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MB0050- Research Methodology Q1) Explain the process of problem identification with an example.

Ans- A problem is the statement of a question that needs to be answered or a situation that needs a solution. The problem emerges from a clinical situation in which there is a knowledge gap or uncertainty regarding the "best" response to the situation The process of problem identification includes: 1. Developing title: The title should be carefully worded. It should indicate the core of the study, reflect the real intention of the researcher, and show on what is the focus e.g., Financing small -scale industries by commercial banks. This shows that the focus is on commercial banks and not on small-scale industries. On the other hand, if the title is The Financial Problem of Small-scale industries, the focus is on small-scale industries. 2. Building a conceptual model: On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study, the nature of the phenomenon, its properties / elements and their inter-relations should be identified and structured into a framework. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. It serves as a basis for the formulation of the objectives of the study, on the hypothesis to be tested. In order to work out a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical study of the available literature on the subjectmatter of the selected research problem. It is for this reason; a researcher is expected to select a problem for research in his field of

specialization. Without adequate background knowledge, a researcher cannot grasp and comprehend the nature of the research problem. 3. Define the Objective of the Study: The objectives refer to the questions to be answered through the study. They indicate what we are trying to get through the study. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model. They state which elements in the conceptual model which levels of, which kinds of cases, which properties, and which connections among properties are to be investigated, but it is the conceptual model that defines, describes, and states the assumptions underlying these elements. The objectives may aim at description or explanation or analysis of causal relationship between variables, and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study. The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions.

Q2. Interview method involves a dialogue between the Interviewee and the Interviewer. Explain the interview method of data collection. What are the uses of this technique? What are the different types of interviews? Ans : Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondents gesture, facial expressions and pauses, and his environment. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated

respondents. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a persons opinions, attitudes, values, beliefs past experience and future intentions. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully, and then interviewing is required. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact, or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available, personal interview is feasible. There are several real uses of interview method data collection. First the greatest value of this method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured. When used with well conceived schedules, an interview can obtain a great deal of information. It far exceeds mail survey in amount and quality of data that can be secured. Second, the interviewer can do more to improve the percentage of responses and the quality of information received than other method. He can note the conditions of the interview situation, and adopt appropriate approaches to overcome such problems as the respondents unwillingness, incorrect understanding of question, suspicion, etc. Third, the interviewer can gather other supplemental information like economic level, living conditions etc. through observation of the respondents environment.

Types of Interviews The interview may be classified into: (a) structured or directive interview, (b) unstructured or non-directive interview, (c) focused interview, (d) clinical interview and (e) depth interview. Structured Directive Interview: This is an interview made with a detailed standardized schedule. Unstructured or Non-Directive Interview: This is the least structured one. The interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a give topic with a minimum of prompting or guidance. Focused Interview: This is a semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed.

Q3) A study of different sampling methods is necessary because precision, accuracy, and efficiency of the sample results depend on the method employed for selecting the sample. Explain the different types of Probability and Non-Probability sampling designs. Ans- Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. It is used when generalization is the objective of study, and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. The following are the types of probability sampling:


Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population

Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods, all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected, simple to understand, does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. ii) Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. In this method, the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata, and from each stratum, random sample is drawn.

Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample, gives higher statistical efficiency, easy to carry out, and gives a self-weighing sample. Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity, convenience and low cost. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. The selection probability is unknown. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results.

The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population, when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population, when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large, when probability sampling required more time, but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. Q4) a) Differentiate between descriptive and inferential analysis of data. AnsBoth descriptive and inferential statistics look at a sample from some population. The difference between descriptive and inferential statistics is in what they do with that sample: Descriptive statistics aims to summarize the sample using statistical measures, such as average, median, standard deviation etc. For example, if we look at a basketball team's game scores over a year, we can calculate the average score, variance etc. and get a description (a statistical profile) for that team. Inferential statistics aims to draw conclusions about the population from the sample at hand. For example, it may try to infer the success rate of a drug in treating high temperature, by taking a sample of patients, giving them the drug, and estimating the rate of effectiveness in the population using the rate of effectiveness in the sample.

b) Explain with examples various measures of Central Tendency. Ans- The three most commonly-used measures of central tendency are the following. (1) Mean : The sum of the values divided by the number of valuesoften called the average. Add all of the values together. Divide by the number of values to obtain the mean. Example: The mean of 7, 12, 24, 20, 19 is (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.4. (2) Median : The value which divides the values into two equal halves, with half of the values being lower than the median and half higher than the median.

Sort the values into ascending order. If you have an odd number of values, the median is the middle value. If you have an even number of values, the median is the arithmetic mean (see above) of the two middle values.

Example: The median of the same five numbers (7, 12, 24, 20, 19) is 19. (1) Mode The most frequently-occurring value (or values).

Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the data. The mode is the value (or values) with the highest frequency.

Example: For individuals having the following ages 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21, and 23, the mode is 20.

Q5. The chi-square test is widely used in research. Discuss the various applications of chi-square test. Under what conditions is this test applicable? Answer : Chi -square test : Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. For example, if, according to Mendels laws, you expected 10 of 20 offspring from a cross to be male and the actual observed number was 8 males, then you might want to know about the goodness to fit between the observed and expected. Were the deviations (differences between observed and expected) the result of chance, or were they due to other factors. Applications of chi-square test : 1.In business : No matter the business analytics problem, the chi-square test will find uses when you are trying to establish or invalidate that a relationship exists between two given business parameters that are categorical (or nominal) data types. 2.In biological statistics : Use the chi-square test for goodness-of-fit when you have one nominal variable with two or more values (such as red, pink and white flowers).

Q6. What is analysis of variance? What are the assumptions of the technique? Give a few examples where this technique could be used. Answer : Analysis of variance : Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models used to analyze the differences between group means and their associated procedures (such as variation among and between groups). In ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. In its simplest form, ANOVA provides a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are equal, and therefore generalizes t-test to more than two groups. Doing multiple two-sample t-tests would result in an increased chance of committing a type I error. For this reason, ANOVAs are useful in comparing (testing) three or more means (groups or variables) for statistical significance. Assumptions : ANOVA models are parametric, relying on assumptions about the distribution of the dependent variables (DVs) for each level of the independent variable(s) (IVs).