Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23





2 2 3 4 9 9 10 10 11 11 13 14 15 16 17 17

Shiv Pratap Singh




With the growth of automation in Power Engineering Instrumentation practice, Measurement and process control has attained relevant importance in the design of systems. This control system can be actuated either by pneumatic or electronic controllers. By far, the pneumatic controllers are preferred for its simplicity and economy. In addition to the compressed air being used for control (termed as Instrument Air - IA), it is also used for purposes such as atomising fuel in a fuel gun, scavenging a fuel gun for maintenance purposes power for driving pneumatic appliances (termed as Service Air-SA). The aim of this design guide is to identify the compressed air requirement of major associated equipment in a Thermal power station, Gas turbine plant and Combined cycle power plant and to evolve guidelines for selection of design parameters of the compressed air system.

Shiv Pratap Singh


listed below: .


This design guide with the different parameters of a compressed air system, which are

Sizing and No. of air compressors. Types of Compressors. Compressor Outlet Pressure. Capacity Control of Compressors. Sizing and No. of air Receivers. Air Drying Plant. Drain Points. Valves

This design guide is discussed under the following heads: State of Art. Analysis & Recommendation.

State of art This includes a brief discussion on the practices being followed specially by Indian consultants, namely DCL and NTPC in the selection of the various design parameters of a compressed air system. A station capacity of two (2) units of 210/500 MW each has been considered while working out an example on compressor sizing. Analysis & Recommendations: The merits and demerits of the various prevalent practices that are controversial in nature and discussed above under state of art are analysed. Based on this analysis recommended practices to be adopted are made for implementation. It is suggested that BHEL's view point in this matter are impressed upon the customer during discussions with them.

Shiv Pratap Singh




A compressed air plant comprises of the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) Air compressor Compressor drive, which is generally an electric motor. Inter and after coolers. Air receiver Air drying plant. Distribution piping with valves, drain traps, etc.

The compressor is the heart of the plant which sucks ambient air through suction filter-cum-silencer. The compressor can be horizontal or vertical, single or multistage, reciprocating or screw and can be air or water cooled. The compressor is driven by an electric motor either directly coupled or through `V' belts. When ambient air is compressed in the compressor, enormous heat will be added to the air due to compression. The resulting air temperature may be as high as 160C, which, if directly used, will be harmful to the equipment. Hence in case of a multistage compression, the compressed air is cooled in an intercooler and after final compression, is cooled in an after cooler. The inter and after coolers can either be air or water cooled and if water cooled, can either be horizontal or vertical. Immediately next to the aftercooler, a moisture separator which can be integral part to aftercooler or separate is provided to remove the condensed moisture from the cooled compressed air. An automatic drain trap is provided at the bottom of the separator, which drains out periodically, the collected water. The air, thus compressed and cooled, is stored in an air receiver before distribution. The receiver, in addition to storage, also dampens the pulsations in air and will condense and drain as much moisture as possible through auto/manual drain traps provided. From the air receiver, service air is taken to the various consumer points directly whereas the instrument air is taken through an Air drying plant. The purpose of the

Shiv Pratap Singh


Air drying plant is to remove the moisture from the air, which otherwise gets condensed on the working parts of the actuators and hampers the equipment. Now a days to maintain the interchangability of air in case of emergency is envisaged and subsequently the service air is also made moisture free. The air is dried to a dew temperature of - 40o C. Air Drying Plant generally used in power station are of following type 1. 2. 3. 4. . Reactivated Blower Type Heat of Compression Heatless Dryer Type Refrigerated type

Shiv Pratap Singh




The practice of sizing of on I-A compressor for a station capacity of two units (2x210 MW) is to consider the total continuous & intermittent requirement for each unit. Simultaneity factor of 0.4 is considered for intermittent requirement. In addition to this a margin of 25% for leakage, wear & tear and contingency is taken for sizing the compresses. Service air requirement is generally less than Instrument air requirement, but compressor of service air is select same as that of instrument air keeping in mind the contingency requirement in case of emergency. Analysis & Recommendation: For the 2x100%/200 MW unites, it is recommended to provide capacity compressors, so that one will act as a standby. Reciprocating v/s screw compressors. In power plants, generally positive displacement compressors are installed for compressed air system because of large flows and high pressure characteristics. Wherever possible, it is advisable to provide same capacity compressors for IA & SA duties for interchangeability and advantage of common spares. Various Consumption Points in Power Plant: Typical Instrument Air Requirement for 500 MW (Continuous and Intermittent) S.NO DESCRIPTION Eqpt. per boiler 4 88 22 1 2 2 2 10 10 10 10 Cont./ QTY QTY Cont Total QTY Inter Inter(per (NM3/ min) Cont (NM3/ opn.) min.) Cont Cont Cont Inter Inter Inter Cont. Cont Cont Inter Inter 0,018 0,018 1,018 0,018 0,02 0,22 0,086 0,006 0,03 0,09 0,09 0,88 6,88 0,12 0,06 0,81 0,81 -

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Burner Tilt P/C Sec. air damper I/P converter for SADC Scanner air emer. Damper Scanner air fan dis. Damper Seal air fan dis. Damper Seal air filter DP controller Hot air regulating dampers Cold air regulating dampers Hot air shutoff gate Cold air shut off gate

Shiv Pratap Singh


12 LO trip valve 13 HO pressure control valve 14 HO pressure control valve I/P converter 15 HO temperature control valve 16 HO temperature control valve I/P converter 17 HO cooler temperature control valve 18 HO cooler temperature control valve I/P converter 19 Atomising steam press. reducing valve 20 HO recirculation line trip valve 21 HO trip valve 22 HO flow control valve 23 Corner nozzle valves 24 Ignitor advance - Retract mechanism 25 SH spray control valve 26 SH Block Valve 27 RH block valve 28 RH spray control valve 29 SB steam PRV 30 AH DA Head valve 31 SB steam drain temp. control valve 32 LO pressure control valve

1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 68 20 4 1 1 4 2 4 5 1

Inter Cont Cont Cont Cont. Cont. Cont. Cont Inter Inter Cont Inter Inter Cont Inter Inter Cont Cont Inter Cont Cont Cont Cont Inter Inter Inter Inter Cont Cont Cont. Cont Cont. Inter 2 Cont

0,015 0,015 0,015 0,03 0,006 0,0174 0,0174 0,015 0,09 0,09 0,09 0,18 -

0,03 0,0025 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,033 0,033 0,033 0,03 0,03 0,0025 0,09 0,028 0,22 0.028 0,18

0,06 0,005 0,18 0,18 0,03 0,03 0,06 0,06 0,132 0,132 0,066 0,18 0,06 0,005 0,18 0,504 0,88 2.52 6,48 4.688

33 LO pressure control valve I/P 1 converter 34 LO flow control valve 1 35 Seal Air to mill discharge 10 36 Seal Air to mill 10 37 Seal Air to Feeder 10 38 Feeder outlet gate 10 39 Purge Meters 20 40 AH outlet regulating damper 4 41 Purge Air for Flue gas & mill 90 pressure tappings 42 Boiler Frame Analysing System 36 C & I Requirement ( EDN Bangalore ) 1 IA for oprn. of control valve/ E-P linestor 2 IA for SO2/NOx probe purging PIPING CENTRE ( MADRAS ) 1 Primary SCAPH steam control valve

0,283 0,05 0,1

Shiv Pratap Singh


I/P Converter 2 Secondary SCAPH steam control valve I/P Converter 3 CBD level control CBD I/P Converter 4 Primary Scaph drain level control I/P Converter 5 Secondary Scaph drain level control I/P Converter BFP(Hyderabad) 1 BFP Recirculation Valve Pneumatic Actuator

2 Cont 2 Cont 2 Cont 1 Cont 1 Cont 1 Cont 1 Cont 1 Cont 1 Cont 3 Cont.

0,16 0,05 0,16 0,05 0,16 0,05 0,16 0,05 0,16 0.066

0,32 0,1 0,32 0,05 0,16 0,05 0,16 0,05 0,16 0.198

Miscellaneous 1 Ash Handling Plant 2 Mill Reject System 3 DM Plant Typical Service Air Requirement for 500 MW (Continuous and Intermittent) S.NO DESCRIPTION

Cont Cont Cont

5 1.25 3

1 2 3 4 5 6

Atomising air for LDO firing

Pulveriser Coal sampler HEA Ignitor Feeders bulls eye cleaning. Furnace temp. probe Regenerative air heater air motor -primary - secondary 7 Regenerative air heater air blower -primary - secondary 8 Air Heater fire sensing device 9 Acoustic Pyrometer 10 Furnace Observation door - Bleed Air 90 Cont. - Air Curtain 4 Inter C & I Requirement ( EDN Bangalore ) 1 Purging of transmitter lines in boiler linese Inter.

No.. Per Cont./ QTY per Total QTY boiler Inter/ eqpt per Boiler start (NM3/hr) (NM3/ Hr) up 4 During 350 1400 Start up 2 Inter 35 70 20 Cont 27 540 10 Inter 1 10 2 Inter 600 1200 2 Emerg 405 810 2 Emerg 405 810 2 Inter 640 1280 2 Inter 640 1280 4 Cont. 1 4 Cont 408 2 20 8.55 180 ---

Shiv Pratap Singh


Miscellaneous 1 Mill Reject System CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT


TOTAL (Cont.)

Shiv Pratap Singh



Notes: 1. Air consumption listed above is typical for any 2X 210/500 MW Thermal power station with requirement varying from case to case. 2. Air requirement during initial start up & commissioning has not been consumption in the consumption for sizing of compressor for e.g., For purging operation (generator at stand still) For air leakage during commissioning For pressure testing after terminal box welding Atomising air for LDO firing Regenerative air heater air motor Regenerative air heater air blower 3. Acoustic Pyrometer requirement is considered in calculation of Service air requirement 4. Air requirement for Ash Handling plant and Mill reject system may be considered in the sizing of compressor, in case customer asks for. 5. Coal Flow measurement requirement is also to be considered in calculation of instrument air Requirement (Excluded in this case) 6. Customer Requirement is also to be taken into care. 7. For sizing of compressor capacity, we take a factor of 0.4 for intermittent requirement with an overall margin of 25 % on the total air requirement. For e.g., In Bakreswar, we have compressor of 15NM3/ min and for Simhadri 30 NM3/ min capacity.

TO CONCLUDE THE FOLLOWING ARE RECOMMENDED: 1. 2. 4. 5. possible. The IA and S.A compressor shall be sized for the total of all continuous For each stage of power station two (2) 100% IA and two (2) 100% SA 25% margin of compressor wear & tear, leakage etc., shall be added to the Identical and equal capacity compressors will be considered, wherever requirements plus the intermittent requirement of one unit. compressors shall be proposed (one (1) working and one (1) standby). requirement in all cases.

Shiv Pratap Singh



5.1 5.1.1


Reciprocating V/s Screw compressor. State of art (a) Reciprocating compressor - In this type of compressor, we generally have a decrease in volume of air, resulting in increase of pressure by positive displacement of piston. Due to reciprocating action of piston, gas (air) compresses and pressure is increased. (b) Screw compressor - Screw compressor to basically a twin Helical lobe compressor, in which both lobes rotate simultaneously and compress the air/gas in between. The advantage of the screw over reciprocating compressors, is the economy with regard to Lesser space requirement. Lesser expensive foundation. Lower creation time. Lower maintenance cost.


Analysis and Recommendation In present scenario consultants like NTPC and DCL are preferring Screw compressors over reciprocating compressors due to aforesaid reasons.

5.2 5.2.1

Lubricated v/s Non-lubricated: State of Art: Instrument air compressors are required to be non-lubricated type since pressure of oil is harmful and affects the performance of the diaphragm operated controllers. The I.A. compressors are designed to be oil free by provision of Teflon rings instead of the conventional oil rings.


Analysis & Recommendations: It is essential that the instrument air compressors should be oil free type. In case of service air, even though oil free air is not a must, still certain advantages as under will be obtained if made oil free like Instrument air compressors. a) The traces of oil carried over settles in the distribution piping and in course of time may choke the lines.

Shiv Pratap Singh



b) The inter-connection between the IA system & SA system is possible without the necessity to include the oil separator, which increases the multiplicity of the IA system. c) In case of identical service and instrument air compressors, spare inventory is reduced. Hence it is recommended that the service air compressor also may be of nonlubricated type. 5.3 5.3.1 Single stage vs. Multiple stage: State of art The pressure of say 8.0 kg/cm2 (g) can be achieved with a single stage compression from atmospheric to 8.0 kg/cm2 (g) or compress it to an intermediate pressure of about 4 kg/cm2(g) in the first stage, cool it, then compress it to 8.0 kg/cm2 (g) in the second stage. 5.3.2 Analysis & Recommendation: The advantage obtained in two stage compression is that because of the interstage cooling, and the lesser compression ratio in both the stages, the temperature of air attained will be about 140C, whereas in case of single stage compression the temperature attained will be about 210C. Handling of air at lesser temperature has its own advantages and results in better life and better performance of the machine. Another advantage of two-stage compression is the lesser HP required at the shaft of the compressor. It is therefore recommended that a two-stage compressor be provided for both LA & SA compressors with a discharge pressure greater than 7 kg/cm2 (g) except for very small capacity compressors.

Shiv Pratap Singh



6.1 State of art:


Most of the controllers and other consumer points of the compressed air system require a pressure of 7 kg/cm2 (g) for their proper operation. Allowing a line pressure drop of 0.5 kg/cm2 upto the farthest point (for 2 units) and a further pressure drop of 0.5 kg/cm2 in the air drying plant, after cooler, inter cooler, vales etc., discharge pressure of the compressor is to be around 8.0 kg/cm2 (g). 6.2 Analysis & Recommendation: It is recommended that both IA & SA compressor (s) shall have a discharge pressure of 8 kg/cm2 (g).

Shiv Pratap Singh



7.1 (A)


State of art: Reciprocating Compressor The capacity of a compressor can be controlled by two methods termed as `Dual Control'. Load/unload method ON/OFF method Load/unload method: In this mode the compressor runs continuously but its capacity is controlled by loading and unloading a set of cylinder by lifting the suction valve plates off their seats, which is affected through an electric means. Once the desired pressure setting in the pressure switch (s)/, these cylinders are loaded again on fall of pressure. The Drawing `Scheme of Controlling Air Compressor' indicates a scheme where in the capacity control is achieved in steps of 100%, 50% and 0% through the solenoid valves SV1 & SV2 which are energised to open at set valves by means of pressure switches installed on the outlet header of each compressor. This allows the air from the air receivers to the unloading valves of the compressor thus unloading the compressor 50% & 100% respectively. Similarly, the loading in steps of 50% & 100% is achieved when the solenoid valves SV1 & SV2 are closed successively. On-off method In this mode the compressor is started or stopped automatically depending on the air pressure. The pressure switches mounted on each compressor outlet header give signal to compressor motor starter thereby starting and stopping compressor motor.


Screw Compressor Capacity Control for Screw Compressor. a) The capacity is regulated by throttling the air inlet and at the same time, opening a blow off valve. Under load the blow-off valve is closed and the throttle valve fully open. The unloading device is operated by a spring loaded automatic air relay of the

Shiv Pratap Singh



same type as that used. b) Slide valve control for screw compressor. This type of control incorporates a third bars in the compressor casing, at the cusp of the rotor bars. In this bars is positioned a slide valve at the discharge side of the rotor, enabling recycling of the partially compressed air. As the compressor is off-loaded, the valve moves progressively opening up parts, which connect the compressed air back to inlet. This form of control is only suitable. when the compressor is driven by a constant speed device such as an electric motor. In case of screw compressor, we have normally 0-100% control system as compared to reciprocating compressor where we have 0-50-100% capacity control. 7.2 Analysis & Recommendation: In case of intermittent demand of compressed air the fall and rise in pressure will be very rapid and in case of the ON/OFF mode the compressor motor is subject to frequent start and stop which will naturally be harmful to the motor and cable and the compressor will have reduced life in view of the frequent stress imposed on it. The IS. No. IS-6206-1971 entitled Guide for Selection, installation and maintenance of air compressor plants with operating pressures up to 10 Bars. states Automatic start - stop operation of motor is also possible but its use shall depend upon the size of the motor, the nature of the application, and local conditions of power supply. The following are recommended. a) `Dual Control' with the load/unload control being, `Main' and ON/OFF as `Standby' shall be provided. b) The Load/Unload system shall have both electric and mechanical means of load/unload, the mechanical as a standby to the electrical one. In case of failure of the pressure switch or the solenoid valve associated with the electrical system (which is quite frequent), the air regulator path i.e. `Mechanical' control can be opened manually through a selector, switch.

Shiv Pratap Singh



c) Automatic changeover to `Mechanical' in case of failure of control supply is not recommended and an alarm then will be initiated to indicate `Control supply failure. d) Loading & unloading in steps of 0%, 50% & 100% are only recommended. e) The compressors in whatever mode of capacity control shall be able to start only in unloaded condition.

Shiv Pratap Singh



8.1 State Of Art:


When the boiler/turbine unit trips due to power failure the compressors also trip. But however, compressed air is required for bringing down the essential control/trip valves to their original position and also emergency running of regenerative air heater air motor. These requirements are met from the air receiver. . 8.2 Analysis and Recommendation: The following are recommended: i) The total live I.A. and S.A. receivers(s) capacity shall be sized based on storing ten (10) minutes of total working Instrument air compressor (s) capacity or as per customer requirement taking into account the resultant increase in volume of air due to fall in pressure from receiver pressure of 8 kg/cm2 (g) which being the minimum pressure at which most of the instruments can operate. ii) Each compressor whether IA or SA shall have an individual receiver attached to it for dampening the vibrations of compressed air. There shall be a common air header after the receivers and no valve shall be provided on the inlet side to the receivers. iii) All receivers shall preferably be located outdoors, adjacent to the compressor plant.

Shiv Pratap Singh



9.1 State of art:


The air Drying Plant is needed for providing moisture free compressed air which is required for the instrument controls. The present day air drying plant are capable of drying air to a dew point of -40C. This quality of air is generally acceptable to all the instruments and controllers. . (a) Blower Regenerated No loss Type Drier - The regeneration air from centrifugal blower at low pressure is allowed to pass through an electrical heater of predetermined rating. The hot air which has got very high moisture holding capacity picks up the absorbed moisture from saturated desiccant bed and vented to atmosphere. (b) Heat of compression: (i) Full flow - Hot air from last stage compression is bed into the absorber vessel

for regeneration and then same air is cooled in a specially designed combination cooler. After cooling; this air goes through the second absorber where the moisture goes absorbed in activated bed and dry air goes out. (ii) Split Flow: - The main compressed air stream passes through after cooler,

then into drying section, and finally out of the dryer into the dry compressed air net. All moisture is removed through adsorption by the silica gel powder on the glass fibre based paper drum. The regeneration airstream by passes the after cooler and in lead is shunted into the regeneration section. The regenerated airflow is mixed with the main flow in the ejector nozzle. . 9.2 Analysis & Recommendation: Earlier non-purged air flow, desiccant type, air drying plant with separate blower and suction filter arrangement was recommended but know a days due to advent of screw compressors in the compressed air system, Heat of compression type Air drying plant is being asked by the customer.

Shiv Pratap Singh



10.0 10.1

DISTRIBUTION PIPING & JOINTS: State of Art: The compressed air piping can either be of mild steel galvanised. It is an obvious fact

that galvanised pipes are superior to black pipes, because of its corrosion resistance. The cost difference between a black and galvanised compressed air pipework, which are of small bore, is very insignificant and hence galvanised piping for both IA and SA pipework are preferred. . To conclude the following are recommended: a) Galvanised pipes for both IA & SA with screwed joints as per BS: 21:1973

only with Teflon tapes, if necessary. b) For site threading a coat of zinc epoxy shall be applied both inside and

outside after due cleaning of the part. c) location. 11.0 DRAIN POINTS: The distribution piping shall be run over ground with drain points at suitable


State of Art: At convenient intervals (preferably 30 m) in the distribution pipework, drain points

are to be provided at operating level, this is with a view to drain out periodically, the water collected in the pipework, this can be through a normally closed globe valve, which can be opened manually at periodic intervals, or an automatic drain trap. In case of auto drain traps, they get clogged due to dirt in course of time and hence do not function properly. It, therefore, becomes necessary to provide manual bypass arrangements. 11.2 Analysis & Recommendations:

Shiv Pratap Singh



It is recommended to provide only Manual Drain Traps in compressed air system at, accessible & visible locations at periodic intervals not exceeding 30 M at the lowest points. The pipe should be given a fall of not less than 1 M in the direction of air flow. However, in the compressor house where the piping is run in trenches, auto drain traps with manual Bypass shall be provided.




State of Art: The following types of valves are being used in the compressed air lines: a) b) c) d) Gate valve Globe valve Plug valve Ball valve



1. IS- 2825/1969: 2. IS- 4503/1967: 3. IS- 5456/1985: 4. IS- 5727/1981: 5. IS- 1239/1990: 6. IS- 1239/1992: 7. IS- 6206/1985:

Code for unfired pressure vessels. Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger Code of practice for testing of positive displacement type air compressors and exhausters. Glossary of terms relating to compressors and exhausters. Mild steel tubes, tubular and other wrought steel fittings (Part - 1) Mild steel tubes, tubular and other wrought steel fittings (Part - 2) Guide for selection, installation and maintenance of air compressors/

Shiv Pratap Singh



plants with operating pressure upto 10 bars. 8. IS- 7938/1976: 9. IS- 10431/1983: 10. IS- 3401/1992: 11. IS- 4894/1987: 12. BS- 5169/1975: 13. ANSI -B16.5: Air receivers for compressed Air Installations. Measurement of air flow of compressors and exhauster by nozzles (Part -1) Silica gel desiccant. Centrifugal Fan Fusion Weld Steel Air Receiver. Steel Pipes Flanges and fittings

Shiv Pratap Singh



AIR REUIREMENT OF COMPRESSOR Type of Instrument Air (NM3/min) Service Air (NM3/min) Requirement 500MW 210/250MW 500MW 210/250MW 23.45** TRICHY Continuous 6.8826 18.86(3)** 10.4166 (Boiler) Intermittent 0.67* 1.159 (2) 1.1 HARDWAR Continuous Negligible 0.086 (2) (Turbine) Intermittent Negligible (2) EDN Continuous 5.217* 2.8142 (C&I) Intermittent 0.283** 8.55** 1.47* PIPING Continuous Intermittent JHANSI Continuous (Bus Duct) Intermittent BFP Continuous (Hydrebad) Intermittent 0.198** 0.004 CHP Continuous 1.167 Intermittent 1.67** FOS Continuous Intermittent 0.06 2 DMP Continuous 3* Intermittent MISC Continuous 6.25** 5** Intermittent . . . Note: Requirement may vary from case to case . In case of 500 MW, air requirement marked with * Is Simhadri requirement ** Is Talcher requirement . 1.5 -

Shiv Pratap Singh