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Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon

Lightweight Geopolymer materials for Insulating Applications: Electric and Thermal Properties.


E lie K am seumodificare , C. Leonelli, Chinje Melo, P. Fare clic per loU. stile del sottotitolo N. Lemougna, D. Njopwouo


Definition and scope Interest of the work Materials and Experimental Procedure Characterization Influence of chemical, mineralogy, microstructure, phases and pore distribution Applications and Conclusion

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon

Definition and Scope The thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce

the rate of heat transfer. The term refer also to thermal resistance which is the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux: R = T/QA

The thermal insulation represents a considerable stake for the economy of energy. It is therefore desirable for specific applications to be able to choose materials with defined properties in relation to the cost, the efficiency and the environmental impact.

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Interests of the work

Geopolymers are developed using amorphous aluminosilicates that can come from kaolins, secondary (recycled) industrial or/and natural wastes1-3 Amorphous alumina and silica seem their thermal conductivity reduce to minimum (from 18-30 to 1.6 W/mK for Al2O3 or 6-10 to 1.4 W/m.K for SiO2).

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Geopolymers have particular Cameroon



Objective of the Work

abundantly available and low cost, is projected in this work as energy-efficient and sustainable process for the production of insulating materials. Geopolymerization of amorphous aluminosilicates,

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Materials and Preparation

Five compositions of geopolymers were prepared with Si/Al molar ratio from 1.23 to 2.42.

Series of geopolymers pastes were obtained with various percent of foaming agent

The pastes were sealed to avoid the contact with air during the first 24 hours of curing and curing progress up to 28 days before characterization.


The compositions studied here have been investigated Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde 23/09/2010 for the

Characterization: Porosity, humidity

A Mercury-intrusion type MIP, Carlo Erba 2000 equipped

with a macropore unit, Model 120, Fison Instrument was used to assess the cumulative pore volume (mm3g-1) and the pore size distribution.

The results of Mercury-intrusion Porosimetry Analysis permitted to evaluated the micro, meso and macropores of various compositions of porous matrices of geopolymers

Exposition at ambient temperature and weight loss at temperatures between 20C and 100C was used to investigate on the capacity of the insulating materials to

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde 23/09/2010 accumulate and loss humidity in relation to their mechanical Cameroon

Characterization: Electrical Conductivity

Volume resistivity (v) and Surface resistivity (s) of

geopolymers were measured using an electrometer (model 6517A Keithley) connected to a resistivity test chamber (model 8009 Keithley).

The volume resistivity was measured based on alternate polarity (+500 V, -500 V) and the sample resistance calculated (Ohms second law) at the end of each constant potential period.

Surface resistivity was measured applying a polarization (+1000V) between the guarded electrode and the ring

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde electrode of the test chamber. Cameroon

Thermal Conductivity
Laser Quantel

loscope TEKTRONIX TDS3012 el tion arded of Flash Keithley the of100 Hot sample Laser thickness SL-1730SB Plate and and calculation calculation (0-30V, of 0-3A) of thermal the thermal conductivity conductivity 1053 nm, mJ, 3W

Thermal Conductivity
Non Stationary Regime

Stationary Regime Fluxmetre


Eur@graduation September14-16

Pore size distribution in Geopolymers and geopolymer foams

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Electrical Volume Resistivity

Non straightforward link between Si/Al and electrical resistivity


Presence of unreacted alkali ions and porosity influenced more the

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon

electrical resistivity

Electrical: Surface resistivity

12 10

polished and washed Superficial Resistance ( x 108)

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Si/Al molar ratio

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Thermal resistance and Diffusibility

KMatrix NaMatrix P= 55% P= 45% P= 35%
Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon 23/09/2010

Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of geopolymers are meanly affected by the porosity than the Si/Al molar ratio.

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Porosity and Thermal Properties

Since pores are small in the geopolymers developed, Knudsen effect is applied as:6

0 the thermal conductivity of the gas when the Knudsen effect is not effective, Kn factor link to the sizes of pores and parameter linked to gas which value is 1.5 for air.


6Jean Cote et Jean-Marie Konrad, Int. J. Of Heat. And Mass Transfer, 52 (2009)796Eur@graduation September14-16 23/09/2010 804 Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, 2010, Yaounde Yaounde

Porosity and Thermal Properties 2


Geopolymers as materials yielding the widest bounds. The parallel flow model (1) and series flow model (2) is used to calculate the effective thermal


conductivity of upper bound and lower bound respectively6.

s the thermal conductivity of the solid conductivity of the gas and p the




Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde total porosity. Cameroon

Porosity and Thermal Properties 3


Hashin et Shrikman6 applied hupper bound to a continuous solid phase including uniformly dispersed fluid filled cavities (3).


And lower bound to continuous fluid phase including uniformly dispersed solid spheres (4) Equations (3) and (4) are mathematically equivalent to the well known maxwell model7

7Maxwell J.C., Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press 1[3](1904)361-373

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon

Variation of Thermal Conductivity with Porosity

0,5 0,45



Thermal Conductivity W.m-1.K-1


Rgression exponentielle pour



0,15 20 30 40 50 60

Vol% Porosity

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon


Lightweight Geopolymers obtained

Heterogeneous large pores With Si/Al ~ 1

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Si/Al > 1.89 Cameroon

Homogeneous small size pores with 23/09/2010

Mesoporous quasi monomodal matrix of geopolymer can be well designed through geopolymerization with enough strength to face mechanical solicitations. The Si/Al and the concentration of foaming agent can be monitored to develop porous geopolymer matrix with desired insulating properties. The porous geopolymer can be used for insulating applications as
Eur@graduation 2010, Yaounde 23/09/2010 in regions well as filters September14-16 and regulator agents of temperature Cameroon

Thank You for your attention

Eur@graduation September14-16 2010, Yaounde Cameroon