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UNIT II POLLUTION CONTROL POLLUTION It is a harmful theme for human health.Its a major problem for anyone.

. Pollution may be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air, water and land that may harmfully affect human life & other species also. Environmental pollution It is a term that refers to all the ways that human activity harms the natural environment. It can be defined as the unfavorable alteration of our surrounding Types of Environmental Pollutants 1.Biodegradable pollutants It decompose rapidly by natural processes 2.Non -degradable pollutants It do not decompose or decompose slowly in the environment DUSTS (Pneumoconiosis) Inorganic Dust Coal Dust - Anthracosis Silica - Silicosis Asbestos - Asbestosis Iron - Siderosis Organic Dusts Cane Fiber - Bagassosis (Bronchi gets affected) Cotton dust Tobacco Grain Dust - Byssinosis (In Textile industries) - Tobaccosis, Lung Cancer - Farmers Lungs

Common pollutants sources and their effects: Carbon monoxide (CO) - Colourless and odourless gas - Incomplete combustions of carbon containing fuel Human sources - Cigarette smoking, incomplete burning of fossil fuels, motor vehicle exhaust

Health effects: React with hemoglobin in red blood cells and reduces the ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cell and tissues which causes headaches and anemia. Coma, brain cell damage and death. Environment effects: Global temp increase Control: Using catalytic converter in automobiles. NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2) - Red brown irritating gas - Gives photochemical smog - In the atm, converted in to nitric acid Human sources - Fossil fuels burning in motor vehicle, power industrial plant Health effects: Lung irritation and damage Environment effects: Acid deposition- Damage trees, soil and aquatic life in lakes, corrode metal and eat away stone on building. NO2 can damage fabric Control: Using catalytic converter in automobiles, Catalytic converters use Pt/ Rh catalyst. in the presence of the catalysts, the oxides of nitrogen are converted to nitrogen and oxygen . 2NOx N2 + x O2 SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) - Colourless and irritating gas - Combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuel (coal and oil) - In the atm, converted in to sulphuric acid Human sources - Coal burning power plant and industrial process Health effects: Breathing problem for healthy people Environment effects: Acid deposition- Damage trees, soil and aquatic life in lakes, reduce the visibility.

Control: The gases evolved during combustion of fossil fuels are passed through calcium carbonate when SO2 is converted to calcium sulphite. CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO3 + CO2 lime is added to coal and roasted at high temperature so that CaO formed combines with SO2 to form calcium sulphate. CaO + SO2 + O2 CaSO4

Suspended particulate matter - Varity of particles and droplets - Suspended in atm short to long periods Human sources Coal burning power plant and industrial plant, burning diesel and other fuel in vehicles, agriculture, unpaved roads, construction, etc., Health effects: Nose and throat irritation, lung damage, bronchitis, asthma, reproductive problems and cancer Environment effects: Reduce the visibility. CONTROL: Particulate matter in the atmosphere can be controlled using a. Gravitational settling chambers b. Centrifugal separators c. Fabric filters d. Wet scrubbers e. Electrostatic or Cottrell separators

Ozone - Highly reactive irritating gas with un pleasant odour - Gives photochemical smogHuman sources - Chemical reaction with volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides Environment effects: Moderates climate

Lead pollutant Sources: The exhaust from automobiles which use lead tetraethyl as antiknocking agentwhen TEL is used as antiknocking agent, lead is converted to halide and released into the atmosphere. This leads to increase in the concentration of lead in the atmosphere. Paint pigments : Litharge and red lead ( oxides of lead ) and lead chromate are used as pigments. These cause lead pollution Plumbing systems- lead pipes are used for plumbing and these may cause lead pollution Effects: Lead competes with calcium and enters the blood and bone marrow. The lead interferes in the manufacture of red blood corpuscles and abnormal

Multiplication of blood cells and thus leads to anaemia and blood cancer in human beings. Lead enters the blood and various organs of the body including the brain and the Kidneys leading to dysfunction of the kidney and damage to the brain.

CONTROL MEASURES Source control Use petroleum products and other fuels that have low sulphur and ash content. Reduce the number of private vehicles on the road by developing an efficient public-transport system and encouraging people to walk or use cycles. Ensure that houses, schools, restaurants and places where children play are not located on busy streets. Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates and carbon monoxide, and absorb noise. Industries and waste disposal sites Should be situated outside the city centre preferably downwind of the city. Use catalytic converters to help control the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Control measures in industrial centers 1. The emission rates should be restricted to permissible levels by each and every industry. 2. Incorporation of air pollution control equipments in the design of the plant layout must be made. mandatory. 3. Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere for the pollutants should be carried out to know the emission levels

WATER POLLUTION :Definition Water pollution may be defined as, "the alteration in physical , chemical and biological characteristics of water which may cause harmful effects on humans and aquatic life The pollutants include sewage, industrial chemicals and effluents, oil and other wastes. Besides, chemicals from the air dissolved in rain tater, and fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides leached from the land also pollute water.

Types, effects and sources (causes) of water pollution Water pollution is any chemical, biological or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes, water unsuitable for desired uses 1. Infectious Agents Ex: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms.

Human Sources (causes) Human and animals wastes. Effects Variety of disease

2. Oxygen Demanding Wastes (Dissolved oxygen) Organic wastes such as animal manure and plant debris that can be decomposed by aerobic (oxygen-requiring) bacteria. This degradation consumes dissolved oxygen in water. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of water at a particular pressure and temperature. The saturated point of DO varies from 815 mg/lit Human Sources (causes) Sewage, animal feedlots, paper mills, and food processing facilities. Effects Large populations of bacteria decomposing these wastes can degrade water quality by depleting water of dissolved oxygen. This causes fish and other forms of oxygen-consuming aquatic life to die .. 3. INORGANIC CHEMICALS Water soluble inorganic chemicals i) Acids, (ii) Compound toxic metals such as lead (Pb], arsenic (As) and selenium ( Se)and (iii) Salts such as NaCl in ocean water and fluorides found in some soils. Human Sources (causes) Surface runoff, industrial effluents and household. cleansers. Effects (i) Can make fresh water unusable for drinking or irrigation. (ii) Causes skin cancers and neck damage. (iii) Damage the nervous system, liver and kidneys. (iv)Harm fish and other aquatic life (v) Lower crop yields. (vi) Accelerates corrosion of metals exposed to such water.

4. Organic Chemicals Ex: Oil, gasoline, plastics, pesticides, cleaning solvents, detergents Human Sources (causes) Industrial effluents, household .cleansers, surface runoff from farms. Effects (i) Can threaten human health by causing system damage and some cancers.

(ii) Harm fish and wild life. 5. Plant Nutrients Water soluble compounds containing nitrate , ammonium and phosphate ions. Human Sources (causes) Sewage, manure, and runoff of agricultural and urban fertilizers Effects (i) Can cause excessive growth of algae and other aquatic plants, which die, decay, deplete dissolved oxygen in water and kill the fish. (ii) Drinking water with excessive levels of nitrates lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and can kill urban children and infants. 6. Sediment Ex: Soil, silt, etc., Human Sources (causes) Land erosion. Effects (i) Disrupt aquatic food webs. (ii) Carry pesticides, bacteria, and other harmful substances. (iii)Settle out and destroy feeding and spawning rounds of fish. (iv) Can reduce photosynthesis and cloud water. (v) Clog and fill lakes, artificial reservoirs, stream channels and harbours Point and Non-point Sources of Water Pollution (i) Point Sources Point sources are discharged pollutants at specific locations through pipes, ditches or sewers into bodies of surface Ex: Includes factories, . sewage treatment plants, abandoned underground mines and oil tankers. (ii) Non-point sources They are usually large land areas or air sheds that pollute Water by runoff, subsurface flow or deposition from the atmosphere. Location of which cannot be easily identified. Ex: Include acid deposition and runoff of chemicals into surface water from croplands, livestock feedlots, logged forests, urban street, lawn, golf courses and parking lots.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) BOD is the amount of oxygen required for the biological decomposition of organic matter present in the water. Significance of BOD . (i) It is an important indication of the amount of organic - matter present in the river water. (ii) Since complete oxidation occurs in indefinite period, the reaction period is taken as 5 days at 20c. for all practical purposes, it is written as BODs

(iii) The rate of oxidation and demand depends on the amount and type of organic matter present in river water. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) COD is the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using some oxidising agent like K2Cr207 and KMn04 Significance of COD (i) It is carried out to determine the pollutional strength of river water. (ii) It is rapid process and takes only 3 hours. Waste Water (or) Sewage Treatment Objectives of waste water treatment (i) To convert harmful compounds into harmless compounds (ii) To eliminate the offensive smell. (iii) To remove the solid content of the sewage. (iv) To destroy the disease producing microorganisms. Treatment process The sewage (or) waste water treatment process involves the following steps. I.Preliminary Treatment In this treatment, coarse solids and suspended impurities are removed by passing the waste water through bar and mesh screens. II. Primary treatment (or) Settling process In this treatment, greater proportion of the suspended inorganic and organic solids are removed from the liquid sewage by settling. In order to facilitate quick settling coagulants like alum, ferrous sulphate are added. These produce large gelatinous precipitates, which entrap finely divided organic matter and settle rapidly. ` AI2(S04)3 + 6H20 2AI(OH)3 + 3H2S04. III. Secondary (or) Biological treatment In this treatment, biodegradable organic impurities are removed by aerobic bacteria. Removes up to 90% of the oxygen demanding wastes, This is done by trickling filter or activated sludge process. (a) Trickling filter process It is a circular tank and is filled with either coarse or crushed rock. Sewage is sprayed over this bed by means of slowly rotating arms. When sewage starts percolating downwards, microorganisms present in the sewage grow on the surface of filtering media using organic material of the sewage as food. After completion of aerobic oxidation the treated sewage is taken to the settling tank and the sludge is removed. This process removes about 80-85% of BOD.

(b) Activated sludge process Activated sludge is biologically active sewage and it has a large number of aerobic bacterias, which can easily oxidise the organic impurities. The sewage effluent from primary treatment is mixed with the required amount of activated sludge. Then the mixture is aerated in the aeration tank (Fig.). Under these condition, Air supply organic impurities of the sewage get oxidized rapidly by the microorganisms. After aeration, the sewage is taken to the sedimentation tank. Sludge settle down in this tank, called activated sludge, a portion of which is used for seeding fresh batch of the sewage. This process removes about 90-95% of BOD

IV. Tertiary treatment After the secondary treatment, the sewage effluent has a lower BOD (25 ppm), which can be removed by the tertiary treatment process. In the tertiary treatment, the effluent is introduced into a flocculation tank, where lime is added to remove phosphates. From the flocculation tank the effluent is led to ammonia stripping tower, where pH is maintained to 11 and the NH4 is converted to gaseous NH3. Then the effluent is allowed to pass through activated charcoal column, where minute organic wastes are adsorbed by charcoal. Finally the effluent water is treated with disinfectant (chlorine). V. Disposal of sludge This is the last stage in the sewage treatment. Sludge formed from different steps can be disposed by (I) dumping into low-lying areas. (ii) burning of sludge (incineration), (iii) dumping into the sea, (iv) using it as low grade fertilizers

Specifications for Drinking Water The common specifications recommended by the U.S Public Health for Drinking Water are given below. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Water should be clear and odourless. It should be cool. It should be pleasant to taste. Turbidity of the water should not exceed 10 ppm. pH of the water should be in the range of 6-8. Chloride and sulphate contents should be less than 250 ppm. Total hardness of the water should be less than 500 ppm. Total dissolved solids should be less than 500 ppm. Fluoride content of the water should be less than 1.5 ppm. The water must be free from disease-producing bacteria.

(xi) (xii)

Water should be free from objectionable dissolved gases like H2S. Water should be free from objectionable minerals such as lead, chromium, manganese and arsenic salts.

Water Quality Standards Water used for drinking should have certain quality. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution, addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life. Or The presence of one or more contaminants like dust, smoke, mist and odour in the atmosphere which are injurious to human beings, plants and animals. Composition of atmosphere air: Nitrogen-78%, Oxygen- 21%, Argon-<1, CO2 0.037%, Water vapour,O3, He, NH3

SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION 1.NATURAL Volcanic eruptions, Forest fires, biological decay, pollen grains, marshes, radioactive material etc., 2.MANMADE ACTIVITIES Thermal power plants, vehicular emissions, fossil fuel burning, agricultural activities, etc.,

Classification of air pollutants 1. Primary air pollutants: These emitted directly in the atmosphere in harmful form Ex: CO, NO, SO2, etc., 2. Secondary air pollutants: These may react with one another or with the basic components of air to form new pollutants

Soil pollution It is defined as, "the contamination of soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings

TYPES, EFFECTS AND SOURCES (CAUSES) OF SOIL POLLUTION Soil pollution mainly results from the following sources Industrial wastes. Urban wastes. Agricultural practices. Radioactive pollutants. Biological agents INDUSTRIAL WASTES: Disposal of industrial wastes is the major problem for soil pollution. SOURCES The industrial pollutants are mainly discharged from the various origins such as pulp and paper mills, chemical industries, oil refineries, sugar factories tanneries, textiles, steel, distilleries, fertilizers, pesticides, coal and mineral mining industries, drugs, glass, cement, petroleum and engineering industries etc., EFFECT These pollutants affect and alter the chemical and biological properties of soil. As a result, hazardous chemicals can enter into human food chain from the soil or water and disturb the biochemical process and finally lead to serious effects on living organisms URBAN WASTES: Urban wastes comprises both commercial and domestic wastes consisting of dried sludge of sewage. All the urban solid wastes are commonly referred to as refuse .. Constituents of Urban Refuse This refuse contains garbage and rubbish materials like plastics, glasses, metallic cans, fibres, paper, rubbers, street sweepings, fuel residues, leaves, containers, abandoned vehicles and other discarded manufactured products. Urban wastes though disposed off separately from the Indus wastes, can still be dangerous. This is so because they cannot be easily degraded AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES: Modern agricultural practices pollute the soil to a large extent. Today with the advancing agro-technology, huge quantities of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, weedicides are added to increase the crop yield Apart from these farm wastes, manure, slurry, debris, soil erosion containing mostly inorganic chemicals are reported to cause soil pollution RADIOACTIVE POLLUTANTS: Radioactive substances resulting from explosions of nuclear dust and radioactive wastes penetrate the soil and accumulate there by creating land pollution. BIOLOGICAL AGENTS: Soil gets large quantities of human, animal and bird's excreta which constitute the major source of land pollution by biological agents


Ex: Heavy application of manures and digested sludge's could cause serious damage to plants within a few - year Because the sludge's are containing more live viruses and viable intestinal worms. In addition to these excreta, faulty sanitation, municipal garbage, waste water and wrong methods of agricultural practices also induce heavy soil pollution. Major physico-chemical characteristics of untreated wastes of Organic chemical industries in Soil Major physico-chemical characteristics of untreated wastes of Inorganic chemical industries in Soil CONTROL MEASURES OF SOIL POLLUTION The pressure on intensification of farm activities increases for two reasons. 1. Population growth. 2. Decrease of the available farm land due to urbanization. 1).Control of Soil erosion: Soil erosion can be controlled by a variety of forestry and farm practices (a) Trees may be planted on barren slopes. (b) Contour cultivation and strip cropping may be practiced instead of shifting cultivation. (c) Terracing and building diversion channels may be undertaken. Reducing deforestation and substituting chemical manures by animal wastes would also help to arrest soil erosion 2).Proper Dumping of unwanted materials: Excess of waste products by man and animal cause disposal problem 3).Production of Natural Fertilizers: Excess use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides should be avoided. Biopesticides should be used 4). Proper Hygienic Condition: People should be trained regarding the sanitary habits 5). Public Awareness: Informal and formal programs should be imparted- to educate the people on health hazards 6). Recycling and Reuse Of Wastes: 7). Ban on Toxic Chemicals: MARINE POLLUTION Definition Marine pollution is defined as, "the discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting in harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water.


Source (causes) of marine pollution About half of the world population live nearer to coastal lines and gain many benefits from the coastal zones and oceans. The coastal zones contains rich heritage, coral reefs, wetlands and sea grass beds.

Benefits of coral reefs: The coral reefs which are the most productive eco-systems offer many benefits to people. Reefs support more than one millions species. They provide feeding, breeding and nursery areas to fish and shell fish. They offer medicines. They act as buffer to ocean waves and protect coastal lines from storms and so on.

Effects of Marine pollution The presence of heavy metals and-organic pollutants cause more damage in birds as thinning of egg shell and tissue damage of egg. Oil pollution cause damage to marine fauna and flora including algae, fish, birds, invertebrates. About 50,000 to 2,50,000 birds are killed every year by oil. Oil spilling in sea water causes abnormally low body temperature in birds resulting in hypothermia. Nearly 150 rare species of bald eagles also became victims when they ingested oil during Exxon Valdez accident. Oil films are able to retard significantly the rate of oxygen uptake by water.

Cost of Marine Pollution 3.25 million metric tons of oil wasted vs. 3.4 million tons used by Jamaica annually 100,000 mammal and 2 million bird deaths annually Reduction of GDP by decreasing fishery resource (11.9k tonnes 7.7k landed 1960-97) and decreased tourism earnings Loss of bio-diversity and potential life saving medicines (for AIDS &Cancer)

Solutions to Pollution Two main methods Correction costly and time intensive Prevention requires attitude changes Coastal Scientists believe that prevention is better than cure since the effects of marine pollution maybe irreversible and we may therefore be creating everlasting damage to the marine ecosystem. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure


Control Measures of Marine- Pollution Plants for conserving marine biodiversity must be taken into account of human needs. People should be educated about marine ecosystems and the benefits offered by them. Local communities must be involved in protecting and managing their coastal resources. Social and economic incentives must be offered for conserving and sustainable use of marine resources. The fact that all the oceans in the world are connected must be reflected in the policies. Governments must manage their own waters while extending cooperation to the neighboring states)

NOISE POLLUTION Definition Noise pollution is defined as, "the unwanted, unpleasant or disagreeable sound that causes discomfort for all living beings." Noise level Normal conversation sound ranges from 35 dB to 60 dB. Impairment of hearing takes place due to exposure to noise of 80 dB or more. Noise above 140 dB becomes painful. What is noise? In simple terms, noise is unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves. A noise problem generally consists of three inter-related elements the source, the receiver and the transmission path. Noise may be continuous or intermittent. Noise may be of high frequency or of low frequency which is undesired for a normal hearing. The differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon The habit and interest of the person/species The ambient conditions Impact of the sound


Annoyance Physiological effects Loss of hearing Human performance Nervous system Sleeplessness Damage to material

Effects of Noise Pollution Noise Pollution affects human health, comfort and efficiency. It causes contraction of blood vessels, makes the skin pale, leads to excessive secretion of adrenal in hormone into blood stream which is responsible for high blood pressure. Blaring sounds have known to cause mental distress, heart attacks neurological problems, birth defects and abortion.

Control of Noise Pollution The techniques employed for noise control can be broadly classified as Control at source Control in the transmission path Using protective equipment. THERMAL POLLUTION: Thermal Pollution, harmful increase in water temperature in streams, rivers, lakes, coastal ocean waters. Thermal pollution is caused by either dumping hot water from factories and power plants or removing trees that permitting sunlight to raise the temperature of these waters. Thermal pollution is widespread, affecting many lakes and vast numbers of streams and rivers. The major sources of thermal pollution are electric power plants and industrial factories. Cold waters are better habitat for plants and animals than warm ones because cold waters contain more dissolved oxygen Source : Nuclear power plants Coal fired power plants Industrial effluents Domestic sewage Hydro-electric power

Nuclear power plants - Drainage from hospitals, Research institutes, Nuclear experiments and explosion


- Discharged a lot of unutilized heat and traces of toxic radio nuclides - Emission of Nuclear reactors and processing installation to temp in water bodies Introduction of thermal pollution into streams by human activities Industries and power plants use water to cool machinery and then discharge the warmed water into a stream. Stream (water) temperature rises when trees and tall vegetation providing shades are cut down. Soil erosion caused by construction. Removal of stream side vegetation. Poor farming practices. Effects of Thermal Pollution 1. Reduction in dissolved oxygen: Concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) decreases with increase in temperature of water. 2. Increase in Toxicity: The rising temperature increases the toxicity of the poison present in water. 3. Interference with biological activities: Temperature is considered to be of vital significance to physiology metabolism and biochemical process in controlling respiratory rates, digestion 4. Interference with reproduction: In fishes, several activities like nest building, spanning, hatching, migration and reproduction etc., depend on optimum temperature. 5. Direct mortality: Unutilized heat in water is responsible for direct, mortality of aquatic organisms.. 6. Food storage for fish: Change in temperature alters the seasonal variation in the type and abundance of lower organisms. Control measures (or) management of thermal pollution 1. Cooling towers: The use of water from water systems for cooling purposes with subsequent return to the water way after passage through the condenser, is termed as cooling process. Cooling tower are of two types. (a) Wet Cooling tower: Hot water, coming out from the Condenser (reactor) is allowed to spray over baffles. Cool air, With high velocity, is passed from' sides, which takes away the heat and cools the water.


(b) Dry Cooling tower: Here the hot water is allowed to flow in a long spiral pipes. Cool air, with the help of fan, is passed over these hot pipes, which cools down the hot water. This cool water can be recycled. (c) Other methods:Cooling ponds: Spray ponds: Artificial lakes:

Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor. Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distilleries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants

Solid Waste in India 7.2 million tones of hazardous waste One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year Rs.1600 core for treatment & disposal of these wastes In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tones of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas.

Types and sources of solid wastes:Depending upon the nature, solid wastes can be broadly classified into three types Urban (or) Municipal wastes. Industrial wastes. Hazardous wastes Sources of. Urban (Municipal) Wastes Urban or municipal wastes include the following wastes


DOMESTIC WASTES: It contains a variety of materials thrown out from the homes Ex: Food waste, cloth, waste paper, glass bottles, polythene bags, waste metals, etc., Commercial wastes: It includes the wastes coming out from the shops, markets, hotels, offices, institutions, etc., Ex: Waste paper, packing material, cans, bottle, polythen'e bags, etc., Construction wastes: It includes the wastes of construction materials. Ex: wood, concrete, debris etc. Biomedical wastes: It includes mostly the waste organic materials . Ex: Anatomical wastes, infectious wastes, etc., Type and characteristics of Urban (municipal) Wastes :(i) Bio-degradable wastes: The urban solid waste materials, that can be degraded by micro organisms are called biodegradable wastes. Ex: Food, vegetables, tea leaves, egg shells, dry leaves, etc., (ij) Non.- Biodegradable wastes: The urban solid Waste materials that cannot be degraded by micro organisms are called non-biodegradable wastes. Ex: Polythene bags, scrap metals, glass bottles , etc., Source and Characteristics of Industrial Wastes The main sources of industrial wastes are chemical industries, metal and mineral processing industries. Example: Nuclear power plants: It generates radioactive wastes. Thermal power plants: It produces. fly ash in large quantities. Chemical industries: It produces large quantities of hazardous and toxic materials . Other industries: Other industries produce, packing materials, rubbish, organic waste, acids, alkalis, scrap metals, rubber, plastic, paper, glass, wood, oils, paints, dyes, etc.,


Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are the wastes, that pose a substantial danger immediately or over a period of time to human, plant or animal life. Sources of Hazardous wastes Chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries, paper mills, smelters, radioactive substances, biological wastes and other industries.

Types and characteristics of hazardous wastes TOXIC WASTES: These are poisonous even in very small or traces amounts. (a) Acute toxicity: These wastes have immediate effect on humans or animals causing death.

(b) Chronic toxicity: These wastes have long-term effect slowly causing irreparable harm to the exposed persons. It is much more difficult to determine. ii) Reactive wastes: These wastes react vigorously with air, heat and generate toxic gases Ex: Gun powder, nitroglycerine, etc., (iii) Corrosive wastes: These wastes destroy materials and living tissues by chemical reaction. Ex: Acids and bases Iv). Radioactive wastes: These are from nuclear power plants and persist in the environment for thousands of years (v) Infectious wastes: It causes infection to others. EX: Used bandages, human tissue from surgery, hypodermic needles, etc. (vi) Heavy metals: Lead, mercury and arsenic are hazardous substances. Effect of Solid Wastes (or) Effect of Improper Solid Waste Management Due to improper disposal of municipal solid wastes on the road side and their immediate surroundings, biodegradable materials undergo decomposition. This produces foul smell and breeds various types of insects, which spoil the land value. Toxic substances may percolate into the ground and contaminate the ground water


Industrial solid wastes are the sources of toxic metals and hazardous wastes, which affect the soil characteristics and productivity of soils when they are dumped on the soil. Burning of some of the industrial wastes (or) domestic wastes (like cans, pesticides, plastics, radioactive materials, batteries) produce furans, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, which are harmful to human beings. Process of Solid Waste Management (or) Process of preventing solid waste generation in urban areas Solid waste management includes, the waste generation, mode of collection, transportation, segregation of wastes and disposal techniques. Collection of waste from various sources To transfer the collected wastes to the destination point To store the collected wastes meanwhile time of the disposal

Home separator for recycling (a) Landfill (b) Incineration (C) Composting

Steps Involved in Solid Waste Management Two important steps of solid waste management is Reduce, reuse .and recycle, before destruction and safe storage of wastes. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3R) (a) Reduce the usage of raw materials If the usage of raw materials is reduced, the generation of waste also gets reduced. (b) Reuse of waste materials (a) The refillable containers, which are discarded after use, can be reused. (b) Rubber rings can be made from the discarded cycle tubes, which reduce the waste generation during manufacturing of rubber bands. (c) Recycling of materials Recycling is the reprocessing of the discarded materials into new useful products. (a) Old aluminum cans and glass bottles are melted and recast into new cans and bottles. (b) Preparation of cellulose insulation from paper. (d) Preparation of automobiles and construction materials from steel cans. The above process saves money, energy, raw materials, and reduces pollution.


Discarding wastes For discarding solid wastes the following methods can be adopted. (a) Landfill (b) Incineration (c) Composting

Objectives (or) significance for prevention of hazardous wastes management Avoid (or) reduce generation of hazardous wastes. Dispose the wastes as close as possible to the place where they are generated. Manage the wastes in environmentally sound and effective way. Optimize environmentally sound recover of the hazardous wastes. Prevent illegal international traffic in- hazardous wastes. Promoting capacities in and strengthening institutional hazardous waste management. Promoting and strengthening international co-operations in the management. Promoting the prevention and minimization of using hazardous wastes. Reduce to a minimum (or) eliminate the trans boundary movements.

ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN PREVENTION OF POLLUTION Environmental pollution cannot be prevented and removed. The proper implementation and especially the individual participation are the important aspects which should be given due importance and stress. The individual participation is useful in law making processes and restraining the pollution activities and thereby the public participation plays a major role in the effective environmental management Role and responsibility of Individual participation in environmental protection Plant more trees Help more in pollution prevention than pollution control. Use water, energy and other resources efficiently. Purchase recyclable, recycled and environmentally safe products. Use CFC free refrigerators. Use natural gas than coal. Reduce deforestation. Increase use of renewable resources. Remove. NOx from motor vehicular exhaust. Use office machines in well ventilated areas. Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints and other products. Use ecofriendly products Slow population growth. Reduce garbage by recycling and reuse.


Role of women in environmental protection Women play an important role in environmental protection, considering their status in social production, consumption and their influence to future generations at home. Various roles of women are In rural areas, women plant trees and grass, grow vegetables with the dripirrigation method in order to save water. In urban areas, they go shopping using cloth bags to reduce white pollution. Women refuse to use disposal products to save energy and resources. Women choose green products instead of poor quality that harm the environment. Women reduce the amount of trash they dispose off so as to recycle natural resources. Women buy non-phosphate detergents to reduce the incidence of water pollution. They value paper and thus protect trees. Women bring the concept of environment protection into families and thus plant a green seed in the heart of children

Control measures (methods) of pollution 1. The-administration of water pollution control should be in the hands of State or Central Government. 2. Scientific techniques are necessary to be adopted for the environmental control of catchment areas of rivers, ponds or streams. 3. The industrial plants should be based on recycling operations, because it will not only stop the discharge of industrial wastes into natural water sources but by products can be extracted from the wastes. , 4. Plants, trees and forests control pollution and they acts as natural air conditioners. It is not advisable to discharge any type of waste, either treated, partially treated or untreated, into streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and reservoirs. 5. The industries are expected to develop close-loop water supply schemes and domestic sewage may be used for irrigation. 6. Highly qualified and experienced persons should be consulted from time to time for effective control of water pollution. 7. Public awareness regarding adverse effects of water pollution is a must. So there should be propaganda for water pollution control on radios, TVs etc. 8. Suitable laws, standards and practices should be framed to regulate the discharge of undesirable flow of water in water bodies and such regulations should be modified from time to time in order to accommodate the changing requirements' and technological advancements. 9. Forests in and around big cities and industrial establishments are capable of reducing the sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide pollutants to a greater extent from the atmosphere. Hence the national goal should be "Conservation of Forests" and campaign should be "Plant more trees".The


global destruction of forests should be discouraged or atleast minimized and afforestation should be encouraged because no one on this earth will escape from the adverse effects of a balding earth 10. Basic and applied research in public health engineering should be encouraged: 11. The possible reuse or recycle of treated sewage effluents and industrial wastes should be emphasized and encouraged.

Disaster is defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover. Is a natural or human-caused event which causes intensive negative impacts on people, goods, services and/or the environment, exceeding the affected communitys capability to respond Disaster Management: Is more than just response and relief (i.e., it assumes a more proactive approach) Is a systematic process (i.e., is based on the key management principles of planning, organizing, and leading which includes coordinating and controlling) Aims to reduce the negative impact or consequences of adverse events. (i.e., disasters cannot always be prevented, but the adverse effects can be minimized) Types of Disaster:Disasters are mainly of 2 types, 1. Natural disasters. Example earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. 2. Man made disasters. Example war, bomb blasts, chemical leaks, etc.

The phases of all disasters be it natural or manmade, are the same. The disasters often differ in quantity of damage caused or in quality of the type of medical consequences. For example earthquakes cause a lot of physical injury and fractures, floods cause drowning deaths and infections, chemical leaks cause toxic manifestations, etc.


A graphic Representation of the Four Phases in Disaster management

1.Mitigation:Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. 23

Structural measures use technological solutions, like flood levees. Non-structural measures include legislation, land-use planning (e.g. the designation of nonessential land like parks to be used as flood zones), and insurance. Mitigation is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of hazards. However, mitigation is not always suitable and structural mitigation in particular may have adverse effects on the ecosystem. 3. Preparedness:- This phase involves the development of awareness among the population on the general aspects of disaster and on how to behave in the face of a future disaster. This includes education on warning signs of disasters, methods of safe and successful evacuation and first aid measures. Common preparedness measures include the communication plans with easily understandable terminology command




development and practice of multi-agency coordination and incident command proper maintenance and training of emergency services development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans stockpiling, inventory, and maintenance of supplies and equipment. 3. Response:The response phase includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area. This is likely to include a first wave of core emergency services, such as firefighters, police and ambulance crews. They may be supported by a number of secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams. In addition volunteers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the local Red Cross branch may provide immediate practical assistance, from first aid provision to providing food and counseling. A well rehearsed emergency plan developed as part of the preparedness phase enables efficient coordination of rescue efforts. Emergency plan rehearsal is essential to achieve optimal output with limited resources. Medical assets will be used in accordance with the appropriate triage of the affected victims. Where required, search and rescue efforts commence at an early stage.


Depending on injuries sustained by the victim, outside temperature, and victim access to air and water, the vast majority of those affected by a disaster will die within 72 hours after impact. Individuals are often compelled to volunteer directly after a disaster. Volunteers can be both a help and a hindrance to emergency management and other relief agencies. 4.Recovery:The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed. Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, reemployment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure. An important aspect of effective recovery efforts is taking advantage of a window of opportunity for the implementation of mitigate measures that might otherwise be unpopular. Citizens of the affected area are more likely to accept more mitigate changes when a recent disaster is in fresh memory.

Guidelines for flood Disaster:- (NDMA)

Before a Flood To prepare for a flood, you should: Avoid building in a floodprone area unless you elevate and reinforce your home. Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding. Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from backing up into the drains of your home. Contact community officials to find out if they are planning to construct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the homes in your area. Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage. During a Flood If a flood is likely in your area, you should: Listen to the radio or television for information. Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move. Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain. If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following: Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an upper floor.


Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water. If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips: Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness of the ground in front of you. Do not drive into flooded areas. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to higher ground if you can do so safely. You and the vehicle can be quickly swept away. Driving Flood Facts The following are important points to remember when driving in flood conditions: Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling. A foot of water will float many vehicles. Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and pick-ups. After a Flood The following are guidelines for the period following a flood: Listen for news reports to learn whether the communitys water supply is safe to drink. Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. Avoid moving water. Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a vehicle. Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the power company. Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe. Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters. Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards. Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwater can contain sewage and chemicals. 26

Flood: Know Your Terms Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a flood hazard: Flood Watch: Flooding is possible. Tune in to Local Radio for Weather Services, commercial radio, or television for information. Flash Flood Watch: Flash flooding is possible. Be prepared to move to higher ground; listen to Local Radio for Weather Services, commercial radio, or television for information. Flood Warning: Flooding is occurring or will occur soon; if advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Flash Flood Warning: A flash flood is occurring; seek higher ground on foot immediately.

Guidelines for cyclone :- (NDMA)

The actions that need to be taken in the event of a cyclone threat can broadly be divided into four classes, viz., (i) immediately before the cyclone season; (ii) when cyclone alerts and warnings are on; (iii) when evacuations are advised; and (iv) when the cyclone has crossed the coast. Before the Cyclone season: Check the house; secure loose tiles, carry out repair works for doors and windows Remove dead woods or dying trees close to the house; anchor removable objects like lumber piles, loose tin sheds, loose bricks, garbage cans, sign-boards etc. which can fly in strong winds Keep some wooden boards ready so that glass windows can be boarded if needed Keep a hurricane lantern filled with kerosene, battery operated torches and enough dry cells Demolish condemned buildings Keep some extra batteries for transistors Keep some dry non-perishable food always ready for emergency use When the Cyclone starts Listen to the radio (All India Radio stations give weather warnings). Keep monitoring the warnings. This will help you to prepare for a cyclone emergency. Pass on the information to others. Ignore rumours and do not spread them; this will help to avoid panic situations. 27

Believe in the official information When a cyclone alert is on for your area continue normal working but stay a lert to the radio warnings. Remember that a cyclone alert means that the danger is within 24 hours. Stay alert. When your area is under cyclone warning get away from low-lying beaches or other low-lying areas close to the coast Leave early before your way to high ground or shelter gets flooded Do not delay and run the risk of being marooned If your house is securely built on high ground take shelter in the safer part of the house. However, if asked to evacuate do not hesitate to leave the place. Board up glass windows or put storm shutters in place. Provide strong suitable support for outside doors. If you do not have wooden boards handy, paste paper strips on glasses to prevent splinters. However, this may not avoid breaking windows. Get extra food, which can be eaten without cooking. Store extra drinking water in suitably covered vessels. If you are to evacuate the house move your valuable articles to upper floors to minimize flood damage. Have hurricane lantern, torches or other emergency lights in working conditions and keep them handy. Small and loose things, which can fly in strong winds, should be stored safely in a room. Be sure that a window and door can be opened only on the side opposite to the one facing the wind. Make provision for children and adults requiring special diets. If the centre of the cyclone is passing directly over your house there will be a lull in the wind and rain lasting for half and hour or so. During this time do not go out; because immediately after that very strong winds will blow from the opposite direction. Switch off electrical mains in your house. Remain calm.


When Evacuation is instructed Pack essentials for yourself and your family to last you a few days, including medicines, special foods for babies and children or elders. Head for the proper shelter or evacuation points indicated for your area. Do not worry about your property At the shelter follow instructions of the person in charge. Remain in the shelter until you have been informed to leave Post-cyclone measures You should remain in the shelter until informed that you can return to your home. You must get inoculated against diseases immediately. Strictly avoid any loose and dangling wires from the lamp posts. If you are to drive, drive carefully. Clear debris from your premises immediately. Report the correct loss to appropriate authorities.

Guidelines for earthquake:- (NDMA)

What to Do Before an Earthquake Repair deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects. Anchor overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling. Follow BIS codes relevant to your area for building standards Fasten shelves securely to walls. Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches. Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, settees, and anywhere people sit. Brace overhead light and fan fixtures. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks. Secure a water heater, LPG cylinder etc., by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor. Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves. Identify safe places indoors and outdoors. 1. Under strong dining table, bed 2. Against an inside wall 3. Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where


heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over 4. In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines, flyovers, bridges Educate yourself and family members Know emergency telephone numbers (doctor, hospital, police, etc) Have a disaster emergency kit ready 1. Battery operated torch 2. Extra batteries 3. Battery operated radio 4. First aid kit and manual 5. Emergency food (dry items) and water (packed and sealed) 6. Candles and matches in a waterproof container 7. Knife 8. Chlorine tablets or powdered water purifiers 9. Can opener. 10. Essential medicines 11. Cash and credit cards 12. Thick ropes and cords 13. Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan 1. In case family members are separated from one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. 2. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the 'family contact' After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person. Help your community get ready 1. Publish a special section in your local newspaper with emergency information on earthquakes. Localize the information by printing the phone numbers of local emergency services offices and hospitals. 2. Conduct a week-long series on locating hazards in the home. 3. Work with local emergency services and officials to prepare special reports for people with mobility impairments on what to do during an earthquake. 4. Provide tips on conducting earthquake drills in the home. 5. Interview representatives of the gas, electric, and water companies about shutting off utilities. Work together in your community to apply your knowledge to building codes, retrofitting programmes, hazard hunts, and neighborhood and family emergency plans. What to Do during an Earthquake Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.


If indoors DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; andHOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isnt a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building. Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a room, under a table or even under a bed. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture. Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place. Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, loadbearing doorway. Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave. Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on. DO NOT use the elevators. If outdoors Stay there. Move away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and utility wires. Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits, and alongside exterior walls. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects. If in a moving vehicle Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires. Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, br idges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake. If trapped under debris Do not light a match. Do not move about or kick up dust. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.


After an earthquake Keep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear on it. Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweep in. Expect aftershocks. Be prepared. Turn off the water, gas and electricity. Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do not turn on switches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits. Use a torch. If there is a fire, try to put it out. If you cannot, call the fire brigade. If people are seriously injured, do not move them unless they are in danger. Immediately clean up any inflammable products that may have spilled (alcohol, paint, etc). If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Do not rush and do not worsen the situation of injured persons or your own situation. Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touch any metal object in contact with them. Do not drink water from open containers without having examined it and filtered it through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth. If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collect water containers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (for persons with heart complaints, diabetes, etc.) Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near damaged structures.