankheb’ sa’ li Pim. There are a lot of ants on the grass.
• Aj Mel ish c’ul na’b’al chi Tumin. Mel received a lot of money.

A Little/A Few

B’ab’ay (a little, some) and cach’in (a few, some; little, small) are generally used to express
small quantity, number or measurement.

• Aan cuan b’ab’ay ish Tumin. He has some money.


• Cach’in ajcui’ ish May lin Jolom. [NO VERB] My head only hurts a little.

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PREPOSITIONS

The following table contains a list of prepositions in current use in KC. The most common
are chi, sa’, and re, literally to, in, and for.

TABLE OF K’EQCHI’ PREPOSITIONS


chalen since re for, to, so
chi to (for connecting verbs and other ric’in with, together with, along with
chirree at the edge/border/mouth of rub’el under
chirrish in the back of, behind of sa’ in, into, at, to
chirruu in front of, during, by tak’aa down, below
chisa’ inside, within, in taqek’ up, high, above
/sa’/ ishb’een above, on, over, on top of toj until, as far as (distance), up to
/sa’/ ishb’en-cuaa before, first /sa’ ish/ tyaanq in between
nach’ near, close to, in the vicinity /sa’ ish/ tyitoq in the middle of

• Lin Cuas na wulak chi c’anjelak. My older brother goes to work.


• Li Pish cuan sa’ ishb’een li Cuaheb’aal. The tomatoes are on the table.
• Laesh tesh tzoloq re naq te naw e C’anjel. You will study so that you can learn a skill.
• Aanheb’ sheheb’ cua’ak sa’ li Pa’b’aank. They ate at the party (RELIGIOUS).

ADVERBS

Adverbs of Frequency

The most common adverbs of frequency in KC include: junelik (always), cuannaq (some-
times), majuncuaa (never, ever), majok’ee (never, not at all; not at any time), and majarruj
(not ever; not in any way).

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + ADV + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Ish Teresa junelik na wulak sa’ C’atyil. Teresa always goes to the market.
• Li Chiin cuannaq inc’a’ na atzumak. Sometimes the orange tree does not blossom.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + ADVNEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Lao majuncuaa inko wulak chi b’eek. We never go out.


• Majok’ee tin taw ru aan. SPK I will never understand that.

Questions Sentence Structure: QA + ADV + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]

• Ma junelik na wulak chi b’atz’uunk aj Gil? Does Gil always go to play? [GAME]
• Ma majarruj na ab’in? Doesn’t he/she ever listen/learn?

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Very/Too

We use the intensifier c’ajo’ (very, too) to make an adjective stronger. It has similar meaning
to the word very in English.

ADJECTIVE PHRASE SENTENCE with C’AJO’ INDICATIVE MOOD


ATTRIBUTIVE STRESSED PREDICATIVE
Tiq ru li Ha’. C’ajo’ ish tiqwal ru li Ha’. Li Ha’ c’ajo’ ish tiqwal ru.
The water is hot. The water is very hot. Same as previous
Kee ru li Cutan. C’ajo’ ish kehil ru li Cutan. Li Cutan c’ajo’ ish kehil ru.
It is cold today. It is very cold today. Same as previous
K’eel ru li Ochoch. C’ajo’ ish k’elil ru li Ochoch. Li Ochoch c’ajo’ ish k’elil ru.
The house is old. The house is very old. Same as previous

The following examples show the use of c’ajo’ in conditional sentences

• C’ajo’ ish kehil ru li cutan re shik chi b’eek. PRES It is very cold today to go out/for a walk.
• C’ajo’ ish kehil raj ru li cutan re shik chi b’eek. PST It was very cold today to go out/for a walk.
• Ish Natalia c’ajo’ raj ish lub’ik re shik chi c’atyiink. PST Natalia was very tired to go selling.

Already/Yet/Not yet

We often use chican (literally already, yet) with the PSEUDO-PERFECT. It shows that something
has happened. Chican can only go after the verb. In opposition, maji’ (literally not yet) shows
that something has not happened but will possibly happen.

• Aj Mario ac ish cuaklii chican. Mario has already got up.


• Laesh maji’ enke c’ul e Tojb’al. You haven’t received your payment yet.

Since/For

We use chalen (literally since, for, ago) with the pseudo-perfect in KC. It is used to tell from
a particular time until now and also for a period of time.

• Laat ac chalen a Ch’ajomal inkat numshik. You swim since you were a boy.
• Li Mess maji’ na cua’ak chalen oshib’ Cutan. The cat has not eaten for three days.

DEMONSTRATIVES

The following table presents KC’s demonstratives together with their respective plural forms
and two adverbs of place, arrin and arran; for reference.

ADV DEMONSTRATIVES
SINGULAR PLURAL
arrin ain ← PROXIMAL → ainheb’
here this these
arran aan ← DISTAL → aanheb’

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there that those

• Ain li Ishim re li Ac’ach. This is the maize for the turkey.


• Ainheb’ li Cuesh re C’ay. These are the pants for sale.
• Aan li Ishq li na c’atyin C’um. That’s the woman that sells pumpkins.
• Aanheb’ li ishq li tyokheb chi puch’uk. Those are the women that are washing [clothes].
• Arrin cuan li Ochoch ut arran cuan li Nimha’. Here is the house and there is the river.

BE, HAVE, THERE IS/THERE ARE

The verb cuaank (to be, have, there is/are) in KC may indicate a state of being, occurrence
or possession (to have or to own sth.). The following table shows a derived form of cuaank that
can indicate from physical presence to an emotional state.

SINGULAR Lain cuankin laat cuankat Aan cuan aan cuan


I am you are he/she is it is
PLURAL lao cuankoo laesh cuankesh aanheb’ cuankheb’
we are you are they are

• Laesh cuankesh raj sa’ li Ch’utam. You should be in the meeting.


• Aj Sec cuan sa’ jun Ch’aajkilal. Sec is in a hardship.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT

• Aj Ton cuan sa’ ish C’anjel. Ton is at work.


• Li Tz’i’ cuan sa’ li B’ee. The dog is on the street.
• Ish Chabela cuan jun ish Ac’ach. Chabella has a turkey.
• Tesh cuaanq sa’ Usilal. FUT [You will] stay in wellness. OR [You will] remain in peace.
• Nab’al chi Choq cuan sa’ li Chushaa. There are a lot of clouds in the sky.
• Aan ki cuan sa’ Tz’oleb’aal. PRET He/she attended school.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + VERB + COMPLEMENT / NEG + SUBJECT + [VERB] + COMPLE-
MENT

Manii (is/are not), mac’a’ (there is/are not) and majun (none, nobody, not one, any) are
used in opposition to cuaank to deny or negate a statement. It denotes the absence and/or lack of
a person, thing or attribute as exemplified below.

• Ish Elena manii [cuan] sa’ ish C’anjel. [OPT] NOT PRESENT Elena is not at his work.
• Aj Mateo majun ish Aaq [cuan]. [OPT] LACK OF Mateo does not have any pigs.
• Eb’ li Tz’i’ manii cuankheb’ sa’ li B’ee. NOT PRESENT The dogs are not on the street.
• Mac’a’ Pim chirrish Cab’. [NO VERB] NONEXISTENT There is no weeds outside the house.
• Mac’a’ Choq sa’ li Choshaa. [NO VERB] ABSENCE OF There is no clouds in the sky.
• Majun chi Ch’aat cuankheb sa’ li Ochoch. LACK OF There are no beds in the house.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The auxiliary ma goes before the verb cuaank when making a question. Other questions ask-
ing for information use interrogative words such as in the following 3rd and 4th examples (see also
QUESTIONS).

• Ma cuan sa’ ish C’anjel aj Ton? Is Ton at his work?

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• Ma cuan junaq ish Ac’ach ish Nela? Does Nela have any turkeys?
• Anii cuankheb’ sa’ li Ch’utam? Who are at the meeting?
• C’arruu cuan sa’ li Sec’? What is in the cup/bowl?

USEFUL TIME EXPRESSIONS

Time expressions are still not extended in KC. The following table presents the most com-
mon time expressions referent to past, present and future times.

ecuer anajcuan, oon kwulaj


yesterday today ↔ now tomorrow
ecuer ek’laa anajcuan ek’laa kwulaj ek’laa
yesterday morning this morning tomorrow morning
ecuer ekwuu anajcuan ekwuu kwulaj ekwuu
yesterday afternoon this afternoon tomorrow afternoon
ecuer chik’eq oon chik’eq kwulaj chik’eq
last night tonight tomorrow night
sa’ li Poo ish nume’ sa’ li Poo ain sa’ li junchic Poo
last month this month next month
sa’ li Chab’ ish nume’ sa’ li Chab’ ain sa’ li junchic Chab’
last year this year next year

The hour can be roughly stated with the word oonal which denotes a certain time of the day.

• Sa’ li oonal ain. [No Verb] At this hour.

QUESTIONS

There are two main types of questions in KC: Yes/No Questions and Information Ques-
tions. Tag Questions comprise a less frequently used type of question. Non-Verb Questions
are more frequently used but in spoken KC.

Yes/No Questions

Sentence Structures: QA + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? / QA + SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLE-
MENT? / QA + NOUN/ADJECTIVE/OTHER + SUBJECT + COMPLEMENT?

Questions under this category use the auxiliary word ma at the beginning of an interrogative
sentence. This makes them semantically like using do as an auxiliary verb for this type of ques-
tions in English. Ma can take on the meanings of the verbs be and have as examplified below.

• Ma inkat wulak chi auk? Inc’a’. AUX AS DO Do you go to sow? No.


• Ma Carmen ish C’aba’? Ehe’. AUX AS BE Is Carmen her name? Yes.
• Ma ac shat cua’ak? Maji’. AUX AS HAVE Have you eaten? Not yet.
• Ma cham li Nimha’? Ehe’. AUX AS BE + ADJ Is the river deep? Yes.

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Yes/No Questions as such require an affirmative or negative answer that in KC corresponds to


ehe’ or inc’a’, yes and no respectively.

• Ma te c’at li Pim? Ehe’ Are you going to burn the weeds? Yes.
• Ma sha set li Tib’? Inc’a’? Did you cut the meat? No.

Information Questions

Questions under this category use interrogative words at the beginning of a sentence. The
following table shows KC’s interrogative words according to the English classification.

CLASSIFICATION OF INTERROGATIVE WORDS


anii c’arruu b’ar c’aput jok’ee chanrruu jarrub’
who what where why when how how many

The vowel repetition for anii, c’arruu and jok’ee resembles that of the English words flee, too, etc.
in intonation, but not in vowel pronunciation.

We combine the word jo’ (how) with a modified adjective to tell to what extent, amount or
degree: jo’ nimal, how many/much, jo’ najtil, how far, jo’ oonal, what time, and so on. Jarrub’
(how many/much) asks for quantity or amount.

• Jo’ oonal ta lok’ chaq li Keenk’? What time are you going to buy the beans?
• Jarrub’ chi Cooc’al tyokheb’ chi alinak? How many children are running?

Sentence Structures: QI + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? / QI + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? /


QI + [PA] + NOUN + [SUBJECT]?

Interrogative words should always go at the beginning of the question such as shown in the
following examples.

• Anii na c’atyin Mol? PRES Who sells eggs?


• C’arruu ish C’anjel Aan? [NO VERB] What does he/she do? [AS A JOB, PROFESSION]
• B’ar cuan lin Cuesh? Where are my pants?
• C’aput cuankoo arrin? Why are we here?
• Jok’ee tesh shik chi c’anjelak? FUT When do you leave for work?
• Chanrruu na b’ichan aan? PRES How does he sing?

Examples showing the use of interrogative content clauses in yes/no questions:

• – Ma sha ab’ii c’arruu ish tyee? – Ehe’. – Did you hear what he/she said? – Yes.
• – Ma she ril b’ar ish c’am? – Inc’a’. – Did you see where he/she took? – No.

Tag Questions

A tag question in KC uses the word b’etyaal (right, correct) at the end of a sentence. It can
be used in affirmative and negative questions.

• Tyoo chi cuaark a Na’chin, b’etyaal? AFF SPK Your grandmother is sleeping, isn’t she?
• Inc’a’ ish coo chi c’anjelak aj Pablo, b’etyaal? NEG SPK Pablo did not go to work, did he?

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A negative question tag with an affirmative sentence combines the words malaj (or) + inc’a’
(not) so that it translates more like “or not?” at the end of a sentence. This type of question tag
may be confrontational in that it inquires for the truth.

• Ma inka naw atinak sa’ K’eqchi’, malaj inc’a’? Do you or do you not know how to speak K’eqchi’?
• Ma shesh wulak chi c’alek, malaj inc’a’? Did you or did you not go to graze?

Non-Verb Questions

Non-verb questions are short sentences that inquiry on a person or thing’s properties, charac-
teristics, attributes, look, appearance, condition, and so on. As the title suggests, they do not use
verbs and they rely on the auxiliary word ma or interrogative words to formulate a Yes/No or In-
formation question.

• Ma kee li Ha’? Is the water cold?


• Ma tz’aj ru li Uc’al? Is the pot dirty?
• Anii raj lish C’ab’a’? What was his/her/its name?
• C’arruu lish C’aush Aan? What does he/she worry about? / What is his/her concern?

SPELLING

Active and Antipassive Verb Forms

These verb forms are widely used in phrases and sentences in KC. So, in order to derive verb
forms for the active and antipassive voices, one must consider that all verbs end in v+k or v+nk;
where v = vowel and k, nk = end consonants.

Active Verb Form

We apply a simple, general rule to derive an active verb from the basic form whereby if the
verb ends in -v+k, the verb drops both letters. If it ends with -v+nk, the verb drops the -nk BUT
there is an exception to this general rule for certains verbs and is explained further below.

Dropping of -v+k ending Verb: sac’ok – to hit


SINGULAR Lain AUX sac’ Laat AUX sac’ Aan AUX sac’ aan AUX sac’
ALL TENSES
Plural lao AUX sac’ laesh AUX sac’ aanheb’ AUX sac’
LIKEWISE: b’oqok, cutuk, chupuk, sachok, tojok, utz’uk, tyamok, tyuluk, etc.
Dropping of -nk ending Verb: numsiink – to pass
SINGULAR Lain AUX numsii laat AUX numsii Aan AUX numsii aan AUX numsii
ALL TENSES
PLURAL Lao AUX numsii aanheb’ AUX numsii aanheb’ AUX numsii
LIKEWISE: cuartesiink, hasb’aank, keloonk, c’irrisiink, taqsiink, etc.

IMPORTANT:
From the two rules defined above to turn infinitive verbs into active verb forms, a group of verbs need special attention.
These verbs show a -v+b+v+nk ending pattern and thus drop their -v+nk ending. Therefore, ach’ab’aank → ach’aab’,
buyub’aank → buyub’, canab’aank → canab’, ch’utub’aank → ch’utub’, and so on. This rule applies for all tenses from
present to future.

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• Aanheb’ enkesh buyub’ li Si’ sa’ li B’ee. PRES They are piling up the wood on the street.
• Aj Luis ish ch’utub’ ish Tumin re Ralankil. PAST Luis saved money for Christmas.

Antipassive Verb Form

We apply a general rule to derive an antipassive verb from the basic form whereby if the verb
ends with -v+k, it is used in its basic form. If the verb ends with -v+nk, the verb drops the k and
ends in n. Refer to TENSE MARKERS for the list of tense markers that are used with antipassive
verbs.

No change in verb ending Verb: lochok – to turn/switch on, light up


PRESENT, PAST, SINGULAR Lain AUX lochok Laat AUX lochok Aan AUX lochok aan AUX lochok
PRETERITE
PLURAL lao AUX lochok laesh AUX lochok Aanheb’ AUX lochok
Likewise: b’oqok, cutuk, chupuk, sachok, tojok, utz’uk, tyamok, tyuluk, etc.
Dropping of the k Verb: tolob’aank - to lay down
PRESENT, PAST, SINGULAR Lain AUX tolob’an laat AUX tolob’an Aan AUX tolob’an aan AUX tolob’an
PRETERITE
PLURAL lao AUX tolob’an laesh AUX tolob’an aanheb’ AUX tolob’an
LIKEWISE: ajlaank, cuartesiink, hasb’aank, pumub’aank, keloonk, salab’aank, etc.

A simple rule pertaining KC phonetics makes the verb form for the future tense change its k
ending into q. This change is valid according to the separate sounds currently assigned to these
consonants.

Change of k ending for q for verbs ending in -v+k Verb: uc’ak - to drink
SINGULAR Lain tin uc’aq laat tat uc’aq Aan ta uc’aq aan ta uc’aq
PLURAL lao to uc’aq laesh tesh uc’aq aanheb’ teheb’ uc’aq
LIKEWISE: quemoq, nuk’uq, topoq, tzoloq, etc.
Change of k ending for q for verbs ending in -v+nk Verb: nimaank - to grow up
SINGULAR Lain tin nimaanq laat tat mimaanq Aan ta nimaanq aan ta nimaanq
PLURAL Lao to nimaanq laesh tesh nimaanq aanheb’ teheb’ nimaanq
LIKEWISE: tolob’aanq, mesuunq, salab’aanq, etc.

Present Participle

While all verbs can be used in their base form in the continuous aspect of KC, the progressive
aspect uses two verb forms which correspond to the present participle (see CONTINUOUS AND PRO-
GRESSIVE.) Consequently, all verbs ending with -v+k are replaced by -b’al. EXAMPLES: cutuk -

cutb’al; cuosok - cuosb’al; chupuk - chupb’al. All verbs ending with -v+nk are added the suffix -
il. EXAMPLES: hasb’aank - hasb’ankil; mesuunk - mesunkil; pajiink - pajinkil.

• Eb’ li Cuiinq tyokheb’ ish c’amb’al li Hal. The men are taking the corn.
• Lao tyokoo ish b’anunkil qa C’anjel. We are doing our work.

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Past Participle

In KC, we use the past participle to build the Passive Voice only. This verb form shows sev-
eral variations according to TAM and whether the inflexion is possible or likely for a certain verb
and the given case.

Present, Past and Preterite

As a rule, verbs ending in -v+k should be replaced by -e’, -man or both. Those concerned
may be mono- and two-syllable verbs having this ending pattern.

EXAMPLES: tzolok → tzole’/tzolman; c’uluk → c’ule’/c’ulman; rumuk → rume’; kemok → keme’; pejok → pe-
je’/pejman, etc.

• Li Ismal na tz’ulman ric’in eb‘ li Uk’. PRES The hair is braided with the hands.
• Li T’zi’ ish tz’ole’ chi c’ojlaak. PST The dog was taught to seat.

Similarly, verbs ending in -v+nk keep the long vowel and lose the n OR they lose their -nk
ending and add -man. This rule applies strictly for verbs with two, three or more syllables having
this end pattern.

EXAMPLES: anab’aank → anab’aak/anab’man; cub’siink → cub’siik/cub’siman; numsiink → numsi-


ik/numsiman; jilosiink → jilosiik/jilosiman; mesuunk → mesuuk/mesuman, etc.

• Li Tz’alam-che’ ish anab’aak chirruu li Tz’ak. The plank was reclined against the wall.

Future

Two variations happen here. Verbs ending in -v+k should be replaced by -ek’ or -maanq.
Those concerned may be mono- and two-syllable verbs having this end pattern.

EXAMPLES: rumuk → rumek’; cuotzok → cuotzek’/cuotzmaanq, tyuluk → tyulek’/tyulmaanq, etc.

• Li Ch’aat ta rumek’ sa’ li Muhl. The bed will be thrown into the trash/garbage.

For verbs with two or more syllables, the rule follows that of the present and past tenses for
verbs ending in -v+nk except that the k changes to q and there is only one variation.

EXAMPLES: ch’olaniink → ch’olaniiq, cuartesiink → cuartesiiq, etc.

• Li C’ulal ta ch’olaniiq b’an lish Na’chin. The baby will be nursed by his/her grandmother.

Continuous

Here we have one variation of the past participle for the passive voice whereby verbs ending
in -v+k are replaced with -ec’. This applies for mono- and two-syllable verbs having this end
pattern.

EXAMPLES: hamok → hamec’; jutuk → jutec’, etc.

• Lish Ochoch tyoo chi c’amec’ b’an li B’uut’. CONT His/her house is being dragged by the flood.

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Similarly, verbs ending in -v+nk keep the long vowel and lose the n. This rule applies for
verbs with two or more syllables with this end pattern.

EXAMPLES: k’ashtesiink → k’ashtesiik; tolob’aank → tolob’aak, etc.

• Li Ishqaal tyoo chi k’aluuk. CONT The girl is being hugged.

Imperative

Since the imperative mood is expressed in the second person singular and plural, it uses two
different verb forms. The verb for the imperative in the second person singular is the derived
verb form of the active voice.

• Tyolesii li Imul. Chase the rabbit.


• Ishimaa li Hal. Thresh the corncobs.

The verb for the imperative in the second person plural is generally modified with the suffix -
omaq for verbs ending in -ok or -v+nk or -umaq for verbs ending in -uk or -unk.

• Tzuqumaq b’ayaq Ha’ sa’ li Ree. Drip some water in its mouth.
• Sutumaq li Ochoch! Surround the house.

CAPITAL LETTERS

The main rules for word capitalization in KC include the following:

• The first word in a sentence Aan na wulak chirruu alinak.


• The name of a person Elena, Abel, Sofia
• A nationality or language K’iche’, Ingles, Mam
• Titles of people Qana’ Belinda, Qacua’ Eliberto
• The names of cities, provinces, states, countries Chisec, Purulha, Kiche’, Guatemala
• The names of buildings Poopol, Iglesia, Hospital
• The names of holidays Rahil Cutan, K’esaant, Ralanquil
• Religious words Jesus, Maria
• Every noun as introduced here Ochoch, B’ee, Nimha’, Cutan, C’um

Titles

Most words in titles must be capitalized. The following rules apply:

• Always use a capital letter on the first word of a title.


• Use a capital letter on all the important words.
• Do not use a capital letter on the following if they are not at the beginning of a sentence
o Prepositions (sa’, re, chi, ishb’een, chirruu, etc.)
o Connecting words (ut, ab’an, malaj)
o Articles (ish, aj, li)

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COMBINING SENTENCES
Method 1: Use of the conjunction ut (literally and)

We can join two or more verbs in one sentence with ut.

• Li C’uulal na aj. Li C’uulal na ok chi tyab’ak. The baby wakes up. The baby starts to cry.
• Li C’uulal na aj ut na ok chi tyab’ak. The baby wakes up and starts to cry.

We can also combine verbs and phrases with ut into one compound sentence. The components
(verbs, phrases) can be in active1 and antipassive2 voice.

• Ish Adelia na jalok2, nash chap1 ish Chacach ut na shik2 sa’ C’atyil.
o Adelia changes, grabs her basket and goes to the market.

Method 2: Use of the conjunction ab’an (literally but)

We can join two phrases/clauses or sentences with ab’an to present a contrasting pattern.

• Sho wulak raj chi b’eek. Tyoo raj li Hab’. SPK We wanted to go out. It was raining.
• Sho wulak raj chi b’eek, ab’an tyoo raj li Hab’. SPK We wanted to go out but it was raining.

• Aan ish lok’ raj chaq li Ishim. Mac’a’ raj chic Ishim He had to buy maize. There was not any maize.
• Aan ish lok’ raj chaq li Ishim, ab’an mac’a’ raj chic. He had to buy maize but there wasn’t any.

Method 3: Use of the combination ut ... ajcui’ (literally and … too)

• Aj Juan na wulak chi tzolok. Ish Marina na wulak chi tzolok.


o Juan goes to school. Marina goes to school.
• Aj Juan na wulak chi tzolok ut ish Marina na wulak ajcui’.
o Juan goes to school and Marina goes too.

Use in modal sentences:

• Aj Rob’ na ruu atinak sa’ Poqomchi’. Aj Ton na ruu atinak sa’ Poqomchi’.
o Rob knows how to talk in Poqomchi’. Ton knows how to talk in Poqomchi’.
• Aj Rob’ na ruu atinak sa’ Poqomchi’ ut aj Ton na ruu ajcui’.
o Rob can talk in Poqomchi’ and Ton can too.

Method 4: Use of the combination manii ... ut … ajcui’ (literally not … and ... either)

In this sentence construction method, we use ajcui’ at the end of the sentence to mean either since
it can also be used in a negative clause.

• Ish Alicia manii raj sa’ Cab’ ecuer. Aj Gil manii raj sa’ Cab’ ecuer.
o Alicia was not at home yesterday. Gil was not at home yesterday.
• Ish Alicia manii raj sa’ Cab’ ecuer ut aj Gil manii raj ajcui’.
o Alicia was not at home yesterday and Gil was not either.

Method 5: Use of the conjunction naq (literally when)

When using naq to join two clauses, the subject of the second clause is displaced at the end.

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• Ac shin aj. Li Tz’o’shul ki tyab’aak. I have wakened up. The rooster crowed.
• Ac shin aj naq ki tyab’aak li Tz’o’shul. SPK I have wakened up when the rooster crowed.

• Ac sho ok sa’ Cab’. Li Hab’ ki chal. We had got home. It began to rain.
• Ac sho ok sa’ Cab’ naq ki chal li Hab’. SPK We had got home when it began to rain.

• Lain ac shin raqe’ chi shorrok. Lain in tyiib’ li Tzacaemq.


o I have finished making tortillas. I prepare the meal.
• Ac shin raqe’ chi shorrok naq in tyiib’ li Tzacaemq. SPK
o I had finished making tortillas when I prepare the meal.

Use of naq with combined events in the pseudo-perfect, preterite, continuous and past tense.

• Ish Natalia ac lajeb’ Chab’ cuan re naq ki ok chi tzolok. PPERF - PRET
o Natalia was already five years old when she started school.
• Tyokin raj chi cua’ak naq shin esh b’oq chi b’atz’uunk. CONT-PAST, SPK
o I was eating when they called me to play.

Method 6: Use of the conjunction ishb’an naq (literally because)

• Tin tyiib’ in Cuaa. Ac Cualeb’ chic. I will make tortillas. It is noon already.
• Tin tyiib’ in Cuaa ishb’an naq ac Cualeb’ chic. SPK I will make tortillas because it is noon already.

• Aj Mario inc’a’ ish wulak sa’ Tzoleb’aal. Aj Mario cualeb’ ish cuaklii.
o Mario did not go to school. Mario got up late.
• Aj Mario inc’a’ ish wulak sa’ Tzoleb’aal ishb’an naq cualeb’ ish cuaklii.
o Mario did not go to school because he got up late.

Method 7: Use of jo’can naq for cause and result sentences (literally that is why OR because →
at the beginning of a sentence in English)

• Ish Delia mac’a’ ish Tumin. Ish Delia inc’a’ na shik sa’ C’atyil.
o Delia does not have money. Delia does not go to the market.
• Ish Delia mac’a’ ish Tumin jo’can naq inc’a’ na shik sa’ C’atyil.
o Delia does not have money, which is why she does not go to the market. OR
o Because Delia does not have money, she does not go to the market.

Method 8: Use of ishb’en-cuaa (before, first) and chirrish aan (then, after that)

• Ishb’en-cuaa in cuaklii, chirrish aan in tyiib’ in Cuaa. First, I get up then I make tortillas.

WRITING GOOD SENTENCES

• Writing good and accurate sentences according to KC syntax and grammatical rules out-
lined throughout this grammar guide is mandatory.
• Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. (Imperatives do not necessarily have a
subject.) Some short statements or questions describing/asking for a person’s or thing’s
properties, characteristics, attributes, look, appearance, etc., however, DO NOT require a
verb.

EXAMPLES:

o Li Ch’ajom naj ish terram. The young boy is tall.

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o Anii a C’ab’a’? What is your name?


o Mac’a’ ish Cuaa li Tz’i’. The dog does not have any food.
• Some sentences have a direct object (DO) which goes directly after the verb. The direct
object is usually a noun and sometimes it has an adjective or an article (li).

SUBJ AUX VERB DO


Aanheb’ enkesh shok li Si’. They pick up the wood.

SUBJ AUX VERB DO


Aan nash mesuu li nimla Na’jej. He/she sweeps the big place.

• A list of consecutive actions or things in a sentence is separated by commas. Ut (and) or


malaj (or) is written before the last action or thing in the list. Examples:
o Lain in cuaclii, in cua’ak ut in shik sa’ Tzolebaal. I get up, eat breakfast and go to school.
o Aan na awok Ishim, Keenk’ ut Pish sa’ lish Ch’ooch’. He grows corn, black beans and toma-
toes in his plot.

WRITING GOOD COMPOSITIONS

• Every composition must have a title as stated earlier in TITLES under CAPITAL LETTERS.
• A good composition has an introductory sentence. It introduces the composition to the
reader and gives the general idea of the composition. It should also have a concluding
sentence like the introductory sentence in mind.
• Follow each of the rules for creating compound sentences found in COMBINING SENTENCES.

Esteban aj Tzolonel
Aj Esteban na c’anjelak sa’ jun Tzoleb’aal. Toje’ ish c’ul rib’ re aj Tzolonel ut anajcuan ac ish taw ish
C’anjel. Aan tish tzol jun Ch’uut chi Cooc’al, li toj ishb’een Chab’ teheb’ oq sa’ Tzoleb’aal. Sa’ lish C’anjel
cuan ish c’utb’al eb’ aan chi tz’ib’ak ut ilok ru Hu chirruu jun Chab’. Jo’can ajcui’, tish c’ut eb’ li Cooc’al jal-
anq, jalanq chi Na’leb’ li na ajman sa’ Tzoleb’al ut sa’ Ochoch.

Ishb’an naq li Tzoleb’aal cuan chirree Tenamit, aj Esteban junelic na shik sa’ B’eleb’aal-ch’ich’ re naq
ek’laa na ok sa’ lish C’anjel. Sa’ li Tzoleb’aal nash ch’utub’ rib’ ric’in rech aj C’anjelil, li enkheb’ c’utuk sa’ eb’
li junjunk’ chi Na’jej. Naq na tiklaa li Tzolok, aj Esteban na ok sa’ lish c’eeb’il Na’jej ut nash b’oq eb’ lish
C’ab’a’ eb’ li junjunq’ chi Tzolom. Chirrish aan, na tiklaa li Tzolok ut na raqe’ toj Cua’leb’.

Aj Esteban tish tzol nim aj Tzolom naq ac ish taw ish Na’leb’ chi us chirrish Tzolok Cooc’al. Anajcuan
tyoo ish tzolb’al jun Ch’uut chi Ch’ina-al ut ch’ina Ishqaal li toj shesh tikib’ chi tz’ib’ak ut ilok ru Hu. Aan ajcui’
na tzolok reheb’ chi c’anjelak sa’ Komonil ut cuaank sa’ Tuqtukilal. Jo’can b’i’ lish C’anjel aj Esteban re ish
tzolb’al jalanq, jalanq chi Tzolom sa’ li Tzoleb’aal ut junelik sah sa’ ish Ch’ool ish b’anunkil rajlal Cutan.

Esteban the Teacher


Esteban works in a school. He just graduated as a teacher and now he has found a job. He will teach
a group of kids that will enter school for the first time. It is his job to teach them to write and read for one
year. Also, he will teach the children different skills that are needed in the school and at home.

Because the school is in the suburbs, Esteban always goes by car so that he gets early at his work. At
the school, he joins with his colleagues that teach in the different classrooms. When teaching starts,

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Esteban enters his assigned classroom and takes attendance of each student. After that, the class starts
and finishes until noon.

Esteban will teach young students when he gets good experience after teaching children. Now he
teaches a group of kids and girls that just started to write and read. He also teaches them to work in com-
munity and in harmony. That is the job of Esteban in teaching different students at the school and he is al-
ways happy of doing it every day.

APPENDIX 1

K’EQCHI’ TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS


Legend: AP – ANTIPASSIVE FORM AC – ACTIVE FORM PP – PAST PARTICIPLE / SO. – SOMEONE; STH. – SOMETHING

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TRANSITIVE VERBS

A alob’resiink AP - alob’resin AC - alob’resii PP - alob’resiik/ alob’resiman


to increase weight; affect, move (to pity); relent, give in
ab’enaank AP - ab’enan AC - ab’enaa PP - ab’enaak
to commission, order; ask, request; entrust amak’iink AP - amak’in AC - amak’ii PP - amak’iik
to live; reside, dwell
ab’iink AP - ab’in AC - ab’ii PP - ab’iik / ab’iman
to hear, listen to; pay attention, obey anab’aank AP - anab’an AC - anab’ PP - anab’aak
to rest, lean; recline
ach’ab’aank AP - ach’ab’an AC - ach’ab’ PP - ach’ab’aak
to release, free; drop; let loose, set free; untie; let go apusiink AP - apusin AC - apusii PP - apusiik / apusiman
to play a wind instrument
ac’ob’resiink AP - ac’ob’resin AC - ac’ob’resii PP - ac’ob’resiik
to renew, renovate, update; refurbish, revamp apuunk AP - apun AC - apuu PP - apuuk
to blow, exhale, inflate; blow out/off/away
acuasiink AP - acuasin AC - acuasii PP - acuasiik
to get rid of bad luck; cure from bad luck atacuaank AP - atacuan AC - atacuaa PP - atacuaak
to covet, lust after, crave
ajlaank AP - ajlan AC - ajlaa PP - ajlaak
to count, enumerate; count up atesiink AP - atesin AC - atesii PP - atesiik / atesiman
to bathe so./sth.; give so. a bath; dip; coat, cover, plate
ajsiink AP - ajsin AC - ajsii PP - ajsiik / ajsiman
to wake so. up; awaken, arouse atisiink AP - atisin AC - atisii PP - atisiik / atisiman
See atesiink
ajtesiink [u] AP - ajtesin AC - ajtesii PP - ajtesiik
to amuse, make laugh atinaank AP - atinan AC - atinaa PP - atinaak
to talk, speak; converse, chat
ak’iink AP - ak’in AC - ak’ii PP - ak’iik
to weed, clean atz’amaank AP - atz’aman AC - atz’amaa PP - atz’amaak
See atz’amiink
ak’uniink AP - ak’unin AC - ak’unii PP - ak’uniik
to dress, get dressed, clothe; wear; cover, wrap up atz’amiink AP - atz’amin AC - atz’amii PP - atz’amiik
to salt, season, put salt in/on; make sth. salty
ak’uunk AP - ak’un AC - ak’uu PP - ak’uuk
See ak’uniink atz’umaank AP - atz’uman AC - atz’umaa PP - atz’umaak
to flower, bloom, blossom; fluorish
alaank AP - alan AC - alaa PP - alaak
to give birth, have a baby; weigh sth.
alaliink AP - alalin AC - alalii PP - alaliik B’
to give birth (animals: pup, litter, calve, lamb, farrow) b’ac’ok AP - b’ac’ok AC - b’ac’ PP - b’ac’e’ / b’ac’man
aleenk AP - alen AC - alee PP - aleek to tie, bind, fasten; leash, rope
to tempt (the evil); entice, lure; tempt so. to do sth. b’ach’ok AP - b’ach’ok AC - b’ach’ PP - b’ach’e’ / b’ach’man
alinaank AP - alinan AC - alinaa PP - alinaak to twist, coil, curl; turn, bend, curve
to run, race; hurry, rush; go quickly/fast b’ajok AP - b’ajok - AC - b’aj PP - b’aje’
alinasiink AP - alinasin AC - alinasii PP - alinasiik to hit with a stick or branch
to chase; run around, run about b’ak’leenk AP - b’ak’len AC - b’ak’lee PP - b’ak’leek
See b’anleenk

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b’akok AP - b’akok AC - b’ak PP - b’ake’ / b’akman to rub, scrub


to twist, bend, skew b’iqok AP - b’iqok AC - b’iq PP - b’iqe’ / b’iqman
b’alab’aank [ib’] AP - b’alab’an AC - b’alab’ PP - b’alab’aak to rub, scrape, scrub; scour
to hide behind sth.; stand on the street b’irrok AP - b’irrok AC - b’irr PP - b’irre’ / b’irrman
b’alak’iink AP - b’alak’in AC - b’alak’ii PP - b’alak’iik to roll, make cylindrical sth.
to cheat, deceive, swindle; mislead; trick, fool b’isok AP - b’isok AC - b’is PP - b’ise’ / b’isman
b’alk’usiink AP - b’alk’usin AC - b’alk’usii PP - b’alk’usiik / b’alk’usiman to measure (length, weight, volume); quantify, size
to rotate, wheel, tip sth. over, turn over/around b’itoonk AP - b’iton AC - b’itoo PP - b’itook
b’alk’uunk AP - b’alk’un AC - b’ank’uu PP - b’alk’uuk to carry on/over the head; carry weight over the head
to turn over/around; flip over, overturn b’itzb’itziink AP - b’itzb’itzin AC - b’itzb’itzii PP - b’itzb’itziik
b’anleenk AP - b’anlen AC - b’anlee PP - b’anleek to wag its tail
to shake the head b’itz’ok AP - b’itz’ok AC - b’itz’ PP - b’itz’e’
b’anok AP - b’anok AC - b’an PP - b’ane’ / b’anman to grimace, make gestures
to cure, treat; heal; preserve b’iyok AP - b’iyok AC - b’iy PP - b’iye’
b’antioshiink AP - b’antioshin AC - b’antioshii PP - b’antioshiik to feel, palpate; squeeze; probe
to thank; show so. gratitude for; be grateful for b’ocoonk AP - b’ocon AC - b’ocoo PP - b’ocook
b’anuunk AP - b’anun AC - b’anuu PP - b’anuuk / b’anuman to puff; exhale, blow out; infect, transmit
to do, make b’ojok AP - b’ojok AC - b’oj PP - b’oje’ / b’ojman
b’aqob’resiink AP - b’aqob’resin AC - b’aqob’resii PP - b’aqob’resiik to sew up/on, stitch; suture
to make so. thin; lose weight; get thin; slim so. down b’okiink AP - b’okin AC - b’okii PP - b’okiik
b’asok AP - b’asok AC - b’as PP - b’ase’ / b’asman to abound, flourish
to fold, bend, enfold; turn b’ok’ok AP - b’ok’ok AC - b’ok’ PP - b’ok’e’
b’atashiink AP - b’atashin AC - b’atashii PP - b’atashiik to loosen; release, free; slip off, come off
to wrap, cover; envelop; enclose b’ololiink AP - b’ololin AC - b’ololii PP - b’ololiik
b’atok AP - b’atok AC - b’at PP - b’ate’ / b’atman to whistle, hiss
to wrap, envelop; enclose, shroud, drape b’onok AP - b’onok AC - b’on PP - b’one’
b’atz’uneenk AP - b’atz’unen AC - b’atz’unee PP - b’atz’uneek to paint, colour, draw; varnish; infect, pass on, transmit
to play; fool around; toy/fidget with b’oqok AP - b’oqok AC - b’oq PP - b’oqe’ / b’oqman
b’ayok AP - b’ayok AC - b’ay PP - b’aye’ / b’ayman to call so./sth., shout, cry, provoke; name, phone
to delay, detain; hold up; be/arrive late b’orrok AP - b’orrok AC - b’orr PP - b’orre’ / b’orrman
b’ekiink AP - b’ekin AC - b’ekii PP - b’ekiik to develop; open, open out (flower)
to dig; uncover, unearth; scratch (dirt) b’otob’aank AP - b’otob’an AC - b’otob’ PP - b’otob’aak
b’ekok AP - b’ekok AC - b’ek PP - b’eke’ / b’ekman to put/place/lay a rolled object
to dig, shovel, scratch, scrabble b’otok AP - b’otok AC - b’ot PP - b’ote’ / b’otman
b’elaank AP - b’elan AC - b’elaa PP - b’elaak to roll up; coil, wind; curl up
to carry, transport; move, lug, haul b’otz’ok AP - b’otz’ok AC - b’otz’ PP - b’otz’e’ / b’otz’man
b’elomiink AP - b’elomin AC - b’elomii PP - b’elomiik to extract, get so./sth. out; pull out, pull sth. away
to get a husband (the woman) b’uchiink AP - b’uchin AC - b’uchii PP - b’uchiik
b’eniink AP - b’enin AC - b’enii PP - b’eniik to cook maize with lime
to travel around, go all over; invite b’uchub’aank AP - b’uchub’an AC - b’uchub’ PP - b’uchub’aak
b’eresiink AP - b’eresin AC - b’eresii PP - b’eresiik to lay face down
to drive, ride; pilot; carry, bring; run b’ukuk AP - b’ukuk AC - b’uk PP - b’uke’ / b’ukman
b’esok AP - b’esok AC - b’es PP - b’ese’ / b’esman to beat, whir, flap
to cut/trim hair buk’ub’aank AP - b’uk’ub’an AC - b’uk’ub’ PP - b’uk’ub’aak
b’ichaank AP - b’ichan AC - b’ichaa PP - b’ichaak to bulge, get big; make bulge/bulky
to sing, perform, chant, chirp b’ukiink AP - b’ukin AC - b’ukii PP - b’ukiik
b’iomob’resiink AP - b’iomobresin AC - b’iomob’resii PP - to smoke, give off smoke; fume
b’iomob’resiik b’ut’iink AP - b’ut’un AC - b’ut’ii PP - b’ut’iik
to enrich oneself, become/get/grow rich, prosper to pile, heap, mound
b’iqiink AP - b’iqin AC - b’iqii PP - b’iqiik / b’iqman b’ut’uk AP - b’ut’uk AC - b’ut’ PP - b’ut’e’ / b’ut’man
to scour to fill; pack; populate, crowd
b’irrirriink AP - b’irrirrin AC - b’irrirrii PP - b’irrirriik

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b’uyub’aank AP - b’uyub’an AC - b’uyub’ PP - b’uyubaak caqaliink AP - caqalin AC - caqalii PP - caqaliik


to hoard, lump, heap, stack; pile to envy; be envious/jealous of
caqmoqiink AP - caqmoqin AC - caqmoqii PP - caqmoqiik
C to make red-hot; redden, turn red; make so. blush
c’ab’aiink AP - c’ab’ain AC - c’ab’aii PP - c’ab’aiik c’ashoonk AP - c’ashon AC - c’ashoo PP - c’ashook
to name, appoint; call to carry stuff. in the mouth (dogs); grab with the mouth
cab’laank AP - cab’lan AC - cab’laa PP - cab’laak cashucutiink AP - cashucutin AC - cashucutii PP - cashucutiik
to construct, build (a house); erect to square, square off
c’ac’aleenk AP - c’ac’alen AC - c’ac’alee PP - c’ac’aleek c’asok AP - c’asok AC - c’as PP - c’ase’ / c’asman
to guard, watch for; spy to sell/buy on credit; give credit
c’ach’ab’aank AP - c’ach’ab’an AC - c’ach’ab’ PP - c’ach’ab’aak c’ate’eenk AP - c’ate’en AC - c’ate’ee PP - c’ate’eek
to bend down, crouch down to watch over, look out for; guard against, protect, safeg
c’achi’iink [ib’] AP - c’achi’in AC - c’achi’ii PP - c’achi’iik c’atok AP - c’atok AC - c’at PP - c’ate’ / c’atman
to make an effort, endeavor; go to great lengths to burn, set fire to; incinerate; sear; scorch
cach’inob’resiink [u] AP - cach’inob’resin AC - cach’inob’resii PP - ca’tyaank AP - ca’tyan AC - ca’tyaa PP - ca’tyaak
cach’inob’resiik to stare
to reduce, decrease, shorten; shrink c’atyiink AP - c’atyin AC - c’atyii PP - c’atyiik / c’atyiman
c’ajtesiink [u] AP - c’ajtesin AC - c’ajtesii PP - c’ajtesiik to sell, trade; market; place
to learn one’s lesson c’atzab’aank AP - c’atzab’an AC - c’atzab’ PP - c’atzab’aak
cak’aank AP - cak’an AC - cak’aa PP - cak’aak to slit, break, rupture
to add an attic c’aushlaank AP - c’aushlan AC - c’aushlaa PP - c’aushlaak
c’aleenk AP - c’alen AC - c’alee PP - c’aleek to worry, preoccupy, concern; fret
to graze, clear (the land) cawresiink AP - cawresin AC - cawresii PP - cawresiik / cawresiman
caltesiink AP - caltesin AC - caltesii PP - caltesiik to prepare, get ready
to get so. drunk, get drunk c’aytesiink AP - c’aytesin AC - c’aytesii PP - c’aytesiik
c’amchi’iink AP - c’amchi’in AC - c’amchi’I PP - c’amchi’iik to accustom, inure; get used to; familiarize/inure so. to
to agree, agree on, agree upon; reach an agreement c’ehok AP - c’ehok AC - c’eh PP - c’ehman
c’amok AP - c’amok AC - c’am PP - c’ame’ to give, bring; hand; hand over
to take, bring; carry; get married (the man); wear c’eleenk AP - c’elen AC - c’elee PP - c’eleek
c’ampaqoonk [u] AP - c’ampaqon AC - c’ampaqii PP - c’ampaqiik to preach; predicate
to gossip; chat ch’aajkiink AP - ch’aajkin AC - ch’aajkii PP - ch’aajkiik
camsiink AP - camsin AC - camsii PP - camsiik to bother; cause difficulty
to kill, murder, slaughter; destroy ch’ahab’aank AP - ch’ahab’an AC - ch’ahab’ PP - ch’ahab’aak
canab’aank AP - canab’an AC - canab’ PP - canab’aak to open de door
to leave, go away from, cease cha’b’eenk AP - cha’b’en AC - cha’b’ee PP - cha’b’eek
c’anasiink AP - c’anasin AC - c’anasii PP - c’anasiik to scatter, spill; spread, disperse
to imitate, follow as an example chachuunk AP - chachun AC - chachuu PP - chachuuk
c’aniink AP - c’anin AC - c’anii PP - c’aniik to sift, sieve
to wedge ch’ajb’ilob’resiink AP - ch’ajb’ilob’resin AC - ch’ajb’ilob’resii PP -
c’anjelaank AP - c’anjelan AC - c’anjelaa PP - c’anjelaak ch’ajb’ilob’resiik
to work, function to purify, clean
canob’resiink [u] AP - canob’resin AC - canob’resii PP - canob’resiik chajok [e] AP - chajok AC - chaj PP - chajman
to drive mad, drive crazy; go crazy to scream, yell, shout, call out
canok AP - canok AC - can PP - cane’ ch’ajok AP - ch’ajok AC - ch’aj PP - ch’aje’ / ch’ajman
to rope, lasso to wash, clean sth.; launder; wash off/up/away
c’aob’resiink AP - c’aob’resin AC - c’aob’resii PP - c’aob’resiik chak’b’eenk AP - chak’b’en AC - chak’b’ee PP - chak’b’eek
to make bitter, sour, embitter; become/get bitter to answer, respond, reply; agree, convene
c’apab’aank [e] AP - c’apab’an AC - c’apab’ PP - c’apab’aak chak’rab’iink AP - chak’rab’in AC - chak’rab’ii PP - chak’rab’iik
to open the mouth to say goodbye, bid so. farewell; see off
c’aplisiink AP - c’aplisin AC - c’aplisii PP - c’aplisiik chamob’resiink AP - chamob’resin AC - chamob’resii PP -
chamob’resiik
to reach the summit/peak
to deepen; make sth. deeper

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ch’anab’aank AP - ch’anab’an AC - ch’anab’ PP - ch’anab’aak ch’olok AP - ch’olok AC - ch’ol PP - ch’ole’ / ch’olman


to cease; stop doing sth. to broaden, widen; open trail
chapok AP - chapok AC - chap PP - chape’ / chapman cho’ok AP - cho’ok AC - cho’ PP - choe’ / cho’man
to catch, grab, grasp, take; hold, get hold of to operate on; make a surgery
chaqob’resiink AP - chaqob’resin AC - chaqob’resii PP - chaqob’resiik choqiink AP - choqin AC - choqii PP - choqiik
to dry, dry up; make dry, wipe dry to scold, reprimand, cheer, nag
ch’ehok AP - ch’ehok AC - ch’eh PP - ch’ehman choqleenk AP - choqlen AC - choqlee PP - choqleek
to touch, feel; palpate; be busy to singe, scorch
ch’emok AP - ch’emok AC - ch’em PP - ch’eme’ ch’oshleenk AP - ch’oshlen AC - ch’oshlee PP - ch’oshleek
to break a piece of sth. to beat with a stick
ch’epok AP - ch’epok AC - ch’ep PP - ch’epe’ / ch’epman ch’oshok AP - ch’oshok AC - ch’osh PP - ch’oshe’ / ch’oshman
to thresh with the hands (corn); dekernel to clobber, beat up, pound
ch’ich’iink AP - ch’ich’iin AC - ch’ich’ii PP - ch’ich’iik ch’otok AP - ch’otok AC - ch’ot PP - ch’ote’ / ch’otman
to annoy, bother, disturb, bug; be a nuisance to pick fruit; finish
ch’ib’eenk AP - ch’ib’en AC - ch’ib’ee PP - ch’ib’eek choyok AP - choyok AC - choy PP - choye’ / choyman
See ch’ich’iink to finish, end, conclude
ch’ikok AP - ch’ikok AC - ch’ik PP - ch’ike’ / ch’ikman chub’aank AP - chub’an AC - chub’aa PP - chub’aak
to put into; go into; get in to spit; cough up
chik’ok AP - chik’ok AC - chik’ PP - chik’e’ / chik’man ch’uch’iink AP - ch’uch’in AC - ch’uch’ii PP - ch’uch’iik
to shake, touch, move; scare to joke, play/joke around
ch’ilaank AP - ch’ilan AC - ch’ilaa PP - ch’ilaak chuk’chuk’iink AP - chuk’chuk’in AC - chuk’chuk’ii PP - chuk’chuk’iik
to scold, tell off, reprimand; yell at to agitate, shake; wriggle, jiggle
chilchiliink AP - chilchilin AC - chilchilii PP - chilchiliik ch’ulakiink AP - ch’ulakin AC - ch’ ulakii PP - ch’ulakiik
to shake, wave to get dirty, mess up; taint, stain, spot
ch’ilib’aank AP - ch’ilib’an AC - ch’ilib’ PP - ch’ilib’aak chuniink AP - chunin AC - chunii PP - chuniik
See ch’irrib’aank to whitewash, blanch, lime
ch’iloonk AP - ch’ilon AC - ch’iloo PP - ch’ile’ chunub’aank AP - chunub’an AC - chunub’ PP - chunub’aak
to take by the hand to sit down so./sth.
chinaank AP - chinan AC - china PP - chinaak chupuk AP - chupuk AC - chup PP - chupe’ / chupman
to sun sth., dry in the sun; put in the sun; sun-cure/dry to turn off (fire, light, appliances, etc.); blow out; put out
ch’iqch’iqiink AP - ch’iqch’iqin AC - ch’iqch’iqii PP - ch’iqch’iqiik ch’upuk AP - ch’upuk AC - ch’up PP - ch’upe’ / ch’upman
to move to pick (flowers, fruit, leaves)
chiqok AP - chiqok AC - chiq PP - chiqe’ / chiqman ch’ukiink AP - ch’ukin AC - ch’ukii PP - ch’ukiik
to cook; boil; stew to spy, peep
ch’iqok AP - ch’iqok AC - ch’iq PP - ch’iqe’ / ch’iqman ch’uqub’aank AP - ch’uqub’an AC - ch’uqub’ PP - ch’uqub’aak
to crave; wish to eat good things to settle; seat, sit down
chi’resiink AP - chi’resin AC - chi’resii PP - chi’resiik ch’urrurriink AP - ch’urrurrin AC - ch’urrurrii PP - ch’urrurriik
to admonish, reprimand to pour liquid like a little stream
chirrib’aank AP - chirrib’an AC - chirrib’ PP - chirrib’aak ch’utub’aank AP - ch’utub’an AC - ch’utub’ PP - ch’utub’aak
to extend, stretch, spread to gather, collect, put together; group, accrue, earn
ch’irrib’aank AP - ch’irrib’an AC - ch’irrib’ PP - ch’irrib’aak chu’unk AP - chu’un AC - chu’u PP - chu’e’
to hang, hang up, suspend to urinate, piss, wet
chirrok AP - chirrok AC - chirr PP - chirre’ ch’uyuk AP - ch’uyuk AC - ch’uy PP - ch’uye’ / ch’uyman
to extend clothes to nip, pinch; to nibble, pick at
choc’ob’aank [ib’] AP - choc’ob’an AC - choc’ob’ PP - choc’ob’aak c’iliink AP - c’ilin AC - c’ilii PP - c’iliik
to squat down to fry, brown; roast, toast; turn golden
ch’okok AP - ch’okok AC - ch’ok PP - ch’oke’ / ch’okman c’imuunk AP - c’imun AC - c’imuu PP - c’imuuk
to pick fruit to thatch, cover over with straw, fill with straw
ch’olaniink AP - ch’olanin AC - ch’olanii PP - ch’olaniik c’ipib’aank AP - c’ipib’an AC - c’ipib’ PP - c’ipib’aak
to feed, nourish, nurture; care for, nurse; take care of to turn upside down, invert
ch’olob’aank AP - ch’olob’an AC - ch’olob’ PP - ch’olob’aak c’irrasiink AP - c’irrasin AC - c’irrasii PP - c’irrasiik
to explain, clarify, declare to cure, heal

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40 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

c’irrisiink AP - c’irrisiin AC - c’irrisii PP - c’irrisiik cuaklesiink AP - cuaklesin AC - cuaklesii PP - cuaklesiik / cuaklesiman


to bring up; raise children/animals; parent, nurture to lift, hoist; pick up; raise; erect, put up
c’ishok AP - c’ishok AC - c’ish PP - c’ishe’ / c’ishman cuajb’aank AP - cuajb’an AC - cuajb’aa PP - cuajb’aak
to untie, loosen, unbind; let sth. loose; undo to play music (harp, marimba, guitar, flute)
c’ob’iink AP - c’ob’in AC - c’ob’ii PP - c’obiik cua’ak AP - cua’ak AC - cua’ PP - cuae’ / cua’man
to peck to eat; consume; take a meal
c’ob’ok AP - c’ob’ok AC - c’ob PP - c’ob’e’ / c’ob’man cualuunk AP - cualun AC - cualuu PP - cualuuk
to make holes in; pierce, perforate, puncture to blow/review fire with a fan
c’ochlaank AP - c’ochlan AC - c’ochlaa PP - c’ochlaak cuartesiink AP - cuartesin AC - cuartesii PP - cuartesiik
to alight, land, sit to lull/put so. to sleep; numb; anesthetize; make sleepy
c’ochob’aank AP - c’ochob’an AC - c’ochob’ PP - c’ochob’aak cua’tesiink AP - cua’tesin AC - cua’tesii PP - cua’tesiik
to place an object to cause, give rise to (witchcraft); arouse, propitiate
cocob’aank AP - cocob’an AC - cocob’ PP - cocob’aak c’ub’aank AP - c’ub’an AC - c’ub’aa PP - c’ub’aak
to hitch, tie up, lash to prepare, arrange; cook
cojleenk AP - cojlen AC - cojlee PP - cojleek cub’siink AP - cub’sin AC - cub’sii PP - cub’siik / cub’siman
to beat with a stick to lower, decrese, reduce; put/take/bring down
c’ojleenk [ib’] AP - c’ojlen AC - c’ojlee PP - c’ojleek cuechok AP - cuechok AC - cuech PP - cueche’ / cuechman
to wriggle, wank, shake; wag, waggle to break a piece away
c’ojob’aank AP - c’ojob’an AC - c’ojob’ PP - c’ojob’aak cuech’ok AP - cuech’ok AC - cuech’ PP - cuech’e’ / cuech’man
to sit, seat; put, settle, clear up to argue, complain loudly; allege
colb’etaank AP - colb’etan AC - colb’etaa PP - colb’etaak cue’ejiink AP - cue’ejin AC - cue’ejii PP - cue’ejiik
to save; defend, protect; get off, get out of to starve; lack food
c’oloch’iink AP - c’olochin AC - c’olochii PP - c’olochiik cui’aank AP - cui’an AC - cui’aa PP - cui’aak
to get frizzy hair; curl, ripple, ruffle; get rough to abound, flourish; multiply, be plentiful
colok AP - colok AC - col PP - cole’ / colman cuik’ib’aank [ib’] AP - cuik’ib’an AC - cuik’ib’ PP - cuik’ibaak
to defend, free, save; protect to kneel, kneel down (for)/before; bow and scrape
c’olok AP - c’olok AC - c’ol PP - c’ole’ / c’olman cuinqob’resiink AP - cuinqob’resin AC - cuinqob’resii PP - cuin-
to hitch sth. up, bunch up, roll up qob’resiik
coloniink AP - colonin AC - colonii PP - coloniik to create, form
to overcome, beat; to win through cui’tesiink AP - cui’tesin AC - cui’tesii PP - cui’tesiik
c’opiink AP - c’opin AC - c’opii PP - c’opiik to increase, make abound
to peck cujuk AP - cujuk AC - cuj PP - cuje’ / cujman
c’opok AP - c’opok AC - c’op PP - c’ope’ / copman to insert, put sth. in; thread; get into, get in
to peck, prick cuk’uk AP - cuk’uk AC - cuk’ PP - cuk’man
c’oshlaank AP - c’oshlan AC - c’oshlaa PP - c’oshlaak to pour water; serve water
to think, consider, reflect; intend, plan; believe c’ukuk AP - c’ukuk AC - c’uk PP - c’uke’ / c’ukman
c’osok AP - c’osok AC - c’os PP - c’ose’ / c’osman to slacken, loosen; root up, pull up
to shorten, reduce; decrease, diminish; lower c’ulaank AP - c’ulan AC - c’ulaa PP - c’ulaak
c’otaank AP - c’otan AC - c’otaa PP - c’otaak to save, preserve; keep, protect
to defecate; evacuate (empty bowels) c’ulub’aank AP - c’ulub’an AC - c’ulub’ PP - c’ulub’aak
cotob’aank AP - cotob’an AC - cotob’ PP - cotob’aak to convene, accept
to roll, wind, coil c’uluk AP - c’uluk AC - c’ul PP - c’ule’ / c’ulman
cotok AP - cotok AC - cot PP - cote’ / cotman to receive, get; agree, concur; accept; consent
to tie with a ribbon; tope, lasso cuob’aank AP - cuob’an AC - cuob’aa PP - cuob’aak
c’otoonk AP - c’oton AC - c’otob’ PP - c’otook to bark, yap
to heap, pile, stack; hoard cuoqshiink AP - cuoqshin AC - cuoqshii PP - cuoqshiik
cotzok AP - cotzok AC - cotz PP - cotze’ / cotzman to boil; simmer, bubble
to reduce, ease, relent; let up cuosok AP - cuosok AC - cuos PP - cuose’ / cuosman
c’otzok AP - c’otzok AC - c’otz PP - c’otze’ / c’otzman to chill, cool; quench, dampen; fall ill, catch a fever
to prick, peck; perforate cuotzok AP - cuotz’ok AC - cuotz PP - cuotze’ / cuotzman
c’oyok AP - c’oyok AC - c’oy PP - c’oye’ / c’oyman to share, divide, partake, split
to chew (like a gum) cupub’aank AP - cupub’an AC - cupub’ PP - cupub’aak

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 41
George Max

to shorten (a dress) See eqajiink


c’upub’aank AP - c’upub’an AC - c’upub’ PP - c’upub’aak etaank AP - etan AC - etaa PP - etaak
to bend, bend down, bend over to mark, indicate, signal; measure
cupusiink AP - cupusiin AC - cupusii PP - cupusiik etz’uunk AP - etz’un AC - etz’uu PP - etz’uuk
to shorten to make fun, joke, banter; mock, ridicule
curleenk AP - curlen AC - curlee PP - curleek
to cut
H
curruk AP - curruk AC - curr PP - curre’ / currman
hab’ok AP - hab’ok AC - hab’ PP - hab’e’
to chop; slice; cut into pieces
to chew; scrunch; bite
c’urrushiink AP - c’urrushin AC - c’urrushii PP - c’urrushiik
hach’ok AP - hach’ok AC - hach’ PP - hach’e’
to become rough
to bite, champ; take a bite
cutanob’resiink AP - cutanob’resin AC - cutanob’resii PP - cuta-
nob’resiik
ha’lesiink AP - ha’lesin AC - ha’lesii PP - ha’lesiik / ha’lesiman
to manifest; reveal; lighten, get/go lighter, clear up to melt, thaw; melt down
cutub’aank AP - cutub’an AC - cutub’ PP - cutub’aak hamok AP - hamok AC - ham PP - hame’
to rest against; slant to wear away; fall apart
cutuchiink AP - cutuchin AC - cutuchii PP - cutuchiik ha’ob’resiink AP - ha’ob’resin AC - ha’ob’resii PP - ha’ob’resiik
to focus on; have interest on to turn into liquid
cutuk AP - cutuk AC - cut PP - cute’ / cutman hasb’aank AP - hasb’an AC - hasb’aa PP - hasb’aak
to throw; shoot; discard to whisper; speak softly; murmur, rustle, sough
c’utuk AP - c’utuk AC - c’ut PP - c’ute’ / c’utman hech’oonk AP - hech’on AC - hech’oo PP - hech’ook
to show, display, exhibit; present; teach, instruct to carry a bowl in the hand
cutuunk AP - cutun AC - cutuu PP - cutuuk heleb’aank AP - heleb’an AC - heleb’ PP - heleb’aak
to underpin, support; brace, strut; protect to extend, spread, stretch
c’ushuk AP - c’ushuk AC - c’ush PP - c’ushe’ / c’ushman hellok AP - hellok AC - hell PP - hellman
to chew (to eat hard things like corn), munch, masticate to extend, stretch; spread
c’utzub’aank AP - c’utzub’an AC - c’utzub’ PP - c’utzub’aak hetaank AP - hetan AC - hetaa PP - hetaak
to bend; overwhelm, burden to move, wag; sway
cuyuk AP - cuyuk AC - cuy PP - cuye’ /cuyman hiltasiink AP - hiltasin AC - hiltasii PP - hiltasiik
to put up with; bear, endure; tolerate to let so./sth. lay/repose/rest
hirrok AP - hirrok AC - hir PP - hirre’ / hirrman
to spill or scatter (not water)
E
hitok AP - hitok AC - hit PP - hite’ / hitman
ec’aank AP - ec’an AC - ec’aa PP - ec’aak to unloose, unbind, untie
to move, shift; feel, guess
hob’aank AP - hob’an AC - hob’aa PP - hob’aak
ec’asiink AP - ec’asin AC - ec’asii PP - ec’asiik / ec’asiman to blow with open mouth
to move; stir; work, power
hob’ok AP - hob’ok AC - hob’ PP - hob’e’
ech’ajatiink AP - ech’ajatin AC - ech’ajatii PP - ech’ajatiik to insult, mistreat verbally
to imitate; look like
homok AP - homok AC - hom PP - home’
echaniink AP - echanin AC - echanii PP - echaniik to break; crack; fail; tear
to own; appropriate
hopok AP - hopok AC - hop PP - hope’
ela’ank AP - ela’an AC - ela’a PP - ela’aak to open a hole; bore, drill
to be left over
hot’ok AP - hot’ok AC - hot’ PP - hot’e’ / hot’man
elajiink [u] AP - elajin AC - elajii PP - elajiik to gnaw, chew, pick
to urge; beg, plead
hoyb’aank AP - hoyb’an AC - hoyb’aa PP - hoyb’aa
elk’aank AP - elk’an AC - elk’aa PP - elk’aak to shout, yell, scream
to steal, rob, take away
hoyok AP - hoyok AC - hoy PP - hoye’
elk’eiink AP - elk’ein AC - elk’eii PP - elk’eiik to spill, scatter; discard sth. liquid
to abstain from, refrain, restraint, fasting
huplaank AP - huplan AC - huplaa PP - huplaak
eqajiink AP - eqajin AC - eqajii PP - eqajiik to lie down; turn upside down, invert
to give back, compensate; pay, renumerate; reward
hupub’aank AP - hupub’an AC - hupub’ PP - hupub’aak
eqajuunk AP - eqajun AC - eqajuu PP - eqajuuk to turn upside down, invert

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42 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

to thin, thin down; make thinner


I jeb’ok AP - jeb’ok AC - jeb’ PP - jeb’o’ / jeb’man
ilok AP - ilok AC - il PP - ile’ / ilman to thin, thin down; make thinner
to see, look; examine (by a Dr.) jech’eb’aank AP - jech’eb’an AC - jech’eb’ PP - jech’eb’aak
iqaank AP - iqan AC - iqaa PP - iqaak to twist, skew; distort
to carry so./sth. on the back jec’iink AP - jec’iink AC - jec’ii PP - jec’iik
iqaniink AP - iqanin AC - iqanii PP - iqaniik to distribute, deliver; share; spread out, split up; give out
to carry the blame, take responsibility jec’ok AP - jec’ok AC - jec’ PP - jec’e’ / jec’man
iqlaank AP - iqlan AC - iqlaa PP - iqlaak to reduce, shorten; lowe
to ride (e.g. a horse) jekok AP - jekok AC - jek PP – jekman
ishimaank AP - ishiman AC - ishimaa PP - ishimaak / ishiman See jikok
to thresh, dekernel, cut the kernels off (corn) jeloonk AP - jelon AC - jeloo PP - jelook
ishqeniink AP - ishqenin AC - ishqenii PP - ishqeniiik to carry on the shoulder
to free oneself; leave behind jichok AP - jichok AC - jich PP - jiche’
isiink AP - isin AC - isii PP - isiik / isiman to scratch with a sharp object
to take out; remove; extract jikok AP - jikok AC - jik PP - jikman
it’ok AP - it’ok AC - it’ PP - it’e’ to put sth. against, put sth. next to, bring over
to break, explode (pottery) jik’ok AP - jik’ok AC - jik’ PP - jik’e’
itz’ok AP - itz’ok AC - itz’ PP - itz’e’ / itz’man to sigh; asphyxiate, suffocate
to split, come apart; crack, split; slit, tear, rip jilib’aank AP - jilib’an AC - jilib’ PP - jilib’aak
ityajiink AP - ityajin AC - ityajii PP - ityajiik to lay down, lay out, lay horizontally
to seed, give seed jilok AP - jilok AC - jil PP - jile’ / jilman
to come close to, approach, near, get closer; massage,
rub
J
jilosiink AP - jilosin AC - jilosii PP - jilosiik / jilosiman
ja’ab’aank AP - ja’ab’an AC - ja’ab’ PP - ja’ab’aak to put sth. against, put sth. next to, bring over
to straighten; stand up, stand straight
ji’ok AP - ji’ok AC - ji’ PP - j’ie’ / ji’man
jachiink AP - jachin AC - jachii PP - jachiik to iron, press; sharpen
to split, cut; share out, divide up
jisok AP - jisok AC - jis PP - jise’ / jisman
jachok AP - jachok AC - jach PP - jache’ / jachman to thread
to split, cut; slit, slash; separate, divide
jitok AP - jitok AC - jit PP - jite’ / jitman
jakok AP - jakok AC - jak PP - jake’ / jakman to accuse; claim, demand
to open
jit’ok AP - jit’ok AC - jit’ PP - jit’e’ / jit’man
jalb’eniink AP - jalb’enin AC - jalb’enii PP - jalb’eniik to fasten, tie up; lash; moor
to change direction/way/road
job’eenk [sa’] AP - job’en AC - job’ee PP - job’eek
jalb’etaank AP - jalb’etan AC - jalb’etaa PP - jalb’etaak to scoop out, hollow out
to lend, borrow
jocaank AP - jocan AC - jocaa PP – jocaak
jalmuqaank AP - jalmuqan AC - jalmuqaa PP - jalmuqaak to scrape
to hide, conceal
jochok AP - jochok AC - joch PP - joche’ / jochman
jalok AP - jalok AC - jal PP - jale’ / jalman to scratch, scrape; steal, robe
to change, exchange; shed; move; get changed
jokok AP - jokok AC - jok PP - joke’ / jokman
jalpaqiink AP - jalpaqin AC - jalpaqii PP - jalpaqiik to graze; scrape; scratch
to overlap
jolc’osiink AP - jolc’osin AC - jolc’osii PP - jolc’osiik
jaluchiink AP - jaluchin AC - jaluchii PP - jaluchiik to drag, slide, slip
to change; set an example
jolomiink AP - jolomin AC - jolomii PP - jolomiik
japok [e] AP - japok AC - jap PP - jape’ to lead, head, head up
to yell, scream; shout, call out; open the mouth
jo’ok AP - jo’ok AC - jo’ PP - jo’e’ / jo’man
jat’at’iink AP - jat’at’in AC - jat’at’ii PP - jat’at’iik to shave; scrape
to grind (the teeth), gnash
jorraank AP - jorran AC - jorraa PP - jorraak
jatz’uchiink AP - jatz’uchin AC - jatz’uchii PP - jatz’uchiik to brown, fry, toast
to hate; bear malice, harbor
jorriink AP - jorrin AC - jorrii PP - jorriik
jayob’resiink AP - jayob’resin AC - jayob’resii PP - jayob’resiik to brown, fry

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 43
George Max

jorrok AP - jorrok AC - jor PP - jorre’ / jorrman to rotten


to break, smash; crack; tear k’aplisiink AP - k’aplisin AC - k’aplisii PP - k’aplisiik
josk’ob’resiink AP - josk’ob’resin AC - josk’ob’resii PP - josk’ob’resiik to reach the top (of a mountain)
to enrage, infuriate; get/become rough k’arresiink AP - k’arresin AC - k’arresii PP - k’arresiik
jot’ok AP - jot’ok AC - jot’ PP - jot’e’ / jot’man to let rot/decay
to scrape, graze; bother, disturb; comb hair k’ashtesiink AP - k’ashtesin AC - k’ashtesii PP - k’ashtesiik /
jotzok AP - jotzok AC - jotz PP - jotze’ / jotzman k’artesiman
to graze; scrape; rasp to deliver, convey; give/hand over
juchleenk AP - juchlen AC - juchlee PP - juchleek k’ashok AP - k’ashok AC - k’ash PP - k’ashe’ / k’ashman
to scratch; stripe, streak; scrawl, scribble to exceed; pass by
juch’uch’iink AP - juch’uch’in AC - juch’uch’ii PP - juch’uch’iik k’eche’iink AP - k’eche’in AC - k’eche’ii PP - k’eche’iik
to scribble, scrawl; stripe, streak to fence with long sticks
juchuk AP - juchuk AC - juch PP - juche’ / juchman ke’ek AP - ke’ek AC - ke’ PP - ke’man
to scratch, scrape to grind, mill, pound; crush
juch’uk AP - juch’uk AC - juch’ PP - juch’e’ / juch’man k’ehaank AP - k’ehan AC - k’ehaa PP - k’ehaak
to scratch, underline; vote to kick; kick one’s legs
jucub’iink AP - jucub’in AC - jucub’ii PP - jucub’iik k’eheb’aank AP - k’eheb’an AC - k’eheb’ PP - k’eheb’aak
to channel, groove, furrow; make channels/grooves to put across; cross
juc’uk AP - juc’uk AC - juc’ PP - juc’e’ / juc’man k’ehiink AP - k’ehin AC - k’ehii PP - k’ehiik
to undo, destroy; break sth. apart to guess; predict, foresee
jucuunk AP - jucun AC - jucuu PP - jucuuk kehob’resiink AP - kehob’resin AC - kehob’resii PP - kehob’resiik
to drag, haul; be pulled; trail to cool down, cool off, turn cold
julticaank AP - jultican AC - julticaa PP - julticaak keloonk AP - kelon AC - keloo PP - kelook
to remind; recall, remember to pull, tug; haul in
junajiink AP - junajin AC - junajii PP - junajiik kemok AP - kemok AC - kem PP - keme’
to join; combine, mix, mess up to weave, knit; crochet
juntak’etiink AP - juntak’etin AC - juntak’etii PP - juntak’etii kerreb’aank AP - kerreb’an AC - kerre’b’ PP - kerreb’aak
to equal, match; equalize to put in line
jutuk AP - jutuk AC - jut PP - jute’ / jutman k’esnaank AP - k’esnan AC - k’esnaa PP - k’esnaak
to insert; introduce to sharpen; make sharp/pointed, hone
jutzuk AP - jutzuk AC - jutz PP - jutze’ / jutzman k’etk’etiink [ib’] AP - k’etk’etin AC - k’etk’etii PP - k’etk’etiik
to insert, get into to make vain; be proud
juyuk AP - juyuk AC - juy PP - juye’ / juyman ketok AP - ketok AC - ket PP - ketman
to stir, shake; paddle to hit; belt so./sth., strike, smack
k’etok AP - k’etok AC - k’et PP - k’etman
to break off with the hands; tear off
K
ketzoonk AP - ketzon AC - ketzoo PP - ketzook
k’ab’aiink AP - k’ab’ain AC - k’ab’aii PP - k’ab’aiik
to carry in one’s arms
to accuse, place blame; incriminate
k’ichok AP - k’ichok AC - k’ich PP - k’iche’ / k’ichman
k’ab’chiniink AP - k’ab’chinin AC - k’ab’chinii PP - k’ab’chiniik
to tear/split clothes or fabric
to excuse oneself with lies
kihob’resiink AP - kihob’resin AC - kihob’resii PP - kihob’resiik
k’ajcamuunk [u] AP - k’ajcamun AC - k’ajcamuu PP - k’ajcamuuk
to sweeten
to reward, thank, acknowledge
k’ilaank AP - k’ilan AC - k’ilaa PP - k’ilaak
k’ajsiink AP - k’ajsin AC - k’ajsii PP - k’ajsiik / k’ajsiman
to thicken; make dense; become thick
to return, give/send back; restore
k’ilasiink AP - k’ilasin AC - k’ilasii PP - k’ilasiik
k’aluunk AP - k’alun AC - k’aluu PP - k’aluuk / k’aluman
to thicken, become thick/dense
to hug; embrace; hold; cuddle
k’inok AP - k’inok AC - k’in PP - k’ine’
k’anb’irrink AP - k’anb’irin AC - k’anb’irrii PP - k’anb’irriik
to wind (into a ball / on to a spool)
to clean
k’iok AP - k’iok AC - k’i’ PP - k’ie’ / k’iman
k’anob’resiink AP - k’anob’resin AC - k’anob’resii PP - k’anob’resiik
to straighten, straighten out, unbend; stretch
to ripen; make/turn yellow
kirkisiink AP - kirkisin AC - kirkisii PP - kirkisiik
k’aob’resiink AP - k’aob’resin AC - k’aob’resii PP - k’aob’resiik
to shake, dust

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44 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

k’irk’irriink AP - k’irk’irrin AC - k’irk’irrii PP - k’irk’irriik to pair, match; mate, couple


to scratch (the cat with its claws) lanok AP - lanok AC - lan PP - lane’ / lanman
k’irrok AP - k’irrok AC - k’irr PP - k’irre’ / k’irrec’ to wrap, pack; cover; enfold
to tear apart, tear to pieces; rip lapashiink AP - lapashin AC - lapashii PP - lapashiik
k’ishiink AP - k’ishin AC - k’ishii PP - k’ishiik to insert
to warm up; heat up lapok AP - lapok AC - lap PP - lape’ / lapman
k’ishnaank AP - k’ishnan AC - k’ishnaa PP - k’ishnaak to stick into the ground; kick
to heat up/warm up; put on fire latz’aank AP - latz’an AC - latz’aa PP - latz’aak
kitz’ok AP - kitz’ok AC - kitz’ PP - kitz’e’ / kitz’man to hinder, obstruct, disturb; tighten, narrow; take up
to bruise, crush, press lecok AP - lecok AC - lec PP - lecman
k’ochiink AP - k’ochin AC - k’ochii PP - k’ochiik to draw out/extract with a spoon or bowl
to coil, wind; roll up lemaank AP - leman AC - lemaa PP - lemaak
k’ochleenk AP - k’ochlen AC - k’ochlee PP - k’ochleek to stare
to wrestle (boys) lepeb’aank AP - lepeb’an AC - lepeb’ PP - lepeb’aak
k’ochok AP - k’ochok AC - k’och PP - k’oche’ / k’ochman to lay objects or roof in a tilted position
to roll, wind; fold, bend lepok AP - lepok AC - lep PP - lepe’ / lepman
k’okoonk AP - k’okon AC - k’okoo PP - k’okook to throw water
to pay (a punishment, penalty) let’iink AP - let’in AC - let’ii PP - let’iik
k’olok AP - k’olok AC - k’ol PP - k’ole’ / k’olman to make cuts like skewed lines
to harvest corn/maize let’ok AP - let’ok AC - let’ PP - let’e’ / let’man
k’otob’aank AP - k’otob’an AC - k’otob’ PP - k’otob’aak to engrave, cut (wood); notch, cut a slot/groove in; etch
to make curve/arch letzok AP - letzok AC - letz PP - letze’ / letzman
k’otok AP - k’otok AC - k’ot PP - k’ote’ / k’otman to glue, stick, paste; join, fix together
to roll, wind; fold, bend; turn around, go around, rotate lik’ok AP - lik’ok AC - lik’ PP - lik’e’ / lik’man
k’otoonk AP - k’oton AC - k’otoo PP - k’otook to bend; bow down; break, yield, give in
to turn around lit’ok AP - lit’ok AC - lit’ PP - lit’e’ / lit’man
k’oyok AP - k’oyok AC - k’oy PP - k’oye’ / k’oyman to lock, obstruct; wedge shut; jam, get jammed
to scratch, peel litz’ok AP - litz’ok AC - litz’ PP - litz’e’ / litz’man
k’ujuk AP - k’ujuk AC - k’uj PP - k’uje’ / k’ujman to rework (ground/milled corn), go through
to demolish, knock down/over lochob’aank AP - lochob’an AC - lochob’ PP - lochob’aak
k’unb’eenk AP - k’umb’en AC - k’umb’ee PP - k’umb’eek to hang, suspend
See k’unb’esiink locob’aank AP - lokob’an AC - lokob’ PP - lokob’aak
k’unb’esiink AP - k’umb’esin AC - k’umb’esii PP - k’umb’esiik to burden, bend
to pamper; persuade; win the love of locochiink AP - locochin AC - locochii PP - locochiik
k’usuk AP - k’usuk AC - k’us PP - k’use’ / k’usman to grab with a hook
to reprimand, tell off; scold lochok AP - lochok AC -loch PP - loche’ / lochman
k’utuunk AP - k’utun AC - k’utuu PP - k’utuuk to light, start, ignite; turn on, switch on
to make a mud hut/mud wall lochte’eenk AP - lochte’en AC - lochte’e PP - lochte’eek
k’uyuk AP - k’uyuk AC - k’uy PP - k’uye’ / k’uyman to climb, scale; claw/make your way up
to pull up soft weeds lok’ok AP - lok’ok AC - lok’ PP - lok’e’ / lok’man
kwulc’usiink AP - kwulc’usin AC - kwulc’usii PP - kwulc’usiik to buy, purchase; get; invest in
to skim, froth, foam; lather lok’oniink AP - lok’onin AC - lok’onii PP - lok’oniik
to esteem, respect; appreciate; take/receive communion
L lotzok AP - lotzok AC - lotz PP - lotze’ / lotzman
lab’aliink AP - lab’alin AC - lab’alii PP - lab’aliik to grab/grip/grasp with the fingers
to envy; harm, injure lowok AP - lowok AC - low PP - lowe’ / lowman
lach’ab’aank AP - lach’ab’an AC - lach’ab’ PP - lach’ab’aak to eat (soft food)
to grab/grasp with pliers lub’tesiink AP - lub’tesin AC - lub’tesii PP - lub’tesiik
lach’oonk AP - lach’on AC - lach’oo PP - lach’ook to tire out, exhaust, weary; make/get tired
to grab/grasp with pliers or pincers luctasiink AP - luctasin AC - luctasii PP - luctasiik
lak’ab’aank AP - lak’ab’an AC - lak’ab’ PP - lak’ab’aak to jam, get stuck

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 45
George Max

lucub’aank AP - lucub’an AC - lucub’ PP - lucub’aak mochok AP - mochok AC - moch PP - moche’


to hang up, suspend, put up to shrink
lucuk AP - lucuk AC - luc PP - lucman mocob’aank AP - mocob’an AC - mocob’ PP - mocob’aak
to bend (small coffee bushes); overwhelm, burden to bend, curve; slouch
luhob’resiink AP - luhob’resin AC - luhob’resii PP - luhob’resiik moc’ob’aank AP - moc’ob’an AC - moc’ob’ PP - moc’obaak
to warm up; cool down/off; become lukewarm to undress; extort; strip; deprive, robe so. of
molc’aank AP - molc’an AC - molc’aa PP - molc’aak
M to collect, gather, pick up
maconiink AP - maconin AC - maconii PP - maconiik molok AP - molok AC - mol PP - mole’ / molman
to sin, fail; be in breach of; violate, force to sort out, pick out
machleenk AP - machlen AC - machlee machleek much’uk AP - much’uk AC - much’ PP - much’e’
to not to do the work well to shred, crumble; mince, finely chop
majecuaank AP - majecuan AC - majecuaa PP - majecuaak muc’ub’aank AP - muc’ub’an AC - muc’ub’ PP - muc’ub’aak
to despise, disregard, pay no attention to; insult to bend down; get down; crouch down
mak’ok AP - mak’ok AC - mak’ PP - mak’e’ / mak’man muleenk AP - mulen AC - mulee PP - muleek
to take away, take sth. from, remove; pick; grab from to make trash; cover road with dirt
mataniink AP - matanin AC - matanii PP - mataniik mululiink AP - mululin AC - mululii PP - mululiik
to get/receive presents or gifts to crowd; incite, agitate; disrupt
matc’eenk AP - matc’en AC - matc’ee PP - matc’eek muqb’esiink AP - muqb’esin AC - muqb’esii PP - muqb’esiik
to dream, dream about/of; imagine; be dreaming to talk in secret; disappear
matyejaank AP - matyejin AC - matyejii PP - matyejiik muqchahiink AP - muqchahin AC - muqchahin PP - muqchahiik
to offer up, give offering, contribute; sacrifice to cook under ash
matyusiink AP - matyusin AC - matyusii PP - matyusiik muquk AP - muquk AC - muq PP - muqe’ / muqman
to touch/feel with the hands; palpate to hide, conceal; bury, inter
matyuunk AP - matyun AC - matyuu PP – matyuuk murriink AP - murrin AC - murrii PP - murriik
See matyusiink to shred; crumble
mausilaank AP - mausilan AC - mausilaa PP - mausilaak mushuk AP - mushuk AC - mush PP - mushe’
to curse, damn, swear; put a curse/spell on to desecrate, pollute, profane; devalue, profane, defile
mayiink AP - mayin AC - mayii PP - mayiik musik’aank AP - musik’an AC - musik’aa PP - musik’aak
to smoke to breathe, inhale and exhale
mec’oonk AP - mec’on AC - mec’oo PP - mec’ook mu’uniink AP - muunin AC - mu’unii PP - mu’uniik
to embrace, cuddle; hold to make seedlings
memob’resiink AP - memob’resin AC - memob’resii PP - me- mutz’mutz’iink AP - mutz’mutz’in AC - mutz’mutz’ii PP - mutz’mutz’iik
mob’resiik to blink, wink
to mute, fall silent, be dumbstruck, go dumb mutz’uchiink AP - mutz’uchin AC - mutz’uchii PP - mutz’uchiik
mesok AP - mesok AC - mes PP - mese’ / mesman to close eyes briefly to show anger
to clean, wipe, dust; shake (dust); polish
mesuunk AP - mesun AC - mesuu PP - mesuuk / mesuman N
to sweep; sweep away; clear out, throw out, brush na’ajiink AP - na’ajin AC - na’ajii PP - na’ajiik
metz’ecuaank AP - metz’ecuan AC - metz’ecua PP - metz’ecuaak to live, reside; settle down, establish; take root
to exert; strain, make an effort najtob’resiink AP - najtob’resin AC - najtob’resii PP - najtob’resiik
metzoonk AP - metzon AC - metzoo PP - metzook to stretch out, extend
to cuddle, curl up; nestle na’leb’aank AP - na’leb’an AC - na’leb’aa PP - na’leb’aak
mich’ok AP - mich’ok AC - mich’ PP - mich’e’ /mich’man to reason, think, argue, know; think up, come up with
to root up, pull up; extract; strip sth. from; rip out nat’ok AP - nat’ok AC - nat’ PP - nat’e’ / nat’man
minok AP - minok AC - min PP - mine’ to tighten, press, squeeze; block, bar, lock up
to force, oblige nawok AP - nawok AC - naw PP - nawe’ / nawman
mikisiink AP - mikisin AC - mikisii PP - mikisiik to know; realize; can, be able; learn
to push, shove, hustle nimk’ehiink AP - nimk’ehin AC - nimk’ehii PP - nimk’ehiik
mochob’aank AP - mochob’an AC - mochob’ PP - mochob’aak to celebrate, hold; party, have a party
to shrink, shrivel; contract nimob’resiink AP - nimob’resin AC - nimob’resii PP - nimob’resiik

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46 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

to make bigger, enlarge; enhance; worsen, get worse patz’ok AP - patz’ok AC - patz’ PP - patz’e’ / patz’man
nujob’resiink AP - nujob’resin AC - nujob’resii PP - nujob’resiik to ask, question, inquire; request; mention
to fill sth. payok AP - payok AC - pay PP - paye’ / payman
nuk’leenk AP - nuk’len AC - nuk’lee PP - nuk’leek to commission; order, ask, request
to eat fast pech’eb’aank AP - pech’eb’an AC - pech’eb’ PP - pech’eb’aak
nuk’uk AP - nuk’uk AC - nuk’ PP - nuk’e’ / nuk’man to open; unbutton, unfasten
to swallow; suck down; gulp down pechok AP - pechok AC - pech PP - peche’ / pechman
numsiink AP - numsin AC - numsii PP - numsiik / numsiman to roll up, wind, coil
to pass; translate; move, transfer, get sth. for so. pech’ok AP - pech’ok AC - pech’ PP - pech’e’ / pech’man
to carve (wood); do woodwork, do carpentry/carpentry
work
O
pejok AP - pejok AC - pej PP - peje’ / pejman
ochb’eniink AP - ochb’enin AC - ochb’enii PP - ochb’eniik to tear, split, rip; tear up, tear to pieces
to accompany; join, attach
pek’ok AP - pek’ok AC - pek’ PP - pek’e’ / pek’man
ochochiink AP - ochochin AC - ochochii PP - ochochiik to splatter, splash, spatter
to live in a house
pelok AP - pelok AC - pel PP - pele’ / pelman
oksiink AP - oksin AC - oksii PP - oksiik / oksiman to lift, raise (e.g. clothe)
to get sth./so in; enter; use, employ; wear
perreb’aank AP - perreb’an AC - perreb’ PP - perreb’aak
oshlok’iink AP - oshlok’in AC - oshlok’ii PP - oshlok’iik to extend, stretch flat, spread out
to value, price, esteem, cherish; appreciate, respect
petzeb’aank AP - petzeb’an AC - petzeb’ PP - petzeb’aak
osob’tesiink AP - osob’tesin AC - osob’tesii PP - osob’tesiik to kneel
to bless, praise; wish well; sanctify; thank, give thanks
pic’aank AP - pic’an AC - pic’aa PP - pic’aak
otocuaank AP - otocuan AC - otocuaa PP - otocuaak to strike, hit; knock; beat
to desire, wish
pikok AP - pikok AC - pik PP - pike’ / pikman
oyb’eniink AP - oyb’enii AC - oyb’enii PP - oyb’eniik to dig; delve; scratch; scrabble; pick
to wait; stay; watch
pik’ok AP - pik’ok AC - pik’ PP - pik’e’
to scrape off/out
P pisc’oonk AP - pisc’on AC - pisc’oo PP - pisc’ook
pab’aank AP - pab’an AC - paab’ PP - pab’aak to jump, bounce; skip, leap; hop
to believe, obey, follow; have faith, religious party; effect pishok AP - pishok AC - pish PP - pishe’ / pishman
pac’ab’aank AP - pac’ab’an AC - pac’ab’ PP - pac’ab’aak to tie; secure
to lay face up; put face up pitz’ok AP - pitz’ok AC - pitz’ PP - pitz’e’ / pitz’man
pach’ok AP - pach’ok AC - pach’ PP - pach’e’ to squeeze, crush, squish; press
to splash, splatter poch’ok AP - poch’ok AC - poch’ PP - poch’e’ / poch’man
pac’ok AP - pac’ok AC - pac’ PP - pac’e’ / pac’man to crush maize
to make pottery/earthenware pohiink AP - pohin AC - pohii PP - pohiik
pajiink AP - pajin AC - pajii PP - pajiik to have epilepsy/zeisures
to spill; scatter pojc’osiink AP - pojc’osin AC - pojc’osii PP - pojc’osiik
pahok AP - pahok AC - pah PP - pahe’ / pahman to slide
to clear, clear of scrub pojleenk AP - pojlen AC - pojlee PP - pojleek
pak’leenk AP - pak’len AC - pak’lee PP - pak’leek to bang; make noise
to slap, smack pok’leenk AP - pok’len AC - pok’lee PP - pok’leek
pak’ok AP - pak’ok AC - pak’ PP - pak’e’ / pak’man to touch, finger, handle
to break, smash; bend, twist pok’ok AP - pok’ok AC - pok’ PP - pok’e’ / pok’man
paqoonk AP - paqon AC - paqoo PP - paqook to castrate
to carry weight (on the shoulders); lift, weightlift pok’pok’iink AP - pok’pok’in AC - pok’pok’ii PP - pok’pok’iik
parrashiink AP - parrashin AC - parrashii PP - parrashiik to clap (the hands)
to scorch, singe poleenk AP - polen AC - polee PP - poleek
parrok AP - parrok AC - parr PP - parre’ to singe
to scratch, scrape; claw pomok AP - pomok AC - pom PP - pome’
patz’ab’aank AP - patz’ab’an AC - patz’ab’ PP - patz’ab’aak to roast, broil grill; barbecue
to flatten; crush, squash pomresiink AP - pomresin AC - pomresii PP - pomresiik

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 47
George Max

to roast; heat rachok AP - rachok AC - rach PP - rache’ / rachman


po’ok AP - po’ok AC - po’ PP - poe’ to splash, sprinkle; dot, fleck
to break up, split, tear rahiink AP - rahin AC - rahii PP - rahiik
popoliink AP - popolin AC - popolii PP - popoliik to wish, desire; covet
to argue; go to court` rahok AP - rahok AC - rah PP - rahe’
poqleenk AP - poqlen AC - poqlee PP - poqleek to love, want, wish; like; feel like
to search; stir; move round ra’leenk AP - ra’len AC - ra’lee PP - ra’leek
potz’ok AP - potz’ok AC - potz’ PP - potz’e’ / potz’man to trap, snare
to hit with the fist ramok AP - ramok AC - ram PP - rame’
pub’aank AP - pub’an AC - pub’aa PP - pub’aak to tacke, halt, cut across; stop, interrupt; catch
to fire, shoot, discharge rant’iniink AP - rant’inin AC - rantinii PP - rantiniik
pucaank AP - pucan AC - pucaa PP - pucaak to throw stones with a slingshot
to increase rapleenk AP - raplen AC - raplee PP - rapleek
pucasiink AP - pucasin AC - pucasii PP - pucasiik to whip; clear the ground
to spread, disseminate, scatter rapok AP - rapok AC - rap PP - rape’ / rapman
puc’iink AP - puc’in AC - puc’ii PP - puc’iik to hit; whip; beat
to shread, crumble raqok AP - raqok AC - raq PP - raqe’ / raqman
puctasiink AP - puctasin AC - puctasii PP - puctasiik to finish; end, conclude
to increase, multiply, augment raylaank AP - raylan AC - raylaa PP - raylaak
puc’uk AP - puc’uk AC - puc’ PP - puc’e’ / puc’man to do a thing with difficulty
to blow up; break; burst, pop rec’ob’tasiink AP - rec’ob’tasin AC - rec’ob’tasii PP - rec’ob’tasiik
puch’uk AP - puch’uk AC - puch’ PP - puch’e’ / puch’man to go over one thing
to wash clothes; rinse, cleanse rek’ok AP - rek’ok AC - rek’ PP - rek’e’ / rek’man
puk’uk AP - puk’uk AC - puk’ PP - puk’e’ / puk’man to lick; lap against (waves)
to beat; whir; flap repok AP - repok AC - rep PP - repe’ / repman
puk’uunk AP - puk’un AC - puk’uu PP - puk’uuk to splatter, splash, spatter; shine brightly
to touch, finger, handle rik’rik’iink AP - rik’rik’in AC - rik’rik’ii PP - rik’rik’iik
pumub’aank AP - pumub’an AC - pumub’ PP - pumub’aak to blink, twitch
to fill; cover; crowd; occupy rinok AP - rinok AC - rin PP - rine’
puquk AP - puquk AC - puq PP - puqe’ / puqman to stretch, fasten, tighten, tauten
to sprinkle, scatter, dust rotzob’aank AP - rotzob’an AC - rotzob’ PP - rotzob’aak
purruk AP - purruk AC - purr PP - purre’ to lay a clothe on the ground
to grind grains; mill rotzok AP - rotzok AC - rotz PP - rotze’ / rotzman
pushiink AP - pushin AC - pushii PP - pushiik / pushiman to throw a clothe
to dust; shake off, clean rumb’eenk AP - rumb’en AC - rumb’ee PP - rumb’eek
putz’iink AP - putz’in AC - putz’ii PP - putz’iik to throw objects one after another
to tear apart/to pieces rumuk AP - rumuk AC - rum PP - rume’
putzuk AP - putzuk AC - putz PP - putze’ / putzman to throw, toss over; waste
to add a pinch of salt
putz’uk AP - putz’uk AC - putz’ PP - putz’e’ / putz’man S
to crush, squash, bruise; grind sachleenk AP - sachlen AC - sachlee PP - sachleek
to waste; throw away
Q sachok AP - sachok AC - sach PP - sache’ / sachman
qachok AP - qachok AC - qach PP - qache’ to lose; waste; miss, fade; destroy; leak
to bite, champ; take, cut; take a bite; hack; chop; slice sac’ok AP - sac’ok AC - sac’ PP - sac’e’ / sac’man
qishb’aank AP - qishb’an AC - qishb’aa PP - k’ishb’aak to hit, beat; knock; smack
to eructate, burp, belch sacunaank AP - sacunan AC – sacunaa PP - sacunaak
to search again; search/look carefully
R sahb’esiink AP - sahb’esin AC - sahb’esii PP - sahb’esiik
to clean; tidy up, spruce up
rahob’tesiink AP - rahob’tesin AC - rahob’tesii PP - rahob’tesiik
to make so. suffer sahesiink AP - sahesin AC - sahesii PP - sahesiik

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48 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

to diminish shich’ok [u] AP - shich’ok AC - shich’ PP - shich’e’ / shich’man


sahuchiink AP - sahuchin AC - sahuchii PP - sahuchiik to oblige, compel; coerce
to grow fond of shic’uchiink AP - shic’uchin AC - shic’uchii PP - shic’uchiik
salab’aank AP - salab’an AC - salab’ PP - salab’aak / salab’man to hate, have malice
to tilt, lean; tip, incline; cock shipc’osiink AP - shipc’osin AC - shipc’osii PP - shipc’osiik
sapaank AP - sapan AC - sapaa PP - sapaak to push forward; stumble
to kick, stamp shitiink AP - shitin AC - shitii PP - shitiik
sapleenk [ib’] AP - saplen AC - saplee PP - sapleek to darn, mend; repair; patch
to hasten; hurry, rush shokok AP - shokok AC - shok PP - shoke’ / shokman
sapuunk AP - sapun AC - sapuu PP - sapuuk to save; collect, gather
to snatch, grab (in the air) shorrok AP - shorrok AC - shorr PP - shorre’ / shorrman
saqob’resiink AP - saqob’resin AC - saqob’resii PP - saqob’resiik to make tortillas; flatten, roll, shape
to make clean; bleach, whiten shotaank AP - shotan AC - shotaa PP – shotaak
sasob’resiink AP - sasob’resin AC - sasob’resii PP - sasob’resiik See shotoonk
to thicken shotoonk AP - shoton AC - shotoo PP - shotook
saylaank AP - saylan AC - saylaa PP - saylaak to confess a sin
to be proud; arrogant shoyiink AP - shoyin AC - shoyii PP - shoyiik
seb’aank AP - seb’an AC - seb’aa PP - seb’aak to decorate (with leaves)
to hurry; speed up; quicken shucuaank AP - shucuan AC - shucuaa PP - shucuaak
seb’esiink AP - seb’esin AC - seb’esii PP - seb’esiik to scare, frighten, be afraid of; fear, fright, freak out
to scare, frighten; alarm, startle, take fright shucuunk AP - shucun AC - shucuu PP - shucuuk
se’eenk AP - se’en AC - se’e PP - se’eek to corner
to smile; giggle; laugh at shujuk AP - shujuk AC - shuj PP - shuje’ / shujman
semok AP - semok AC - sem PP - seme‘ to break, smash; crack; fail; tear
to feel like eating good things shujiink AP - shujin AC - shujii PP - shujiik
serak’iink AP - serak’in AC - serak’ii PP - serek’iik to break into pieces
to talk, converse; chat, tell shulc’upiink AP - shulc’upin AC - shulc’upii PP - shulc’upiik
setok AP - setok AC - set PP - sete’ / setman to stumble, misstep
to cut; chop; slice shulub’aank AP - shulub’an AC - shulub’ PP - shulub’aak
set’ok AP - set’ok AC - set’ PP - set’e’ / set‘man to turn head upside down
to cut; gnaw, chew shushb’aank AP - shushb’an AC - shushb’aa PP - shushb’aak
se’tyaank AP - se’tyan AC - se’tayaa PP - se’tayaak to whistle; hiss; sing
to smile shutiink AP - shutin AC - shutii PP - shutiik
sha’cuaank AP - sha’cuan AC - sha’cuaa PP - sha’cuaak to wrap, envelop, enfold
to vomit, puke, throw up shutuk AP - shutuk AC - shut PP - shute’ / shutman
shajok AP - shajok AC - shaj PP - shaje’ / shajman to wrap; cover; envelope, enfold
to dance; spin; go out dancing sib’eenk AP - sib’en AC - sib’ee PP - sib’e’
shajtesiink AP - shajtesin AC - shajtesii PP - shajtesiik to make/become smoky
to make so./sth. dance sib’te’eenk AP - sib’te’en AC - sib’te’ee PP - sib’te’eek
shaqab’aank AP - shaqab’an AC - shaqab’ PP - shaqab’aak to smoke
to stand; raise, elevate, lift sic’ok AP - sic’ok AC - sic’ PP - sic’e’ / sic’man
shek’ok AP - shek’ok AC - shek’ PP - shek’e’ / shek’man to search; seek, look, ask for; pursue
to butt, gore sihiink AP - sihin AC - sihii PP - sihiik
shelaank AP - shelan AC - shelaa PP - shelaak to give gifts/presents
to start eating sth. without finishing it sihok AP - sihok AC - sih PP - sihman
shelok AP - shelok AC - shel PP - shele’ / shelman to give a gift/present to so.
to crack, split; slit, gash; tear, rip sik’ok AP - sik’ok AC - sik’ PP - sik’e’ / sik’man
sherriink AP - sherrin AC - sherrii PP - sherriik to twist, sprain (injure ligaments)
to make smaller, reduce; lessen sila’aank AP - sila’an AC - sila’aa PP - sila’aak
sherrok AP - sherrok AC - sherr PP - sherre’ / sherman to burn with hot water
to chop, mince; cut into pieces silok AP - silok AC - sil PP - sile’ /silman
to flay, skin, peel off

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 49
George Max

sirrib’aank AP - sirrib’an AC - sirrib’ PP - sirrib’aak t’aqresiink AP - t’aqresin AC - t’aqresii PP - t’aqresiik


to make or put in a circular shape to wet; moisten; get wet; water
sisaank AP - sisan AC - sisaa PP - sisaak taqsiink AP - taqsin AC - taqsii PP - taqsiik / taqsiman
to roast/grill in the fire to go up, ascend, climb; upload, lift
sitok AP - sitok AC - sit PP - site’ / sitman tasc’uunk AP - tasc’un AC - tasc’uu PP - tasc’uuk
to take off a skirt or pants to put some things over other
sob’ok AP - sob’ok AC - sob’ PP - sobe’ / sob’man tasiink AP - tasin AC - tasii PP - tasiik
to eat dry tortillas or bread; plunge, push down, sink to take out by bunches
socuenaank AP - socuenan AC - socuenaa PP - socuenaak tasok AP - tasok AC - tas PP - tase’ / tasman
to envy, begrudge; desire, covet; be jealous of to take a little bit; shell
sok’ob’aank AP - sok’ob’an AC - sok’ob’ PP - sok’ob’aak tatzab’aank [ib’] AP - tatzab’an AC - tatzab’ PP - tatzab’aak
to throw (leave sth. thrown) to stand up, get up
solok AP - solok AC - sol PP - sole’ tawok (also ta’ok, tauok) AP - tawok AC - taw PP - tawe’ / taw-
to undress; remove clothing man
sotob’aank AP - sotob’an AC - sotob’ PP - sotob’aak to find, discover; come across, meet; reach
to tuck in; lay down; lean, bend tehok AP - tehok AC - teh PP - tehman
sub’uk AP - sub’uk AC - sub’ PP - sub’e’ to open; spread out; extend
to sink, submerge; plunge, go down teleb’aank AP - teleb’an AC - teleb’ PP - teleb’aak
suk’isiink AP - suk’isin AC - suk’isii PP - suk’isiik to extend the arm (to give or receive)
to return, give back; go back; revert tencab’aank AP - tencab’an AC - tencab’ PP - tencab’aak
suluk AP - suluk AC - sul PP - sule’ / sulman to ask a favor; bother for sth.
to wear/use for the first time teneb’aank AP - teneb’an AC - teneb’ PP - teneb’aak
sumeenk AP - sumen AC - sumee PP - sumeek to oblige, compel; commit oneself
to reply, answer back; protest; respond tenk’aank AP - tenk’an AC - tenk’aa PP - tenk’aak
sumub’aank AP - sumub’an AC - sumub’ PP - sumub’aak to help, aid, assist; support
to marry, wed; get married tenok AP - tenok AC - ten PP - tene’
surrub’aank AP - surrub’an AC - surrub’ PP - surrub’aak to strike, hit; knock; beat against sth.
to circulate; make a round thing t’eok AP - t’eok AC - t’e PP - t’e’ / t’eman
sutuk AP - sutuk AC - sut PP - sute’ / sutman to comb hair
to enclose, surround, circle, encompass; go around terk’usiink AP - terk’usin AC - terk’usii PP - terk’usiik / terk’usiman
sut’uk AP - sut’uk AC - sut’ PP - sute’ / sut’man to raise the price of; speculate prices; put up the price of
to blow the nose ticaank AP - tican AC - ticaa PP - ticaak
to look for the direction, aim
tichcosiink AP - tichcosin AC - tichcosii PP - tichcosiik
T to trip against sth., trip over
tach’ab’aank AP - tach’ab’an AC - tach’ab’ PP - tach’ab’aak
tichok AP - tichok AC - tich PP - tiche’
to level; straighten, even out
to prick sth.; jab, thrust, poke
tachki’ink AP - tachki’in AC - tachki’I PP - tachki’ik
ticob’resiink AP - ticob’resin AC - ticobresii PP - ti-
to give bad advice or suggestion
cob’resiik/ticob’resiman
tacuasiink AP - tacuasin AC - tacuasii PP - tacuasiik to straighten, unbend; set upright; rectify
to tire, weary, fatigue; get tired tic’ti’ink AP - tic’ti’in AC - tic’ti’I PP - tic’ti’ik
tamresiink AP - tamresin AC - tamresii PP - tamresiik to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood
to gather, collect, accumulate tijok AP - tijok AC - tij PP - tije’ / tijman
t’anab’aank AP - t’anab’an AC - t’anab’ PP - t’anab’aak to pray; teach, educate; preach; praise or appeal to God
to put/place/lay sth. down tikib’aank AP - tikib’an AC - tikib’ PP - tikib’aak
t’anok AP - t’anok AC - t’an PP - t’ane’ / t’anman to begin, initiate, start; commence
to throw down, knock down, take down; drop; tumble tikisiink AP - tikisin AC - tikisiik PP - tikisiik
taqeenk AP - taqen AC - taqee PP - taqeek to push, shove aside
to follow; chase; pursue; keep track of; go up, climb, get t’ilok AP - t’ilok AC - t’il PP - t’ile’ / t’ilman
on to lock, fasten, jam
taqlaank AP - taqlan AC - taqlaa PP - taqlaak t’i’ok AP - t’i’ok AC - t’i’ PP - t’ie’ / t’iman
to send; oversee; order/command so. to kick, stamp; punch, poke

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50 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

tioshiink AP - tioshin AC - tioshii PP - tioshiik tuntuniink AP - tuntunin AC - tuntunii PP - tuntuniik


to thank, give thanks; appreciate, acknowledge to play sth. like a drum
tiqcuasiink AP - tiqcuasin AC - tiqcuasii PP - tiqcuasiik t’upuk AP - t’upuk AC - t’up PP - t’upe’ / t’upman
to heat, make hot; warm to tear, rip, rend
tiqib’aank AP - tiqib’an AC - tiqib’ PP - tiqib’aak tupusiink AP - tupusin AC - tupusii PP - tupusiik
to clothe, dress up; adorn, decorate to shorten, take up, cut short
tiqob’aank AP - tiqob’an AC - tiqob’aa PP - tiqob’aak tuqub’aank AP - tuqub’an AC - tuqub’ PP - tuqub’aak
to sweat, perspire; exude to fix; level, even out; arrange
tiqok AP - tiqok AC - tiq PP - tiqe’ / tiqman t’urrub’aank AP - t’urrub’an AC - t’urrub’ PP - t’urrub’aak
to add; append; attach, connect to strip, undress, get undressed
titz’ok AP - titz’ok AC - titz’ PP - titz’e’ / titz’man t’usub’aank AP - t’usub’an AC - t’usub’ PP - t’usub’aak
to bother; borrow sth. Same as t’urrub’aank
tiwok (also ti’ok) AP - tiwok AC - tiw PP - tiwe’ / tiwman tusuk AP - tusuk AC - tus PP - tuse’ / tusman
to bite, eat hard things like meat to order; arrange; sort, classify
tob’ok AP - tob’ok AC - tob’ PP - tob’e’ / tob’man tutz’uk AP - tutz’uk AC - tutz’ PP - tutz’e’ / tutz’man
to loosen; release, free; remove, detach to extend, lengthen, stretch
t’ob’ok AP - t’ob’ok AC - t’ob’ PP - t’ob’e’ / t’ob’man tutz’ub’aank AP - tutz’ub’an AC - tutz’ub’ PP - tutz’ub’aak
to eat into, eat away; wear away to make even; extend, stretch
toch’ok AP - toch’ok AC - toch’ PP - toch’e’ / toch’man t’uyub’aank AP - t’uyub’an AC - t’uyub’ PP - t’uyubaak
to touch, feel; hit, strike to hang up; suspend, droop
t’ojob’aank AP - t’ojob’an AC - t’ojob’ PP - t’ojob’aak tyab’aank AP - tyab’an AC - tyab’aa PP - tyab’aak
to peel; bare, skin to scream, call; to cry, weep; wine
tojok AP - tojok AC - toj PP - toje’ / tojman tyab’asiink AP - tyab’asin AC - tyab’asii PP - tyab’asiik
to pay, pay for, pay down, pay back to play a musical inst.; announce
tok’iink AP - tok’in AC - tok’ii PP - tok’iik tyab’oonk AP - tyab’on AC - tyab’oo PP - tyab’ook
to chew gum; masticate to press sth. with the hand
tok’ob’aank [u] AP - tok’ob’an AC - tok’ob’ PP - tok’ob’aak tyakok AP - tyakok AC - tyak PP - tyake’ / tyakman
to pity; feel sorry for, feel for; empathize with, fit with to treat; bargain; deal, negotiate
t’okok AP - t’okok AC - t’ok PP - t’oke’ / t’okman tyalok AP - tyalok AC - tyal PP - tyale’ / tyalman
to knock to try, taste; test, attempt
tolc’osiink AP - tolc’osin AC - tolc’osii PP - tolc’osiik / tolc’osiman tyamtesiink AP - tyamtesin AC - tyamtesii PP - tyamtesiink
to roll; knock down/over; wallow to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear
tolob’aank AP - tolob’an AC - tolob’ PP - tolob’aak tyamok AP - tyamok AC - tyam PP - tyamo’
to extend; lay down, stretch out to pour liguid (into a cup)
to’niink AP - to’nin AC - to’nii PP - to’niik tyatz’ok AP - tyatz’ok AC - tyatz’ PP - tyatz’e’ / tyatz’man
to borrow, lend; loan to squeeze; press; wring out
topok AP - topok AC - top PP - tope’ / topman tyechi’ink AP - tyechi’in AC - tyechi’i PP - tyechi’ik
to jab, thrust, poke to offer, suggest; tender, bid
toqok AP - toqok AC - toq PP - toqe’ / toqman tyehok AP - tyehok AC - tyeh PP - tyehman
to break, smash; snap to say, utter; tell; call; mention
t’oqok AP - t’oqok AC - t’oq PP - t’oqe’ / t’oqman tyek’ok AP - tyek’ok AC - tyek’ PP - tyek’e’ / tyek’man
to throw away; discard to step on, stamp on
t’orrob’aank AP - t’orrob’an AC - t’orrob’ PP - t’orrob’aak tye’ok AP - tye’ok AC - tye’ PP - tye’man
to round, round off; make round to reach sth.; get sth.
t’otzok AP - t’otzok AC - t’otz PP - t’otze’ / t’otzman tyib’aank AP - tyib’an AC - tyiib’ PP - tyib’aak
to touch gently; caress to fix, repair; compose, write; make, create, build, manu-
tub’aank AP - tub’an AC - tub’aa PP - tub’aak / tub’man facture
to heap, pile up, stack; accumulate, bank up, lump tyo’b’aank AP - tyo’b’an AC - tyo’b’aa PP - tyo’b’aak
tulaank AP - tulan AC - tulaa PP - tulaak to begin, start, commence
to bewitch, charm, enchant; entice, put a spell on, curse tyob’ok AP - tyob’ok AC - tyoob’ PP - tyob’man
tuluk’iink AP - tuluk’in AC - tuluk’ii PP - tuluk’iik to drink, take a sip
to swallow (liquid) tyob’tesiink AP - tyob’tesin AC - tyob’tesii PP - tyob’tesiik

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 51
George Max

to give life tz’ib’aank AP - tz’ib’an AC - tz’ib’aa PP - tz’ib’man


tyocob’aank AP - tyocob’an AC - tyocob’ PP - tyocob’aak to write; spell; type on a keyboard; put, author, print
to tuck in; lay down; put to bed; lean tz’ilok AP - tz’ilok AC - tz’il PP - tz’ile’ / tz’ilman
tyoc’ok AP - tyoc’ok AC - tyoc’ PP - tyoc’e’ / tyoc’man to strain, sieve, drain, filter; leak, slip through
to cut; chop; slice; saw tz’irrok AP - tz’irrok AC - tz’irr PP - tz’irre’ / tz’irrman
tyocosiink AP - tyocosin AC - tyocosii PP - tyocosiik to split wood; slit, slice, cut; chop up
to twist, turn; wring; warp, bend tz’ob’ok AP - tz’ob’ok AC - tz’ob’ PP - tz’ob’e’ / tz’ob’man
tyokb’aank AP - tyokb’an AC - tyokb’aa PP - tyokb’aak to sip; slurp; suck up; puff at/on (cigarette, pipe)
to step on; step of the foot tzolob’aank AP - tzolob’an AC - tzolob’ PP - tzolob’aak
tyo’leenk AP - tyo’len AC - tyo’lee PP - tyo’leek to align, line up; put into line
to keep vigil over; keep watch over tzolok AP - tzolok AC - tzol PP - tzole’ / tzolman
tyo’oniink AP - tyo’onin AC - tyo’onii PP - tyo’oniik to learn, study; educate oneself; teach, instruct, train
to wait for; expect; hope tz’oyok AP - tz’oyok AC - tz’oy PP - tz’oye’ / tz’oyman
tyotishiink AP - tyotishin AC - tyotishii PP - tyotishiik to warm sth.
to fill with patches (clothe) tz’ub’uk AP - tz’ub’uk AC - tz’ub’ PP - tz’ub’e’ / tz’ub’man
tyotok AP - tyotok AC - tyot PP - tyote’ / tyotman to kiss, touch with the lips; suck, slurp
to make a seam in a cloth tz’ucasiink AP - tz’ucasin AC - tz’ucasii PP - tz’ucasiik
tyuc’iink AP - tyuc’in AC - tyuc’ii PP - tyuc’iik to wet, moisten, damp
to mix, blend, combine tzucleenk AP - tzuclen AC - tzuclee PP - tzucleek
tyuc’usiink AP - tyuc’usin AC - tyuc’usii PP - tyuc’usiik to tangle, mess up; fiddle with sth.; disarrange, disorgan-
to swing in a hammock; rock, swing ize
tyuk’leenk AP - tyuk’len AC - tyuk’lee PP - tyuk’leek tz’uluk AP - tz’uluk AC - tz’ul PP - tz’ule’ / tz’ulman
to bruise, maul; crumple, rumple to braid, plait; twist; weave
tyuluk AP - tyuluk AC - tyul PP - tyule’ / tyulman tz’uquk AP - tz’uquk AC - tz’uq PP - tz’uqe’ / tz’uqman
to spread; smear; anoint to drip, drizzle, dribble; drop; leak
tyutuk AP - tyutuk AC - tyut PP - tyute’ / tyutman tz’utujiink AP - tz’utujin AC - tz’utujii PP - tz’utujiik
to wrap, pack; cover; envelop, enfold to flower (the corn)
tyu’uk AP - tyu’uk AC - tyu’ PP - tyu’man tz’uyiink AP - tz’uyin AC - tz’uyii PP - tz’uyiik
to stretch, extend, elongate; reach out to whine, howl
tz’ab’ok AP - tz’ab’ok AC - tz’ab’ PP - tz’ab’e’ / tz’ab’man
to poke/stoke the fire U
tzacaank AP - tzacan AC - tzacaa PP - tzacaak uc’ak AP - uc’ak AC - uuc’ PP - uc’e’ / uc’man
to eat, feed to drink; drinking; consume liquids; booze
tz’ahok AP - tz’ahok AC - tz’ah PP - tz’ahe’ / tz’ahman uc’miink AP - uc’min AC - uc’mii PP - uc’miik
to dip; wet, soak in water, saturate to commence, begin, start; initiate
tz’ajniink AP - tz’ajnin AC - tz’ajnii PP - tz’ajniik uc’tasiink AP - uc’tasin AC - uc’tasii PP - uc’tasiik
to make/get dirty; taint, contaminate, pollute to give to drink; water; watering
tz’amaank AP - tz’aman AC - tz’amaa PP - tz’amaak uk’uk AP - uk’uk AC - uuk’ PP - uk’e’ / uk’man
to ask for, request; propose to; plead for, beg to fall in, cave in, tear down, demolish; collapse
tz’apok AP - tz’apok AC - tz’ap PP - tz’ape’ / tz’apman ula’aniink AP - ula’anin AC - ula’anii PP - ula’aniik
to close, shut, seal; cover; turn off to visit, visit each other; receive guests
tz’aqob’resiink AP - tz’aqob’resin AC - tz’aqob’resii PP - tz’aqob’resiik ushtanaank AP - ushtanan AC - ushtanaa PP - ushtanaak
to adjust; fill out to have mercy, compassion
tz’arrab’aank AP - tz’arrab’an AC - tz’arrab’ PP - tz’arrab’aak usilaank AP - usilan AC - usilaa PP - usilaak
to smash, squash, crush to favor; be fond of
tzemok AP - tzemok AC - tzem PP - tzeme‘ utz’uk AP - utz’uk AC - utz’ PP - utz’e’ / utz’man
See semok to smell; pry; smell out; sniff; kiss
tz’eqok AP - tz’eqok AC - tz’eq PP - tz’eqe’ / tz’eqman
to lose; waste, leak; throw, drop, dispose of
tz’eqtanaank AP - tz’eqtanan AC - tz’eqtanaa PP - tz’eqtanaak
to despise, scorn; spurn, reject

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52 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 53
George Max

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INTRANSITIVE VERBS

A b’atz’uunk AP - b’atz’un
to play; play a sport/game; gamble; mate (animals)
aauk AP - aauk AC - au
to sow, plant b’olaank AP - b’olan
to work, slog away, persevere; agonize, fade
acanak AP - acanak
to have a nightmare; bogey, bad dream b’uchlaak AP - b’uchlaak
to lie down, lie face down
ajajnak AP - ajajnak
to clear up; get light b’ulik AP - b’ulik
to dice
ajk AP - aj
to awaken, wake up, arouse b’uluk AP - b’uluk
See b’ulik
ajok AP - ajok
to want, desire b’ushluk AP - b’ushluk
to exude, ooze
ajtesib’k AP - ajtesib’k
to amuse, make laugh; entertain b’ut’irk AP - b’ut’irk
to flood, inundate
ak’tiink AP - ak’tin
to burn; be parched b’ut’uunk AP - b’ut’un
to fill up, flood
ak’tirk AP - ak’tirk
See ak’tiink b’uyb’utk AP - b’utb’utk
to pile up; overflow, spill over
ak’uunk AP - ak’un
to clothe, dress
alab’te’ik AP - alab’te’ik C
to sprout, burgeon, shoot cab’lak AP - cab’lak
aleenk AP - alen to build; construct; erect, set up
to tempt, entice cac’ab’k AP - cac’ab’k
alib’aak AP - alib’aak to add an attic
to become daughter in law c’achi’ik AP - c’achi’ik
alinak AP - alinak to agonize, go through agonies
to run; go fast; hurry, rush c’achlik AP - c’achlik
atiink AP - atin to crouch, bend over/down; stoop
to shower, bathe; take a shower; coat, cover; swim cakwuuk AP - cakwuuk
atinak AP - atinak to recover, get better, improve
to speak, talk; communicate; chat cakwuunk AP - cakwuu
at’isimak AP - at’isimak to get ready; prepare; gear up
to sneeze calaak AP - calaa
atz’ok AP - atz’ok to get drunk
to split, slit, cleave; crack; slit/split open c’alek AP - c’alek
atz’umak AP - atz’umak to graze; clear the land; scrub
to flower, effloresce, bloom, blossom c’amak AP - c’amak
ayaynak AP - ayaynak to spin
to groan, moan; whine camk AP - cam
aylok AP - aylok to die; die out, pass away, perish; be dying
to complain, moan; whine canaak AP - canaa
to stay, remain; become
B’ c’anjelak AP - c’anjelak
to work, labor; act
b’aayk AP - b’ay
to delay, hold up, put off; slow down carrib’k AP - carrib’k
to fish, catch fish
b’alak’ik AP - b’alak’ik
to cheat, deceive, mislead, swindle; betray, trick, fool catzok AP - catzok
to itch, tickle
b’alk’uunk AP - b’alk’un/ balk’uu
to overturn, tip/turn over; turn around, bend over c’atzok AP - c’atzok

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54 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

to grind the teeth c’ojlaak AP - c’ojlaa


c’ayk AP - c’ay to sit down, sit oneself, sit; settle down
to accustom, get used to; inure cok’ok AP - cok’ok
chaalk AP - chal to release, drop, free
to come [to/over]; arrive, turn up colb’etak AP - colb’etak
chairk AP - chair to reserve, keep; set aside
to turn into ash; become ash coloonk AP - colon
chak’ak AP - chak’ak to defeat, beat; overcome; win
to ripen, mellow; cook c’onlak AP - c’onlak
chak’ok AP - chak’ok to bend, incurve; hook; bend down/over
to answer, reply c’oshlak AP - c’oshlak
ch’anaak AP - ch’anaa to think, feel; consider, reflect; assume, believe
to silence, mute c’osk AP - c’osk
ch’aok AP - ch’aok to shorten, curtail; reduce, decrease
to open with a machete c’otak AP - c’otak
chaqik AP - chaqik to defecate, evacuate (empty bowls)
to dry up/out; get dry, run dry cotzk AP - cotzk
ch’itaak AP - ch’itaa to relieve, ease, lessen; moderate; loosen
to bore, tire, annoy, irritate; become/get bored cuaank AP - cuan
ch’olaak AP - ch’olaak to be; have, possess; carry
to clear, clarify cuaark AP - cuar
chub’ak AP - chub’ak to sleep; fall asleep; spend the night; rest, repose
to spit (up/out), belch out cuacliik AP - cuaclii
chuk’ub’ak AP - chuk’ub’ak to get up, arise; rise
to hiccup cuajb’ak AP - cuajb’ak
chunlaak AP - chunlaak to play music with an instrument
to sit down; seat oneself, sit, settle cua’ok AP - cua’ok
chupk AP - chupk to eat; destroy; wear away; corrode
to go out, fade (out), go off; dull cub’eek AP - cub’ee
ch’uqib’k AP - ch’uqib’k to go/step down; drop, fall, come down; get off/out of
to beg (for) c’ub’laak AP - c’ub’laa
ch’uqlaak AP - ch’uqlaak to come to terms, settle; get ready/by
to seat, place in a seat; settle cuik’laak AP - cuik’laa
ch’utlaak AP - ch’utlaak to kneel (down); get down on knees
to gather; join, unite; coalesce c’uluunk AP - c’ulun
chu’uk AP - chu’uk to arrive, come (back), return
to urinate, wet oneself; leak cuob’ak AP - cuob’ak
c’iaank AP - c’ian to bark, yap; speak; yell
to abound, be plentiful cuoyoynak AP - cuoyoynak
c’iik AP - c’ii to swarm, pullulate
to grow, expand, flourish; increase cutlaak AP - cutlaa
c’ilaak AP - c’ilaa to stand up
to dry up/out c’utzlaak AP - c’utzlaa
c’imub’k AP - c’imub’k to bend, squat; overwhelm, oppress
to thatch, cover over with straw, fill with straw
c’irraak AP - c’irraa E
to heal, cure; get better, recover eelk AP - el
coclaak AP - coclaa to get out, exit, leave; go/come out
to start, begin; commence; tie; sit down elelik AP - elelik
cocot AP - cocot to run away, flee, escape; fly by
to follow so. eleok’iink AP - eleok’in

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 55
George Max

to germinate, develop; sprout, bud to decay, putrefy; rot, decompose


elk’ak AP - elk’ak k’ab’aak AP - k’ab’aak
to steal, rob; draw; walk away to slander, defame
elk’eik AP - elk’eik k’ajk AP - k’aj
to fast; diet to return, move backward, go back
ekwuuk AP - ekwuu k’apliik AP - k’apliik
to be late; delay to reach the top (of a mountain; hill)
k’ashoonk AP - k’ashon
H to relocate; move (in); shift, transfer
hasb’ak AP - hasb’ak k’ehik AP - k’ehik
to whisper; speak softly; murmur, rustle, sough to guess, predict; foresee, foretell; solve
haslok AP - haslok kejib’k AP - kejib’k
to speak quietly (a multitude) to hunt deer
hesok AP - hesok ke’ok AP - ke’ok
to grind corn again to grind, mill; crush
hilaank AP - hilan k’errok AP - k’errok
to rest to cluck (chicken), cackle
hopoonk AP - hopon k’ilaak AP - k’ilaak
to hole, perforate; bore through to thicken; become thick, make dense
hoyb’ak AP - hoyb’ak k’ioonk AP - k’ion
to shout, yell, scream to straighten, unbend, flatten out; iron
humuk AP - humuk k’ishb’ak AP - k’ishb’ak
to burn, sting to eructate, burp, belch
kisik AP - kisik
to fart; pass gas, expel gas
I
k’ochaak AP - k’ochaa
ichajik AP - ichajik to soften, relent; relieve, ease, soothe
to eat or search for herbs
k’oleenk AP - k’olen
iluunk AP - ilun to oxidize
to see/look everywhere
k’olib’k AP - k’olib’k
ishimak AP - ishimak to slack off, hang out
to flail, thresh (corn); shed grains; dekernel
k’olik AP - k’olik
See k’olib’k
J k’unaank AP - k’unaa
japiink [e] AP - japin to soften; ease up, abate; relax
to yawn k’unuk AP - k’unuk
jeb’k AP - jeb’k to carry a baby
to reduce, shorten; lower k’usaank AP - k’usan
jiloonk AP - jilon to snore; pant; snort
to come close kwu’te’ek AP - kwu’te’e
jocaank AP - jocan to howl
to scrape
jok’aank AP - jok’an L
to snore
lajk AP - laj
jolc’ok AP - jolc’ok to come to an end, end, finish, be scarce
to slip, skid; sideslip; slide
lik’aank AP - lik’an
jumluk AP - jumluk to sway, balance
to chew with noise
lochte’ek AP - lochte’ek
to climb, scale; claw/make your way up
K lub’k AP - lub’
k’aak AP - k’aa to weary, tire; exhaust; get tired/bored

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56 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

luctaak AP - luctaak to pass, go by, cross; go beyond


to jam, lock; bind; tangle numshik AP - numshik
luhaak AP - luhaa to swim; float, pladdle
to warm up numtaak AP - numtaa
to exceed
M
macob’k AP - macob’k O
to sin ob’enak AP - ob’enak
mashiink AP - mashin to make tamales
to get old (wood); get moth-eaten ojob’ak AP - ojob’ak
matanik AP - matanik to cough; loudly expel air from the lungs
to get/receive presents or gifts ok AP - ok
matc’ek AP - matc’ek to start, begin; commence, initiate; enter
to dream, dream about/of; imagine; be dreaming okeenk AP - oken
matyejak AP - matyejak to enter, cooperate, join, take part; support, get involved
to offer up; give, contribute, make offer okesiink AP - okesin
mayib’k AP - mayib’k to leak (water); drip
to smoke cigarettes
memirk AP - memirk P
to mute, fall silent, be dumbstruck, go dumb
pisc’ok AP - pisc’ok
metz’ecuak AP - metz’ecuak to jump; skip; leap, hop; spring
to exert oneself, strain
pojcueenk AP - pojcuen
molb’ek AP - molb’ek to fester, ooze; suppurate
to lay eggs
po’jok AP - po’jok
mo’oonk AP - mo’on to slacken, loosen; ease
to oxidize, rust
pok’oonk AP - pok’on
moqk AP - moq See pok’leenk
to germinate, develop; sprout, bud; be born, hatch
posaank AP - posan
motzoiink AP - motzoin to pant, puff and pant, breath heavily/noisily
to decompose, decay
puctaak AP - puctaak
moyk AP - moy to multiply, increase in number/quantity
to get/go dark; darken; dim
pumlaak AP - pumlaak
muheenk AP - muhen to gather (water on the ground); pool
to get cover; protect oneself from weather
puub’ak AP - puub’ak
musik’ak AP – musik’ak to shoot, fire, discharge
to respire, breathe, inhale and exhale

Q
N
qishb’ak AP - qishb’ak
nach’ok AP - nach’ok to burp, belch
to approach, approximate, come near
nimaank AP - niman
to grow up; rise; become big R
nimk’ehik AP - nimk’ehik rashok AP - rashok
to celebrate, hold; party, have a party to turn green, go green
nimqaank AP - nimqan ruaank AP - ruan
to grow to be able; can
nujak AP - nujak rupupik AP - rupupik
to become full; fill; satisfy to fly
nuk’uunk AP - nuk’un ruuk AP - ruu
to disappear; conceal, cover up to be able (can, may, might); be ready; finish
numeenk AP - numen

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K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 57
George Max

S sihak AP - sihak
to start, originate
saak AP - saak
to be scarce; diminish sikiirk AP - sikir
to become paralyzed
sachk AP - sach
to lose; mislay, misplace; fail sipook AP - sipoo
to swell up; become swollen, distend
sahok AP - sahok
to make thin, slim, slender; reduce sisb’ak AP - sisb’ak
to whistle with the teeth and tongue
salk’uuk AP - salk’uu
to turn over/upside down; turn around siyaank AP - siyan
See sihaank
saqeuk AP - saqeu
to dawn; to wake up; daybreak socueenk AP - socueenk
to envy, begrudge; be jealous of. See also socuenaank
se’ek AP - se’ek
to laugh; laugh at so. or sth. sotlaak AP - sotlaa
to lie down, lay back
serak’ik AP - serak’ik
to talk, converse; chat, tell suk’iik AP - suk’ii
to return, come back
sha’cuak AP - sha’cuak
to throw up, vomit; puke; repeat sumlaak AP - sumlaa
to get married, wed, marry
shaqliik AP - shaqlii
to stand up; stop, halt; stall surlaak AP - surlaak
to become/get rounded
shaqtyaank AP - shaqtyan
to walk in circles sutuunk AP - sutun
to surround, encircle; turn over/around
she’enk AP - she’en
to take root
she’enirk AP - she’enir T
to establish, settle; strike; take root taamk AP - tam
sheyaank AP - sheyan to join, unite; gather; coalesce
to gasp; pant, wheeze tacuaak AP - tacuaa
shic’aank AP - shic’an to tire, weary, exhaust; get tired
to fly (birds) taktakiink AP - taktakin
shik AP - shik to wobble
to go, remove oneself, leave, depart tamok AP - tamok
shipc’ok AP - shipc’ok to gather, collect, accumulate
to fall over; tip over t’anliik AP - t’anlii
shiqaank AP - shiqan to fall sick/ill (in bed)
to doze, nod off tapib’k AP - tapib’k
sholb’ak AP - sholb’ak to catch crabs
to play the flute (from shoolb’ – flute) t’aqaak AP - t’aqaa
shotc’ok AP - shotc’ok to get wet; dampen, moisten; drench, soak
to choke, suffocate; smother terk’uuk AP - terk’uu
shucuak AP - shucuak to put up the price of; get dearer, speculate prices
to fear, dread; be afraid of; frighten tichc’ok AP - tichc’ok
shulc’upik AP - shulc’upik to trip, stumble, fall over
to fall forward; overturn, overthrow tic’ti’ik AP - tic’ti’ik
shulk’ik AP - shulk’ik to start, begin; commence
to bend, bow, lean; incline, slope, tilt t’iilk AP - t’il
shushb’ak AP - shushb’ak to interlock; jam; lock; get stuck
to whistle; hiss; sing tiklaak AP - tiklaa
sic’lik AP - sic’lik to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood
to smoke (cigarettes) tiqlaak AP - tiqlaak
sihaank AP - sihan to dress up; get ready/dressed
to originate in, come from tiqob’ak AP - tiqob’ak

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58 | K ’E Q C H I ’ G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n
George Max

to sweat, perspire; exude to heal, form a scar; heal a wound; harden, stiffen
tishk AP - tish tyot’ok AP - tyot’ok
to age, grow older, mature to burn, feel pain
titz’k AP - titz’k tz’acab’k AP - tz’acab’k
to bore, tire; get/become bored; annoy, irritate to do masonry works; build a house of blocks and con-
tolc’ok AP - tolc’ok crete
to roll; stumble, fall forward tz’aqk AP - tz’aq
tub’laak AP - tub’laak to have a turn, take part of
to build up; accumulate; collect tz’aqlok AP - tz’aqlok
t’ujik [u] AP - t’ujik to complete, finish, make whole, fill out; be enough
to get ready; tidy up; put in order tz’aqoonk AP - tz’aqon
tulaak AP - tulaak to participate, take part of; intervene
to bewitch, charm, enchant; entice, put a spell on, curse tz’ib’ak AP - tz’ib’ak
tunlaak AP - tunlaa to write; compose; type in keyboard
to lie down (the dog) tz’ocaak AP - tz’ocaa
tuqlaak AP - tuqlaa to be hungry; hunger, starvation
to come to terms, settle; get by tz’uyaak AP - tz’uyaak
tushmek AP - tushmek to become tenacious; stubborn
to sprout, shoot; reappear, recur tz’ikib’k AP - tz’ikib’k
t’uslaak AP - t’uslaak to have sex/intercourse
to get naked; impoverish; strip, denude tz’umaark AP - tz’umar
tu’uk AP - tu’uk to wither, dry up; fade, die out
to breastfeed, suckle; suck
t’uylaak AP - t’uylaak U
to hang, put up/down; suspend uchiink AP - uchin
tyab’ak AP - tyab’ak to bear/yield fruit
to cry, weep; lament; sound, ring ula’ak AP - ula’ak
tyajerk AP - tyajerk to visit, come over; spend time with so.
to fall sick/ill; sicken; be taken ill ula’ank AP - ula’an
tyamaak AP - tyamaak to visit, visit each other; receive guests
to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear out umuunk AP - umun
tyib’ok AP - tyib’ok to have sth. in the mouth
to disgust; dislike; sicken; revolt usaak AP - usaa
tyohok AP - tyohok to improve; get well/better; alleviate, relieve, ease
to hunt soothe
tyoklaak AP - tyoklaa ushk AP - ush PP - ushman
to lay down; go/put to bed; lean, bend to do, make; perform; how to be done
tyo’laak AP - tyo’laa
to be born, hatch; sprout, bud; originate
W
tyo’leek AP - tyo’leek
wulak AP - wulak
to keep vigil; watch, keep watch over
to arrive, come; reach
tyo’onik AP - tyo’oniik
to expect, hope; wait for sth.; anticipate
tyotaak AP - tyotaak

FIRST DATE PUBLISHED: November 2010 / LAST UPDATE AS OF: March 2019

ISH TZ’IB’ANKIL RU K’EQCHI’ – URL: http://www.keqchi.org/ EMAIL: info@keqchi.org

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