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Interface dan adc/dac

Hardware interfaces

Hardware interfaces exist in computing systems between many of the components such as the

various buses, storage devices, other I/O devices, etc.

A hardware interface is described by the mechanical, electrical and logical signals at the interface and the

protocol for sequencing them (sometimes called signaling). [1]

Real Time Data Acquisition and Control.

Hardware interfaces

A standard interface, such as SCSI, decouples the design and introduction of computing hardware, such as I/O devices, from the design and introduction of other components of a computing system, thereby allowing users and manufacturers great flexibility in the implementation of computing systems. [1]

Hardware interfaces can be parallel where performance is important or serial where distance is important.

ISA, EISA, VESA, PCI , IDE

Rujukan 1

Rujukan 1

Rujukan 2

Rujukan 2
Rujukan 2

21.1 Input/Output Devices and Controllers

Table 3.3

Some input, output, and two-way I/O devices.

 

Input type

Prime examples

Other examples

Data rate (b/s)

Main uses

Symbol

Keyboard, keypad

Music note, OCR

10s

Ubiquitous

Position

Mouse, touchpad

Stick, wheel, glove

100s

Ubiquitous

Identity

Barcode reader

Badge, fingerprint

100s

Sales, security

Sensory

Touch, motion, light

Scent, brain signal

100s

Control, security

Audio

Microphone

Phone, radio, tape

1000s

Ubiquitous

Image

Scanner, camera

Graphic tablet

1000s-10 6 s

Photos, publishing

Video

Camcorder, DVD

VCR, TV cable

1000s-10 9 s

Entertainment

Output type

Prime examples

Other examples

Data rate (b/s)

Main uses

Symbol

LCD line segments

LED, status light

10s

Ubiquitous

Position

Stepper motor

Robotic motion

100s

Ubiquitous

Warning

Buzzer, bell, siren

Flashing light

A few

Safety, security

Sensory

Braille text

Scent, brain stimulus

100s

Personal assistance

Audio

Speaker, audiotape

Voice synthesizer

1000s

Ubiquitous

Image

Monitor, printer

Plotter, microfilm

1000s

Ubiquitous

Video

Monitor, TV screen

Film/video recorder

1000s-10 9 s

Entertainment

Two-way I/O

Prime examples

Other examples

Data rate (b/s)

Main uses

Mass storage

Hard/floppy disk

CD, tape, archive

10

6 s

Ubiquitous

Network

Modem, fax, LAN

Cable, DSL, ATM

1000s-10 9 s

Ubiquitous

Feb. 2011

Computer Architecture, Input/Output

and Interfacing

Slide 5

Diagram Dasar

Diagram Dasar

I/O Organization for Greater Performance

Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache

Interrupts

Main

Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
memory

memory

memory
memory
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache

Memory bus

CPU

Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache

Cache

Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache
Interrupts Main memory Memory bus CPU Cache

AGP

Bus adapter
Bus
adapter

PCI bus

Bus adapter
Bus
adapter

Proprietary

Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
Bus adapter PCI bus Bus adapter Proprietary I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O
I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O controller Bus adapter I/O bus I/O controller I/O controller

I/O controller

Graphics

display

Intermediate

I/O controller
I/O controller
I/O controller
I/O controller

I/O controller

I/O controller
I/O controller Graphics display Intermediate I/O controller Bus adapter I/O bus I/O controller I/O controller buses
Bus adapter I/O bus
Bus
adapter
I/O bus
I/O controller
I/O controller
I/O controller

I/O controller

I/O controller
I/O controller
I/O controller
I/O controller

I/O controller

I/O controller

buses / ports

Standard

Network

Disk

Disk

CD/DVD

Figure 21.2

buses (to be explained in Chapter 23).

Input/output via intermediate and dedicated I/O

Feb. 2011

Computer Architecture, Input/Output

and Interfacing

Slide 7

via intermediate and dedicated I/O Feb. 2011 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 7

Baca Memori

Baca Memori

Tulis Memori

Tulis Memori

Baca I/O PORT

Baca I/O PORT

Tulis I/O Port

Tulis I/O Port

Timing

Timing

Counters

Counters

Timers

Timers

Antarmuka Parallel Vs. Serial

Using Serial than Parallel

Transmitting data to a relatively distance peripherals

Requires only one data

wire

8 wires for parallel

Less cable, line drivers and

receivers

Esp. Long distance

To use commercial communication facilities

such as regular telephone

or data lines

Chap 0

• Esp. Long distance – To use commercial communication facilities such as regular telephone or data

16

Slot paralel

Slot

paralel

Port

Port
Sistem interupsi

Sistem

interupsi

Pengontrol interupsi

Pengontrol interupsi
Pengontrol interupsi

Peta Memori

Peta Memori
Peta Memori

Desain interface

Desain interface

Kaset

Kaset

Decoder addr 703

Decoder addr 703
Latch

Latch

Antarmuka

paralel

Antarmuka paralel
Printer

Printer

Data bus paralel port

Data bus paralel port

Buffer + latch

Buffer + latch

Antarmuka arus/tegangan besar

Antarmuka arus/tegangan besar

Paralel port

Paralel port

Rs 232-c

R s 232-c

Current-loop

Current-loop

Komunikasi Asinkron

Komunikasi Asinkron

Asinkronus Adapter

Asinkronus Adapter
Asinkronus Adapter

25 pin communication

25 pin communication
25 pin communication
25 pin communication

ADC vs DAC

konverter

konverter

ADC vs DAC

ADC vs DAC
ADC vs DAC

Analog to Digital? How's it done?

Forouzan Chapter 4.3 (around lecture 16)

How's it done? • Forouzan – Chapter 4.3 (around lecture 16) 3 March 2004 © Peter

3 March 2004

© Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

40

ANALOG TO DIGITAL

CONVERTER

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER

Diagram ADC

Diagram ADC
Rangkaian ADC

Rangkaian

ADC

Contoh

ADC

Contoh ADC

Komponen ADC

Komponen ADC
Komponen ADC

DIGITAL TO ANALOG

CONVERTER (DAC)

DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC)
DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC)

Contoh Rangkaian DAC

Contoh Rangkaian DAC

Komponen DAC

Komponen DAC
Komponen DAC
BIOS

BIOS

SEKIAN

SCSI: Small Computer System

Interface

SCSI is actually an acronym for Small Computer System Interface

and it is pronounced as "skuzzy". It is the second-most popular hard disk interface used in PCs today. It's a high-speed, intelligent peripheral I/O bus with a device independent protocol

for transferring data between different types of peripheral devices.

The SCSI bus connects all parts of a computer system so that they can communicate with each other. The bus frees the host processor from the responsibility of I/O internal tasks. A SCSI bus can be either

internal, external, or cross the boundary from internal to external. The SCSI protocol is a peer-to-peer relationship: one device does not have to be subordinated to another device in order to perform I/0 activities. Only two of these devices can communicate on the bus at

any given time.

Each SCSI bus can connect up to 8 or up to 16 peripherals; one of those devices will always be the computer or the SCSI card, because they too are devices on the SCSI. SCSI devices are designated as

either initiators (drivers) or targets (receivers) and the interface to the

host computer is called the host adapter. Every device connected to the bus will have a different SCSI ID, ranging from 0 to 7. The host adapter takes up one ID leaving 7 ID's for other hardware. SCSI

hardware typically consists of hard drives, tape drives, CD-ROMs,

printers and scanners