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Introduction Social learning theory is introduced by Albert Bandura.

According to Bandura (1967), social learning happens in a social context itself: a person will observe another persons actions along with the consequences of the actions in order to learn new information and behaviours, through imitation of the models behaviour. Observational learning also known as imitation or modelling, this type of learning happens where a person learns by watching or observing the behaviour shows by the other person. Modelling covers a wide range of behaviours, including these described by Bandura (1969, p. 118) The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the significance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotion of others. Bandura (1977), states: Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Majority behavior is learned all the way through observation of other persons where a new information or knowledge is formed and new behaviors are established. This information is then recalled and become the guidance in our actions (Bandura, 1977). There are four important phases in observational learning theory which are the attentional phase, retention phase, reproduction phase and motivation phase. There are several guiding principles in order to identify the process of observational learning. First of all, the observer usually will imitate the models behavior if the model possesses characteristics that the observer finds attractive or desirable. When the model is rewarded the observer will mimic the behavior of the model. When the model is punished the observer is less likely to exhibit the behavior. The observer may learn a behavior without performing it immediately. This is called, the vicarious reinforcements and punishments. (Bandura, 1986) In this essay I would like to discuss about a case study entitled The Project to which extent the teacher, Ms. Rinaldi, has applied the Banduras observational learning effectively in her classroom according to the observational learning theory.

Attention phase in modelling the observers The first component of observational learning theory is the attention. In the attention phase, in order to learn the learners must pay full attention to the models. There are various factors that can increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Usually in classroom situation, before students can produce a models actions, they must attend to what the model is doing or saying (Mather, 2001). Referring back to the Banduras Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seen the aggressions towards the doll tend to give their attention to the stronger live model rather than the weak bobo doll. This shows that in attention phase, the characteristic of models is an important factor in determining the degree to which the attention is paid to the models by the learners (Bandura, 1986). In the extract of The Project, there is similar situation with the Bobo doll experiment, where in Ms. Rinaldis kindergarten class Ms. Rinaldi becomes the model to the students as in most cases, teachers are high-status model for students. The situation is when the students arrived and heading towards their seats, Ms. Rinaldi waits until all the students are seated and then she places her finger over her mouth to indicate silence. As the results of the attention phase, the students observed Ms. Rinaldi and imitated her action in addition, the situation also in directly helps Ms. Rinaldi to reinforce and remind the students about the movies message which they have watched about respect. This is an understandable example of attention phase in observational learning theory. This is because the students perceive and concentrate to Ms. Rinaldi as the significant feature of the modeled behavior and this is because she is the highstatus characters in the case study. In the extract, as Ms. Rinaldi waits for her students to be seated, she do not have yells or tells the students to be a sign of silence, eventually she only have to do places her finger over her mouth and the students copy her and by the way she wants the students to respect her as the teacher. In addition, according to (Bandura, 2010), the students will be observing the teachers behavior countless times every day of the school year. So, it is clear that Ms. Rinaldi had effectively applied the Banduras observational le arning in her classroom as she managed to emphasize the attentional process in modeling the students.

Retention phase Another component in the observational learning in Banduras social learning theory is the retention. Retention is one of the phases that an observer will go through in order to learn and gain new information. This is where the observers must code the information into long-term memory so the information will be retrieval. For example, a simple verbal description of what the model performed would be known as retention (Allen & Santrock, 1993:p139). According to the bobo doll experiment by Bandura, the children who watched the video where the bobo doll being hit aggressively tends to imitate the action as it is stored in their memory. Referring back to Ms. Rinaldi, in order to help the students to remember the steps that she demonstrates she applies the retention method by putting up three large cards on the centre of each table. The cards have picture of each step the student must follow: a crayon to remind them to colour, scissors to remind them to cut, a glue stick to remind them to glue, and a word to remind them to make a word with their letter so the students are able to memorise the steps which Mr.Rinaldi demonstrated to them to complete the project. This is to help the students to reproduce the modelled behaviour and actions done by Ms.Rinaldi. For example, during the activity, there are students who have skipped certain steps, but after looking back at the pictures tapped they recalled the steps again. This shows that the students are encoding and the information they have gain as stated in Santrock (2001), today educational psychologists emphasize that it is important to view memory not in terms of how children add something to their memory but rather how they actively construct their memory (Ornstein & Light, 2010; Ornstein & others, 2010). Hence, according to (Bandura, 1986), to reproduce a models actions, students must code the information and keep it in memory so that they retrieve it. A simple verbal description or a vivid image of what the model did assists students retention. As a result, through what Ms. Rinaldi had done, she is actually applying the retention method of observational learning theory of Bandura effectively in her classroom.

Reproduction of modelled behaviours In observational learning or modeling, the observers have to be able to reproduce the models behavior. This is known as the reproduction phase. In this process the observers must learn and posses the physical or intellectual capabilities of the models behaviors or actions. A 13-year-old might watch basketball player Lebron James and golfer Michelle Wie execute their athletic skills to perfection, or observe a famous pianist or artist, but not be able to reproduce their motor actions. Teaching, coaching, and practice can help children improve their motor performances (Santrock, 2011). In Banduras bobo doll experiment, the children who had seen the doll being hit aggressively imitated the aggressive actions by possessing the physical capabilities of the live model in the video. This is showing that, after learning through attention and retention, the observers must produce the capabilities of the model. However, in Ms. Rinaldis classroom situation, she is applying the Banduras modeling theory but in the retention phase the method done by her is less effective. This is because, after she explained and demonstrates the steps to complete the project, there are still some students who are less enthusiastic. In addition, Paris who complained that she had trouble in cutting and gluing the letter showing that she cannot reproduce Ms. Rinaldis actions to complete the project and in order to help Paris, Ms. Rinaldi helps her with motivation by self-reinforcement method. Hence, it is showing that even though the students concentrated on the models behavior but some inabilities will affect their performance on reproducing the models behavior and some students cannot learn through retention. Therefore, the retention phase is less effective in Ms. Rinaldis classroom. Children might attend to a model and code in memory what they have seen, yet because of limitations in their motor ability, not be able to reproduce the models behavior (Bandura, 1986).

In terms of Malaysian classroom context, according to Syahirah Intan Mohd Sheffie (2008), she states that it is common to see overcrowded classrooms with the average of 50 students per class especially in the urban area as the enrolment can reach as high as 2500 children per school (Wan Hasmah 2000, Chew 1993). The class size in Malaysia may differ depending on the location of the school and the

number of students enrolment. Referring back to the method of retention phase by Bandura, the method might less applicable to the students in Malaysia. This is because; it may be difficult to the teacher to giving attention to each of the students at one time. As the result, some students might not concentrate or not observing on the models behaviour. This is clear to show that the reproduction phase in Banduras observational learning theory is less applicable in Malaysian classroom.

The motivation and reinforcements

Motivation or reinforcements is activation to actions. Level of motivation is reflected in choice of courses of action, and in the intensity and persistence of effort. Children are often attend to what a model says or does, retain the information in memory, and possess the motor skills to perform the action but are not motivated to perform the modeled behavior. This was demonstrated in Banduras (1965) classic Bobo doll study when children who saw the model being punished did not reproduce the punished models aggressive actions. However, when they subsequently were given a reinforcement or incentive they did imitate the models behavior. Bandura argues that reinforcement is not always necessary for observational learning to take place. But if the child does not reproduce the desired behaviors, four types of reinforcement can help do the tricks such as rewarding the model, reward the child, instruct the child to make self-reinforcing statements such as, Good, I did it! or, Okay, Ive done a good job of getting most of this right; now if I keep trying I will get the rest; or show how the behavior leads to reinforcing outcomes (Bandura, 1986). In the observational learning or the modelling, reinforcement or the motivation is in the last phase. In this phase, the observer usually expects for receiving positive reinforcements for the modelled behaviour. In the Bobo doll experiment, the children witnessed the adults being rewarded for their aggression. Therefore, they performed the same act to achieve the rewards. As in the extract, there are situations where both vicarious punishment and vicarious reinforcements happened in Ms. Rinaldis classroom. Firstly is when one of her student, Paris, runs towards the table when they are going to start the project so that she can get materials. However, Ms. Rinaldi tells her to not to run in the classroom and made return to her seat and try to get the materials but this time she have to do it by walking slowly and as the same time the

other students who run also stopped and start to walk slowly. Vicarious punishment refers to the situation where a child is less likely to produce behaviour because he or she observes a model being punished for the behaviour. In the extract, although the other students were not punished, they learned to behave appropriately through the punishment toward Paris. In addition, for the motivational phase, Ms. Rinaldi also praises one of the students, Shanna as she cut her letters really well. The praises not only motivate Shanna but also the whole class as one of the Paris complimented Shannas work indirectly makes Shanna becomes the model. According to (Schunk, 2011), peer also can be important models in the classroom. This indirectly supporting the Banduras theory of observational learning where reward should be given to the model. As in this case study, Ms. Rinaldi awarded Shanna with praises. So, it is clear that Ms. Rinaldi had effectively applied Banduras social learning theory because as she praises Shanna, not only Shanna but also all of the students are motivated to imitate Shanna. This situation also occurred in Malaysian classroom context. According to Syahirah Intan Mohd Sheffie (2008), she stated that the Malaysian school system is an exam-oriented based educational system. This means that successful examination results indicate a successful learning. Through this situation, it is indirectly motivate the students to get good results in examination as most of the successful students are awarded with prizes and praises. This indicates that, the observational learning method of using motivation is applicable in both Ms. Rinaldis class and in Malaysian educational context.

Conclusion As a conclusion, it can be concluded that Ms. Rinaldi has applied all the phases in observational learning in her classroom. However, there are only three which are effectively applied by her and for the Malaysian classroom context; the reproduction method is less applicable while motivation phase is applicable to the students.

Reference lists

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