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Control and Testing of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) at Medium Voltage Level
John Godsk Nielsen, Michael Newman, Member, IEEE, Hans Nielsen, and Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE
AbstractThe dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags. Implementations of the DVR have been proposed at both a low voltage (LV) level, as well as a medium voltage (MV) level; and give an opportunity to protect high power sensitive loads from voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5-p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies the use of a combined feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steadystate responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and nonfaulted system states, for a variety of linear and nonlinear loads. Variable duration voltage sags were created using a controllable LV breaker fed by a 630 kVA Distribution transformer placed upstream of the sensitive load. The fault currents in excess of 12 kA were designed and created to obtain the required voltage sags. It is concluded the DVR works well in all operating conditions. Index TermsDistribution transformer, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), medium voltage, power quality, voltage sag.

Fig. 1. Dynamic voltage restorer operation. TABLE I SPECIFICATIONS OF THE DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER

I. INTRODUCTION OWER quality is obtaining increasing attention by the utilities, as well as by both industrial and commercial electrical consumers. For higher power sensitive loads where the energy storage capabilities of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) become very costly, the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) shows promise in providing a more cost effective solution [1][13]. The DVR can be implemented at both a low voltage (LV) level [2][6], as well as a medium voltage (MV) level [7][10]; and gives an opportunity to protect high power applications from voltage sags. A dynamic voltage restorer uses a series-connected topology (Fig. 1) to add voltage to the supply in the case when a sag is detected. This aims to protect critical loads against voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The reported DVR uses a combined feed-forward and feed-back controller to obtain both good tranManuscript received July 21, 2003; revised October 14, 2003. This work was supported by ELFOR, DEFU, and APC-Denmark. Recommended by Associate Editor V. Staudt. J. G. Nielsen is with Vestas Wind Systems, Ringrobing DK-6950, Denmark (e-mail: jogn@vestas.dk). H. Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg are with the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg East DK-9220, Denmark (e-mail: fbl@iet.auc.dk). M. Newman is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2004.826504

sient and steady-state responses. The controller also incorporates transformer saturation limitation controllers to limit the inverter current at the start of the sag injection, also allowing high utilization of the transformer capacity without an over-current fault occurring in the inverter. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and nonfaulted system states, for a variety of linear and nonlinear loads. This is important as a majority of the time the DVR will be connected, but not compensating, and it should be designed to have minimal affect on the system during these times. The tests included voltage sag protection from both symmetrical and nonsymmetrical faults. Variable duration voltage sags were created using a controllable LV breaker fed by a 630 kVA distribution transformer placed upstream of the sensitive load. Fault currents in excess of 12 kA (0.5-kA on the MV side) were designed and created to obtain the required voltage sags. The parameters of the constructed DVR are provided in Table I. The DVR consists of three single-phase series transformers, a dc/ac converter and a dc-link circuit. In this case the dc-link is charged by an external power supply (Fig. 2). The output of the inverter (before the transformer) is filtered in order to reduce the influence from the by LC-filters

0885-8993/04$20.00 2004 IEEE



used is based on the rms of the error vector, which allows for detection of symmetrical and asymmetrical sags, as well as the associated phase jump. The detection formula is given by (1) where the rms of the error is

(2) B. Load Voltage Reference Generation The next stage of the controller is to determine the desired load voltage reference. A software-based phase-locked-loop (PLL) is used to create sinusoidal load voltage references for the - coordinate system of the controller. The desired response from DVR PLL system is quite different from other applications. This is because the phase of the supply voltage prior to the sag is generally preferred, and if the PLL reacts too quickly to changes in the phase during a voltage sag, the post-sag phase may be used. Therefore, the DVR would not be able to compensate for this phase jump. Conventionally, once a sag is detected, the target phase of the voltage reference is fixed to the pre-sag phase (i.e., a technique known as freezing [9]), to ensure that if the reference is faithfully tracked, then the load voltage phase will remain unaffected. For the experimental system presented here, the phase is not frozen to the pre-sag phase, but instead the PLL response is significantly slowed [2], [4]. Once a sag event occurs, the phase will therefore very slowly shift from the pre-sag phase, to the post-sag phase. This gives the benefit of improved series voltage injection utilization of in-phase compensation, but without any sudden jump in voltage phase as seen by the load. C. Combined Feed-Forward/Feed-Back Digital Controller The primary control structure is based on a combination of supply voltage feed-forward and PI - load voltage feedback. The feed-forward component provides the required transient response, and uses the dc-link voltage to calculate the required modulation depth to inject the difference between the supply and the load reference voltage . voltage However, this doesnt account for the voltage drop across the filter inductor and other parameters such as the transformer. Therefore, a closed loop load voltage feedback is added, and is implemented in the - frame to minimize any steady state error in the fundamental component. The synchronous - frame implementation also allows for simpler clamping of the injection voltage, to enable the DVR to partially compensate for deep sags whilst still maintaining a sinusoidal injection profile. A further advantage of the closed loop approach is that the feed-back provides some damping for the resonance in the LC switching ripple filter. The damping is clearly seen in the simulated step responses in Fig. 4 for feed-forward only and for the combined feed-forward/feed-back controller proposed in this work. This shows that as well as the control system damping affect, the damping is also strongly dependant on the load resistance. The excitation of the resonance conditions in this simulation are also

Fig. 2. Circuit diagram of the main circuit of the DVR (placed in a 20-ft container).

3 kHz switching frequency. The dc-link is charged to 600 V and this will be discharged during a voltage sag. It is designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 50% voltage sag. The energy storage is provided by electrolytic capacitors and during a compensation of a voltage sag the capacitors are discharged will drop. In this case a voltage and the dc-link voltage drop from 600 V to 200 V provides a total energy storage of 4.2 kJ. This is equal to protecting a 400 kW load from a 50% voltage sag for 20 ms. If the voltage sag is lower, or the load lower, the possible protection time will be longer. II. CONTROL OF THE DVR The main considerations for the control system of a DVR include: detection of the start and finish of the sag, voltage reference generation, transient and steady-state control of the injected voltage, and protection of the system. The control system presented in Fig. 3 was used to control the DVR with a 3 kHz sampling and switching frequency. It requires measurement of four parameter groups. 1) Three phase-voltages before the DVR to detect a voltage sag and for feed-forward control of the output voltage. for 2) Three-phase voltages after the DVR feed-back control of the output voltage. to protect the DVR 3) Three currents in the converter by both saturation control and overcurrent. 4) The dc-link voltage for dc voltage compensation (to decouple the controller from variations in the dc-link voltage), for converter protection, and to provide energy storage information. With the grid voltage in its normal level the DVR is held in a null state to keep the losses to a minimum. Once a voltage sag is detected the DVR converts into active mode to react as fast as possible and inject the required ac voltage to the grid. A. Voltage Sag Detection An essential part of the control of the DVR is the sag detection circuit. A voltage sag must be detected fast and corrected with a minimum of false operations. The voltage sag detection method



Fig. 3.

Control structure of the combined feed-forward/feed-back MV DVR.

Fig. 6. Diagram of the test facility at Kyndby including the inserted DVR.

Fig. 4. Simulated step response of the medium voltage DVR with (a) feed-forward and (b) combined feed-forward/feed-back control scheme.

Fig. 7.

Acquisition points when testing the DVR.

Fig. 5. DVR at DEFU test site in Kyndby, Denmark. (a) Three single-phase series injection transformers inside DVR container. (b) Connection of DVR to sub-station. Below: the insulators are placed a 400 kVA distribution transformer (T ). (c) From left: a high voltage breaker (B ), transformer for short circuit (T ), and low voltage breaker (B ). See also Fig. 6.

limited by the addition of a first order low-pass filter to the reference voltage, with the pole frequency set high enough such that the transient reponse of the system is not significantly disturbed. The correct sizing of the series transformer is important for stopping large magnetizing currents being drawn when the DVR begins to compensate for a sag, and to account for all initial flux conditions the transformer should be rated for two times the normal steady-state flux requirement at maximum injection voltage without saturating [11]. The consequence of this design consideration is a sizable increase in the size and capital cost of the overall DVR system. To combat this problem the control strategy was altered to minimize the saturation of the transformer by reducing the applied voltage once detected, instead of using an increased rating transformer. Whilst it is recognized by the authors that this may create minor limitations of



Fig. 8. Measured Dynamic Voltage Restorer performance during a voltage sag to 74% of normal voltage: (a) voltage before the DVR, (b) voltage after DVR, (c) total current on the radial (i +i ), (d) load currents, (e) voltage generated by DVR, (f) voltage generated by DVR, (g) phase C supply and load voltage, and (h) phase C supply and load voltage.

the performance of the DVR during the first few milliseconds of the inital compensation, most loads are not sensitive to sags of this very short duration [14], and therefore this approach offers a better cost to benefit ratio for the installed system. The saturation controllers (Fig. 3) are designed to limit the converter reference voltages to zero when the converter currents reach a

specified value, until the current reduces or the reference voltage is reversed. D. Control of the Series Inverter Protection Systems Protection of the DVR inverter from faults is also a significant portion of the design, and is primarily due to particular



problems faced with the series based topology in the grid. Large currents from faults downstream of the DVR, or from high inrush currents from loads (if the sag is not fully compensated) must be stopped from reflecting through the transformer to the inverter, and an appropriately rated alternative current path supplied. This was solved using a protection system similar to that presented in [15]. III. EXPERIMENTAL TEST SETUP After initial testing of the DVR in the Laboratory at low power, it was moved to a power station in Kyndby, Denmark where a medium voltage test facility was available. Fig. 5 shows photos of the DVR, its connections to the system, and the switch-gear, which were used to create the fault conditions required to generate the voltage sag. The connection diagram of the test site and the DVR is given in Fig. 6. The DVR was kV distribution transformer. A load placed before a container (linear and nonlinear loads) was installed to act as the load of the DVR. To generate voltage sags a high voltage breaker and a transformer were used. The transformer was in Fig. 6 (also seen in Fig. 5), and a short-circuited by voltage sag of 25% was able to be realized using this method to test the different short-circuit scenarios. In total 12 signals were recorded during each test (Fig. 7). All which also provided measurements were synchronized by the signal to start the short-circuit event. A special short-circuit control unit was used to prevent dramatic failures during the test. A. Generation of Voltage Sags The generation of a voltage sag in a strong 10 kV distribution system is not a trivial task, and can require significant currents to create a sag deep enough to satisfactorily test the DVR. Therefore, to maximize the sag depth, the sensitive load was connected to the weakest point at the Kyndby test site, and the fault position was placed just upstream of the DVR protecting this load. The fault was created using a low voltage (LV) controllable breaker (B2) connected to a short circuit and was fed kV distribution transfrom the system by a 630 kVA former. A medium voltage breaker (B1) was also placed upstream of this transformer as a redundant protection mechanism in the situation that the LV breaker failed to clear the fault as expected. The fault time was programmable between 30 ms (limited by the breaker) and 100 ms (limited by the upstream protection systems). The primary concern for the equipment was the thermal and dynamic stresses due to the fault current, and all the system impedances were taken into account to pre-calculate the expected fault current and sag depth during the design [4]. A fault level of approximately 12 kA on the LV side (0.5 kA on the MV side) was achieved during the fault tests, with a voltage sag of 0.74 p.u. (see Fig. 8). IV. EXPERIMENTAL TEST RESULTS A number of tests were performed during normal operation and during abnormal conditions (such as symmetrical, and asymmetrical short circuits) with different load situations. Both the steady-state effect of the DVR in standby mode and the dynamic sag protection active modes were investigated.


A. Steady-State Tests While the primary aim of a DVR is to inject voltage during sag events, the majority of the time the unit will remain in standby mode. Therefore, the performance of the DVR in this mode must be investigated to ensure that its affect on the sensitive protected load is minimal. The steady-state performance was tested under light load, heavy load, and with a nonlinear load. The main steady-state alteration made to the system (by the DVR insertion) is the increased impedance due to the transformer and filter. This will therefore create a small voltage drop in the load voltage, and under nonlinear load conditions both increase the voltage harmonics and possibly filter some of the current harmonics. The extent of the effect is seen in the experimental test results on the medium voltage system from a 45-kVA nonlinear load (Table II). B. Dynamic Tests The test site was placed into both symmetrical (Fig. 8) and nonsymmetrical (Fig. 9) fault conditions. Fig. 8 shows results from a 0.74 p.u. symmetrical voltage dip generated, as well as the compensation from the installed DVR. A 45 kW linear resistive load was used for this test. Fig. 8(a) and (b) outline the medium voltage supply and load voltages, respectively, and shows that the DVR maintained a constant load voltage magnitude and phase through-out the event. The fault current on the medium voltage side is 450500 A rms (Fig. 8(c)). broke a fault current on the low That means the breaker voltage side of approximately 11 kA after the set time of 100 ms. Fig. 8(e) shows the injected voltages by the DVR to protect the load voltage against the voltage sag. The DVR adds some oscillations to the load voltage due to oscillations between the and the filter capacitance . These inifilter inductance tial oscillations, excited by the start of the dip, can be seen more clearly in Fig. 8(f). The initial edge of the dip also contains an oscillation as shown in Fig. 8(g), and it is more clearly shown in Fig. 8(h). With typically more than 65% of faults of single-phase origin [11], it is also important to consider the performance of the DVR during asymmetrical faults. Fig. 9 presents the results from the DVR compensating for voltage dip caused by a single-phase



Fig. 9. Measured Dynamic Voltage Restorer performance during an asymmetrical voltage sagat 99 kW load: (a) voltage before the DVR, (b) voltage after DVR, (c) total current on the radial (i +i ), (d) load currents, (e) voltage generated by DVR, and (f) dc bus voltage.

fault once again generated on the LV side upstream of the DVR. This time the load downstream of the DVR was 99 kW. Fig. 9(a) and (b) show the medium voltage supply and load voltages, respectively. The positive sequence component was increased from 0.92 p.u. to 0.98 p.u., with the negative sequence component reduced from 0.1 p.u. to 0.02 p.u. Note that since the singlephase fault was on the LV side, these fault currents transfer into two phases on the MV side, as per Fig. 9(c). The voltage injected by the DVR is shown in Fig. 9(e), with the small variation in the dc bus voltage during the sag provided in Fig. 9(f). The transient response of the DVR was also tested with other fault types including two-phase faults, using varying linear loads (999 kW). The DVR was found to operate to protect these loads as required under all of these situations. Finally, the operation of the DVR was tested with the presence of a 45 kW nonlinear load during an asymmetrical voltage sag (generated by a single-phase to neutral fault). The nonlinear load was an induction motor fed by a variable speed drive (six-pulse

rectifier diode bridge front end), with the shaft loaded by a PM synchronous generator (with a 45-kW resistive load). Fig. 10(b) shows that once again the adequately DVR protected the load voltage from the voltage sag shown in Fig. 10(a). Figs. 10(c) and (d) present the fault currents and load currents, respectively, and the nonlinear nature of the load is clearly demonstrated. The voltage injected in series by the DVR is provided in Fig. 10(e) and shows that a small amount of voltage harmonics are injected into the load voltage by the DVR. This is due to the harmonic voltage-drop across the filter impedance, (caused by the nonlinear load currents reflected through this impedance), and the result on the load voltage is shown in Fig. 10(f). V. CONCLUSION This paper has presented results from a DVR tested at a medium voltage (10 kV) at a distribution test site in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR is designed to protect a 400-kVA load against voltage sags up to 0.5 p.u. The test voltage sags were



Fig. 10. Measured dynamic voltage restorer performance during an asymmetrical voltage sag with a 45 kW nonlinear load: (a) voltage before the DVR, +i ), (d) load currents, (e) voltage generated by DVR, and (f) voltage after the DVR (b) voltage after DVR, (c) total current on the radial (i (zoomed version of (b).

created using real symmetrical and asymmetrical fault conditions near the sensitive load, with a fault current of up to 12 kA (0.5 kA on the MV side) created to generate a range of voltage sags up to 0.74 p.u. The fault duration was able to be controlled between 30 ms and 100 ms. The tests showed that the DVR could protect a sensitive load on a radial distribution network under a range of fault types and load types. The affect of the DVR on the sensitive load under its normal standby mode was also experimentally measured for a range of load types, and was shown to have only a small effect (even under very high nonlinear load conditions). The use of a combined feed-forward and feed-back control system has been verified for the medium voltage system, and has been shown to have very good transient and steady state capabilities. Current saturation limitation techniques have also been implemented to both minimize saturation problems in the transformers and over-current in the inverter. This allows for good utilization of the series injection transformer ratings.

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Hans Nielsen was born in Randers, Denmark, on December 22, 1942. He received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the Engineering College of rhus (rhus Teknikum), Denmark, in 1972. From 1972 to 1975, he was a Consultant Engineer for Danish heavy industry, and from 1975 to 1976, for the Norwegian Offshore Oil Industry. From 1976 to 1987, he was an Engineer at the Danish Power Station Skrbkvrket. In 1987, he was appointed Associate Professor at the Institute of Energy Technology, where he served as a member of the Institute Board from 1989 to 1991. From 1989 to 1991, he was a member of the working group The Future of Power Distribution Stations, operated by the Danish Electrical Research Institute (DELRI). From 1995 to 1998, he was a member of the Danish SCADA education group Teknical and industrial automation (SRO-project). Since 1998, he has been a member of the Driftsstttegruppen for DEFUs 10 kV Test Plant at the Power Plant Station Kyndbyvrket. Mr. Nielsen is a Member of the Board of the Research Institute for Danish Electric Utilities (DEFU) and the Council for The Electrical Museum, Elmuseet, Tange, Denmark.

John Godsk Nielsen was born in Skive, Denmark, on November 10, 1972. He received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1998 and the Ph.D. degree from the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark, in 2002. Since 2002, he has worked as a Research Engineer at Vestas Wind Systems, Arhus, Denmark. His research areas are in power electronics, static power converters, power quality, and wind turbines.

Michael John Newman (S95M03) received the B.Sc. degree in computer science, the B.E. degree in electrical and computer systems engineering, and the Ph.D. degree from Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, in 1997, 1999, and 2004, respectively. In 1997, he was an Intern with Siemens Australia, and in 1998 was an Intern with Australian Gas Light (AGL) working in Electrical Distribution Systems. He is currently employed by Creative Power Technologies, and is a Director of PowerCad Software Pty., Ltd. His major research interests include: Custom Power, quality of supply, digital control of power converters and signal processing techniques. Dr. Newman received the first prize in the 2000 IEEE Industry Applications Myron Zucker Student Design Awards for his work on active filters.

Frede Blaabjerg (S86M88SM97F03) was born in Erslev, Denmark, on May 6, 1963. He received the M.Sc.EE. and Ph.D. degrees from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1987 and 1995, respectively. He was employed at ABB-Scandia, Randers, Denmark, from 1987 to 1988. He became an Assistant Professor in 1992, at Aalborg University, in 1996 Associate Professor, and in 1998 a Full Professor in power electronics and drives. In 2000, he was Visiting Professor with the University of Padova, Padova, Italy, as well as a part-time Programme Research Leader at the Research Center Risoe in wind turbines. In 2002, he was a Visiting Professor at the Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia. He is the author or coauthor of more than 250 publications in his research fields including the book Control in Power Electronics (New York: Academic, 2002). He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Power Electronics and Elteknik. His research areas are in power electronics, static power converters, ac drives, switched reluctance drives, modeling, characterization of power semiconductor devices and simulation, wind turbines and green power inverter. Dr. Blaabjerg received the 1995 Angelos Award for his contribution in modulation technique and control of electric drives, the Annual Teacher prize at Aalborg University, in 1995, the Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society, in 1998, four IEEE Prize paper awards during the last five years, the C.Y. OConnor fellowship from Perth, Australia, in 2002, and the Statoil-prize for his contributions in Power Electronics, in 2003. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. He is a Member of the European Power Electronics and Drives Association and the IEEE Industry Applications Society Industrial Drives Committee. He is also a Member of the Industry Power Converter Committee and the Power Electronics Devices and Components Committee in the IEEE Industry Application Society. He has served as a Member of the Danish Technical Research Council in Denmark 19972003 and from 20012003 he was Chairman. He has also been Chairman of the Danish Small Satellite Programme and the Center Contract Committee which supports collaboration between universities and industry. He became a Member of the Danish Academy of Technical Science in 2001. From 2002 to 2003, he was a Member of the Board of the Danish Research Councils.