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Modern hall and conference architectures have large entries and so manually opening of such doors every time a person enters can be hectic. In the present project we try to automate opening of door and also automate operation of power devices inside the room. This is small step towards smart houses. As the person appears in front of the door, the doors open automatic. However the door will be operated by geared system driven by powerful motor. And so actually operation of motor is automated. Similarly as a person approaches door from inside, again the door opens automatically. Further the based on presence of person in the room, the operation of room power devices is controlled. The primary sensor here happens to be PIR motion sensor.

1. System Architecture

Modular Design is throughout the system. System is built on the embedded system built around atmega8, cheap and powerful. Two PIR motion sensors are placed at the door step as shown below. Sensor number 1 is placed outside the door and Sensor number 2 is placed inside but near to door. Such double pair arrangement is used to confirm whether people are entering or leaving the room. If sensor1 is activated first and then after some time sensor2 is activated, it means person is entering in the room. The opposite of this is true for person leaving the room. Estimation of the same done by programming the Atmega8 chip. The interface between TTL logic based controller and power device motor is done with the help of driver circuit.

Block diagram


2.1 PIR sensor module All PIR sensors detect changes in infra-red radiation, in the form of heat emitted by anumber of bodies including people, cars and, to a lesser extent, dogs or other small animals. The bigger the body, the more infra-red radiation is emitted and the easier it is for a PIR sensor to detect. The field of view is the area in which changes in infra-red radiation can be detected. Thefield of view can alter with changes in temperature and the size of the heat source. The construction of the PIR and the Fresnel Lens divide the field of view intoa number of zones both vertically and horizontally, as shown in the diagram overleaf.

Each zone is constantly monitored by the sensor. When a person or other heat sourceenters any zone, the level of infra-red radiation in that zone increases. This change is detected and processed by the sensor, switching on the connected lighting and starting the in-built Time process. Providing the heat source (person) continues to move in the field of view, the PIR sensor will keep processing the changes in infra-red radiation and the lighting will stay on. If aperson stands still in the field of view or moves out of the detection area, the sensor will not detect any changes in infra-red radiation between the zones and the lights will go out after the Time period is complete. In order for

the sensor to most effectively detect changes in heat between zones, it is advisable to walk across the zones not up or along a zone. PIR sensors are passive devices, they do not emit or radiate any energy or beams

The PIR sensor built during project is very sensitive compared to some commertially available in the market at the same cost. It can detect even a slight wave of hand in the range of 5-10 metres. Build using 2 LM358 ICs and IR pair along some basic components. The detailled schematic is as below. Here any change in output voltage of IR photodiode is sensed and amplified by first stage of LM358 which is a dual OpAmp chip. The second stage further amplifies it making the arangement sensitive and long range. The gain of each filter stage is set to 101, giving the total amplification of about 10000. A 1 uF capacitor at the input of each stage is required to block the dc component in the signal. The equation for calculating gain is: Gain=1+Rf/Ri In our case Rf=680k and Ri=6.8k, thus gain=101. Hence overall gain=10000.

Features: Suitable for remote applications Low cost Operates from 3 to 12 volts Less current drain Range 5-10 meters Applications: Detecting motion in 5-10 meter range. 2.2 Motor driver circuit The motor available is a 230volt motor which is to be operated by transistor based relay driver circuit. The actuating signal from controller is applied to the base of driver transistor BC547. In the collector circuit of BC547

12volt Relay is connected which drives the Viper motor. A free wheeling diode is used to control back EMF developed in the motor during turn OFF.

Figure 2.2.2 Relay Driver circuit for motor

2.3 Driver circuit for power devices. Same driver circuit which is used for motor driver is also used for power devices in the room. Depending on the signal from controller the power devices are switched ON and OFF.

2.3 Atmega8 controller connections Please go to www.automaticcarwiper.blogspot.com for these details. 3. DESIGN OF SYSTEM SOFTWARE Please go to www.automaticcarwiper.blogspot.com for these details.

3.2 Software Module //Open and close door based on presence of person.

//Based on use PIR motion sensor //first PIR just outside the door---to detect incomming person //second just inside the door----to detect outgoing person //third inside but near to the door----to detect presence inside the room //presence inside the room will switch light/fan ON-OFF. //define motor pins #define motorPin 3 //define power devices #define tube_relay 7 #define fan_relay 8 //define PIR sensors #define PIRsensor1_Pin 9 #define PIRsensor2_Pin 10 #define PIRsensor3_Pin 11

void setup(){ Serial.begin(9600); //serial comm. for debbuging on computer pinMode(motorPin1, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorPin2, OUTPUT); pinMode(tube_relay, OUTPUT); pinMode(fan_relay, OUTPUT); pinMode(PIRsensor1_Pin, INPUT); pinMode(PIRsensor2_Pin, INPUT); pinMode(PIRsensor3_Pin, INPUT); } void loop(){

if (digitalRead(PIRsensor1_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(motorPin, LOW);//door open Serial.print("Moving inside"); delay(5000); digitalWrite(motorPin, HIGH);//door close delay(5000); digitalWrite(motorPin, LOW);//stop motor } if (digitalRead(PIRsensor2_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(motorPin, HIGH);//door open Serial.print("Moving outside"); delay(5000); digitalWrite(motorPin, LOW); delay(5000); digitalWrite(motorPin, LOW);//stop motor } if (digitalRead(PIRsensor3_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(tube_relay, HIGH); //turn "ON" tube light digitalWrite(fan_relay, HIGH); //turn "ON" fan Serial.print("Run fan and tube light"); Serial.print("Run fan and tube light"); } else { digitalWrite(tube_relay, LOW) //turn "OFF" tube light digitalWrite(tube_relay, LOW) //turn "OFF" fan

} delay(1000); //Loop again............. } The software is illustrated in Fig. 4. And the software flow of data collecting node module is illustrated.

4. SET UP A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM AND TEST we set up a sample prototype system in our lab room. As mentioned above controller board is PCB prototyped using DIY build PCB at techniques. While sensor and actuator boards are built on zero PCB.

4.1 DIY build PCB Steps: 1. 2. Prepare layout in Eagle cad. Print on GSM800 paper using laser printer.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Select copper clad of proper size and shrub with spool. Place printed layout on copper clad and iron for 10 minutes. Place copper clad in tap water to loose the paper. Remove paper with help of brush. Etch the board with solution of ferric chloride. Drill board with bits of proper sizes. PCB is ready.

4.2 Layout of controller board Please go to www.automaticcarwiper.blogspot.com for these details.

4.3 Pictures of controller board and sensor boards



In future we plan use home automation with energy effieciency i.e control the intensity of light and fan speed denpending on conditions of light and temperature. This can be done with analog sensing of temperature using LM35 temperature sensor and using LDR for sensing light conditions in the room. Then depending on these values the microcontroller will generate actuating signal. The power device driver circuit will however need modification.

CONCLUSIONS System presented above is cheap and effective. Low on power consumption. Particularly the PIR sensors consume less power and are energy efficient. The system definitely adds to automation of hall ways and also luxury.The enitre system can fit in box and made commertially available for good.


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