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193

should be designed differently to meet different specifications depending on its area of application. We have observed in Section 6.4 of Chapter 6, how the variation of a single parameter like the forward path gain influences the transient response- obviously due to variation of the closed loop poles. The root locus method is a graphical tool to study the variation of closed loop poles of a system when only one parameter, normally the forward path gain, is allowed to vary. However, the locus of roots of the characteristic equation of a multi-loop system may also be investigated as in the case of a single-loop system. Since the root locus method provides graphical information, it may be used, specially in design stage of a controller, to obtain qualitative information regarding the stability and performance of the system. We present below a step by step procedure for the root locus method for continuous system. We shall consider typical transfer functions of closed loop systems to illustrate the root locus techniques.

7.3

The root-locus method has been established as a useful tool for the analysis and design of linear time-invariant control systems. The root-locus diagram is essentially a graphical plot of the loci of the roots of the characteristic equation of a system as a function of a real parameter K which varies from to + . It gives an indication of the absolute stability and, to some extent, the relative stability of a control system with respect to the variation of the system parameter K. We shall confine our discussions to only positive values of K, since it can be readily extended to the case of negative values of K. Consider a closed loop system

(7.1)

where the forward path gain K is kept as a separate design parameter. The forward path gain may include the process gain together with the error amplifier gain. Let the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) for a second order system be given by, G(s)H(s) = KG1(s)H(s) =

K(s + 8) s(s + 5)

(7.2)

Chapter 7

The two open loop poles of the system are located at p1 = 0 and p2 = 5 and one finite zero is located at z1 = 8 whereas the other zero is at . The closed loop poles of the system are the roots of the characteristic equation (7.3) and depends on the value of K. When K = 0, the closed loop poles are identical with the open loop poles, but they are different for K 0. The roots of the above characteristic equation are calculated for various values of K and are shown in Table 7.1. Fig. 7.1 shows the loci of the roots as K is varied from K = 0 to K = . We observe from the figure that the second order equation (7.3) gives rise to two branches of the loci-one being p1BEDz1 and the other is p2BCDF. It is to be noted that as the value of K is increased, the two branches, originating at the finite poles p1 and p2 approach each other and meets at the point B producing a double root there and breaks away to follow separate paths BE and BC. As K is further increased, the two branches approach each other and meets at the point D producing a double root there and moves on to follow separate paths Dz1 and DF

194

towards zeros located at z1 and infinity respectively. The points B and D are referred to as, respectively, breakaway and breakin points.

Table 7.1 Value of K 0 1 1.2020 2.000 5.0000 10.0000 20.0000 20.7980 25 Root located at s1 0 2 3.0868 3.5 + j1.9365 5 + j3.873 7.5 + j4.8734 12.5 + j1.9365 12.885 10 8 Root located at s2 5 4 3.1152 3.5 j1.9365 5 j3.873 7.5 j4.8734 12.5 j1.9365 12.913 20

K(s + 8) s(s + 5)

From the above observations and subsequent analysis we record below some important properties of the root loci of the characteristic equation for a control system with the loop transfer function KG1(s)H(s) and closed loop transfer function given by Equation (7.1). The roots of the characteristic equation must satisfy the equation 1 + KG1(s) H(s) = 0 (7.4)

195 G1(s)H(s) =

or

1 K

(7.5)

In order to satisfy the Equation (7.5), the following two conditions must be satisfied simultaneously (A) Magnitude Condition |G1(s)H(s)| = (B) Phase Angle Conditions K0 K0 G1(s)H(s) = (2k + 1)180 = odd multiples of 180 G1(s)H(s) = 2k 180 = even multiplies of 180 where k is any integer i.e., k = 0, 1, 2, . It is to be noted that the phase angles are all measured in a counterclockwise direction from a horizontal line. So, any point in the plane of the root that satisfy the conditions (7.6) and (7.7) or (7.8) simultaneously will be a point on the root loci of the characteristic equation (7.5). Of the above two conditions, the conditions on phase angle are more critical than that of the magnitude condition. We can always find a value of K (not necessarily an integer) that will satisfy the magnitude condition of (7.6). But the condition on phase, demands that any search point s = ss will be a point on the root loci if the phase angle is odd (K > 0) or even (K < 0) multiple of 180. The construction of root loci, therefore, is essentially to search for a trial point s = ss that satisfy the phase conditions (7.7), for K > 0 or (7.8), for K < 0 and then find the value of K from the amplitude condition (7.6). Based on these observations, the properties for root loci in the plane of the roots are recorded below for positive values of K. The relevant changes in the properties can be readily incorporated for negative values of K. CAD tools like MATLAB may be used for drawing root loci. However, the engineer must be familiar with the rules in order to interpret the plots. 1. Points of the loci corresponding to K = 0 The points on the root loci corresponding to the value of K = 0 are at the poles of G(s)H(s). This may include the poles at infinity where the number of zeros is greater than that of the poles (occurring in a derived loop gain in some design approaches). If pj are the finite poles and zi are finite zeroes of the loop gain KG 1(s)H(s ), the characteristic polynomial (7.4) can be written as

Chapter 7

1 |K|

(7.6)

(7.7) (7.8)

F(s) = 1 + KG1(s)H(s) = 1 + K

i=1 n j =1

(s + zi )

(s + p j )

=0

(7.9)

i=1 n j=1

|(s + zi )|

|(s + p j )|

1 K

(7.10)

Now as K approaches zero, the right hand side of Equation (7.10) becomes infinite which is satisfied when s approaches the poles pj. 2. Points of the loci corresponding to K = The points on the root loci corresponding to the value of K = are at the zeros of G(s)H(s), including those at the infinity. This is evident from Equation (7.10), as K approaches infinity, the right hand side approaches zero in value, which requires that s must approach the zeros zi. Again, if the denominator is of order higher than the numerator (n > m), then s = , makes the left hand side zero corresponding to K = . Therefore, some roots are located at s = . In Fig. 7.1, the root loci originates at the finite poles p1 = 0 and p2 = 5 for K = 0 and terminates at the finite zero at s1 = 8 and at s2 = for K = . 3. Number of branches of separate root loci The number of root loci is equal to the number of finite poles or zeros of G(s)H(s) whichever is greater. This is apparent, since the root loci must start at the poles and terminate at the zeros of G(s)H(s), the number of branches of loci is equal to the maximum of the two numbers finite poles or zeros. In the system of Equation (7.2), since the number of finite poles is 2, which is higher than the finite zero, which is 1 in this case, the number of branches of root loci is 2 (see Fig. 7.1). 4. Symmetry of root loci The root loci are symmetric with respect to the real axis, since the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs. 5. Root loci on the real axis Root loci are found on a given section of the real axis of the s-plane only if the total number of real poles and real zeros of G(s)H(s) to the right of the section is odd for K > 0. With reference to the distribution of poles and zeros of G1(s)H(s) as shown in Fig. 7.2, if we take the search point ss, anywhere on the real axis between p1 and p2, the angular contribution of the complex conjugate poles p3 and p4 at the search point is 360, (this is also true for any complex conjugate zeros, when present). The poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of ss each contribute 180 with appropriate sign included. Therefore, with reference to Fig. 7.2, we can write the phase condition (7.7) as 1 + 2 [1 + 2 + (3 + 4) + 5 + 6] = (2k + 1)180 (7.11) where 1, 2 are the phase angles contributed by the zeros z1 and z2 at the search point ss, and i, i = 1 to 6 are the phase angles contributed by the poles pi, i = 1 to 6. Computing the angles from Fig. 7.2, we have; 0 + 0 [180 + 0 + (360) + 0 + 0] = (2k + 1)180 or 540 =(2k + 1)180

197

This can be satisfied with k = 2. This observation is true if the search point is taken anywhere on the stretch of the real axis lying between p1 and p2. Hence, the entire stretch of the real axis between p1 and p2 will be part of the root locus. In this way, we can show that the part of the real axis lying between p5 and z1, as well as between p6 and z2 are part of the root locus (vide Fig. 7.2).

6. Asymptotes of root loci For large values of s the root loci are asymptotic to the straight lines with angles given by k =

(2 k + 1)180 |n m|

(7.12)

where k = 0, 1, 2, ... | n m | 1; n is the number of finite poles of G(s)H(s), and m is the number of finite zeros of G(s)H(s). Plotting the root loci are greatly facilitated if one can determine the asymptotes approached by the various branches as s takes on large values. Now from Equation (7.9) we can write

lim K

K s

n m

i=1 n j =1

=1

(s + p j )

or and

= 1 K = snm or | K | = | snm | s = k =

(2 k + 1)180 nm

(7.13)

where k is the contribution to phase angle by a finite pole or zero at a search point which is far away from them.

Chapter 7

(s + zi )

198

7. Intersection of the asymptotes on the real axis The intersection of the asymptotes lies only on the real axis of the s-plane. The points of intersection of the asymptotes on the real axis is given by 1 =

(7.14)

The center of the linear asymptotes, often called the asymptote centroid, is determined by considering the characteristic equation (7.9). For large values of s, only the higher-order terms need be considered, so that the characteristic equation reduces to 1+

Ks m s

n

=0

1+

K s

n m

=0

This approximate relation indicates that the centroid of (n m) asymptotes is at the origin, s = 0. However, a more general approximation is obtained if we consider a characteristic equation of the form 1+

K (s 1 ) n m

=0

with the centroid at 1. Expanding the denominator and retaining the first two terms of the above expression, we have 1+

K s

n m

( n m) 1s n m 1 + ...

=0

(7.15)

1+

K (s + zi )

j=1

(s + p j )

i=1 n

= 1+

=1+

K s n m + ( a1 b1 ) s n m 1 + ... + R ( s)/N ( s)

m

(7.16)

where b1 = zi

i=1

j=1 i =1

For large values of s the characteristic equation may be written by considering only the first two terms of relation (7.16) 1+

K s

n m

+ ( a1 b1 ) s n m 1

(7.17)

Now, equating the coefficients of snm1 in relations (7.17) and (7.15) we obtain (a1 b1) = (n m) 1 Hence 1 =

199

zeros

The angle of departure of the root loci from a complex pole or the angle of arrival at a complex zero of G(s)H(s) can be determined by considering a search point ss very close to the pole, or zero that satisfy the phase condition of relation (7.7) For illustration, let us consider the loop gain G(s)H(s) =

There are four finite poles located at p1 = 0, p2 = 4, p3 = 2 j4 and p4 = 2 + j4, which are shown in Fig. 7.3. We take a search point s = ss very close to the complex pole p3 = 2 + j4 and apply the conditions of phase angles as follows: ss (ss + 4) (ss + 2 + j4) (ss + 2 j4) = (2k + 1)180 or 1 2 3 4 = (2k + 1) 180 Using the values from the graph, we have, 135 45 3 90 = (2k + 1)180 Therefore, 3 = (2k + 1)180 270 = 540 270 = 270, for k = 2

6 s s q3 p3 Angle of departure from complex pole p3

Image axis

q2 0 p2 p1

q1

2 q4 p4 5 4 3 2 Real axis 1 0 1 2

6 6

The value of K at the point of intersection of the root loci with the imaginary axis s = j may be determined by using the Routh-Hurwitz test. 10. Breakaway points The breakaway points on the root loci are points at which multiple-order roots lie (point B in Fig. 7.1). We have noted that the locus starts at the poles with K = 0 and terminates at the finite zeroes or at with K = . We have also found in Fig. 7.1 that the part of the real axis between the pole s = 0 and the pole s = 5 is lying on the root loci. So the two branches of loci start at the poles with K = 0 and approach each other as K is increased until the two branches meet at point B in Fig. 7.1.

Chapter 7

9. Intersection of the root loci with the imaginary axis in the s-domain

200

Any further increase of K will cause the roots breakaway from the real axis. Therefore, so far as the real axis loci is concerned, as we move from one pole on the real axis towards the other pole, the value of K gradually increases and reaches a maximum value and then decreases to zero at the other pole (see Fig. 7.1 and 7.4). Similarly, in case a portion of real axis lying between two finite zeros is a part of root locus, two branches of loci will breakin on the real axis and move towards the finite zeros as K approaches infinity. It is apparent, that starting from one finite zero lying on the real axis corresponding to infinite value of K and moving towards the other finite zero on the real axis where K is again infinite, the value of K will attain a minimum value in between the two real axis zeros (see Fig. 7.5). For computing the breakaway or breakin points, we can rearrange the characteristic equation to isolate the multiplying factor K such that it can be in the form K = F1(s), where F1(s) does not contain K. The breakaway and breakin points are then determined from the roots of the equation obtained by setting

dK = 0. ds

1.4 1.2 Kmax = 1.2

0.8

Value of K

0.4 at s = 5, K = 0 0 5

s (s + 5) = F1(s) s+8

Variation of K

(s 2 + 4s + 20) = F1(s) (s + 5) (s + 8)

201

11. Values of K on the root loci The value of K at any point s1 on the root loci is determined from the following equation K= =

1 G(s1 ) H(s1 )

Product of lengths of vectors from poles of G(s)H(s) to s1 Product of lengths of vectors drawn from zeros of G(s)H(s) to s1

(7.18)

With reference to Fig. 7.6, we draw the constant damping ratio line = cos1 (0.707)

K( s + 5) at s1 = 5 + j5 and s2 = 5 j5. (s + 2 + j 4) (s + 2 j 4) The value of K at the closed loop poles s1 is found as (see Fig. 7.6) : K = Lp1 . Lp2 /Lz1 = (3.16)(9.5)/5 = 6.0

which meets the root locus of KG1(s) =

6 s1 4 Lp1 p

2

Imag axis of s

Lz1 z1 Lp2

p2 s2

6 12

10

6 Real axis of s

7.4

In order to find the roots of the characteristic equation graphically on the plane of the root, we shall present a step by step procedure incorporating the properties listed above by considering some illustrative examples. Example 7.1 Consider a control system with loop gain L(s) given by L(s) = G(s)H(s) =

K(s + 6) s (s + 2) (s + 3)

We are interested in determining the locus of roots for positive values of K in the range 0 K .

Chapter 7

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