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Interpersonal relationship

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Supporting articles
Breastfeeding Club Society Family Friendship Hatred Interpersonal attraction Intimate relationship Love Physical attractiveness Same-sex relationship Human sexuality Tickling

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An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring. This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole.

Field of study
The study of interpersonal relationships involves several branches of the social sciences, including such disciplines as sociology, psychology, anthropology, and social work.Interpersonal skills are extremely vital when trying to develop a relationship with another person. The scientific study of relationships evolved during the 1990s and came to be referred to as 'relationship science',[1] which distinguishes itself from anecdotal evidence or pseudo-experts by basing conclusions on data and objective analysis. Interpersonal ties are also a subject in mathematical sociology.[2]

Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence. Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, and an end. They tend to grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives and form new relationships with others. One of the most influential models of relationship development was proposed by psychologist George Levinger.[3] This model was formulated to describe heterosexual, adult romantic relationships, but it has been applied to other kinds of interpersonal relations as well. According to the model, the natural development of a relationship follows five stages: 1. Acquaintance Becoming acquainted depends on previous relationships, physical proximity, first impressions, and a variety of other factors. If two people begin to like each other, continued interactions may lead to the next stage, but acquaintance can continue indefinitely.

Interpersonal relationship 2. Buildup During this stage, people begin to trust and care about each other. The need for intimacy, compatibility and such filtering agents as common background and goals will influence whether or not interaction continues. 3. Continuation This stage follows a mutual commitment to a long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or marriage. It is generally a long, relative stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship. 4. Deterioration Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure. Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. (Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust.) 5. Termination The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by death, or by separation. Friendships may involve some degree of transitivity. In other words, a person may become a friend of an existing friend's friend. However, if two people have a sexual relationship with the same person, they may become competitors rather than friends. Accordingly, sexual behavior with the sexual partner of a friend may damage the friendship (see love triangle). Sexual activities between two friends tend to alter that relationship, either by "taking it to the next level" or by severing it.

Flourishing relationships
Positive psychologists use the term "flourishing relationships" to describe interpersonal relationships that are not merely happy, but instead characterized by intimacy, growth, and resilience.[4] Flourishing relationships also allow a dynamic balance between focus on the intimate relationships and focus on other social relationships.

While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.[5] Healthy relationships are built on a foundation of secure attachment and are maintained with love and purposeful positive relationship behaviors. Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish." Positive psychologists are exploring what makes existing relationships flourish and what skills can be taught to partners to enhance their existing and future personal relationships. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships. Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills.[6] Adult attachment and attachment theory Healthy relationships are built on a foundation of secure attachments. Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.[5] Secure adult attachment, characterized by low attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, has numerous benefits. Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing.[5] This is because social acts that reinforce feelings of attachment also stimulate the release of neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and endorphin, which alleviate stress and create feelings of contentment.[7] Attachment theory can also be used as a means of explaining adult relationships.[8]

Interpersonal relationship Love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world.[5] In his triangular theory of love, psychologist Robert Sternberg theorizes that love is a mix of three components: some (1) passion, or physical attraction; (2) intimacy, or feelings of closeness; and (3) commitment, involving the decision to initiate and sustain a relationship. The presence of all three components characterizes consummate love, the most durable type of love. In addition, the presence of intimacy and passion in marital relationships predicts marital satisfaction. Also, commitment is the best predictor of relationship satisfaction, especially in long-term relationships. Positive consequences of being in love include increased self-esteem and self-efficacy.[5] Referring to the emotion of love, Psychiatrist Daniel Casriel defined the logic of love as the logic of pleasure and pain in the concept of a "Relationship Road Map" that became the foundation of PAIRS' relationship education classes.[] We are drawn to what we anticipate will be a source of pleasure and will look to avoid what we anticipate will be a source of pain. The emotion of love comes from the anticipation of pleasure.[] Based on Casriels theory, sustaining feelings of love in an interpersonal relationship requires effective communication, emotional understanding, and healthy conflict resolution skills.[9]

Theories and empirical research

Confucianism Confucianism is a study and theory of relationships especially within hierarchies.[10] Social harmonythe central goal of Confucianismresults in part from every individual knowing his or her place in the social order, and playing his or her part well. Particular duties arise from each person's particular situation in relation to others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: as a junior in relation to parents and elders, and as a senior in relation to younger siblings, students, and others. Juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence and seniors have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors. A focus on mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures to this day. Minding relationships The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced. Minding is the "reciprocal knowing process involving the nonstop, interrelated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of persons in a relationship."[11] Five components of "minding" include:[5] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Knowing and being known: seeking to understand the partner Making relationship-enhancing attributions for behaviors: giving the benefit of the doubt Accepting and respecting: empathy and social skills Maintaining reciprocity: active participation in relationship enhancement Continuity in minding: persisting in mindfulness

Culture of appreciation After studying married couples for many years, psychologist John Gottman has proposed the theory of the "magic ratio" for successful marriages. The theory says that for a marriage to be successful, couples must average a ratio of five positive interactions to one negative interaction. As the ratio moves to 1:1, divorce becomes more likely.[5] Interpersonal interactions associated with negative relationships include criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling. Over time, therapy aims to turn these interpersonal strategies into more positive ones, which include complaint, appreciation, acceptance of responsibility, and self-soothing. Similarly, partners in interpersonal relationships can incorporate positive components into difficult subjects in order to avoid emotional

Interpersonal relationship disconnection.[12] In addition, Martin Seligman proposes the concept of Active-Constructive Responding, which stresses the importance of practicing conscious attentive listening and feedback skills. In essence, practicing this technique aims to improve the quality of communication between members of the relationship, and in turn the gratitude expressed between said members.[13] Capitalizing on positive events People can capitalize on positive events in an interpersonal context to work toward flourishing relationships. People often turn to others to share their good news (termed "capitalization"). Studies show that both the act of telling others about good events and the response of the person with whom the event was shared have personal and interpersonal consequences, including increased positive emotions, subjective well-being, and self-esteem, and relationship benefits including intimacy, commitment, trust, liking, closeness, and stability.[14] Studies show that the act of communicating positive events was associated with increased positive affect and well-being (beyond the impact of the positive event itself a). Other studies have found that relationships in which partners responded to "good news" communication enthusiastically were associated with higher relationship well-being.[15]

Other perspectives
Neurobiology of interpersonal connections There is an emerging body of research across multiple disciplines investigating the neurological basis of attachment and the prosocial emotions and behaviors that are the prerequisites for healthy adult relationships.[5] The social environment, mediated by attachment, influences the maturation of structures in a child's brain. This might explain how infant attachment affects adult emotional health. Researchers are currently investigating the link between positive caregiverchild relationships and the development of hormone systems, such as the HPA axis.

Researchers are developing an approach to couples therapy that moves partners from patterns of repeated conflict to patterns of more positive, comfortable exchanges. Goals of therapy include development of social and interpersonal skills. Expressing gratitude and sharing appreciation for a partner is the primary means for creating a positive relationship. Positive marital counseling also emphasizes mindfulness. The further study of "flourishing relationships could shape the future of premarital and marital counseling as well."[5]

Some researchers criticize positive psychology for studying positive processes in isolation from negative processes.[citation needed] Positive psychologists argue that positive and negative processes in relationships may be better understood as functionally independent, not as opposites of each other.[16]

[2] Berscheid, E., & Peplau, L.A. (1983). The emerging science of relationships. In H.H. Kelley, et al. (Eds.), Close relationships. (pp. 119). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. [3] Levinger, G. (1983). Development and change. In H.H. Kelley, et al. (Eds.), Close relationships. (pp. 315359). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. [4] Fincham, F.D., & Beach, S.R.H. (2010). Of Memes and Marriage: Toward a Positive Relationship Science. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 2, 424. [5] Snyder, C.R., & Lopez, Shane, J. (2007). "Positive psychology: the scientific and practical explorations of human strengths.", Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 297321. [11] John H. Harvey, J.H., & Pauwels, B.G. (2009). Relationship Connection: A Redux on the Role of Minding and the Quality of Feeling Special in the Enhancement of Closeness. [Eds.] Snyder, C.D., & Lopez, S.J. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology: Second Edition.

Interpersonal relationship
Oxford: Oxford University Press. 385392. [14] Gable, S.L., & Reis, H.T. (2010). Good News! Capitalizing on Positive Events in an Interpersonal Context. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 195257. [15] Gable, S.L., Reis, H.T., Impett, E.A., Asher, E.R. (2004). What Do You Do When Things Go Right? The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Benefits of Sharing Positive Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 228245. [16] Maniaci, M.R., & Reis, H.T. (2010). The Marriage of Positive Psychology and Relationship Science: A Reply to Fincham and Beach. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 2, 4753.

Supporting articles
Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., via lactation) rather than using infant formula from a baby bottle or other container. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Experts recommend that children be breastfed within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, and then breastfed until age two with age-appropriate, nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods.[1][][][][2] Some working mothers express milk to be used while their child is being cared for by others. Breastfeeding was the rule in ancient times up to recent human history, and babies were carried with the mother and fed as required. With 18th and 19th century industrialization in the Western world, mothers in many urban centers began dispensing with breastfeeding due to work requirement in urban Europe. Breastfeeding declined significantly from 1900 to 1960, due to improved sanitation, nutritional technologies, and increasingly negative social attitudes towards the practice.[3] Under modern health care, human breast milk is considered the healthiest form of milk for babies.[] From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though some negative attitudes towards the practice still remain. Breastfeeding promotes health for both mother and infant and helps to prevent disease.[][][4] Longer breastfeeding has also been associated with better mental health through childhood and into adolescence.[] Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about the effects of artificial formulas. Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.[] There are few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs, has active untreated tuberculosis or is infected with human T-lymphotropic virus. The World Health Organization recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted and supported by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV infection transmission from mother to child.

An infant breastfeeding

International Breastfeeding Symbol


In the Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children. However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This was extended over the ages, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses. But lower class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this did not have a favorable outcome either. During the early 1900s breastfeeding started to be viewed negatively by Western societies, especially in Canada and the USA. These societies considered it a low class and uncultured practice, viewing it with a certain Queen Marie Casimire of Poland with degree of disgust.[] This coincided with the appearance of improved infant children by Jerzy Siemiginowski, 1684. formulas in the mid 19th century and its increased use, which accelerated after World War II. From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though negative attitudes towards the practise were still intrenched up to 1990s.[]

Organizational endorsements
World Health Organization

The vast majority of mothers can and should breastfeed, just as the vast majority of infants can and should be breastfed. Only under exceptional circumstances can a mothers milk be considered unsuitable for her infant. For those few health situations where infants cannot, or should not, be breastfed, the choice of the best alternativeexpressed breast milk from an infants own mother, breast milk from a healthy wet-nurse or a human-milk bank, or a breast-milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teatdepends on [] individual circumstances.

The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, after which "infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breastfeeding continues up to two years of age or beyond."[]

American Academy of Pediatrics

Extensive research using improved epidemiologic methods and modern laboratory techniques documents diverse and compelling advantages for infants, mothers, families, and society from breastfeeding and use of human milk for infant feeding. These advantages include health, [] nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychologic, social, economic, and environmental benefits.

The AAP recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.[] Furthermore, "breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child."[]


United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

One of the most highly effective preventive measures a mother can take to protect the health of her infant is to breastfeed.

According to the CDC, "The success rate among mothers who want to breastfeed can be greatly improved through active support from their families, friends, communities, clinicians, health care leaders, employers, and policymakers. Given the importance of breastfeeding for the health and well-being of mothers and children, it is critical that we take action across the country to support breastfeeding."[5]

Breast milk
Not all the properties of breast milk are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively stable. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[] Because breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day, it helps the mother lose weight after giving birth.[6] The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child. The quality of a mother's breast milk may be compromised by smoking, alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, marijuana, methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone.[7] The American Academy of Pediatrics states that "Tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding."[8] In addition, the AAP states that while breastfeeding mothers "should avoid the use of alcoholic beverages," an "occasional celebratory single, small alcoholic drink is acceptable, but breastfeeding should be avoided for 2 hours after the drink."[8]

Himba woman and child.

Benefits for the infant

Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)[] and a 2007 review for the WHO,[] have found numerous benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, research shows that breast feeding provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development. Not breastfeeding significantly increases risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis.[9] They state that there are a number of studies that show a possible protective effect of breast milk feeding against sudden infant death syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes

A woman with her child in Kabala, Sierra Leone in the 1960s.

Breastfeeding mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases, and a possible enhancement of cognitive development.[8]

During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk.[10][] This is one of the most important features of colostrum, the breast milk created for newborns.[] The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body,[11] but this amount is relatively small.[12] Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria).[][] Infections Among the studies showing that non-breastfed infants have a higher risk of infection than breastfed infants are: In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.[13] A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media infection, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of otitis media than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life.[] Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.[] A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.[] The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections.[]

Sudden infant death syndrome

Non-breastfed babies have worse arousal from sleep at 23 months. This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.[] A study conducted at the University of Mnster found that not breastfeeding doubled the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1.[]

Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than peers with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods.[][14] Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2,[][][][] at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight.[]

Mental health
Breastfeeding for more than 6 months is an independent predictor of better mental health through childhood and adolescence according to a large 2009 study.[] The more months children were breastfed the less likely they were to suffer from depression, delinquent behavior, attention issues and other psychological problems.[] Breastfeeding also improves cognitive development according to a number of other studies. The beneficial effects seem to stem in large part from the unique composition of human milk which, compared to formula milk, has been shown to lead to improved motor and cognitive development in pre-term babies as well.[]



Childhood obesity
Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of extreme obesity in children.[15] The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies, and appears to increase with the duration of breastfeeding.[][][16] A study has also shown that infants who are bottle-fed in early infancy are more likely to empty the bottle or cup in late infancy than those who are breastfed. "Bottle-feeding, regardless of the type of milk, is distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' self-regulation of milk intake." According to the study, this may be due to one of three possible factors, including that when bottle feeding, parents may encourage an infant to finish the contents of the bottle whereas when breastfeeding, an infant naturally develops self-regulation of milk intake.[17] A study in Today's Pediatrics associates solid food given too early to Formula-fed babies before 4 months old will make them 6 times as likely to become obese by age 3. It does not happen if the babies were given solid foods with breast feeding.[18]

Allergic diseases (atopy)

In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age.[] However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding.[] Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history.[]

Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease in the intestines of infants. Necrosis or death of intestinal tissue may follow. It is mainly found in premature births. In one study of 926 preterm infants, NEC developed in 51 infants (5.5%). The death rate from necrotizing enterocolitis was 26%. NEC was found to be six to ten times more common in infants fed formula exclusively, and three times more common in infants fed a mixture of breast milk and formula, compared with exclusive breastfeeding. In infants born at more than 30 weeks, NEC was twenty times more common in infants fed exclusively on formula.[] A 2007 meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials found "a marginally statistically significant association" between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of NEC.[]

Other long term health effects

Although one study showed no evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against allergies, another study showed a positive correlation between breastfeeding and a lower risk of asthma. This study also showed that breastfeeding protects against allergies, and respiratory and intestinal infections.[][] A review of the association between breastfeeding and celiac disease (CD) concluded that breast feeding while introducing gluten to the diet reduced the risk of CD. The study was unable to determine if breastfeeding merely delayed symptoms or offered lifelong protection.[] According to the findings of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin, women who were breastfed as infants may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who were not breastfed.[19] Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in adult women who had been breastfed as infants.[][20] Although a 2001 study suggested that adults who had been breastfed as infants had lower arterial distensibility than adults who had not been breastfed as infants,[21] the 2007 review for the WHO concluded that breastfed infants "experienced lower mean blood

Breastfeeding pressure" later in life.[] A 2007 review for the AHRQ found that "there is an association between a history of breastfeeding during infancy and a small reduction in adult blood pressure, but the clinical or public health implication of this finding is unclear".[] A 2006 study found that breastfed babies are better able to cope with stress later in life.[22] In a paper selected by UNICEF as the Breastfeeding Paper of the Month it was suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than artificially-fed infants because of the effects of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity and airway. It was thought that with fewer malocclusions, breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. The report also suggested that children with the proper development of a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch, which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life.[23]


Connection to intelligence
Studies have examined whether breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life. Possible association between breastfeeding and intelligence is not clear. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance"[] and in 2006, a prospective cohort study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis, concluded that "Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children."[] The researchers found that "Most of the observed association between breast feeding and cognitive development is the result of confounding by maternal intelligence."[] However a 2007 review for the World Health Organization "suggests that breastfeeding is associated with increased cognitive development in childhood." The review also states that "The issue remains of whether the association is related to the properties of breastmilk itself, or whether breastfeeding enhances the bonding between mother and child, and thus contributes to intellectual development." [] A 2005 study using data on 2,734 sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health "provide[d] persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence."[] In another study, cited as "the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation," between 1996 and 1997 maternity hospitals and polyclinics in Belarus were randomized to receive or not receive breastfeeding promotion modeled on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative.[] Of 13,889 infants born at these hospitals and polyclinics and followed up in 20022005, those who had been born in hospitals and polyclinics receiving breastfeeding promotion had IQs that were 2.97.5 points higher (which was significantly higher).[] Since (among other reasons) a randomized trial should control for maternal IQ, the authors concluded in a 2008 paper that the data "provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development."[] Further research in 2013 has supported this theory.[24] One 2013 imaging study indicated that breastfed children experience 15-34% enhanced brain white matter development.[25] Genetic studies In 2007, A. Caspi et al. published a study Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism. The authors noted that there is currently agreement in the scientific community that both genetic and environmental factors effect specific traits rather than one or another. This fact inspired them to try to find a gene that mediates the well-researched phenomenon that children who are breast-fed have higher IQ. In their study they found that babies with a specific version of the FADS2 gene demonstrated an IQ averaging 7 points higher if breastfed, compared with babies with a less common version of the gene who showed no improvement when breastfed.[] FADS2 affects the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in human breast milk, such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are known to be linked to early brain development.[] The researchers said "Our findings support the idea that the nutritional content of breast milk accounts for the differences seen in human IQ. But it's not a simple all-or-none connection: it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant"[26] and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific geneenvironment interaction is warranted."[]

Breastfeeding However, an attempt to replicate this study in 5934 eight-year-old children failed: No relationship of the common C allele to negative effects of formula feeding was apparent, and contra to the original report, the rare GG homozygote children performed worse when formula fed than other children on formula milk.[][27] Another study of over 700 families also criticized the Caspi et al. study. The study reported no evidence for either main or moderating effects of the original SNP (rs174575), nor of two additional FADS2 polymorphisms (rs1535 and rs174583), nor any effect of maternal FADS2 status on offspring IQ.[]


Benefits for mothers

Breastfeeding is a cost effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormones are released into the mother's body[] and the maternal bond can be strengthened.[] Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point.[28] Children who are not breastfed are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than children who receive at least some breastmilk.[29]

Zanzibari woman breastfeeding

According to some authorities, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that early skin-to-skin contact (also called kangaroo care) of mother and baby stimulates breast feeding behavior in the baby.[30] Newborn infants who are immediately placed on their mothers skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of being born. It is thought that immediate skin-to-skin contact provides a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. The World Health Organization reports that in addition to more successful breastfeeding, Infant nursing shortly after birth skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby immediately after delivery also reduces crying, improves mother to infant interaction, and keeps baby warm. According to studies quoted by UNICEF, babies have been observed to naturally follow a unique process which leads to a first breastfeed. After birth, babies who are placed skin to skin on their mothers chest will: Initially babies cry briefly a very distinctive birth cry Then they will enter a stage of relaxation, recovering from the birth Then the baby will start to wake up Then begin to move, initially little movements, perhaps of the arms, shoulders and head As these movements increase he will actually start to crawl towards the breast Once he has found the breast and therefore his food source, he will tend to rest for a little while. Often this can be mistaken as the baby is not hungry or wanting to feed However after his rest he will start to familiarise himself with the breast, perhaps by nuzzling, smelling and licking before he finally attaches

Breastfeeding Once he has suckled for a period of time, he will come off the breast and fall asleep. Providing that there are no interruptions, all babies are said to follow this process and it is suggested that trying to rush the process or interruptions such as removing the baby to weigh him/her is counter-productive and may lead to problems at subsequent breastfeeds.[31] Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.[] Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates.[] Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child.[] If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with breast milk expressed with a breast pump.


Hormone release
Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby.[] This hormone release can help to enable sleep even where a mother may otherwise be having difficulty sleeping. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin. Syntocinon, another synthetic oxytocic, is commonly used in Australia and the UK rather than Pitocin.[]

Weight loss
As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeedingat least 6 monthscan help mothers lose weight.[32][33][] However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight.[] The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear."[] Gestational changes Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant womans metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two. In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts.[] This shift in fat content leads to increased insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother. Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG) may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR).[34] In general, the more weight that women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward. Interventions to restrain GWG in the United States and elsewhere have had mixed results in reducing PPWR.[35] The recent recognition of PPWRs influence on later chronic diseases has brought a surge in data analysis. In fact, the proportion of US women who gain weight excessively during pregnancy is growing. In 2005, 20.6% gained 18.2kg (40lb), the upper limit recommended by the Institute of Medicine.[36] Recommended weight gains during pregnancy vary according to maternal baseline characteristics. The Institute of Medicine has established guidelines where women who are underweight (BMI less than 18.5) are encouraged to gain 13 to 18kg; women who are at normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) are encouraged to gain 1116kg; those who are overweight (BMI 25-29.9) are suggested to gain 711kg; and those who are obese I (BMI 30-34.9) are recommended to gain 59kg.[37] These recommendations are variable and are meant to inform an obstetrician in caring for a pregnant woman. Extreme gains in visceral fat can put women at higher risk of cardiovascular and glycemic disorders later in life.

Breastfeeding Postpartum changes After birth, the fat stores created during pregnancy are primed to be metabolized through lactation. Several investigators have explored the relation between duration of lactation and postpartum weight change, and found a variety of outcomes. Overall, it has been observed that prolonged exclusivity of breastfeeding is associated with increased weight loss when controlling for gestational weight gain and postpartum caloric intake and expenditure.[38] Dietary intake and energy expenditure affect how much weight women lose with Postpartum bonding lactation. When nutrition is readily available, women compensate for increased energy demands by increasing intake and decreasing energy expenditure, rather than mobilizing fat stores. Fat mobilization appears to increase after the first 3 months postpartum, reflecting changes in the hormonal effects of lactation on maternal appetite as frequency of infant feeds decreases.[39] Some findings suggest that formula-feeding mothers during the first two months postpartum consume 600 to 800 fewer calories than breast-feeding mothers and lost substantially more weight. From 3 to 6 months post-partum, however, weight loss among breast-feeding women increased substantially.[40] These results suggest that in the early postpartum period, well-nourished women in developed nations tend to increase energy intake and/or decrease physical activity to meet the energy demands of lactation, whereas beyond 3 months, lactating women are more likely to mobilize fat stores. Longitudinal studies using skinfold thickness and MRI scanning of adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation consistently show fat accumulation in the thigh and buttocks regions during pregnancy, with mobilization from these areas postpartum.[41][42] These studies have indicated that lactation is associated with reduction in subcutaneous fat levels and overall body weight. Long-term effects of lactation on health and body composition Recent data suggests that lactation is associated with a reduced risk in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease.[43] The long-term effects of lactation on body composition vary, and seem to be influenced by socioeconomic factors.[44] Studies have consistently indicated that lactation helps prepare the mothers body for subsequent pregnancies and reduces complications in later periods of gestation and birth. Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of lactation on maternal body composition and risk for chronic disease.[45]


Natural postpartum infertility

Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed.[] It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again.



Long-term health effects

For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include: Less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer.[][][][] A 2009 study indicated that lactation for at least 24 months is associated with a 23% lower risk of coronary heart disease.[] Although the 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between a history of lactation and the risk of osteoporosis",[] mothers who breastfeed longer than eight months benefit from bone re-mineralisation.[] Breastfeeding diabetic mothers require less insulin.[] Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome[][] Reduced risk of post-partum bleeding.[] According to a Malm University study published in 2009, women who breast fed for a longer duration have a lower risk for contracting rheumatoid arthritis than women who breast fed for a shorter duration or who had never breast fed.[]

Financial benefits
The American Academy of Pediatrics states that breast feeding also has economic health benefits because breastfeeding results in reduced health care costs. The significantly lower incidence of illness in the breastfed infant also allows the parents more time for attention to siblings and other family duties and reduces parental absence from work and lost income. Using figures for the year 1993, it was estimated that the cost of purchasing infant formula for the first year after birth was $855. During the first 6 weeks of lactation, maternal caloric intake is no greater for the breastfeeding mother than for the nonlactating mother. After that period, food and fluid intakes are greater, but the cost of the increased caloric intake is about half the cost of purchasing formula, resulting in a saving of about $400.[46]

Methods and considerations

There are many books and videos to advise mothers about breastfeeding. Lactation consultants in hospitals or private practice, and volunteer organizations of breastfeeding mothers such as La Leche League International also provide advice and support.

Early breastfeeding
In the half hour after birth, the baby's suckling reflex is strongest, and the baby is more alert, so it is the ideal time to start breastfeeding.[47] Breastfeeding also releases hormones that contract the uterus to reduce post-partum bleeding.[48] Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems.[49] A Cochrane review found that early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby (placing the baby at the mother's breast before dressing the baby) reduces crying, improves mother-baby interaction, keeps the baby warmer, and helps women breastfeed successfully and for a longer period of time.[50]



Time and place for breastfeeding

Feeding a baby "on demand" (sometimes referred to as "on cue"), means feeding when the baby shows signs of hunger. Newborn babies usually express demand for feeding every 1 to 3 hours per 24 hours (resulting in 8-12 times in 24 hours) for the first two to four weeks.[51] "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry. Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain."[] "Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. Pacifiers (dummies, soothers) are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea, avoidance of nipple confusion, and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success."[] Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere she is allowed to be. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and improves the ease of breastfeeding. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring them to go to a special area.

Latching on, feeding, and positioning

Rooming-in bassinet Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to [][52] prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk. The "rooting reflex" is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session, then quickly moving the baby onto the breast while its mouth is wide open.[53] To prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to get enough milk, a large part of the breast and areola need to enter the baby's mouth.[][] Failure to latch on is one of the main reasons for ineffective feeding and can lead to infant health concerns.

A 2006 study found that inadequate parental education, incorrect breastfeeding techniques, or both were associated with higher rates of preventable hospital re-admissions of newborns.[]

Duration of each session

During the newborn period, most breastfeeding sessions will take from 20 to 45 minutes.[51] After the finishing of a breast, the mother may offer the other breast.

Exclusive breastfeeding



Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as "an infant's consumption of human milk with no supplementation of any type (no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk, and no foods) except for vitamins, minerals, and medications."[] National and international guidelines recommend that all infants be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding may continue with the addition of appropriate foods, for two years or more. Exclusive Two 25ml samples of human breast milk. The sample on the left is foremilk, the watery milk coming from a full breast. To the right is breastfeeding has dramatically reduced infant deaths in [54] hindmilk, the creamy milk coming from a nearly empty breast. developing countries by reducing diarrhea and infectious diseases. It has also been shown to reduce HIV transmission from mother to child, compared to mixed feeding.[55][56][57][58] While it can be hard to measure how much food a breastfed baby consumes, babies normally feed to meet their own requirements.[] Babies that fail to eat enough may exhibit symptoms of failure to thrive. The La Leche League says that their most often asked question is, "How can I tell if my baby is getting enough milk?" They advise that for the first few days while the baby is receiving mostly colostrum only one or two wet diapers per day is normal. Once the mother's milk comes in, usually on the third or fourth day, the baby should begin to have 6-8 wet cloth diapers (5-6 wet disposable diapers) per day. In addition, most young babies will have at least two to five bowel movements every 24 hours for the first several months.[59] The La Leache League gives the following additional signs that indicate a baby is receiving enough milk: The baby nurses frequently averaging at least 8-12 feedings per 24-hour period. The baby is allowed to determine the length of the feeding, which may be 10 to 20 minutes per breast or longer. Baby's swallowing sounds are audible as he is breastfeeding. The baby should gain at least 4-7 ounces per week after the fourth day of life. The baby will be alert and active, appear healthy, have good color, firm skin, and will be growing in length and head circumference.[59]

Expressing breast milk

When direct breastfeeding is not possible, a mother can express (artificially remove and store) her milk. With manual massage or by using a breast pump, a woman can express her milk and store it. It can be stored in freezer storage bags and containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system, or a bottle ready for use. Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for up to six to twelve months.[60] Research suggests that the antioxidant activity in expressed breast milk decreases over time but it still remains at higher levels than in infant formula.[] Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. If a sick baby is unable to feed, expressed milk can be fed through a nasogastric tube. Expressed milk can also be used when a mother is having trouble breastfeeding.

Manual breast pump

Breastfeeding "Exclusively expressing", "exclusively pumping", and "EPing" are terms for a mother who feeds her baby exclusively her breastmilk while not physically breastfeeding. This may arise because her baby is unable or unwilling to latch on to the breast. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks when the milk supply is being established, it is possible to produce enough milk to feed the baby for as long as the mother wishes. It is generally advised to delay using a bottle to feed expressed breast milk until the baby is 46 weeks old and is good at sucking directly from the breast.[] As sucking from a bottle takes less effort, babies can lose their desire to suck from the breast. This is called nursing strike or nipple confusion. To avoid this when feeding expressed breast milk (EBM) before 46 weeks of age, it is recommended that breast milk be given by other means such as feeding spoons or feeding cups. Also, EBM should be given by someone other than the breastfeeding mother (or wet nurse), so that the baby can learn to associate direct feeding with the mother (or wet nurse) and associate bottle feeding with other people. With the improvements in breast pumps, many women are able to return to work while exclusively feeding their infants breast milk because of their ability to express milk at work. Women can also leave their infants in the care of others for vacation or other extended trips, while maintaining a supply of breast milk. This can be very convenient to the mother.[61] Some women donate their expressed breast milk (EBM) to others, either directly or through a milk bank. Though historically the use of wet nurses was common, some women dislike the idea of feeding their own child with another woman's milk; others appreciate being able to give their baby the benefits of breast milk. Feeding expressed breast milkeither from donors or the baby's own motheris the feeding method of choice for premature babies.[] The transmission of some viral diseases through breastfeeding can be prevented by expressing breast milk and subjecting it to Holder pasteurisation.[]


Mixed feeding
Predominant or mixed breastfeeding means feeding breast milk along with infant formula, baby food and even water, depending on the age of the child. Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth; with an artificial nipple, an infant must suck harder and the milk may come in more rapidly. Therefore, mixing breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (or using a pacifier) before the baby is used to feeding from its mother can result in the infant preferring the bottle to the breast. Some mothers supplement feed with a small syringe or flexible cup to reduce the risk of artificial nipple preference.[62]

Expressed breast milk (EBM) or infant formula can be fed to an infant by bottle



Tandem nursing
Feeding two children at the same time who are not twins or multiples is called tandem nursing. As the appetite and feeding habits of each baby may not be the same, this could mean feeding each according to their own individual needs and can also include breastfeeding them together, one on each breast. In cases of triplets or more, it is a challenge for a mother to organize feeding around the appetites of all the babies. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce large quantities of milk; mothers have been able to breastfeed triplets successfully.[][63][64]

Tandem nursing

Tandem nursing occurs when a woman has a baby while breastfeeding an older child. During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk will change to colostrum, and some older nurslings will continue to feed even with this change, while others may wean due to the change in taste or drop in supply. Breastfeeding a child while being pregnant with another can also be considered a form of tandem feeding for the nursing mother, as she also provides the nutrition for two.[]

Shared breastfeeding
It used to be common worldwide, and still is in some developing nations such as those found in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding has now been found to be a risk factor for HIV infection in infants.[65] A woman who is engaged to breastfeed another's baby is known as a wet nurse. Shared breastfeeding can sometimes incur negative reactions in the Anglosphere;[66] American feminist activist Jennifer Baumgardner has written about her experiences in New York with this issue.[67]

Duration of breastfeeding
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the baby's first 6 months of life, and continued breastfeeding complemented with appropriate foods up to two years old and beyond.[][68] According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the results of which were published in the journal Pediatrics, as of 2013 in the United States reliance on out-dated recommendations and considerations of convenience and cost sometimes resulted in inappropriate earlier attempts to switch to solid food.[] In many Western countries, however, breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old is considered "extended breastfeeding". These movements in the West towards earlier weaning, however, are recent. Breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old was at one time a very common practice worldwide.[] Dr. Martin Stein wrote in Parental Concerns about Extended Breastfeeding in a Toddler that "The Woman nurses small child discussion about extended nursing is similar to that of co-sleeping. They are both characteristics of child rearing that are closely linked to time and place. In most cultures before the 20th century, both practices were the norm. Changes in social, economic, and sexual expectations altered our views of the meaning of breastfeeding and bed sharing." Extended breastfeeding was encouraged in Ancient Greek,

Breastfeeding Hebrew, and Muslim cultures. The Koran, the Talmud, and the writings of Aristotle all recommend breastfeeding for 2 to 3 years.[] In Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months: Mothers' Perceptions of the Negative and Positive Consequences, Dr. S. B. Reamer states that "Over the past 100 years of American history, the acceptance of unrestricted nursing decreased and the age acceptable for weaning dropped dramatically, until the average weaning age was 3 months in the 1970s." In reaction to the move in the West towards earlier weaning, several organizations have been founded in Western countries to support mothers who practice extended breastfeeding. These organizations include the International Childbirth Education Association and La Leche League International.[] The US CDC recommends exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age. Their latest figures (2008) show that 76.9% US women had ever breastfed but only 47.2% were still breastfeeding at six months and 25.5% at twelve months. Figures for exclusive breastfeeding at three months were 36% and at six months only 16.3%.[69]


Diet during breastfeeding

Women who are breastfeeding need to be careful about what they eat and drink, since things can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should avoid fish that are high in mercury, and limit lower mercury fish intake.[70] If a woman ingests alcohol, a small amount can be passed to the baby through breast milk. Alcohol-containing breastmilk has been shown to have a detrimental effect on motor development.[71] Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) per day for breastfeeding women, as excess caffeine in breastmilk can cause irritability and restlessness in infants. When consumed in normal, everyday amounts, caffeine is considered to be compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[72] Nursing mothers concerned about the chemical bisphenol A, which has been shown to affect a childs health, should be aware that it can be passed to their baby though breast milk; they may want to limit their dietary intake of certain foods and adjust their shopping habits to avoid as much exposure as possible.[73][74]

Healthy infant growth

The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 56 months. By one year, a typical breastfed baby will weigh about 2 times its birth weight. At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula fed babies, which is healthier, especially in the long-run. A general guide to the growth of breastfed babies is the following: Weight gain of 47 ounces (112200grams) a week during the first month An average of 12 pounds (1/2 to 1 kilogram) per month for the first six months An average of one pound (1/2 kilogram) per month from six months to one year Babies usually grow in length by about an inch a month (2.5cm) during the first six months, and around one-half inch a month from six months to one year.[]

Weaning is the process of introducing the infant to other food and reducing the supply of breast milk. The infant is fully weaned when it no longer receives any breast milk. Most mammals stop producing the enzyme lactase at the end of weaning, and become lactose intolerant. A large minority of humans have a mutation, with frequency depending primarily on ethnic background, that allows the production of lactase throughout life so they can drink milk usually cow or goat milk well beyond infancy.[75] In humans, the psychological factors involved in the weaning process are crucial for both mother and infant as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent during this stage.[76] In the past bromocriptine was in some countries frequently used to reduce the engorgement experienced by many women during weaning. This is now done only in exceptional cases as it causes frequent side effects, offers very little advantage over non-medical management and the possibility of serious side effects can not be ruled out.[77]

Breastfeeding Other medications such as cabergoline, lisuride or birth control pills may occasionally be used as lactation suppressants.


Extended breastfeeding
North America Elizabeth Baldwin says in Extended Breastfeeding and the Law, "Because our culture tends to view the breast as sexual, it can be hard for people to realize that breastfeeding is the natural way to nurture children."[78] In Western countries such as The United States of America, Canada, and Great Britain, extended breastfeeding is a taboo act. It is difficult to obtain accurate information and statistics about Percentage of any and exclusive breastfeeding extended breastfeeding in these countries because of the mother's months since birth among US infants born in 2008 embarrassment.[] Mothers who nurse longer than the social norm sometimes hide their practices from all but very close family members and friends. This is called "closet nursing".[] In a study published by the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 24% of American and Canadian mothers nursing past 6 months felt social hostility towards them. This number grew to 42% when mothers were nursing after 1 year of age. Also, 10% of mothers claimed embarrassment when more mobile, verbal toddlers made known in public the fact that they were nursed.[] In the United States, breastfeeding beyond 1 year of age is considered 'extended breastfeeding, and in contrast to WHO recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated in 1997 that, "Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child".[][] In the United States overall, according to a 2010 CDC "report card", 43% of babies are breastfed until 6 months and 22.4% are breastfed until 12 months, though breastfeeding rates varied among the states.[] Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months rose from 34.2% in 2000 to 43.5% in 2006 and the rates at 12 months rose from 15.7% in 2000 to 22.7% in 2006. The U.S. Healthy People 2010 goals were to have at least 60% of babies exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 25% of babies exclusively breastfed at 6 months so this goal has yet to be met.[] In the United States a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 75 percent of mothers began breastfeeding. However, by 6 months, the rate fell to 43% and was just 22% after a year. Breastfeeding rates vary across the country, from nearly 90 percent initiating breastfeeding in Utah to 52.5 percent in Mississippi. The health care law now requires large employers to provide breastfeeding mothers with breaks and a private space to feed their babies.[79] There have been several cases in the United States where children have been taken away from their mother's care because American courts or government agencies found the mother's extended breastfeeding to be inappropriate. In 1992, a New York State mother lost custody of her child for a year. She was still breastfeeding the child at age 3 and had reported experiences of sexual arousal while breastfeeding the child. The authorities took the child from the home in the fear that the mother might sexually abuse the child. Later, the social service agency that took over the case said that there was more to the case than could be released to the press due to confidentiality laws.[] In 2000, an Illinois child was removed from the mother's care after a judge ruled that the child might suffer emotional damage because of not being weaned. The child was later returned to the mother and the judge vacated the finding of neglect.[] A social service agency in Colorado removed a 5-year-old child from the mother because she was still breastfeeding, but the court ordered the child returned to its family immediately.[]

Breastfeeding Guinea-Bissau In Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, the average length of breastfeeding is 22.6 months.[] India In India, mothers commonly breastfed their children until 2 to 3 years of age. Cows milk is given in combination with breast milk though use of formula has been on the rise.[] As of November 2012,[80] the Ministry of Women and Child Development, with UNICEF as a technical partner, have kicked off a nationwide campaign to promote exclusive breastfeeding to infants up to the age of six months one among a series of advisories it is issuing - as part of an awareness program targeted at eradicating malnutrition in the country. Indian actor Aamir Khan serves as the brand ambassador, and has acted in numerous televised public service announcements. The Philippines In the Philippines, the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Milk Code require that breastfeeding be encouraged for babies up to the age of 2 years old or beyond. Under the same code, it is prohibited to advertise infant formula or breastmilk substitutes intended for infants and young children 24 months old and below.[81] In practice, however, a 2008 WHO survey found that on average, mothers in the Philippines breastfed their babies until 14 months of age, with breastfeeding extending up to 17 months on average in rural areas. Almost fifty-eight percent of mothers surveyed around the nation were still breastfeeding their babies when the babies were a year old, and 34.2% of mothers were still breastfeeding when their babies were 2 years old.[82] In 2012, it was reported that legislation had been introduced which would narrow down the application of the Milk Code (reducing the period recommending against artificial baby foods for babies from 0 to 36 months to 0 to six months only), would lift the restriction on donations of artificial milk products in emergency situations (encouraging mothers who suffer from disabilities to shift to milk substitutes instead of encouraging them to continue breastfeeding assisted by support persons), would change the legally mandated lactation break period for breastfeeding mothers from paid to unpaid status, and would remove the prohibition against milk companies giving away free samples of artificial milk products in the health care system.[83][84] Health effects Priscilla Colletto stated in Beyond Toddlerhood: The Breastfeeding Relationship Continues, "The adverse health effects of weaning a child before or during toddlerhood are well documented for Third World countries such as Guinea-Bissau, where children who were no longer breastfed at ages 1235 months had a 3.5 times higher mortality rate than did their peers who continued to breastfeed."[] Dr. Laurence Grummer-Strawn, widely known in the breastfeeding research and advocacy communities,[85] observed that breastfeeding is protective against diarrheal diseases and other infections and that breastfed children aged 12 to 36 months in Indonesia have much greater mid-arm circumference than children who have been weaned at an early age. He also noted that the incidence of malnourishment in breastfed Indonesian children is 35% less common than generally encountered in early-weened children. In one study, artificially-fed infants had 2 to 3 times as many episodes of significant illnesses (defined as "otitis media, lower respiratory disease, significant vomiting or diarrhea, and any illness requiring hospital admission").[] In traditional human societies, the lack of nutrients missing in breast milk such as iron, zinc, and vitamin b12 was supplemented through premastication and feeding of meat to the child.[][86]


Breastfeeding Psychological effects In A Time to Wean, Katherine Dettwyler states that "Western, industrialized societies can compensate for some (but not all) of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding with antibiotics, vaccines and improved sanitation. But the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of the young child persist."[] Many children who are breast-fed into their toddler years use the milk as a comforting, bonding moment with their mothers.[] In a 1974 survey of 152 mothers, 17% said that the security their toddlers obtained through extended breastfeeding helped them become more independent, 14% said that extended breastfeeding created a strong mother-child bond, and 14.6% said that extended breastfeeding strengthened their abilities as a mother. Four mothers said that they felt their child was too dependent and one mother considered her child a poor eater.[] Dr. Stein said "A mother in my practice who breastfed 2 children until 2 years of age explained that she would slow down and give her undivided attention to her child several times each day when breastfeeding. Her children knew that she always had time for those moments each day. This time was also important to the mother for relaxing and unwinding.... For many nursing toddlers, the breast comes to serve the same function as a favorite blanket or stuffed animal in providing comfort and a sense of security." One issue with extended breastfeeding is the ability of the mother and the child to separate. Some say that the desire for extended breastfeeding comes from the mother's inability to let go of "her baby".[] Baldwin refutes this statement, saying that the child is the one who chooses when they are weaned, as it is very difficult to force a child to breastfeed.


Breastfeeding difficulties
International board certified lactation consultants
International board certified lactation consultants (IBCLCs) are an excellent source of assistance for breastfeeding mothers. IBCLCs are health care professionals certified in lactation management. They work with mothers to solve breastfeeding problems and educate families and health care professionals about the benefits of breastfeeding. Research shows that rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of any breastfeeding are higher among women who have had babies in hospitals with IBCLCs on staff.[87]

Physiological constraints to breastfeeding

While breastfeeding is a natural human activity, difficulties and complications are not uncommon. Putting the baby to the breast as soon as possible after the birth helps to avoid many problems, including mastitis.[88] The AAP breastfeeding policy says: "Delay Noted nursing consultant Mary Rose Tully with a weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis until 17-day old infant. after the first feeding is completed."[] Many breastfeeding difficulties can be resolved with proper hospital procedures, properly trained midwives, doctors and hospital staff, and lactation consultants.[] There are some situations in which breastfeeding may be harmful to the infant, including infection with HIV and acute poisoning by environmental contaminants such as lead.[] The Institute of Medicine has reported that breast surgery, including breast implants or breast reduction surgery, reduces the chances that a woman will have sufficient milk to breast feed.[89]



Social-cultural constraints to breastfeeding

Women often stop breastfeeding because they return to work. Many arent provided with paid maternity leave or time and a private place to breastfeed or express their breast milk. Legislation around maternity leave and policies that provide time, space, and support for breastfeeding in the workplace could reduce this barrier. For mothers who work in farming or the informal sector, family and community support can help them to continue breastfeeding, even after returning to work. Also many countries need better laws and enforcement to protect women from persecution or harassment for breastfeeding.[1]

Barriers to breastfeeding
The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed when their baby is born. There are many things that happen that disrupt or intervene in this plan. Here are just a few of the barriers that women face when attempting to breastfeed. Birth procedures routine separation of the baby from the mother, delayed breastfeeding initiation, vigorous routine suctioning, medications and mode of delivery all interfere with breastfeeding. A "substantial" number of hospital and facilities implemented procedures and policies that were not evidenced based and that were known to interfere with lactation.[90] Nursery policies additional separation, rooming in policies, routine bottles and pacifiers can also prevent the baby from learning to latch and establishing a supply. About a quarter of all breastfeeding infants receive formula supplementation in the first two days of life.[91] Ignorance Personal breastfeeding is the biologic norm but in absence of watching others nurse their babies, it is a lost art as well. Classes, books and personal counseling (professional or lay) can be beneficial. Some women do not want to breastfeed because they fear that breastfeeding will negatively impact the look of their breasts, although medical evidence attributes the actual causes of breast appearance changes to pregnancy, aging, and smoking habits. Jae Ireland reports the idea that breastfeeding causes saggier, smaller breasts is a myth, as proven by a 2008 study published in the Aesthetic Surgery Journal. The study found that while breastfeeding had no effect on a woman's breasts, other factors did contribute to sagginess, such as a mother's advanced age, her number of pregnancies and whether or not she smoked. All three factors can result in altered breasts, but breastfeeding was not identified as a marker for a change in overall breast appearance. [92] Partner Partners also lack basic breastfeeding knowledge and are typically unsure of their role in breastfeeding. Practitioner Physicians and nurses have surprisingly little training in lactation and lactation support. One of the main action items in The Surgeon Generals Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding is to help educate practitioners about breastfeeding and breastfeeding issues.[93] Workforce Returning to work is the most common cited reason for discontinuing breastfeeding.[94] Maternity leave in the US varies widely despite the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which provides most working mothers up to 12 weeks. Many mothers are forced to take unpaid time off from their job and the majority do not use FMLA for the full twelve weeks. Fathers are also allowed to use FMLA for the birth or adoption of the child. Maternity leave varies widely by state. Poor latch - Pain caused from mis-positioning the baby on the breast or a tongue-tie in the infant can cause great pain in the mother and therefore discourage her from breastfeeding. These problems are generally easy to correct (by re-positioning or clipping the tongue-tie).[95] Women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies.[]



Sociological factors
Researchers have found several social factors that correlate with differences in initiation, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding practices of mothers. Race, ethnic differences and socioeconomic status and other factors have been shown to affect a mother's choice whether or not to breastfeed, and how long she breastfeeds her child. A recent study found that on average women that breastfed their infants had higher levels of education, were older, and were more likely to be white.[96] The reasons for the persistently lower rates of Famille dun Chef Camacan se prparant pour une Fte ("Family of a Camacan chief preparing for a celebration") by breastfeeding among African American women are not Jean-Baptiste Debret shows a woman breastfeeding a child in the well understood, but employment may play a role. African background. American women tend to return to work earlier after childbirth than white women, and they are more likely to work in environments that do not support breastfeeding. Although research has shown that returning to work is associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding, a supportive work environment may make a difference in whether mothers are able to continue breastfeeding.[96] Deborah L. Dee's research found that women and children who qualify for WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were among those who were least likely to initiate breastfeeding. Income level can also contribute to women discontinuing breastfeeding early. More highly educated women are more likely to have access to information regarding difficulties with breastfeeding, allowing them to continue breastfeeding through difficulty rather than weaning early. Women in higher status jobs are more likely to have access to a lactation room and suffer less social stigma from having to breastfeed or express breastmilk at work. In addition, women who are unable to take an extended leave from work following the birth of their child are less likely to continue breastfeeding when they return to work.[citation needed] Low income women are more likely to have unintended pregnancies,[96] and women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies.[]



Breastfeeding in public
Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not addressed by law in others, and a granted legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may nevertheless be reluctant to breastfeed,[97][] and some people may object to the practice.[] There have been incidents of owners of premises, or people present, objecting to or forbidding breastfeeding. In some cases the mothers have left; in others, where a law guaranteeing the right to breastfeed has been broken, there has been legal action. Sometimes a company has apologised after the fact.[] In 2006, the editors of US Babytalk magazine received many complaints from readers after the cover of the August issue depicted a baby nursing at a bare breast. Even though the model's nipple was not shown, readersmany of them motherswrote that the image was "gross". In a follow-up poll, one-quarter of 4,000 readers who responded thought the cover was negative. Babytalk editor Susan Kane commented, "There's a huge puritanical streak in Americans." In a 2004 survey conducted by the American Dietetic Association, only 43% of the 3,719 respondents believed women ought to have the right to breast-feed in public.[98]

Woman nursing her infant at pro breastfeeding conference in Spain

Role of marketing
Controversy has arisen over the marketing of breast milk vs. formula; particularly how it affects the education of mothers in third world countries and their comprehension (or lack thereof) of the health benefits of breastfeeding.[99] The most famous example being the Nestl boycott, which arose in the 1970s and continues to be supported by high-profile stars and international groups to this day.[100][101] In 1981, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted Resolution WHA34.22 which includes the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

Breastfeeding with HIV infection

The central concern about breastfeeding with HIV is whether or not it places the child at risk of becoming infected. Varying factors, such as the viral load in the mothers milk, contribute to the difficulty in creating breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers[102] It is also possible for the infant to be infected with HIV throughout the duration of the pregnancy or during the birthing process (intrapartum).[] Breastfeeding with HIV guidelines established by the WHO suggest that HIV-infected mothers (particularly those in resource-poor countries) practice exclusive breastfeeding only, rather than mixed breastfeeding practices that involve other dietary supplements or fluids.[103] Many studies have revealed the high benefit of exclusive breastfeeding to both mother and child, documenting that exclusive breastfeeding for a period of 6 months significantly reduces transmission, provides the infant with a greater chance of survival in the first year of life, and helps the mother to recover from the negative health effects of birth much more quickly.[104] However, a recent study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine suggests that women infected with HIV can, in fact, breastfeed without transmitting the virus to their children, because components in breast milk are understood as able to kill the virus.[105] High levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk (including eicosadienoic, arachidonic and gamma-linolenic acids) are associated with a reduced risk of child infection when nursed by HIV-positive mothers.

Breastfeeding Arachidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid may also reduce viral shedding of HIV in breast milk.[] Despite these positive indicators, other studies have determined that bottle-fed babies of HIV-infected mothers approximately has a 19 percent chance of becoming infected, in comparison to breastfed babies who had an approximate 49 percent chance of infection.[] Such a variance in findings makes it difficult to institute a proper set of guidelines for HIV-infected women in third-world or developing countries, where alternative forms of feeding are not always acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe (AFASS).[106] Thus after much research, the benefits and/or consequences of breastfeeding with HIV are still currently under debate.


Challenges to PMTCT Policy

The practice of breastfeeding for HIV positive mothers is a highly contested and controversial global public health concern. Programs for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and other international guidelines offer preventative interventions to address mother to child transmission(MTCT) of HIV in Third World countries.[107] PMTCT programs provide HIV-positive women with recommendations and services including antiretroviral therapy (ART), modifications in infant feeding practices (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding), and counseling.[108] Although prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been implemented across different regions, their success in resource-constrained settings is still widely debated upon.[] In 2008, the majority of sub-Saharan Africa as a whole had an estimate of 430,000 HIV infections among children under the age of 15.[] HIV-positive womens lack of participation and adherence to PMTCT services and infant feeding guidelines has made the success of these policies difficult, despite the knowledge and technology that has been dedicated to them.[] Many women fear knowing their HIV status.[] Generally speaking, HIV-positive mothers lack support, especially from males, thus resulting in their stigmatization and exclusion by members of the community.[] It is because of this that most women end up losing contact with development programs, which end soon after the mother delivers.[] The discontinuation of these programs makes a knowledge and understanding of different feeding options difficult for these mothers, because these programs are not there to present them with the necessary information.[]

Cross-Cultural Experiences of Breastfeeding with HIV

Access to available resources for the prevention of MTCT of HIV varies across different cultural regions. MTCT of HIV has been virtually eliminated in well-resourced settings such as the United States and Europe.[] Available medical and therapeutic resources in developed countries can include drugs for HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy and labour, cesarean delivery to reduce the infants exposure to infection; and modifications in infant feeding practices.[] In third world settings, medical resources and technology can be very hard to find and can serve as a financial burden to HIV-positive mothers. HIV-infected mothers refer to counselors for expert knowledge and recommendations on infant feeding and health.[109] Treatment amenities in resource-constrained settings are also available to HIV-positive mothers in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is one resource that has contributed to the elimination of MTCT of HIV in first world countries.[] In order to have access to resources, HIV-positive mothers must be able maintain follow up appointments regularly, however, this is problematic in resource-limited settings due to weak infrastructure in health care systems in countries such as India, Tanzania and Nigeria.[] This can also serve as a dilemma for HIV-positive mothers because although limited resources are available to them, financial constraint can prevent women from accessing available treatments. This can influence HIV-positive mothers decision to rely solely on breastfeeding as a primary feeding option due to financial instability.[110] Anthropological research demonstrates that in contexts where breastfeeding is essential to infant survival, such as in resource poor settings, PMTCT infant feeding guidelines challenge notions of motherhood and womens decision making power over infant care, and colour HIV positive mothers infant feeding experiences.[111] In eastern Africa, infant mortality is high and breastfeeding is vital for infant survival.[] Here, motherhood is defined as the

Breastfeeding responsibility for ensuring the childs proper growth and health.[] Breastfeeding is also seen as a cultural practice that helps create a social bond between mother and child.[112] However, there is a disjuncture between PMTCT policys infant feeding guideline and what is considered to be good mothering behaviour.[113] The PMTCT policy promotes replacement feeding because it is believed to prevent the risk of transmission of HIV. However, adhering to such guidelines are difficult for mothers in resource-limited settings who believe that not breastfeeding ones child would be harmful to their health and survival, as well as threaten the development of close bodily and emotional bonds between mother and child.[114] As such, not breastfeeding, for HIV-positive women, is perceived as failing to be a good mother.[] Thus, PMTCT programs impact HIV-positive womens agency and decision-making in infant care, as well as challenge their cultural conceptions of good motherhood.


World Health Organization breastfeeding guideline for HIV-infected mothers

In an effort to further refine the United Nations guideline for optimal infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers, the World Health Organization (WHO) held a three-day convention in Geneva in 2006 to review new evidence that had been established since they last established a guideline in 2000. Participants included UN agencies, representative from nongovernmental organizations, researchers, infant feeding experts, and WHO headquarters departments. The convention concluded with the following recommendations: If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable and safe, HIV-infected mothers are recommended to use replacement feeding. Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. At six months, if replacement feeding is still not available, HIV-infected mothers are encouraged to slowly introduce food while continuing breastfeeding. Those with HIV-infected infants are recommended to continue breastfeeding even after 6 months.[115] In a 2010 update the WHO stated that significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding had accumulated since WHO's recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, evidence has been reported that antiretroviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. Together, breastfeeding and ARV intervention have the potential to significantly improve infants' chances of surviving while remaining HIV uninfected. While the 2010 recommendations are generally consistent with the previous guidance, they recognize the important impact of ARVs during the breastfeeding period, and recommend that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice, i.e. breastfeeding with an ARV intervention to reduce transmission or avoidance of all breastfeeding, should be promoted and supported by their Maternal and Child Health services. This differs from the previous recommendations in which health workers were expected to individually counsel all HIV-infected mothers about the various infant feeding options, and it was then for mothers to decide between them. Where national authorities promote breastfeeding and ARVs, mothers known to be HIV-infected are now recommended to breastfeed their infants until at least 12 months of age. The recommendation that replacement feeding should not be used unless it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe remains.[116]



[1] http:/ / www. savethechildren. org/ atf/ cf/ %7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/ STATE-OF-THE-WORLDS-MOTHERS-REPORT-2012-FINAL. PDF [5] Breastfeeding: Promotion | DNPAO | CDC (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ breastfeeding/ promotion/ index. htm) [8] PEDIATRICS Vol. 115 No. 2 February 2005, pp. 496506 POLICY STATEMENT: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk, Section on Breastfeeding (http:/ / aappolicy. aappublications. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ pediatrics;115/ 2/ 496#SEC4) [22] Breastfed Babies Cope Better With Stress In Later Life Than Bottle Fed Babies (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2006/ 08/ 060803000314. htm) [23] Breastfeeding & the Oral Cavity (http:/ / www. brianpalmerdds. com/ bfeed_oralcavity. htm) [27] http:/ / www. bio. davidson. edu/ COurses/ genomics/ 2008/ Lau/ IQgene. html [29] WHO "strategic directions for improving the health and development of children and adolescents", WHO/FCH/CAH/02.21, Geneva: Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization. [31] The Baby Friendly Initiative | Resources | Skin-to-skin contact (http:/ / www. unicef. org. uk/ BabyFriendly/ Resources/ Guidance-for-Health-Professionals/ Learning-about-breastfeeding/ Skin-to-skin-contact/ ) [34] Cedergren M. Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric outcome in Sweden. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006;93:269 74. [37] Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines, Food and Nutrition Board, and Board on Children, Youth and Families. Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. http:/ / www. nap. edu. Accessed 30 November 2011. [38] Kac G, Benicio MH, Velasquez-Melendez G, Valente JG, Struchiner CJ. Breastfeeding and postpartum weight retention in a cohort of Brazilian women" Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:487493. [41] Sohlstrom A, Forsum E. Changes in adipose tissue volume and distribution during reproduction in Swedish women as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging" Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:287295. [46] Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk (http:/ / pediatrics. aappublications. org/ content/ 100/ 6/ 1035. full. pdf+ html) [48] Breastfeeding Benefits: How They Add Up | Breastfeeding Basics (http:/ / www. breastfeedingbasics. com/ html/ Benefits. shtml) [50] Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants (http:/ / apps. who. int/ rhl/ reviews/ CD003519. pdf) [51] Breastfeeding Frequency (http:/ / www. cpmc. org/ services/ pregnancy/ information/ breastfeeding-frequency. html) from California Pacific Medical Center. Retrieved June 2012. [53] Natural Birth and Baby Care.com (http:/ / www. naturalbirthandbabycare. com/ latch-on. html) [54] Breastmilk: Colostrum, Foremilk and Hindmilk (http:/ / www. drpaul. com/ breastfeeding/ colostrum. html) [59] LLLI | How can I tell if my baby is getting enough milk? (http:/ / www. lalecheleague. org/ faq/ enough. html) [62] Breast Milk, Breastmilk, Breastfeeding, Breast Feeding - Rehydration Project (http:/ / rehydrate. org/ breastfeed/ ) [63] Australian Breastfeeding Association: Breastfeeding triplets, quads and higher (http:/ / www. breastfeeding. asn. au/ bfinfo/ higher. html) [64] Association of Radical Midwives: Breastfeeding triplets (http:/ / www. radmid. demon. co. uk/ tripletsbf. htm) [66] Guardian Unlimited: Not your mother's milk (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ g2/ story/ 0,,1983285,00. html) [67] Jennifer Baumgardner, Breast Friends, Babble (http:/ / www. babble. com/ content/ articles/ features/ personalessays/ baumgardner/ breastfriends/ ), 2007 [68] WHO | Breastfeeding (http:/ / www. who. int/ topics/ breastfeeding/ en/ ) [69] Breastfeeding: Data: Report Card 2012: Outcome Indicators | DNPAO | CDC (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ breastfeeding/ data/ reportcard2. htm) [78] LLLI | Extended Breastfeeding and the Law (https:/ / www. llli. org/ law/ lawextended. html) [79] "Childbirth: Breast-Feeding Ends by 6 Months for Many" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 09/ 28/ health/ research/ 28childbirth. html) article by Roni Caryn Rabin in The New York Times September 27, 2010, accessed September 28, 2010 [81] http:/ / pcij. org/ blog/ wp-docs/ ao2006-0012. pdf [82] http:/ / www. who. int/ nutrition/ databases/ infantfeeding/ countries/ phl. pdf [85] WHO | Dr Laurence Grummer-Strawn (http:/ / www. who. int/ nutrition/ topics/ seminar_26Feb2013_DrGrummerStrawn/ en/ index. html) [87] http:/ / www. surgeongeneral. gov/ library/ calls/ breastfeeding/ executivesummary. pdf [88] Breastfeeding - dealing with mastitis | Better Health Channel (http:/ / www. betterhealth. vic. gov. au/ bhcv2/ bhcarticles. nsf/ pages/ Breastfeeding_dealing_with_mastitis?open) [91] Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General. Call to Action: Support Breastfeeding. Accessed January 20, 2011 from http:/ / surgeongeneral. gov/ topics/ breastfeeding/ calltoactiontosupportbreastfeeding. pdf [93] Benjamin, RM (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding. Washington, DC: U.S. [95] Guidelines for the evaluation and management of neonatal ankyloglossia and its complications in the breastfeeding dyad (http:/ / www. bfmed. org/ Resources/ Download. aspx?filename=Protocol_11. pdf); The Academy Of Breastfeeding Medicine; August 3, 2004 [96] http:/ / www. surgeongeneral. gov/ library/ calls/ breastfeeding/ calltoactiontosupportbreastfeeding. pdf [100] Milking it (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ medicine/ story/ 0,,2079757,00. html) Joanna Moorhead, The Guardian, May 15, 2007 [116] WHO | Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding 2010 (http:/ / www. who. int/ maternal_child_adolescent/ documents/ 9789241599535/ en/ )



Further reading
Baumslag N, Michels DL (1995). Milk, money, and madness: the culture and politics of breastfeeding. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey. ISBN0-89789-407-3. Hausman B (2003). Mother's milk: breastfeeding controversies in American culture. New York: Routledge. ISBN0-415-96656-6. Huggins K (1999). The nursing mother's companion (4th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Harvard Common Press. ISBN1-55832-152-7. Pryor G (1997). Nursing mother, working mother: the essential guide for breastfeeding and staying close to your baby after you return to work. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Common Press. ISBN1-55832-116-0. Wiessinger, D., West, D., Pitman, T. (2010). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding (8th ed.). New York, NY: Ballantine Books. Weiss R (2010). Better Way to Breastfeed Your Baby. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds. ISBN978-1-59233-422-3. Palmer G (2009). The Politics of Breastfeeding: when breasts are bad for business, 3rd edition. London: Pinter & Martin. ISBN978-1-905177-16-5.

External links
Breastfeeding (http://www.dmoz.org/Home/Family/Babies/Breastfeeding//) at the Open Directory Project Human Milk Secretion: An Overview (http://mammary.nih.gov/reviews/lactation/Neville001/) US National Institute of Health Breastfeeding Resources (http://www.llli.org/resources.html/) La Leche League International Breast-Feeding Past Infancy (http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=6551439&page=1) ABC News Breast-Feeding Content Resources (http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/) WHO reports on Breast Feeding Health risks of not breastfeeding (http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/index.cfm?page=519) US Department of Health & Human Services The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (http://www.waba.org.my/) (WABA) is a global network of individuals & organisations concerned with the protection, promotion & support of breastfeeding worldwide. Breastfeeding (http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Breastfeeding/Pages/Introduction.aspx): NHS Choices Center for Disease Control and Prevention Breastfeeding (http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/index.htm) CDC "How Can Breast Not Be Best?" (http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/10/ breast-feeding-controversy-hits-new-zealand-press/) posting on NY Times Latitude blog, February 10, 2012. Re: New Zealand controversy. Breastfeeding support (http://www.foxnews.com/slideshow/health/2010/08/03/ celebrities-promote-breastfeeding/?intcmp=features#slide=1) Photos and captions of celebrities promoting breastfeeding.



A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal. A service club, for example, exists for voluntary or charitable activities; there are clubs devoted to hobbies and sports, social activities clubs, political and religious clubs, and so forth.

Historically, Clubs occurred in all ancient states of which we have detailed knowledge. Once people started living together in larger groups, there was need for people with a common interest to be able to associate despite having no ties of kinship. Organizations of the sort have existed for many years, as evidenced by Ancient Greek clubs and associations in Ancient Rumi.

Origins of the word and concept

It is uncertain whether the use of the word "club" originated in its meaning of a knot of people, or from the fact that the members clubbed together to pay the expenses of their gatherings. The oldest English clubs were merely informal periodic gatherings of friends for the purpose of dining or drinking with one another. Thomas Occleve (in the time of Henry IV) mentions such a club called La Court de Bonne Compagnie (the Court of Good Company), of which he was a member. In 1659 John Aubrey wrote, We now use the word clubbe for a sodality [a society, association, or fraternity of any kind] in a tavern.

In Shakespeare's day
Of early clubs the most famous, latterly, was the Bread Street or Friday Street Club that met at the Mermaid Tavern on the first Friday of each month. John Selden, John Donne, John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont were among the members (although it is often asserted that William Shakespeare and Sir Walter Raleigh were members of this club, there is no documented evidence to support this claim). Another such club, founded by Ben Jonson, met at the Devil Tavern near Temple Bar, also in London.

Coffee houses
The word club, in the sense of an association to promote good-fellowship and social intercourse, became common in England at the time of Tatler and The Spectator (17091712). With the introduction of coffee-drinking in the middle of the 17th century, clubs entered on a more permanent phase. The coffee houses of the later Stuart period are the real originals of the modern clubhouse. The clubs of the late 17th and early 18th century type resembled their Tudor forerunners in being oftenest associations solely for conviviality or Coffeehouse in London, 17th century literary coteries. But many were confessedly political, e.g. The Rota, or Coffee Club (1659), a debating society for the spread of republican ideas, broken up at the Restoration in 1660, the Calves Head Club (c.1693) and the Green Ribbon Club (1675). The characteristics of all these clubs were: 1. No permanent financial bond between the members, each mans liability ending for the time being when he had paid his score after the meal. 2. No permanent clubhouse, though each clique tended to make some special coffee house or tavern their headquarters.

Club These coffee-house clubs soon became hotbeds of political scandal-mongering and intriguing, and in 1675 King Charles II issued a proclamation which ran: His Majesty hath thought fit and necessary that coffee houses be (for the future) put down and suppressed, because in such houses divers false, malitious and scandalous reports are devised and spread abroad to the Defamation of his Majestys Government and to the Disturbance of Peace and Quiet of the Realm. So unpopular was this proclamation that it was almost instantly found necessary to withdraw it, and by Annes reign the coffee-house club was a feature of Englands social life.


18th and 19th century

The idea of the club developed in two directions. One was of a permanent institution with a fixed clubhouse. The London coffeehouse clubs in increasing their members absorbed the whole accommodation of the coffeehouse or tavern where they held their meetings, and this became the clubhouse, often retaining the name of the original innkeeper, e.g. White's, Brooks's, Arthur's, and Boodle's. These still exist today as the famous gentlemen's clubs. The peripatetic lifestyle of the 18th and 19th century middle classes also drove the development of more residential clubs, which had bedrooms and other facilities. Military and naval officers, lawyers, judges, members of Parliament and government officials tended to have an irregular presence in the major cities of the Empire, particularly London, spending perhaps a few months there before moving on for a prolonged period and then returning. Especially when this presence did not coincide with the Season, a permanent establishment in the city (i.e., a house owned or rented, with the requisite staff), or the opening of a townhouse (generally shuttered outside the season) was inconvenient or uneconomic, while hotels were rare and socially dclass. Clubbing with a number of like-minded friends to secure a large shared house with a manager was therefore a convenient solution. The other sort of club meets occasionally or periodically and often has no clubhouse, but exists primarily for some specific object. Such are the many purely athletic, sports and pastimes clubs, the Alpine, chess, yacht and motor clubs. Also there are literary clubs (see writing circle and book club), musical and art clubs, publishing clubs; and the name of club has been annexed by a large group of associations which fall between the club proper and mere friendly societies, of a purely periodic and temporary nature, such as slate, goose and Christmas clubs, which do not need to be registered under the Friendly Societies Act.

The institution of the gentleman's club has spread all over the English-speaking world. Many of those who energised the Scottish Enlightenment were members of the Poker Club in Edinburgh. In the United States clubs were first established after the War of Independence. One of the first was the Hoboken Turtle Club (1797), which still survived as of 1911. In former British Empire colonies like India and Pakistan they are known as Gymkhana. The earliest clubs on the European continent were of a political nature. These in 1848 were repressed in Austria and Germany, and later clubs of Berlin and Vienna were mere replicas of their English prototypes. In France, where the term cercle is most usual, the first was Le Club Politique (1782), and during the French Revolution such associations proved important political forces (see Jacobins, Feuillants, Cordeliers). Of the purely social clubs in Paris the most notable were the Jockey-Club de Paris (1833), the Cercle de l'Union, the Traveller's and the Cercle Interalli..

Types of clubs
Buying club
Buying club are organized to help members purchase goods that might otherwise be difficult or expensive to obtain. The food conspiracy and Seikatsu club are two examples of different "food buying clubs" that help members purchase organic or natural food that might otherwise be unavailable. Many cooperative grocery stores began as loosely organized buying clubs, and larger organizations such as United Natural Foods and the Weston A. Price Foundation encourage buying clubs as a way to expand market or mind share for their products.



Country or Sports club

There are two types of athletic and sports clubs, those organized for sporting participants (which include athletic clubs and country clubs), and those primarily for spectator fans of a team. Athletic and country clubs offer one or more recreational sports facilities to their members. Such clubs may also offer social activities and facilities, and some members may join primarily to take advantage of the social opportunities. Country clubs offer a variety of recreational sports facilities to its members and are usually located in suburban or rural areas.[1] Most country clubs have golf. Swimming pools, tennis courts, polo grounds and exercise facilities are also common. Country A print of the 1822 meeting of the "Royal British clubs usually provide dining facilities to their members and guests, and Bowmen" archery club. frequently host catered events like weddings. Similar clubs in urban areas are often called athletic clubs. These clubs often feature indoor sports, such as indoor tennis, squash, basketball, boxing, and exercise facilities. Members of sports clubs that support a team can be sports amateursgroups who meet to practice a sport, as for example in most cycling clubsor professionals -- football clubs consist of well-paid team members and thousands of supporters. A sports club can thus comprise participants (not necessarily competitors) or spectator fans, or both. Some organizations exist with a mismatch between name and function. The Jockey Club is not a club for jockeys; but rather exists to regulate the sport of horseracing; the Marylebone Cricket Club was until recently the regulatory body of cricket, and so on. Sports club should not be confused with gyms and health clubs, which also can be for members only.

Fraternities and Sororities

Fraternities and sororities are social clubs of secondary or higher education students. Membership in these organizations is generally by invitation only.

Hobby club
Hobbies are practiced for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward. Examples include science fiction clubs, ham radio, Model Railroading, collecting, creative and artistic pursuits, making, tinkering, sports and adult education. Engaging in a hobby can lead to acquiring substantial skill, knowledge, and experience. However, personal fulfilment is the aim.

Personal club
Personal Clubs are similar to Hobby Clubs. These clubs are run by a few close friends. These friends or family members do things they like to do together. They might even make a personal website for their club.

Professional societies
These organizations are partly social, partly professional in nature and provide professionals with opportunities for advanced education, presentations on current research, business contacts, public advocacy for the profession and other advantages. Examples of these groups include medical associations, scientific societies, autograph club and bar associations. Professional societies frequently have layers of organization, with regional, national and international levels. The local chapters generally meet more often and often include advanced students unable to attend national meetings.



School club
These are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of classes. Such clubs may fall outside the normal curriculum of school or university education or, as in the case of subject matter clubs (e.g. student chapters of professional societies), may supplement the curriculum through informal meetings and professional mentoring.

Service club
A service club is a type of voluntary organization where members meet regularly for social outings and to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organizations.

Social activities club

Social activities clubs are a modern combination of several other types of clubs and reflect todays more eclectic and varied society. These clubs are centered around the activities available to the club members in the city or area in which the club is located. Because the purpose of these clubs is split between general social interaction and taking part in the events themselves, clubs tend to have more single members than married ones; some clubs restrict their membership to one of the other, and some are for gays and lesbians. Membership can be limited or open to the general public, as can the events. Most clubs have a limited membership based upon specific criteria, and limit the events to members to increase the security of the members, thus creating an increased sense of cameradery and belonging. Social activities clubs can be for profit or not for profit, and some are a mix of the two (a for-profit club with a non-profit charitable arm, for instance). The Inter-Varsity Club (IVC) is the biggest British non-profit club.

Social club
Some social clubs are organized around competitive games, such as chess and bridge. Other clubs are designed to encourage membership of certain social classes. In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s social clubs were the precursor name of gangs like the infamous Hamburgs of Chicago. Latino immigrant adult and youth groups organized themselves as social clubs like: Black Eagles, Flaming Arrows, Paragons and Young Lords. Those made up of the elite are best known as gentlemen's clubs (not to be confused with strip clubs) and country clubs (though these also have an athletic function, see below). Membership to gentlement's clubs require the ability to pay large fees A Club of Gentlemen by Joseph Highmore c. 1730 as well as an invitation by existing members who seek new recruits who meet personal criteria such as lifestyle, moral base, etc. Less elitist, but still in some cases exclusive, are working men's clubs. Clubs restricted to either officers or enlisted men exist on military bases. (The modern Gentlemen's club) sometimes proprietary, i.e. owned by an individual or private syndicate, but more frequently owned by the members who delegate to a committee the management of its affairs, first reached its highest development in London, where the district of St. James's has long been known as "Clubland". Current London clubs include Soho's Groucho Club, which opened in 1985 as "the antidote to the traditional club." In this spirit, the club was named for Groucho Marx because of his famous remark that he would not wish to join any club that would have him as a member.



[1] http:/ / www. thefreedictionary. com/ dict. asp?Word=country+ club The Free Dictionary

Vu truong (http://highclub.vn) Club HoChiMinhcity German Canadian Club "Hansa Haus" in Mississauga, Ontario (http://www.hansahaus.ca) German-Canadian Cultural Centre in the greater Toronto Area


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A society, or a human society, is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology. More broadly, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western

Society society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colony or any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.


Etymology and usage

A half-section of the 12th-century Song Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong. The painting portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Chinese social structure of the time. The term "society" came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun socius ("comrade, friend, ally"; adjectival form socialis) used to describe a bond or interaction among parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity (also: "society in general", "society at large", etc.), although those who are unfriendly or uncivil to the remainder of society in this sense may be deemed to be "antisocial". Adam Smith wrote that a society "may subsist among different men, as among different merchants, from a sense of its utility without any mutual love or affection, if only they refrain from doing injury to each other."[1] Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language, or hierarchical organization.

Conceptions of society
Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. The Great apes have always been more (Bonobo, Homo, Pan) or less (Gorilla, Pongo) social animals, so Robinson Crusoe-like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.

In anthropology
Human societies are most often organized according to their primary means of subsistence. Social scientists have identified hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations. Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to be qualitatively different from traditional agricultural societies. Today, anthropologists and many social scientists vigorously oppose the notion of cultural evolution and rigid "stages" such as these. In fact, much anthropological data has suggested that complexity (civilization, population growth and density, specialization, etc.) does not always take the form of hierarchical social organization or stratification.[citation needed] Cultural relativism as a widespread approach or ethic has largely replaced notions of "primitive", better/worse, or "progress" in relation to cultures (including their material culture/technology and social organization).

Society According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in human society, in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives (chimpanzees and bonobo), is the parental role assumed by the males, which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not generally determinable.[2][3]


In political science
Societies may also be organized according to their political structure. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural, geographical, and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer proximity to others that may encroach on their resources. A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society.

In sociology
Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication, and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) simple agricultural, (3) advanced agricultural, (4) industrial, and (5) special (e.g. fishing societies or maritime societies).[4] This is similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. Fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman Service, an integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories: Hunter-gatherer bands (categorization of duties and responsibilities). Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Stratified structures led by chieftains. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments. In addition to this there are: Humanity, mankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including society's beliefs. Virtual society, a society based on online identity, which is evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and control. This cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become towns and cities. Cities turned into city-states and nation-states.[5]
The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Canis lupus social ethology

Many societies distribute largess at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically, prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. Conversely, members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms.

Society Mechanisms such as gift-giving, joking relationships and scapegoating, which may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with it certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves. Some societies bestow status on an individual or group of people when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action. This type of recognition is bestowed in the form of a name, title, manner of dress, or monetary reward. In many societies, adult male or female status is subject to a ritual or process of this type. Altruistic action in the interests of the larger group is seen in virtually all societies. The phenomena of community action, shunning, scapegoating, generosity, shared risk, and reward are common to many forms of society.


Types of societies
Societies are social groups that differ according to subsistence strategies, the ways that humans use technology to provide needs for themselves. Although humans have established many types of societies throughout history, anthropologists tend to classify different societies according to the degree to which different groups within a society have unequal access to advantages such as resources, prestige, or power. Virtually all societies have developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratification, the division of members of a society into levels with unequal wealth, prestige, or power. Sociologists place societies in three broad categories: pre-industrial, industrial, and postindustrial.

Pre-industrial societies
In a pre-industrial society, food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor, is the main economic activity. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural, and feudal. Hunting and gathering societies The main form of food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly in search of food. As a result, they do not build permanent villages or create a wide variety of artifacts, and usually only form small groups such as bands and tribes. However, some hunting and gathering societies in areas with abundant resources (such as the Tlingit) lived in larger groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures such as chiefdoms. The need for Starting fire by hand. Bushmen in Botswana. mobility also limits the size of these societies. They generally consist of fewer than 60 people and rarely exceed 100. Statuses within the tribe are relatively equal, and decisions are reached through general agreement. The ties that bind the tribe are more complex than those of the bands. Leadership is personalcharismaticand used for special purposes only in tribal society. There are no political offices containing real power, and a chief is merely a person of influence, a sort of adviser; therefore, tribal consolidations for collective action are not governmental. The family forms the main social unit, with most societal members being related by birth or marriage. This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education.

Society Pastoral societies Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis, members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs. Pastoralists live a nomadic life, moving their herds from one pasture to another. Because their food supply is far more reliable, pastoral societies can support larger populations. Since there are food surpluses, fewer people are needed to produce food. As a result, the division of labor (the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities) becomes more complex. For example, some people become craftworkers, producing tools, weapons, and jewelry. The production of goods encourages trade. This trade helps to create inequality, as some families acquire more goods than others do. These families often gain power through their increased wealth. The passing on of property from one generation to another helps to centralize wealth and power. Over time emerge hereditary chieftainships, the typical form of government in pastoral societies. Horticultural societies Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest provide the main source of food in a horticultural society. These societies have a level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies. Some horticultural groups use the slash-and-burn method to raise crops. The wild vegetation is cut and burned, and ashes are used as fertilizers. Horticulturists use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for one or more seasons. When the land becomes barren, horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to revert to its natural state. They may return to the original land several years later and begin the process again. By rotating their garden plots, horticulturists can stay in one area for a fairly long period of time. This allows them to build semipermanent or permanent villages. The size of a village's population depends on the amount of land available for farming; thus villages can range from as few as 30 people to as many as 2000. As with pastoral societies, surplus food leads to a more complex division of labor. Specialized roles in horticultural societies include craftspeople, shamans (religious leaders), and traders. This role specialization allows people to create a wide variety of artifacts. As in pastoral societies, surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth and power within horticultural political systems are developed because of the settled nature of horticultural life. Agrarian societies Agrarian societies use agricultural technological advances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociologists use the phrase Agricultural Revolution to refer to the technological changes that occurred as long as 8,500 years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals. Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. This meant a greater surplus, which resulted in towns that became centers of trade supporting various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who did not have to worry about locating nourishment.


Ploughing with oxen in the 15th century.

Greater degrees of social stratification appeared in agrarian societies. For example, women previously had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men. In hunting and gathering societies, women even gathered more food than men. However, as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family, they increasingly became subordinate to men. As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas, conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection against invasion by enemies. A system of rulers with high social status also appeared. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. In this way, the nobility managed to extract goods from lesser members of society.



Feudal societies Feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of land. Unlike today's farmers, vassals under feudalism were bound to cultivating their lord's land. In exchange for military protection, the lords exploited the peasants into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services to the landowner. The estates of the realm system of feudalism was often multigenerational; the families of peasants may have cultivated their lord's land for generations.

Industrial societies
Between the 15th and 16th centuries, a new economic system emerged that began to replace feudalism. Capitalism is marked by open competition in a free market, in which the means of production are privately owned. Europe's exploration of the Americas served as one impetus for the development of capitalism. The introduction of foreign metals, silks, and spices stimulated great commercial activity in European societies. Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by fuels for the production of goods. This produced further dramatic increases in efficiency. The increased efficiency of production of the industrial revolution produced an even greater surplus than before. Now the surplus was not just agricultural goods, but also manufactured goods. This larger surplus caused all of the changes discussed earlier in the domestication revolution to become even more pronounced. Once again, the population boomed. Increased productivity made more goods available to everyone. However, inequality became even greater than before. The breakup of agricultural-based feudal societies caused many people to leave the land and seek employment in cities. This created a great surplus of labor and gave capitalists plenty of laborers who could be hired for extremely low wages.
Cleric, knight and Peasant; an example of feudal societies

Post-industrial societies
Postindustrial societies are societies dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods. Advanced industrial societies are now seeing a shift toward an increase in service sectors over manufacturing and production. The U.S. is the first country to have over half of its work force employed in service industries. Service industries include government, research, education, health, sales, law, banking, and so on. It is still too early to identify and understand all the ramifications this new kind of society will have for social life. In fact, even the phrase "postindustrial" belies the fact that we don't yet quite know what will follow industrial societies or the forms they will take.

Contemporary usage
The term "society" is currently used to cover both a number of political and scientific connotations as well as a variety of associations.

Western society
The development of the Western world has brought with it the emerging concepts of Western culture, politics, and ideas, often referred to simply as "Western society. Geographically, it covers at the very least the countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. It sometimes also includes Eastern Europe, South America, and Israel.

Society The cultures and lifestyles of all of these stem from Western Europe. They all enjoy relatively strong economies and stable governments, allow freedom of religion, have chosen democracy as a form of governance, favor capitalism and international trade, are heavily influenced by Judeo-Christian values, and have some form of political and military alliance or cooperation.[6]


Information society
Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the 1930s, in the modern world it is almost always applied to the manner in which information technologies have impacted society and culture. It therefore covers the effects of computers and telecommunications on the home, the workplace, schools, government, and various communities and organizations, as well as the emergence of new social forms in cyberspace.[7] One of the European Union's areas of interest is the information society. Here policies are directed towards promoting an open and competitive digital economy, research into information and communication technologies, as well as their application to improve social inclusion, public services, and quality of life.[8]

World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva

The International Telecommunications Union's World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva and Tunis (2003 and 2005) has led to a number of policy and application areas where action is required.[9] These include: promotion of ICTs for development; information and communication infrastructure; access to information and knowledge; capacity building; building confidence and security in the use of ICTs; enabling environment; ICT applications in the areas of government, business, learning, health, employment, environment, agriculture and science; cultural and linguistic diversity and local content; media; ethical dimensions of the information society; and international and regional cooperation.

Knowledge society



As access to electronic information resources increased at the beginning of the 21st century, special attention was extended from the information society to the knowledge society. An analysis by the Irish government stated, "The capacity to manipulate, store and transmit large quantities of information cheaply has increased at a staggering rate over recent years. The digitisation of information and the associated pervasiveness of the Internet are facilitating a new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic activity, to the extent that it has become the predominant factor in the creation of wealth. As much as 70 to 80 percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new and better knowledge."[10]

The Seoul Cyworld control room

The Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society, held in Chania, Crete, in September 2009, gave special attention to the following topics:[11] business and enterprise computing; technology-enhanced learning; social and humanistic computing; culture, tourism and technology; e-government and e-democracy; innovation, sustainable development, and strategic management; service science, management, and engineering; intellectual and human capital development; ICTs for ecology and the green economy; future prospects for the knowledge society; and technologies and business models for the creative industries.

Other uses

Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts. (2006)

People of many nations united by common political and cultural traditions, beliefs, or values are sometimes also said to form a society (such as Judeo-Christian, Eastern, and Western). When used in this context, the term is employed as a means of contrasting two or more "societies" whose members represent alternative conflicting and competing worldviews. Some academic, professional, and scientific associations describe themselves as societies (for example, the American Mathematical Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, or the Royal Society).

Society In some countries, e.g. the United States, France, and Latin America, the term "society' is used in commerce to denote a partnership between investors or the start of a business. In the United Kingdom, partnerships are not called societies, but co-operatives or mutuals are often known as societies (such as friendly societies and building societies).


[2] Maurice Godelier, Mtamorphoses de la parent, 2004 [4] Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. [5] Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations (http:/ / www. mc. maricopa. edu/ dept/ d10/ asb/ anthro2003/ glues/ model_complex. html). [6] John P McKay, Bennett D Hill, John Buckler, Clare Haru Crowston and Merry E Wiesner-Hanks: Western Society: A Brief History. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 (http:/ / www. palgrave. com/ Products/ title. aspx?pid=355705). [7] The Information Society. Indiana University. (http:/ / www. indiana. edu/ ~tisj/ ) Retrieved 20 October 2009. [8] Information Society Policies at a Glance. From Europa.eu. (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ information_society/ tl/ policy/ index_en. htm) Retrieved 20 October 2009. [9] WSIS Implementation by Action Line. From ITU.int. (http:/ / www. itu. int/ wsis/ implementation/ index. html) Retrieved 20 October 2009. [10] Building the Knowledge Society. Report to Government, December 2002. Information Society Commission, Ireland (http:/ / www. isc. ie/ downloads/ know. pdf). Retrieved 20 October 2009. [11] Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society (http:/ / www. open-knowledge-society. org/ summit. htm). Retrieved 20 October 2009.

Further reading
Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations (http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/ anthro2003/glues/model_complex.html) Mesa Community College. Jenkins, R. 2002. Foundations of Sociology. London: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-96050-5. Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw- Hill, Inc. Raymond Williams, "www.flpmihai.blogspot.com", in: Williams, Key Words: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Fontana, 1976.

External links
Society (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Eighteenth_Century/ Industrial_Revolution//) at the Open Directory Project Definition of Society (http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/society) from the OED. Lecture notes on "Defining Society" (http://core.ecu.edu/soci/juskaa/SOCI2110/Lectures/Lect1) from East Carolina University. Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial Revolution (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/ modsbook14.html) "The Day the World Took Off" Six part video series from the University of Cambridge tracing the question "Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when and where it did." (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/ 270) BBC History Home Page: Industrial Revolution (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/ enlightenment/features_enlightenment_industry.shtml) National Museum of Science and Industry website: machines and personalities (http://www. makingthemodernworld.org.uk/) Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living (http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/ IndustrialRevolutionandtheStandardofLiving.html) by Clark Nardinelli - the debate over whether standards of living rose or fell. Cliff Notes on Types of Societies (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/ Types-of-Societies.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26856.html)

Society Perceptions of Knowledge, Knowledge Society, and Knowledge Management (http://www.knowledge-experts. com/knowledgemanagement.htm) (http://www.secretgreenoffers.com/)



Table of consanguinity, showing legal degrees of relationship

Family law
Marriage and similar status

Marriage Types of marriages Prenuptial agreement Cohabitation Civil union Domestic partnership Dissolution of marriage

Divorce Annulment Alimony Void and Voidable marriage Separation Parenting plan Residence (ENG) Parental rights Parenting coordinator (USA) Parent legal

Paternity Legitimacy Child custody Legal guardian Adoption Child support Contact & Visitation


Grandparent visitation Child legal

U.N. Rights of the Child Children's rights Emancipation Foster care Ward Parental child abduction Conflict of laws

Conflict of laws Divorce Marriage Nullity International child abduction Hague Convention (child abduction) Related areas

Family Adultery Paternity fraud Bigamy CAFCASS (ENG) CPS (USA) Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child-selling

In human context, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. Anthropologists most generally classify family organization as matrilocal (a mother and her children); conjugal (a husband, his wife, and children; also called nuclear family); and consanguineal (also called an extended family) in which parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent's family. There are also concepts of family that break with tradition within particular societies, or those that are transplanted via migration to flourish or else cease within their new societies.Wikipedia:Please clarify As a unit of socialization the family is the object of analysis for sociologists of the family. Genealogy is a field which aims to trace family lineages through history. In science, the term "family" has come to be used as a means to classify groups of objects as being closely and exclusively related. In the study of animals it has been found that many species form groups that have similarities to human "family"often called "packs." Sexual relations among family members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo. Extended from the human "family unit" by affinity and consanguinity are concepts of family that are physical and metaphorical, or that grow increasingly inclusive extending to community, village, city, region, nationhood, global village and humanism. Family is also an important economic unit. Economic aspects of family is subject of family economics branch within economics field.



One of the primary functions of the family is to produce and reproduce persons, biologically and/or socially. This can occur through the sharing of material substances (such as food); the giving and receiving of care and nurture (nurture kinship); jural ties of rights and obligations; and moral and sentimental ties.[1][2] Thus, one's experience of one's family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a "family of orientation": the family serves to locate children socially and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization.[3] From the point of view of the parent(s), the family is a "family of procreation," the goal of which is to produce and enculturate and socialize children.[4] However, producing children is not the only function of the family; in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between two people, it is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household.[5][6][7] A "conjugal" family includes only the husband, the wife, and unmarried children who are not of age. The most common form of this family is regularly referred to in sociology as a nuclear family.[8] A "consanguineal" family consists of a parent and his or her children, and other people. Although the concept of consanguinity originally referred to relations by "blood," cultural anthropologists[1] have argued that one must understand the idea of "blood" metaphorically and that many societies understand family through other concepts rather than through genetic distance. A "matrilocal" family consists of a mother and her children. Generally, these children are her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This kind of family is common where women have the resources to rear their children by themselves, or where men are more mobile than women.

History of the family

The diverse data coming from ethnography, history, law and social statistics, establish that the human family is an institution and not a biological fact founded on the natural relationship of consanguinity.[9][10] Early scholars of family history applied Darwin's biological theory of evolution in their theory of evolution of family systems.[] American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan published Ancient Society in 1877 based on his theory of the three stages of human progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization.[11] Morgan's book was the "inspiration for Friedrich Engels' book" The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State published in 1884.[12]

A group portrait of a mother, son and daughter on glass, Roman Empire, c. 250 AD.

Engels expanded Morgan's hypothesis that economical factors caused the transformation of primitive community into a class-divided society.[13] Engels' theory of resource control, and later that of Karl Marx, was used to explain the cause and effect of change in family structure and function. The popularity of this theory was largely unmatched until the 1980s, when other sociological theories, most notably structural functionalism, gained acceptance.



Kinship terminology
Anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (18181881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Although much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that kinship terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions. For example, most kinship terminologies distinguish between sexes (the difference between a brother and a sister) and between generations (the difference between a child and a parent). Moreover, he argued, kinship terminologies distinguish between relatives by blood and marriage (although recently some anthropologists have argued that many societies define kinship in terms other than "blood").

Family tree showing the relationship of each person to the orange person. Cousins are colored green. The genetic kinship degree of relationship is marked in red boxes by percentage (%).

Morgan made a distinction between kinship systems that use classificatory terminology and those that use descriptive terminology. Classificatory systems are generally and erroneously understood to be those that "class together" with a single term relatives who actually do not have the same type of relationship to ego. (What defines "same type of relationship" under such definitions seems to be genealogical relationship. This is problematic given that any genealogical description, no matter how standardized, employs words originating in a folk Family chart. Note that not all relatives are shown in the chart (specially at step-relatives). understanding of kinship.) What Morgan's terminology actually differentiates are those (classificatory) kinship systems that do not distinguish lineal and collateral relationships and those (descriptive) kinship systems that do. Morgan, a lawyer, came to make this distinction in an effort to understand Seneca inheritance practices. A Seneca man's effects were inherited by his sisters' children rather than by his own children.[14] Morgan identified six basic patterns of kinship terminologies: Hawaiian: only distinguishes relatives based upon sex and generation. Sudanese: no two relatives share the same term. Eskimo: in addition to distinguishing relatives based upon sex and generation, also distinguishes between lineal relatives and collateral relatives.

Family Iroquois: in addition to sex and generation, also distinguishes between siblings of opposite sexes in the parental generation. Crow: a matrilineal system with some features of an Iroquois system, but with a "skewing" feature in which generation is "frozen" for some relatives. Omaha: like a Crow system but patrilineal.


Eskimo kinship
Most Western societies employ Eskimo kinship terminology.[citation needed] This kinship terminology commonly occurs in societies based on conjugal (or nuclear) families, where nuclear families have a degree of relative mobility. Members of the nuclear use descriptive kinship terms: Father: a male parent Mother: a female parent Son: a male child of the parent(s) Daughter: a female child of the parent(s) Brother: a male child of the same parent(s) Sister: a female child of the same parent(s) Grandfather: father of a father or mother Grandmother: mother of a mother or father Cousins: two people (commonly children) that share the same grandparent(s) Such systems generally assume that the mother's husband has also served as the biological father. In some families, a woman may have children with more than one man or a man may have children with more than one woman. The system refers to a child who shares only one parent with another child as a "half-brother" or "half-sister." For children who do not share biological or adoptive parents in common, English-speakers use the term "stepbrother" or "stepsister" to refer to their new relationship with each other when one of their biological parents marries one of the other child's biological parents. Any person An infant, his mother, his maternal grandmother, and his great-grandmother (other than the biological parent of a child) who marries the parent of that child becomes the "stepparent" of the child, either the "stepmother" or "stepfather." The same terms generally apply to children adopted into a family as to children born into the family. Typically, societies with conjugal families also favor neolocal residence; thus upon marriage a person separates from the nuclear family of their childhood (family of orientation) and forms a new nuclear family (family of procreation). However, in the western society the single parent family has been growing more accepted and has begun to truly make an impact on culture. The majority of single parent families are more commonly single mother families than single father. These families face many difficult issues besides the fact that they have to rear their children on their own, but also have to deal with issues related to low income. Many single parents struggle with low incomes and must cope with other issues, including rent, child care, and other necessities required in maintaining a healthy and safe home. Members of the nuclear families of members of one's own (former) nuclear family may class as lineal or as collateral. Kin who regard them as lineal refer to them in terms that build on the terms used within the nuclear family: Grandparent
Georgian family of writer Vazha-Pshavela (in the middle, sitting)

Family Grandfather: a parent's father Grandmother: a parent's mother Grandchild Grandson: a child's son Granddaughter: a child's daughter For collateral relatives, more classificatory terms come into play, terms that do not build on the terms used within the nuclear family: Uncle: father's brother, mother's brother, father's sister's husband, mother's sister's husband Aunt: father's sister, mother's sister, father's brother's wife, mother's brother's wife Nephew: brother's son, sister's son, husband's brother's son, husband's sister's son, wife's brother's son, wife's sister's son Niece: brother's daughter, sister's daughter, husband's brother's daughter, husband's sister's daughter, wife's brother's daughter, wife's sister's daughter When additional generations intervene (in other words, when one's collateral relatives belong to the same generation as one's grandparents or grandchildren), the prefixes "great-" or "grand-" modifies these terms. Also, as with grandparents and grandchildren, as more generations intervene the prefix becomes "great-grand-," adding an additional "great-" for each additional generation. Most collateral relatives have never had membership of the nuclear family of the members of one's own nuclear family. Cousin: the most classificatory term; the children of uncles or aunts. One can further distinguish cousins by degrees of collaterality and by generation. Two persons of the same generation who share a grandparent count as "first cousins" (one degree of collaterality); if they share a great-grandparent they count as "second cousins" (two degrees of collaterality) and so on. If two persons share an ancestor, one as a grandchild and the other as a great-grandchild of that individual, then the two descendants class as "first cousins once removed" (removed by one generation); if they shared ancestor figures as the grandparent of one individual and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as "first cousins twice removed" (removed by two generations), and so on. Similarly, if they shared ancestor figures as the great-grandparent of one person and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as "second cousins once removed". Hence one can refer to a "third cousin once removed upwards." Cousins of an older generation (in other words, one's parents' first cousins), although technically first cousins once removed, are often classified with "aunts" and "uncles." Similarly, a person may refer to close friends of one's parents as "aunt" or "uncle," or may refer to close friends as "brother" or "sister," using the practice of fictive kinship. English-speakers mark relationships by marriage (except for wife/husband) with the tag "-in-law." The mother and father of one's spouse become one's mother-in-law and father-in-law; the female spouse of one's child becomes one's daughter-in-law and the male spouse of one's child becomes one's son-in-law. The term "sister-in-law" refers to three essentially different relationships, either the wife of one's sibling, or the sister of one's spouse, or, in some uses, the wife of one's spouse's sibling. "Brother-in-law" expresses a similar ambiguity. The terms "half-brother" and "half-sister" indicate siblings who share only one biological or adoptive parent.




Family types
The different types of families occur in a wide variety of settings, and their specific functions and meanings depend largely on their relationship to other social institutions. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of these forms in stratified (especially capitalist) societies. The term "nuclear family" is commonly used, especially in the United States, to refer to conjugal families. Sociologists distinguish between conjugal families (relatively independent of the kindred of the parents and of other families in general) and nuclear families (which maintain relatively close ties with their kindred). The term "extended family" is also common, especially in United States. This term has two distinct meanings. First, it serves as a synonym of "consanguinal family" Family arrangements in the United States have become more diverse with no (consanguine means "of the same blood"). particular household arrangement representing half of the United States [] Second, in societies dominated by the population. conjugal family, it refers to "kindred" (an egocentric network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do not belong to the conjugal family. These types refer to ideal or normative structures found in particular societies. Any society will exhibit some variation in the actual composition and conception of families. Much sociological, historical and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, and of changes in the family that form over time. Times have changed; it is more acceptable and encouraged for mothers to work and fathers to spend more time at home with the children. The way roles are balanced between the parents will help children grow and learn valuable life lessons. There is great importance of communication and equality in families, in order to avoid role strain. [15] According to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was "fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation".[16]



Less-known family types

The term blended family or stepfamily describes families with mixed parents: one or both parents remarried, bringing children of the former family into the new family.[17] Also in sociology, particularly in the works of social psychologist Michael Lamb,[18] traditional family refers to "a middleclass family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children," and nontraditional to exceptions from this rule. Most of the US households are now non-traditional under this definition.[19]
Male same-sex couple with a child In terms of communication patterns in families, there are a certain set of beliefs within the family that reflect how its members should communicate and interact. These family communication patterns arise from two underlying sets of beliefs. One being conversation orientation (the degree to which the importance of communication is valued) and two, conformity orientation (the degree to which families should emphasize similarities or differences regarding attitudes, beliefs, and values).[20]

Sociological views
Contemporary society generally views the family as a haven from the world, supplying absolute fulfilment.[citation needed] Zinn and Eitzen discuss the image of the "family as haven [...] a place of intimacy, love and trust where individuals may escape the competition of dehumanizing forces in modern society".[21] During industrialization, "[t]he family as a repository of warmth and tenderness (embodied by Family members the mother) stands in opposition to the competitive and aggressive world of commerce (embodied by the father). The family's task was to protect against the outside world."[22] However, Zinn and Eizen note, "The protective image of the family has waned in recent years as the ideals of family fulfillment have taken shape. Today, the family is more compensatory than protective. It supplies what is vitally needed but missing in other social arrangements."[23] "The popular wisdom", according to Zinn and Eitzen, sees the family structures of the past as superior to those today, and families as more stable and happier at a time when they did not have to contend with problems such as illegitimate children and divorce. They respond to this, saying, "there is no golden age of the family gleaming at us in the far back historical past."[24] "Desertion by spouses, illegitimate children, and other conditions that are considered characteristics of modern times existed in the past as well."[25] Others argue that whether or not one views the family as "declining" depends on one's definition of "family". The high rates of divorce and out-of-wedlock births indicate a decline in the institution of the family.[citation needed] Married couples have dropped below half of all American households. This drop is shocking from traditional forms of the family system. Only a fifth of households were following traditional ways of having married couples raising a family together.[26] No longer are marriages arranged for political or economic gain, and children are not expected to contribute to family income. Instead, people choose mates based on love. This increased role of love indicates a societal shift toward favoring emotional fulfilment and relationships within a family, and this shift necessarily weakens the institution of the family.[27] Margaret Mead considers the family as a main safeguard to continuing human progress. Observing, "Human beings have learned, laboriously, to be human", she adds: "we hold our present form of humanity on trust, [and] it is possible to lose it" ... "It is not without significance that the most successful large-scale abrogations of the family have occurred not among simple savages, living close to the subsistence edge, but among great nations and strong

Family empires, the resources of which were ample, the populations huge, and the power almost unlimited"[28] As an agent of socialization, family is the primary source of influence behind the formation of personality and the growth of a child,[29] due to its influence on the basics of personality and its role providing gender identity. This impact is large as the family confers its social position onto the child when it is brought into the world.


Oedipal family model and fascism

The model, common in the western societies, of the family triangle, husband-wife-children isolated from the outside, is also called the oedipal model of the family, and it is a form of patriarchal family. Many philosophers and psychiatrists have analyzed such a model. In the family, they argue, the young develop in a perverse relationship, wherein they learn to love the same person who beats and oppresses them. Young children grow up and develop loving the person that is oppressing them physically or mentally. These children are taught differently than the appropriate way of raising affectionate children.[30] The family therefore constitutes the first cell of the fascist society, as they will carry this attitude of love for oppressive figures in their adult life.[31][32] Fathers torment their sons.[33][34] Deleuze and Guattari, in their analysis of the dynamics at work within a family, "track down all varieties of fascism, from the enormous ones that surround and crush us to the petty ones that constitute the tyrannical bitterness of our everyday lives".[31] As it has been explained by Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as other philosophers and psychiatrists such as Laing and Reich, the patriarchal-family conceived in the West tradition serves the purpose of perpetuating a propertarian and authoritarian society.[35] The child grows according to the oedipal model, which is typical of the structure of capitalist societies,[9][10] and he becomes in turn owner of submissive children and protector of the woman.[34][36][37][38][39] As the young undergoes physical and psychological repression from someone for whom they develop love, they develop a loving attitude towards authority figures. They will bring such attitude in their adult life, when they will desire social repression and will form docile subjects for society.[35] Michel Foucault, in his systematic study of sexuality, argued that rather than being merely repressed, the desires of the individual are efficiently mobilized and used,[31] to control the individual, alter interpersonal relationships and control the masses. Foucault believed organized religion, through moral prohibitions, and economic powers, through advertising, make use of unconscious sex drives. Dominating desire, they dominate individuals.[40] According to the analysis of Michel Foucault, in the west: the [conjugal] family organization, precisely to the extent that it was insular and heteromorphous with respect to the other power mechanisms, was used to support the great "maneuvers" employed for the Malthusian control of the birthrate, for the populationist incitements, for the medicalization of sex and the psychiatrization of its nongenital forms. Michel Foucault,The History of Sexuality vol I, chap. IV, sect. Method, rule 3, p. 99

Natalism is the belief that human reproduction is the basis for individual existence, and therefore promotes having large families. Many religions, e.g., Islam, Christianity and Judaism,[41] encourage their followers to procreate and have many children, however many of them also propound stewardship and responsibility to care for the environment and society. In recent times, however, there has been an increasing amount of family planning and a following decrease in the total fertility rate in many parts of the world, in part due to improvements in health care, concerns of overpopulation, decreasing need for manual labor and increasing cost of raising a child as workers need to be more skilled. Many countries with population decline offer incentives for people to have large families as a means of national efforts to reverse declining populations.



[1] Schneider, David 1984 A Critique of the Study of Kinship. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 182 [2] Deleuze-Guattari (1972). Part 2, ch. 3, p. 80 [3] Russon, John, (2003) Human Experience: Philosophy, Neurosis, and the Elements of Everyday Life, Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 6168. [4] George Peter Murdoch Social Structure p. 13 [5] Wolf, Eric. 1982 Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press. 92 [6] Harner, Michael 1975 "Scarcity, the Factors of Production, and Social Evolution," in Population. Ecology, and Social Evolution, Steven Polgar, ed. Mouton Publishers: the Hague. [7] Rivire, Peter 1987 "Of Women, Men, and Manioc", Etnologiska Studien (38). [8] Oregonstate.edu (http:/ / oregonstate. edu/ instruct/ anth370/ gloss. html), Nuclear family "A family group consisting of wife, husband (or one of these) and dependent children." Definitions of Anthropological Terms Anthropological Resources (Court Smith) Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University [9] Lacan 19382001, pp. 2425, 56 [10] Fugier Pascal, 2007, p.226-8 [11] Morgan 1877 [14] Tooker, Elisabeth. "Another View of Morgan on Kinship." (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0011-3204(197903)20:1<131:AVOMOK>2. 0. CO;2-E) Current Anthropology 20, no. 1 (March 1979): 131134. [15] Levitan, Sara. 2010. What Happens to Family Life? http:/ / www. bls. gov/ opub/ mlr/ 1981/ 09/ art4full. pdf [17] Blended and Blessed (http:/ / www. blendedandblessed. com/ BlendedBlog. dsp) Encouraging Step-Families, blendedandblessed.com [19] (http:/ / www. glad. org/ uploads/ docs/ cases/ gill-v-office-of-personnel-management/ 2009-11-17-doma-aff-lamb. pdf) paragraph 17 [22] Zinn and Eitzen (1987) Diversity in American families (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?cd=2& id=bS9HAAAAMAAJ& dq="vitally+ needed+ but+ missing+ in+ other+ social+ arrangements"& q=protection#search_anchor), p. 3 [23] Zinn and Eitzen (1987) Diversity in American families (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bS9HAAAAMAAJ& q="vitally+ needed+ but+ missing+ in+ other+ social+ arrangements"& dq="vitally+ needed+ but+ missing+ in+ other+ social+ arrangements"& cd=2), p. 3 [24] Zinn and Eitzen (1987) Diversity in American families (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bS9HAAAAMAAJ& q="age+ of+ the+ family+ gleaming"& dq="age+ of+ the+ family+ gleaming"& lr=& cd=14), p. 8 [25] Zinn and Eitzen (1987) Diversity in American families (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bS9HAAAAMAAJ& q="Desertion+ by+ spouses,+ illegitimate"& dq="Desertion+ by+ spouses,+ illegitimate"& cd=4), p. 8 [26] Tavernise, Sabrina. (2011). Married Couples Are No Longer a Majority, Census Finds. http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 05/ 26/ us/ 26marry. html?_r=1# [27] Coontz, Stephanie. 2005. Marriage, A History: How Love Conquered Marriage. New York: Viking/Penguin Books. [28] Male and Female, New York, 1949. pp. 193-194 [29] Macionis, John J. "Sociology: 7th Canadian Edition". (Toronto: Pearson, 2011), 112 [30] About Family. Word Press. Published 31 March 2012. http:/ / kirkomrik. wordpress. com/ 2012/ 03/ 31/ more-notes-about-family/ [31] Foucault (1984) Preface to the American edition of Anti-dipus pp. xiiixvi. [32] Wilhelm Reich (1933) The Mass Psychology of Fascism, Chapter V, The Sex-Economic Presuppositions of the Authoritarian Family [33] John Phillips Structural Linguistics and Anthropology (http:/ / courses. nus. edu. sg/ course/ elljwp/ anthropology. htm#Structural Anthropology), courses.nus.edu.sg [34] Wilhelm Reich [1936] The Sexual Revolution, Chapter V, The compulsive family as educational apparatus, pp. 7177 [35] Deleuze-Guattari (1972). Part 2, ch. 7, pp. 12931 [36] Gianni Vattimo Tutto in famiglia (http:/ / www. feltrinelli. it/ FattiLibriInterna?id_fatto=3891) (article appeared on Il Manifesto October 15, 2004), feltrinelli.it [37] Luttazzi, Daniele Bollito misto con mostarda (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?vid=ISBN8807840545& id=H19BcLL2thEC) (2005) p. 262, books.google.com [38] Theodor W. Adorno and Stephen Crook Adorno (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?vid=ISBN0415270995& id=STuD7NFAYy8C) ISBN 0-415-27099-5, p. 9-10, books.google.com [39] E. James Anthony, The Family and the Psychoanalytic Process in Children (http:/ / pep-web. org/ document. php?id=psc. 035. 0003a) (1980). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 35:334, pep-web.org [40] Foucault, The History of Sexuality [41] Joys of A Large Family (http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ ca2/ NipponDawn/ torah. html), by Rebbetzin Faige Twerski. angelfire.com



American Kinship, David M. Schneider A Natural History of Families, Scott Forbes, Princeton University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-691-09482-9 Foucault, Michel (1978). The History of Sexuality: Volume I: An Introduction. New York Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-72469-8 More Than Kin and Less Than Kind, Douglas W. Mock, Belknap Press, 2004, ISBN 0-674-01285-2 Denis Chevallier, Famille et parent: une bibliographie , Terrain, Numro 4 Famille et parent (mars 1985), mis en ligne le 17 juillet 2005. Consult le 15 juin 2007 (http://terrain.revues.org/document2874.html), terrain.revues.org (French) Paul Gilroy (2000) [Identity Belonging and the Critique of Pure Sameness] in Gilroy, Paul (2000) Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Ch. I.3, pp.97133 Jack Goody (1983) The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (http://books.google.com/ books?id=LVkYFGqylfQC) (Cambridge University Press); translated into Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese.

Further reading
Mattox, William R., Jr., "America's family time famine" (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1053/ is_n6_v19/ai_10713528/), Children Today, NovDec, 1990 Tabak I., Mazur J., Granado M.C., rkenyi ., Zaborskis A., Aasvee K. & Moreno C. (2012). Examining trends in parent-child communication in Europe over 12 years. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 32 (1), 26-54. DOI: 10.1177/0272431611419509 (http://jea.sagepub.com/content/32/1/26.abstract)

External links
Family database, OECD (http://www.oecd.org/social/family/database), Family Research Laboratory (http://www.unh.edu/frl/), unh.edu Family evolution and contemporary social transformations (http://seres.fcs.ucr.ac.cr/index_archivos/Version inglesa Historical CharacterRev.pdf), seres.fcs.ucr.ac.cr (Estacin de Economa Poltica) Family Facts: Social Science Research on Family, Society & Religion (http://www.familyfacts.org) (a Heritage Foundation site). familyfacts.org Families Australia (http://www.familiesaustralia.org.au/) independent peak not-for-profit organisation. familiesaustralia.org.au FAMILYPLATFORM (http://www.familyplatform.eu/) - A consortium of 12 organisations providing input into the European Union's Socio-Economic and Humanities Research Agenda on Family Research and Family Policies. Unitedfamilies.org (http://www.unitedfamilies.org), International organisation UN.org (http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family), Families and Development Family, marriage and "de facto" unions (http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/family/ documents/rc_pc_family_doc_20001109_de-facto-unions_en.html), Vatican.va



Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between two or more people.[1] Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles. A World Happiness Database study found that people with close friendships are happier.[2] Although there are many forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place, certain characteristics are present in many types of friendship. Such characteristics include affection, sympathy, empathy, honesty, altruism, mutual understanding and compassion, enjoyment of each other's company, trust, and the ability to be oneself, express one's feelings, and make mistakes without fear of judgment from the friend. While there is no practical limit on what types of people can form a friendship, friends tend to share common backgrounds, occupations, or interests, and have similar demographics.

Portrait of Two Friends by Italian artist Pontormo c. 1522

Developmental psychology
In the typical sequence of an individual's emotional development, friendships come after parental bonding and before pair bonding. In the intervening period between the end of early childhood and the onset of full adulthood, friendships are often the most important relationships in the emotional life of the adolescent, and are often more intense than relationships later in life.[3] The absence of friends can be emotionally damaging.[4] The evolutionary psychology approach to human development has led to the theory of Dunbar's number, proposed by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar. He theorized that there is a limit of approximately 150 people with whom a human can maintain stable social relationships.[5]

In childhood, friendships are often based on the sharing of toys, and the enjoyment received from performing activities together. These friendships are maintained through affection, sharing, and creative playtime. While sharing is difficult for children at this age, they are more likely to share with someone they consider to be a friend (Newman & Newman, 2012).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include As children mature, they become less individualized and more aware of others. They begin to see their Childhood friends friends' points of view, and enjoy playing in groups. They also experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years. Establishing good friendships at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society later on in their life (Newman & Newman, 2012).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include

Friendship In a 1975 study,[6] Bigelow and La Gaipa found that expectations for a "best friend" become increasingly complex as a child gets older. The study investigated such criteria in a sample of 480 children between the ages of six and fourteen. Their findings highlighted three stages of development in friendship expectations. In the first stage, children emphasized shared activities and the importance of geographical closeness. In the second, they emphasized sharing, loyalty and commitment. In the final stage, they increasingly desired similar attitudes, values and interests. According to Berndt, children prize friendships that are high in prosocial behavior, intimacy, and other positive features; they are troubled by friendships that are high in conflict, dominance, rivalry, and other negative features. High-quality friendships have often been assumed to have positive effects on many aspects of children's social development. Perceived benefits from such friendships include enhanced social success, but they apparently do not include an effect on children's general self-esteem. Numerous studies with adults suggest that friendships and other supportive relationships do enhance self-esteem (Berndt, 2002).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include


A study examined 9,234 American adolescents to determine how their engagement in problem behavior (such as stealing, fighting, sexual activity, truancy) was related to their friendships. Findings indicated that adolescents were less likely to engage in problem behavior when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, and had good mental health. The opposite was found regarding adolescents who did engage in more problem behavior. Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behavior depended on how much they were exposed to those friends, and whether they and their friendship groups "fit in" at school (Crosnoe, R., & Needham, B., 2004).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include A study by researchers from Purdue University found that friendships formed during post-secondary education last longer than friendships formed earlier.[7]

Life events such as marriage, parenthood, and accelerated career development can complicate friendships in the transition from young adulthood to middle adulthood. After marriage, both women and men report having fewer friends of the opposite sex (Friendships, 2012).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Adults may find it particularly difficult to maintain meaningful friendships in the workplace. "The workplace can crackle with competition, so people learn to hide vulnerabilities and quirks from colleagues. Work friendships often take on a transactional feel; it is difficult to say where networking ends and real friendship begins."[8] Most adults value the financial security of their jobs more than friendship.[9]

Friendships in adulthood

The majority of adults have three or more close friends, and more than half of adults have ten or more friends. Men and women tend to have the same number of friends, although women are likely to confide more in friends than men. Adults often make friends based on who their children are friends with (Newman & Newman, 2012).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include



Old age
As family responsibilities and vocational pressures become less, friendships become more important.[10] Among the elderly, friendships can provide links to the larger community; especially for people who cannot go out as often, interactions with friends allow for continued societal interaction. Additionally, older adults in declining health who remain in contact with friends show improved psychological well-being. Although older adults prefer familiar and established relationships over new ones, friendship formation can continue in old age. With age, elders report that the friends they feel closest to are fewer in number and live in the same community. They tend to choose friends whose age, sex, race, ethnicity, and values are like their own. Compared with younger people, fewer older people report other-sex friendships. Older women, in particular, have more secondary friendspeople who are not intimates, but with whom they spend time occasionally, such as in groups that meets for lunch or bridge.

Life cycle of friendships

Making a friend
Three significant factors make the formation of a friendship possible: proximity, which means being near enough to see each other or do things together; repeatedly encountering the person informally and without making special plans to see each other; and opportunities to share ideas and personal feelings with each other.[11]

Ending a friendship
Friendships end for many different reasons. Sometimes friends move away from each other and are forced to move on due to the distance. Sometimes divorce causes an end to friendships, as people drop one or both of the divorcing people. At a younger age friendships may end as a result of acceptance into new social groups. (Friendships, 2009) (Berry, 2012) Friendships may end by fading quietly away or may end suddenly. How and whether to talk about the end of a friendship is a matter of etiquette that depends on the circumstances.

Friendship and developmental issues

Children with autism spectrum disorders usually have some difficulty forming friendships. Certain symptoms of autism can interfere with the formation of interpersonal relations, such as a preference for routine actions to change, obsession with particular interests or rituals, and a lack of typical social skills. Children with autism spectrum disorders have been found to be more likely to be close friends with one person, rather than having groups of friends. Additionally, they are more likely to be close friends with other children with some sort of a disability.[12] A sense of parental attachment aids in the quality of friendships in children with autism spectrum disorders; a sense of attachment with one's parents compensates for a lack of social skills that would usually inhibit friendships.[13] With time, moderation, and proper instruction, children with autism spectrum disorder are able to form friendships after realizing their own strengths and weaknesses. A study done by Frankel et al. showed that parental intervention and instruction plays an important role in such children developing friendships.[14] Along with parental intervention, school professionals play an important role in teaching social skills and peer interaction. Paraprofessionals, specifically one-on-one aides and classroom aides, are often placed with children with autism spectrum disorders in order to facilitate friendships and guide the child in making and maintaining substantial friendships.[15]

Friendship Although lessons and training may help peers of children with autism, bullying is still a major concern in social situations. According to Anahad O'Connor of The New York Times, bullying is most likely to occur against autistic children who have the most potential to live independently, such as those with Asperger syndrome. Such children are more at risk because they have many of the rituals and lack of social skills as children with full autism, but they are more likely to be mainstreamed in school, since they are on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum. Children on the autism spectrum have more difficulty picking up on social cues of when they are maliciously being made fun of, so they do not always know when they are being bullied.[16]



Children with ADHD may not have difficulty forming friendships, though they may have a hard time keeping them, due to impulsive behavior and hyperactivity. Children with ADD may not have as much trouble keeping and maintaining friendships, though inattentiveness may complicate the processes. Parents of children with ADHD worry about their children's ability to form long-lasting friendships. According to Edelman, "Making and keeping friends requires 'hundreds' of skills-talking, listening, sharing, being empathetic, and so on. These skills do not come naturally to children with ADD." Difficulty listening to others also inhibits children with ADD or ADHD from forming good friendships. Children with these disorders can also drive away others by "blurting out unkind comments." Their disruptive behavior can become too distracting to classmates.[17]

Friendship and health

Conventional wisdom suggests that good friendships enhance an individual's sense of happiness and overall well-being. Indeed, a number of studies have found that strong social supports improve a woman's prospects for good health and longevity. Conversely, loneliness and a lack of social supports have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, viral infections, and cancer, as well as higher mortality rates overall. Two researchers have even termed friendship networks a "behavioral vaccine" that boosts both physical and mental health.[18] While there is an impressive body of research linking friendship and health, the precise reasons for the connection remain unclear. Most of the studies in this area are large prospective studies that follow people over a period of time, and while there may be a correlation between the two variables (friendship and health status), researchers still do not know if there is a cause and effect relationship, such as the notion that good friendships actually improve health. A number of theories have attempted to explain this link. These theories have included that good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; that good friends encourage their friends to seek help and access services when needed; that good friends enhance their friends' coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and that good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health.[19]

Friendship and homosexuality

Dharmachari Janavira, writing in the Western Buddhist Review, suggests homophobia is at the root of a modern decline in the Western world.[20] In a cultural context where homosexual desire is considered sinful, the experience of homoerotic desire can be traumatic, limiting the potential for same-sex friendship. Japanese psychologist Doi Takeo has expressed similar views. He claims that male friendships in American society are fraught with homosexual anxiety, and thus homophobia is a limiting factor stopping men from establishing deep friendships with other men. The Danish sociologist Henning Bech, for instance, writes of the anxiety which often accompanies developing intimacy between male friends: The more one has to assure oneself that one's relationship with another man is not homosexual, the more conscious one becomes that it might be, and the more necessary it becomes to protect oneself against it. The result is that friendship gradually becomes impossible.Wikipedia:Quotations

Friendship The suggestion that friendship always contains an element of erotic desire is not new. It dates to the time of the ancient Greeks, where it comes up in the writings of Plato. More recently, the Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger claimed that: There is no friendship between men that has not an element of sexuality in it, however little accentuated it may be in the nature of the friendship, and however painful the idea of the sexual element would be. But it is enough to remember that there can be no friendship unless there has been some attraction to draw the men together. Much of the affection, protection, and nepotism between men is due to the presence of unsuspected sexual compatibility. (Sex and Character, 1903)Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Recent Western scholarship in gender theory and feminism concurs, as reflected in the writings of Eve Sedgwick in her The Epistemology of the Closet, and Jonathan Dollimore in his Sexual Dissidence and Cultural Change: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault.


Friendship quality
Generally, friendship has two dimensions: quality and conflict (Demir, 2007).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include The quality of friendship is important for a person's well-being. High quality friendships have good ways of resolving conflict, ultimately leading to stronger and healthier relationships. Good friendship has been called "life enhancing" (Helm, 2012).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Engaging in activities with friends intensifies pleasure and happiness. The quality of friendships relates to happiness because friendship "provides a context where basic needs are satisfied" (Demir, 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Quality friendships lead an individual to feel more comfortable with his or her personal identity. Higher friendship quality directly contributes to self-esteem, self-confidence, and social development (Berndt, 2002).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include

Cultural variations
Ancient Greece
Friendship was a topic of moral philosophy greatly discussed by Plato, Aristotle, and Stoics. The topic was less discussed in the modern era, until the re-emergence of contextualist and feminist approaches to ethics.[21] In Ancient Greece, openness in friendship was seen as an enlargement of the self. Aristotle wrote, "The excellent person is related to his friend in the same way as he is related to himself, since, a friend is another self; and therefore, just as his own being is choiceworthy for him, the friend's being is choice-worthy for him in the same or a similar way."[22] In Ancient Greek, the same word was used for "friend" and "lover".[23]



Central Asia
In Central Asia, male friendships tend to be reserved and respectful in nature. They may use nicknames and diminutive forms of their first names.

East Asia
In East Asia male friendships start at a young age. The respect that friends have in East Asian culture is understood to be formed from a young age. Different forms of relationships in social media and online chats are not considered an official friendship in East Asian culture. Both female and male friendships in East Asia start at a younger age and grow stronger through years of schooling and working together. East Asian friends Different people in East Asian culture have a close, tight knit, group of friends that they call their best friends. In Western Culture, many people refer to multiple people as their best friends, as compared to East Asian culture, where best friends are the 2-3 people closest to a particular person. Being someones best friend in East Asian culture is considered an honor and privilege. In a Chinese context, there is a very strong orientation towards maintaining and enhancing interpersonal relationships. The relationships between friends in East and Central Asian culture holds a tight bond that is usually never broken until someone geographically moves to another part of the county or out of the country.[24]

Germans typically have relatively few friends, although their friendships typically last a lifetime, as loyalty is held in high regard. German friendships provide a substantial amount of commitment and support. Germans may appear aloof to people from other countries, as they tend to be cautious and keep their distance when it comes to developing deeper relationships with new people. They draw a strong distinction between their few friends and their many associates, co-workers, neighbors, and others. A relationship's transition from one of associates to one of friends can take months or years, if it ever happens.[25]

Islamic cultures
In Islamic cultures, friendship is also known as companionship or ashab. The concept is taken seriously, and numerous important attributes of a worthwhile friend have emerged in Islamic media, such as the notion of a righteous (or saalih) person, who can appropriately delineate between that which is good and that which is evil. Concordance with the perspectives and knowledge of others is considered to be important; forgiveness regarding mistakes and loyalty between friends is emphasized, and a "love for the sake of Allah" is considered to be a relationship of the highest significance between two humans.[26]

In the Middle East and East Africa men hold hands as a sign of friendship.



Middle East
It is believed that in some parts of the Middle East (or Near East), friendship is more demanding when compared with other cultures; friends are people who respect each other, regardless of shortcomings, and will make personal sacrifices in order to assist another friend, without considering the experience an imposition.[] Many Arab people perceive friendship seriously, and deeply consider personal attributes such as social influence and the nature of a person's character before engaging in such a relationship.[]

Many of the qualities of modern Russia's culture date back to Soviet times. Scarcity in the Soviet Union led people had to create relationships with people in certain businesses in order to get the things they needed, such as a hospital employee to help obtain medical attention. Such practices led to a community spirit and interpersonal connections (Babaeva 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Many of these practices have continued to the present day. Inefficiencies on the part of the government, so Russians may find it easier to rely on their friends and family than on any company or business. These traditional types of relationships are valued greatly in Russia (Babaeva 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Other conditions in the Soviet period made it harder for Russians to form relationships. Confiding in another person opened the risk of being reported to the state, especially for dissent. As in Germany, people in Soviet communities had very few friends, but the friends they did have were extremely close. These trends have continued in modern Russia (Sheets & Lugar 2005).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include

United States
In the United States, many types of relationships are deemed friendships. From the time children enter elementary school, many teachers and adults call their peers "friends" to children, and in most classrooms or social settings, children are instructed as to how to behave with their friends, and are told who their friends are (Stout 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include This type of open approach to friendship has led many Americans, adolescents in particular, to designate a "best friend" with whom they are especially close (Stout 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Many psychologists see this term as dangerous for American children, because it allows for discrimination and cliques, which can lead to bullying (Stout 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include

The friendship bracelet is an American example of the exchange of small tokens of friendship.

For Americans, friends tend to be people whom they encounter fairly frequently, and that are similar to themselves in demographics, attitude, and activities (Sheets & Lugar 2005).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include While many other cultures value deep trust and meaning in their friendships, Americans will use the word "friend" to describe most people who have such qualities (Stout 2010).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include There is also a difference in the US between men and women who have friendships with the same sex. According to research, American men have less deep and meaningful friendships with other men. In the abstract, many men and women in the United States have similar definitions of intimacy, but women are more likely to practice intimacy in friendships (Yugar & Shapiro 2001).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include Many studies have also found that Americans eventually lose touch with friends. This can be an unusual occurrence in many other cultures (Sheets & Lugar 2005).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include

Friendship According to a study documented in the June 2006 issue of the American Sociological Review, Americans are thought to be suffering a loss in the quality and quantity of close friendships since at least 1985.[27][28] The study states that one quarter of all Americans have no close confidants, and that the average total number of confidants per person has dropped from four to two. Divorce also contributes to the decline in friendship among Americans. "In international comparisons, the divorce rate in the United States is higher than that of 34 other countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia" (Newman & Newman, 2012 p. 475).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include In divorce, many couples end up losing friends through the process, as certain friends "side with" one member of the relationship and lose the other. The advance of technology has also been blamed for declining friendships in the United States. Ethan J. Leib, author of the book Friend vs. Friend and law professor at the University of California-Hastings, suggests that longer hours of work and a large amount of online communication take away from personal communication, making it harder to form friendships. New media such as Facebook and Twitter have also been said to decrease the amount of personal communication in everyday life, and to make emotional attachments more difficult (Newman & Newman)Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include (Berry, 2012)Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include (Freeman, 2011).Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include


Types of friendships
Agentic friendship In an agentic friendship, both parties look to each other for help in achieving practical goals in their personal and professional lives.[] Agentic friends may help with completing projects, studying for an exam, or helping move houses. They value sharing time together, but only when they have time available to help each other. These relationships typically do not include the sharing of emotions or personal information. Best friend (or close friend) Best friends share extremely strong interpersonal ties with each other. Blood brother or sister This term can either refer to people related by birth or to friends who swear loyalty by mixing their blood together. The latter usage has been practiced throughout history, but is rarely continued today due to the dangers of blood-borne diseases. Boston marriage This antiquated American term was used during the 19th and 20th centuries to denote two women who lived together in the same household independent of male support. These relationships were not necessarily sexual. The term was used to quell fears of lesbians after World War I.Wikipedia:Please clarify Bromance A portmanteau of bro and romance, a bromance is a close, non-sexual relationship between two or more men. Buddy Sometimes used as a synonym for friend generally, "buddy" can specifically denote a friend or partner with whom one engages in a particular activity, such as a "study buddy." Casual relationship or "friends with benefits" Also referred to as a "hook-up," this term denotes a sexual or near-sexual relationship between two people who do not expect or demand to share a formal romantic relationship. Communal friendship

Friendship As defined by Steven McCornack, this is a friendship in which friends gather often to provide encouragement and emotional support in times of great need. This type of friendship tends to last only when the involved parties fulfill the expectations of support.[] Comrade This term denotes an ally, friend, or colleague, especially in a military or political context. Comradeship may arise in time of war, or when people have a mutual enemy or even a common goal, in circumstances where ordinary friendships might not have formed.[29] In English, the term is associated with the Soviet Union, in which the Russian equivalent term, tovarishch (Russian: ), was used as a common form of address. Family friend This term can denote the friend of a family member or the family member of a friend. Frenemy A portmanteau of the words "friend" and "enemy," the term "frenemy" refers to either an enemy disguised as a friend (a proverbial wolf in sheep's clothing) or a person who is both a friend and a rival. This may take the form of a lovehate relationship. The term was reportedly coined by a sister of author and journalist Jessica Mitford in 1977 and popularized more than twenty years later on the third season of Sex and the City. One study by psychologist Julianne Holt-Lunstad found that unpredictable lovehate relationships can lead to elevations in blood pressure. In a previous study, the same researcher found that blood pressure is higher around people for whom one has mixed feelings than it is people whom one clearly dislikes.[30] Imaginary friend An imaginary friend is a non-physical friend, usually of a child. These friends may be human or animal, such as the human-sized rabbit in the 1950 Jimmy Stewart film Harvey. Creation of an imaginary friend may be seen as bad behavior or even taboo, but is most commonly regarded as harmless, typical childhood behavior. Internet relationship An internet friendship is a form of friendship or romance which takes place exclusively over the internet. This may evolve into a real-life friendship. Internet friendships are in similar context to pen pals. People in these friendships may not use their true identities; parties in an internet relationship may engage in catfishing. Mate Primarily used in the UK, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand, "mate" is a friendly reference a same-sex friend, especially among males. In the UK, as well as Australia, the term also has been taken up by women. "Bloke" is used similarly. Opposite-sex friendship Opposite-sex friendships, which are nonsexual, are not always socially accepted. Although complications can arise in such relationships, opposite sex friendships can be strong and emotionally rewarding.[31] Pen pal Pen pals are people who have a relationship primarily through mail correspondence. They may or may not have met each other in person. This type of correspondence was encouraged in many elementary school children;Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items it was thought that an outside source of information or a different person's experience would help the child become more worldly. In modern times, internet relationships have largely replaced pen pals, though the practice does continue.




In animals
Friendship is also found among animals of higher intelligence, such as higher mammals and some birds. Cross-species friendships are common between humans and domestic animals. Cross-species friendships may also occur between two non-human animals, such as dogs and cats. A study conducted by Krista McLennan, a doctoral student at Northampton University, investigated friendship in cows. McLennan measured the heart rates of cattle on three separate occasions to determine their stress levels. In the first trial, the cows were isolated from the rest of their herd. The second trial penned the animal with another cow that they were familiar with. Finally, the third trial put two random cows together. Her research showed that the cows were much more stressed when alone or with an unfamiliar cow than they were with one of their friends. This supports the idea that cows are social animals, capable of forming close bonds with each other. McLennan suggests that if farmers group friends together, it could benefit the cows by reducing their stress, improving their overall health and even producing a greater milk yield.[32]

[2] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ magazine-23097143 [4] Grabmeier, Jeff (January 6, 2004). Friendships play key role in suicidal thoughts of girls, but not boys (http:/ / www. eurekalert. org/ pub_releases/ 2004-01/ osu-fpk010604. php). Ohio State University. [6] Cited in Brace, N. & Byford, J. (Ed.) (2010) Discovering psychology: What is friendship. The Open university. ISBN 1-84873-466-2. [7] Sparks, Glenn (August 7, 2007). Study shows what makes college buddies lifelong friends (http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ x/ 2007b/ 070807SparksFriendship. html). Purdue University. [10] 84232 18 473-499 r13 jk (http:/ / www. pearsonhighered. com/ showcase/ berkexploring2e/ assets/ Berk_ch18. pdf) [18] Friendship, social support, and health. 2007 Sias, Patricia M; Bartoo, Heidi. In L'Abate, Luciano. Low-cost approaches to promote physical and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 455472). xxii, 526 pp. New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media. [19] Social networks and health: It's time for an intervention trial. 2005. Jorm, Anthony F. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. Vol 59(7) Jul 2005, 537538. [27] Kornblum, Janet (June 22, 2006). Study: 25% of Americans have no one to confide in (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ nation/ 2006-06-22-friendship_x. htm). USA Today. [28] McPherson, Smith-Lovin, Brashears (Volume 71, Number 3, June 2006). Asanet.org (http:/ / www2. asanet. org/ journals/ asr/ 2006/ toc051. html) American Sociological Review. [31] http:/ / www. psychologytoday. com/ articles/ 200108/ can-men-and-women-be-friends

Further reading
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Bleske, April L.; Buss, David M. (June 2000). "Can Men and Women Be Just Friends?". In Personal Relationships 7 (2): 131151. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Laelius de Amicitia. Heyking, John von; Avramenko, Richard (2008). Friendship and Politics: Essays in Political Thought. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Hruschka, Daniel (2010). Friendship: Development, Ecology and Evolution of a Relationship. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Kalmijn, Matthijs (March 2002). "Sex Segregation of Friendship Networks: Individual and Structural Determinants of Having Cross-Sex Friends". European Sociological Review 18 (1): 101117. Lepp, Ignace (1966). The Ways of Friendship. New York: The Macmillan Company. Muraco, Anna (October 2005). "Heterosexual Evaluations of Hypothetical Friendship Behavior Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 22 (5): 587605. Plutarch. How to know a flatterer from a friend. Paris: Editions DUPLEIX. ISBN9791092019001. Reeder, Heidi M. (August 2003). "The Effect of Gender Role Orientation on Same- and Cross-Sex Friendship Formation". Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 49 (34): 143152. Said, Edward (1979). Orientalism. United States: Vintage Books. ISBNISBN 0-394-74067-X.

Friendship Wilson, Amy (2012). Put the End in Friend: Ridding Your Life of People that Suck. New York: Kingery & Bailiff Enterprises, Chariton Press. Yager, Jan (2002). When Friendship Hurts: How to Deal With Friends Who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., Fireside Books.


External links
Media related to Friends at Wikimedia Commons BBC Radio 4 series "In Our Time", on Friendship, 2 March 2006 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/ inourtime/inourtime_20060302.shtml) Friendship (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/friendship/) at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Hatred (or hate) is a deep and emotional extreme dislike that can be directed against individuals, entities, objects, or ideas. Hatred is often associated with feelings of anger and a disposition towards hostility. Commonly held moral rules, such as the Golden Rule, oppose universal hatred towards another.

The Bible
Both the Old and the New Testaments deal with hatred. David, in the Psalms, thanks God for destroying those that hate him, and thanks Him for hating his enemies.[1] This is the era of wars and kingdoms; armies destroy enemies, hate is political and military. But it is also domestic: David's sons hate each other, and Absalom will kill his half-brother after the latter rapes and spurns his sister. And after banishment, Abasalom will hate his father and try to destroy him. Ecclesiastes 3:8 teaches that there is a "time to love, and a time to hate;".[2] However, the Old Testament (also known as the Jewish bible, the Tanakh) also contains condemnations of hatred. For example, " thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart".[3] In the New Testament, hatred focuses on the soul. Evil is internalised and the focus of hatred becomes that part of the heart, the sinning self. The New Testament also clearly condemns hatred. John contended that "whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer and you know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in himself."[4] But all people are, according to the gospels, sinners, and only have to look inside of themselves in order to find sin. Loving good means hating sin and turning from vice. Love, as Aquinas [citation needed] teaches, must be divided into love of good things, the healthy movement of the soul true to itself, and love of inappropriate objects, the desire to have and use what may be bad for the soul.

James W. Underhill, in his Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, (2012) discusses the origin and the metaphoric representations of hate in various languages. He stresses that love and hate are social, and culturally constructed. For this reason, hate is historically situated. Although it is fair to say that one single emotion exists in English, French (haine), and German (Hass), hate varies in the forms in which it is manifested. A certain relationless hatred is expressed in the French expression J'ai la haine, which has no equivalent in English. While for English-speakers, loving and hating invariably involve an object, or a person, and therefore, a relationship with something or someone, J'ai la haine (literally, I have hate) precludes the idea of an emotion directed at a person. This is a form of frustration, apathy and animosity which churns within the subject but establishes no relationship with the world, other than an aimless desire for destruction. Underhill (following Philippe Roger) also considers French forms of anti-americanism as a specific form of cultural resentment. At the same time, he analyses the hatred promoted by Reagan in his rhetoric directed against the "Evil-Empire". In addition, Underhill suggests it is worrying that foreign languages (French, German, Spanish, Czech) are uncritically assimilating forms of hatred exported by

Hatred neo-conservative discourse which permeate these languages via the translation of political journalism and the rhetoric of the "War-on-Terror" and the promotion of "Security".


Psychoanalytic views
In psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source of its unhappiness.[5] More recently, the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology defines hate as a "deep, enduring, intense emotion expressing animosity, anger, and hostility towards a person, group, or object."[6] Because hatred is believed to be long-lasting, many psychologists consider it to be more of an attitude or disposition than a temporary emotional state.

Neurological research
The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the middle frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insular cortex of the human brain.[7]

Legal issues
In the English language, a hate crime (also known as a "bias-motivated crime") generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by hate. Those who commit hate crimes target victims because of their perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender identity, or political affiliation.[8] Incidents may involve physical assault, destruction of property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[9] Hate speech is speech perceived to disparage a person or group of people based on their social or ethnic group,[10] such as race, sex, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, ideology, social class, occupation, appearance (height, weight, skin color, etc.), mental capacity, and any other distinction that might be considered by some as a liability. The term covers written as well as oral communication and some forms of behaviors in a public setting. It is also sometimes called antilocution and is the first point on Allport's scale which measures prejudice in a society. In many countries, deliberate use of hate speech is a criminal offence prohibited under incitement to hatred legislation. It is often alleged that the criminalization of hate speech is sometimes used to discourage legitimate discussion of negative aspects of voluntary behavior (such as political persuasion, religious adherence and philosophical allegiance). There is also some question as to whether or not hate speech falls under the protection of freedom of speech in some countries. Both of these classifications have sparked debate, with counter-arguments such as, but not limited to, a difficulty in distinguishing motive and intent for crimes, as well as philosophical debate on the validity of valuing targeted hatred as a greater crime than general misanthropy and contempt for humanity being a potentially equal crime in and of itself.



[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [8] Underhill 2012 http:/ / bible. cc/ ecclesiastes/ 3-8. htm Leviticus 19:17, Douay-Rheims Bible (http:/ / drb. scripturetext. com/ leviticus/ 19. htm) 1 John 3:15, Dhouay-Rheims Bible (http:/ / drb. scripturetext. com/ 1_john/ 3. htm) Freud, S. (1915). The instincts and their vicissitudes. Reber, A.S., & Reber, E. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of psychology. New York: Penguin Books. Stotzer, R.: Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups (http:/ / williamsinstitute. law. ucla. edu/ wp-content/ uploads/ Stotzer-Comparison-Hate-Crime-June-2007. pdf), Williams Institute, 200706. Retrieved on 2007-08-09. [9] Hate crime (http:/ / www. homeoffice. gov. uk/ crime-victims/ reducing-crime/ hate-crime/ ), Home Office

Haters Gunk - Spread Love, Share Hate (http://hatersgunk.com)

Further reading
The Psychology of Hate by Robert Sternberg (Ed.) Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence by Willard Gaylin Why We Hate by Jack Levin The Psychology of Good and Evil: Why Children, Adults, and Groups Help and Harm Others by Ervin Staub Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence by Aaron T. Beck

Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, by James W. Underhill, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Interpersonal attraction
Relationships Part of a series on


Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. Interpersonal attraction, the process, is distinct from perceptions of physical attractiveness which involves views of what is and is not considered beautiful or attractive. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction is related to how much we like, dislike, or hate someone. It can be viewed as a force acting between two people that tends to draw them together and resist their separation. When measuring interpersonal attraction, one must refer to the qualities of the attracted as well as the qualities of the attractor to achieve predictive accuracy. It is suggested that to determine attraction, personality and situation must be taken into account. Repulsion is also a factor in the process of interpersonal attraction, one's conception of "attraction" to another can vary from extreme attraction to extreme repulsion.[1]

Interpersonal attraction


Interpersonal attraction is most frequently measured using the 'Interpersonal Attraction Judgment Scale' developed by Donn Byrne.[3] It is a scale in which a subject rates a target person on dimensions such as intelligence, knowledge of current events, morality, adjustment, like-ability and desirability as a work partner. This scale seems to be directly related with other measures of social attraction such as social choice, desirability ratings as a date, sexual partner, or spouse, voluntary physical proximity, frequency of eye contact, etc. Kiesler & Goldberg analyzed a variety of response measures that were typically utilized as measures of attraction and extracted two factors: The first, characterized as primarily socioemotional, included variables such as liking, desirability of the target's inclusion in social clubs and parties, seating choices, and lunching together. The second factor included variables such as voting for, admiration and respect for, and also seeking the opinion of the target.[4] Another widely used measurement technique is when you use the simple scaling of verbal responses which are expressed in terms of ratings or judgements of the person of target.[5]

Any given interaction is characterized by a certain level of intensity, which is conveyed by individual and interpersonal behavior, including the more subtle nonverbal behavioral information of [2] interpersonal attraction.

Many factors leading to interpersonal attraction have been studied, all of which involve social reinforcement.[6] The most frequently studied are: physical attractiveness, propinquity, familiarity, similarity, complementarity, reciprocal liking, and reinforcement.

Propinquity effect
According to Rowland Miller's Intimate Relationships text, the propinquity effect can be defined as: "the more we see and interact with a person, the more likely he or she is to become our friend or sexual partner." This effect is very similar to the mere exposure effect in that the more a person is exposed to a stimulus, the more the person likes it; however, there are a few exceptions to the mere exposure effect.[7] Familiarity can also occur without physical exposure. Recent studies show that relationships formed over the Internet resemble those developed face-to-face, in terms of quality and depth.[8]

Interpersonal attraction


Mere exposure/exposure effect

As mentioned above, the mere exposure effect, also known as the familiarity principle, states that the more we are exposed to something, the more we come to like it. This applies equally to both objects and people (Miller, 2006). The social allergy effect occurs when a person's annoying habits grow worse over time, instead of growing more fond of his or her idiosyncrasies.

Similarity (like-attracts-like)
The notion of "birds of a feather flock together" points out that similarity is a crucial determinant of interpersonal attraction. Studies about attraction indicate that people are strongly attracted to look-a-likes in physical and social appearance ("like attracts like"). This similarity is in the broadest sense: similarity in bone-structure, characteristics, life goals, ethnicity and appearance. The more these points match, the happier people are in a relationship (Folkes, 1982, Wilson et al., 2006). The lookalike effect plays an important role called self-affirmation. A person typically enjoys receiving confirmation of every aspect of his or her life, ideas, attitudes and personal characteristics and it seems that people are looking for an image of themselves to spend their life with. One of the basic principles of interpersonal attraction is the rule of similarity: similarity is attractive. It is this underlying principle that applies to both friendships and romantic relationships. There is a high correlation between the proportion of attitudes shared, and the degree of interpersonal attraction. Cheerful people like to be around other cheerful people and negative people would rather be around other negative people (Locke & Horowitz, 1990). According to Morrys attraction-similarity model (2007), there is a lay belief that people with actual similarity produce initial attraction. Perceived similarity develops for someone to rate others as similar to themselves in on-going relationship. Such perception is either self-serving (friendship) or relationship-serving (romantic relationship). Theodore Newcomb (1963) pointed out that people tend to change perceived similarity to obtain balance in a relationship. Additionally, perceived similarity was found to be greater than actual similarity in predicting interpersonal attraction. A 2004 study, based on indirect evidence, concluded that humans choose mates based partly on facial resemblance to themselves.[9]

Similarity in different aspects

Findings suggest that interpersonal similarity and attraction are multidimensional constructs (Lydon, Jamieson & Zanna, 1988), in which people are attracted to others who are similar to them in demographics, physical appearance, attitudes, interpersonal style, social and cultural background, personality, interests and activities preferences, and communication and social skills. A study conducted by Newcomb (1961) on college dorm roommates suggested that individuals with shared backgrounds, academic achievements, attitudes, values, and political views typically became friends. Physical appearance The matching hypothesis proposed by sociologist Erving Goffman suggests that people are more likely to form long standing relationships with those who are equally matched in social attributes, like physical attractiveness, as they are.[10] The study by researchers Walster and Walster supported the matching hypothesis by showing that partners who were similar in terms of physical attractiveness expressed the most liking for each other.[11] Another study also found evidence that supported the matching hypothesis: photos of dating and engaged couples were rated in terms of attractiveness, and a definite tendency was found for couples of similar attractiveness to date or engage.[12] Several studies support this evidence of similar facial attractiveness. Penton-Voak, Perrett, and Peirce (1999) found that subjects rated the pictures with their own face morphed into it as more attractive. DeBruine (2002) demonstrated in her research how subjects entrusted more money to their opponents in a game play, when the opponents were presented as similar to them. Little,

Interpersonal attraction Burt, & Perrett (2006) examined similarity in sight for married couples and found that the couples were assessed at the same age and level of attractiveness. A speed-dating experiment done on graduate students from Columbia University showed that although physical attractiveness is preferred in a potential partner, men show a greater preference for it than women,[13] but other studies show otherwise. Moreover, other than investigation the effect of physical looks on interpersonal attraction, quality of voice that can improve interpersonal attraction was also observed. Two studies were done. For the first study the spotlight, subjects, had 25 female students from a university whereas there were four male target people from a different university. The level of attraction of voice and physical look of the target people was ranked by the subjects. The level of attraction of voice and physical look had their own separate results on interpersonal attraction. For the next study, there 62 subjects, 20 males and 42 females, from a university and there 16 target students, 8 males and 8 females, from a different university. The outcomes of the first study were actually replicated. Hence, cheerful, gentle voices, minimal voiced pitch plus a little scale of vocal pitch tend to result in a greater personal attraction. Wikipedia:Please clarify[14] Attitudes According to the law of attraction by Byrne (1971),[15] attraction towards a person is positively related to the proportion of attitudes similarity associated with that person. Clore (1976) also raised that the one with similar attitudes as yours was more agreeable with your perception of things and more reinforcing she/he was, so the more you like him/her. Based on the cognitive consistency theories, difference in attitudes and interests can lead to dislike and avoidance (Singh & Ho, 2000; Tan & Singh, 1995) whereas similarity in attitudes promotes social attraction (Byrne, London & Reeves, 1968; Singh & Ho, 2000). Miller (1972) pointed out that attitude similarity activates the perceived attractiveness and favor-ability information from each other, whereas dissimilarity would reduce the impact of these cues. The studies by Jamieson, Lydon and Zanna (1987, 1988) showed that attitude similarity could predict how people evaluate their respect for each other, and social and intellectual first impressions which in terms of activity preference similarity and value-based attitude similarity respectively. In intergroup comparisons, high attitude similarity would lead to homogeneity among in-group members whereas low attitude similarity would lead to diversity among in-group members, promoting social attraction and achieving high group performance in different tasks (Hahn & Hwang, 1999). Although attitudinal similarity and attraction are linearly related, attraction may not contribute significantly to attitude change (Simons, Berkowitz & Moyer, 1970) Social and cultural background Byrne, Clore and Worchel (1966) suggested people with similar economic status are likely to be attracted to each other. Buss & Barnes (1986) also found that people prefer their romantic partners to be similar in certain demographic characteristics, including religious background, political orientation and socio-economic status. Personality Researchers have shown that interpersonal attraction was positively correlated to personality similarity (Goldman, Rosenzweig & Lutter, 1980). People are inclined to desire romantic partners who are similar to themselves on agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion, emotional stability, openness to experience (Botwin, Buss, & Shackelford, 1997), and attachment style (Klohnen & Luo, 2003). Interests and activities Activity similarity was especially predictive of liking judgments, which affects the judgments of attraction (Lydon, Jamieson & Zanna, 1988). Lydon and Zanna (1987, 1988) claimed that high self-monitoring people were influenced more by activity preference similarity than attitude similarity on initial attraction, while low self-monitoring people were influenced more on initial attraction by value-based attitude similarity than


Interpersonal attraction activity preference similarity. Social skills According to the post-conversation measures of social attraction, tactical similarity was positively correlated with partner satisfaction and global competence ratings, but was uncorrelated with the opinion change and perceived persuasiveness measures (Waldron & Applegate, 1998). Marriage When checking similar variables they were also seen as more similar on a number of personality characteristics. This study found that the length of the average relationship was related to perceptions of similarity; the couples who were together longer were seen as more equal. This effect can be attributed to the fact that when time passes by couples become more alike through shared experiences, or that couples that are alike stay together longer (Zajonc et al, 1987).


Reasons of spouse similarity (Watson et al., 2004)

Social homogamy refers to "passive, indirect effects on spousal similarity" (Watson et al., 2004, p.1034). The result showed that age and education level are crucial in affecting the mate preference. Because people with similar age study and interact more in the same form of the school, propinquity effect (i.e., the tendency of people to meet and spend time with those who share the common characteristics) plays a significant impact in spousal similarity. Convergence refers to an increasing similarity with time. Although the previous research showed that there is a greater effect on attitude and value than on personality traits, however, it is found that initial assortment (i.e., similarity within couples at the beginning of marriage) rather than convergence, plays a crucial role in explaining spousal similarity. Active assortment refers to direct effects on choosing someone similar as self in mating preferences. The data showed that there is a greater effect on political and religious attitudes than on personality traits. A follow-up issue on the reason of the finding was raised. The concepts of idiosyncratic (i.e., different individuals have different mate preferences) and consensual (i.e., a consensus of preference on some prospective mates to others) in mate preference. The data showed that mate preference on political and religious bases tend to be idiosyncratic, for example, a Catholic would be more likely to choose a mate who is also a Catholic, as opposed to a Buddhist. Such idiosyncratic preferences produce a high level of active assortment which plays a vital role in affecting spousal similarity. In summary, active assortarity plays a large role, whereas convergence has little evidence on showing such effect.

Effects of similarity on interpersonal attraction

Similarity has effects on starting a relationship by initial attraction to know each other. It is showed that high attitude similarity resulted in a significant increase in initial attraction to the target person and high attitude dissimilarity resulted in a decrease of initial attraction (Gutkin, Gridley & Wendt, 1976; Kaplan & Olczak, 1971). Similarity also promotes relationship commitment. Study on heterosexual dating couples found that similarity in intrinsic values of the couple was linked to relationship commitment and stability (Kurdek & Schnopp-Wyatt, 1997).

The model of complementarity explains whether "birds of a feather flock together" or "opposites attract". Studies show that complementary interaction between two partners increases their attractiveness to each other (Nowicki and Manheim; 1991). Complementary partners preferred closer interpersonal relationship than non-complementary ones (Nowicki & Manheim,1991). Couples who reported the highest level of loving and harmonious relationship were more dissimilar in dominance than couples who scored lower in relationship quality. (Markey & Markey (2007)).

Interpersonal attraction Mathes and Moore (1985) found that people were more attracted to peers approximating to their ideal self than to those who did not. Specifically, low self-esteem individuals appeared more likely to desire a complementary relationship than high self-esteem people. We are attracted to people who complement to us because this allows us to maintain our preferred style of behavior (Markey & Markey (2007), and through interaction with someone who complements our own behavior, we are likely to have a sense of self-validation and security (Carson, 1969).


Similarity or complementarity?
Principles of similarity and complementarity seem to be contradictory on the surface (Posavac, 1971; Klohnen & Mendelsohn, 1998). In fact, they agree on the dimension of warmth. Both principles state that friendly people would prefer friendly partners. (Dryer & Horowitz, 1997) The importance of similarity and complementarity may depend on the stage of the relationship. Similarity seems to carry considerable weight in initial attraction, while complementarity assumes importance as the relationship develops over time (Vinacke, Shannon, Palazzo, Balsavage, et-al, 1988). Markey (2007) found that people would be more satisfied with their relationship if their partners differed from them, at least, in terms of dominance, as two dominant persons may experience conflicts while two submissive individuals may have frustration as neither member take the initiative. Perception and actual behavior might not be congruent with each other. There were cases that dominant people perceived their partners to be similarly dominant, yet in the eyes of independent observers, the actual behavior of their partner was submissive, in other words, complementary to them (Dryer 1997). Why do people perceive their romantic partners to be similar to them despite evidence to the contrary? The reason remains unclear, pending further research.

Social exchange theory

People's feelings toward a potential partner are dependent on their perception of rewards and costs, the kind of relationships they deserve, and their likelihood for having a healthier relationship with someone else. Rewards are the part of a relationship that makes it worthwhile and enjoyable. A cost is something that can cause irritation like a friend overstaying his welcome. Comparison level is also taken into account during a relationship. This suggests that people expect rewards or costs depending on the time invested in the relationship. If the level of expected rewards are minimal and the level of costs is high, the relationship suffers and both parties may become dissatisfied and unhappy. Lastly, the comparison of alternatives means that satisfaction is conditional on the chance that a person could replace the relationship with a more desirable one.

Evolutionary theories
The evolutionary theory of human interpersonal attraction states that opposite-sex attraction most often occurs when someone has physical features indicating that he or she is very fertile. Considering that one primary purpose of conjugal/romantic relationships is reproduction, it would follow that people invest in partners who appear very fertile, increasing the chance of their genes being passed down to the next generation. This theory has been criticized because it does not explain relationships between same-sex couples or couples who do not want children, although this may have something to do with the fact that whether one wants children or not one is still subject to the evolutionary forces which produce them. Another evolutionary explanation suggests that fertility in a mate is of greater importance to men than to women. According to this theory, a woman places significant emphasis on a man's ability to provide resources and protection. The theory suggests that these resources and protection are important in ensuring the successful raising of the woman's offspring. The ability to provide resources and protection might also be sought because the underlying traits are likely to be passed on to male offspring. Critics of this theory point out that most genes are autosomal and

Interpersonal attraction non-sex-linked (Gould, et al.) Evolutionary theory also suggests that people whose physical features suggest they are healthy are seen as more attractive. The theory suggests that a healthy mate is more likely to possess genetic traits related to health that would be passed on to offspring. People's tendency to consider people with facial symmetry more attractive than those with less symmetrical faces is one example. However, a test was conducted that found that perfectly symmetrical faces were less attractive than normal faces. According to this study, the exact ratio of symmetric to asymmetric facial features depicting the highest attraction is still undetermined.[16] It has also been suggested that people are attracted to faces similar to their own. Case studies have revealed that when a photograph of a woman was superimposed to include the features of a man's face, the man whose face was superimposed almost always rated that picture the most attractive.[citation needed] This theory is based upon the notion that we want to replicate our own features in the next generation, as we have survived thus far with such features and have instinctive survival wishes for our children. Another (non-evolutionary) explanation given for the results of that study was that the man whose face was superimposed may have consciously or subconsciously associated the photographically altered female face with the face of his mother or other family member. [citation needed]


Increased female attraction to men in relationships

A 2009 study by Melissa Burkley and Jessica Parker of Oklahoma State University found that 59% of women tested were interested in pursuing a relationship with an "ideal" single man (who was, unknown to the women, fictitious).[17] When they believed the "ideal" man already was in a romantic relationship, 90% of the women were interested in a romantic relationship.

Breaking up
Relationship breakup is the ending of a relationship whether it's a friendship or romantic relationship. There are several reasons that a relationship may come to an end. One reason derives from the equity theory. If a person in the relationship feels that the personal costs of being in the relationship outweigh the rewards there is a strong chance that he/she will end the relationship. Break ups may also occur when the rewards outweigh costs due to guilt and shame.[citation needed]

[1] (http:/ / www2. hu-berlin. de/ sexology/ BIB/ HTF/ IA. htm) [3] [Bryne, Donn and Griffitt, William. (February 1973) "Interpersonal Attraction", Annual Review of Psychology. pg 316-336 [6] Carlson, N. R. (19992000). Social Psychology. Psychology: the science of behaviour (Canandian ed., pp. 506-507). Scarborough, Ont.: Allyn and Bacon Canada. [7] Miller, R, Perlman, D, & Brehm, S (2006). Intimate Relationships. New York: MCGraw-Hill. [8] Bargh, J. A., & McKenna, K. Y. A. (2004). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 573-590. [14] Kikuchi, Hiroto and Oguchi and Takashi. Voice and interpersonal attraction. Japanese Psychological Research (March 1997), 39 (1), pg. 56-61 [15] Not to be confused with the 'law of attraction' discussed by a different Byrne, the metaphysical writer Rhonda Byrne. [16] John P. Swaddle,dmjv (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0962-8452(19950722)261:1360<111:AAHFAS>2. 0. CO;2-T& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage)

Aronson, Elliot, Timothy D. Wilson, and Robin M. Akert. Social Psychology Sixth Edition. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2007. Botwin, M. D.; Buss, D. M.; Shackelford, T. K. (1997). "Personality and mate preferences: Five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction". Journal of Personality 65 (1): 107136. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00531.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00531.x). PMID 9143146 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9143146).

Interpersonal attraction Buss, D. M.; Barnes, M. (1986). "Preferences in human mate selection". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (3): 559570. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.3.559 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.3. 559). Byrne, D.; Clore, G. L. J.; Worchel, P. (1966). "Effect of economic similarity-dissimilarity on interpersonal attraction". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4 (2): 220224. doi: 10.1037/h0023559 (http://dx.doi. org/10.1037/h0023559). Byrne, D.; London, O.; Reeves, K. (1968). "The effects of physical attractiveness, sex, and attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction". Journal of Personality 36 (2): 259271. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1968.tb01473.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1968.tb01473.x). PMID 5660731 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/5660731). Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press. Carson, R. (1969). Interaction concepts of personality. Chicago: Aldine. Drayer, D. C.; Horowitz, Leonard M. (1997). "When do opposites attract? Interpersonal complementarity versus similarity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (3): 592603. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.3.592 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.3.592). Goldman, J. A.; Rosenzweig, C. M.; Lutter, A. D. (1980). "Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction". Journal of Youth and Adolescence 9 (2): 153162. doi: 10.1007/BF02087933 (http:// dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02087933). Gutkin, T. B.; Gridley, G. C.; Wendt, J. M. (1976). "The effect of initial attraction and attitude similarity-dissimilarity on interpersonal attraction". Cornell Journal of Social Relations 11 (2): 153160. Hahn, D.; Hwang, S. (1999). "Test of similarity-attraction hypothesis in group performance situation". Korean Journal of Social & Personality Psychology 13 (1): 255275. Horowitz, L. M., Dryer, D. C., & Krasnoperova, E. N. (1997). The circumplex structure of interpersonal problems. In R. Plutchik & H. R. Conte (Eds.), Circumplex models of personality and emotions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Jamieson, D. W. Lydon; Zanna, M. P.; Zanna, Mark P. (1987). "Attitude and activity preference similarity: Differential bases of interpersonal attraction for low and high self-monitors". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (6): 10521060. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1052 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53. 6.1052). Kaplan, M. F.; Olczak, P. V. (1971). "Attraction toward another as a function of similarity and commonality of attitudes". Psychological Reports 28 (2): 515521. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1971.28.2.515 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/ pr0.1971.28.2.515). Klohnen, E. C.; Luo, S. (2003). "Interpersonal attraction and personality: What is attractive self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity, or attachment security?". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (4): 709722. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.709 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.709). PMID 14561124 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561124). Klohnen, E. C.; Mendelsohn, G. A. (1998). "Partner Selection for Personality Characteristics: A Couple-Centered Approach". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24 (3): 268278. doi: 10.1177/0146167298243004 (http:/ /dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167298243004). Kubitschek, Warren N., and Maureen T. Hallinan. Social Psychology Quarterly; Tracking and Students' Friendships. Vol. 61. American Sociological Association, 1998. Kurdek, L. A.; Schnopp-Wyatt, D. (1997). "Predicting relationship commitment and relationship stability from both partners' relationship values: Evidence from heterosexual dating couples". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23 (10): 11111119. doi: 10.1177/01461672972310011 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 01461672972310011). Lydon, J. E.; Jamieson, D. W.; Zanna, M. P. (1988). "Interpersonal similarity and the social and intellectual dimensions of first impressions". Social Cognition 6 (4): 269286. doi: 10.1521/soco.1988.6.4.269 (http://dx.


Interpersonal attraction doi.org/10.1521/soco.1988.6.4.269). Markey, P.M.; Markey, C. N. (2007). "Romantic ideals, romantic obtainment, and relationship experiences: The complementarity of interpersonal traits among romantic partners". Journal of social and Personal Relationships 24 (4): 517533. doi: 10.1177/0265407507079241 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407507079241). Mathes, E. W.; Moore, C. L. (1985). "Reik's complementarily theory of romantic love". The Journal of Social Psychology 125 (3): 321327. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1985.9922893 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545. 1985.9922893). Miller, A. G. (1972). "Effect of attitude similarity-dissimilarity on the utilization of additional stimulus inputs in judgments of interpersonal attraction". Psychonomic Science 26 (4): 199203. Montoya, R. Matthew, and Robert S. Horton. On the Importance of Cognitive Evaluation as a Determinant of Interpersonal Attraction. (Author Abstract) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol. 86. American Psychological Association, Inc, 2004. Morry, M. M. (2007). "Relationship satisfaction as a predictor of perceived similarity among cross-sex friends: A test of the attraction-similarity model". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 24: 117138. Moskowitz, D.s.; Ho, Moon-ho Ringo; Turcotte-tremblay, Anne-marie (2007). Contextual Influences on Interpersonal Complementarity, Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(8), 1051-1063.


Newcomb, T. M. (1963). "Stabilities underlying changes in interpersonal attraction". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66 (4): 376386. doi: 10.1037/h0041059 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041059). Nowicki, S. Jr.; Manheim, S. (1991). "Interpersonal complementarity and time of interaction in female relationships". Journal of Research in Personality 25 (3): 322333. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(91)90023-J (http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(91)90023-J). Posavac, E. J. (1971). Dimensions of trait preferences and personality type. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19 (3), 274-281. Simons, H. W.; Berkowitz, N. N.; Moyer, R. J. (1970). "Similarity, credibility, and attitude change: A review and a theory". Psychological Bulletin 73 (1): 116. doi: 10.1037/h0028429 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028429). Singh, R.; Ho, S. Y. (2000). "Attitudes and attraction: A new test of the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses". British Journal of Social Psychology 39 (2): 197211. doi: 10.1348/014466600164426 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466600164426). Vinacke, W. E.; Shannon, K.; Palazzo, V; Balsavage, L. (1988). "Similarity and complementarity in intimate couples". Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 114: 5176. Waldron, V. R.; Applegate, J. L. (1998). "Similarity in the use of person-centered tactics: Effects on social attraction and persuasiveness in dyadic verbal disagreements". Communication Reports 11 (2): 155165. doi: 10.1080/08934219809367697 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934219809367697). Watson, D.; Klohnen, E. C.; Casillas, A.; Nus, S. E.; Haig, J.; Berry, D. S. (2004). "Match makers and deal breakers: Analyses of assortative mating in newlywed couples". Journal of Personality 72 (5): 10291068. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00289.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00289.x). PMID 15335336 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15335336). Johnson, Claudia. Names and Your Future. Random Publishing House, 2010. p.279. Kikuchi, Hiroto and Oguchi and Takashi. Voice and interpersonal attraction. Japanese Psychological Research (March 1997), 39 (1), pg. 56-61

Intimate relationship


Intimate relationship
Relationships Part of a series on


An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy. Physical intimacy is characterized by romantic or passionate attachment or sexual activity. The term intimate relationship is also sometimes used euphemistically for a sexual relationship. Intimate relationships play a central role in the overall human experience.[1] Humans have a general desire to belong and to love which is usually satisfied within an intimate relationship.[2] Intimate relationships involve physical and sexual attraction between people, liking and loving, romantic feelings, and sexual relationships, as well as the seeking of one or more mates and emotional and personal support for the members.[1] Intimate relationships provide a social network for people that provide strong emotional attachments, and fulfill our universal need of belonging and the need to be cared for.[1]

Intimacy generally refers to the feeling of being in a close personal association and belonging together. It is a familiar and very close affective connection with another as a result of a bond that is formed through knowledge and experience of the other. Genuine intimacy in human relationships requires dialogue, transparency, vulnerability, and reciprocity. The verb "intimate" means "to state or make known". The activity of intimating (making known) underpins the meanings of "intimate" when used as a noun and adjective. The noun "intimate" means a person with whom one has a particularly close relationship. This was clarified by Dalton (1959) who discusses how anthropologists and ethnographic researchers access "inside information" from within a particular cultural setting by establishing networks of intimates capable (and willing) to provide information unobtainable through formal channels.[3] The adjective "intimate" indicates detailed knowledge of a thing or person (e.g., "an intimate knowledge of engineering" and "an intimate relationship between two people").[4] In human relationships, the meaning and level of intimacy varies within and between relationships. In anthropological research, intimacy is considered the product of a successful seduction, a process of rapport building that enables parties to confidently disclose previously hidden thoughts and feelings. Intimate conversations become the basis for "confidences" (secret knowledge) that bind people together.[5][6] To sustain intimacy for any length of time requires well-developed emotional and interpersonal awareness. Intimacy requires an ability to be both separate and together participants in an intimate relationship. Murray Bowen called this "self-differentiation". It results in a connection in which there is an emotional range involving both robust conflict, and intense loyalty.[7] Lacking the ability to differentiate oneself from the other is a form of symbiosis, a state that is different from intimacy, even if feelings of closeness are similar.

Intimate relationship From a center of self-knowledge and self differentiation, intimate behavior joins family members and close friends as well as those in love. It evolves through reciprocal self-disclosure and candor. Poor skills in developing intimacy can lead to getting too close too quickly; struggling to find the boundary and to sustain connection; being poorly skilled as a friend, rejecting self-disclosure or even rejecting friendships and those who have them.[8] Psychological consequences of intimacy problems are found in adults who have difficultly in forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Individuals often experience the human limitations of their partners, and develop a fear of adverse consequences of disrupted intimate relationships. Studies show that fear of intimacy is negatively related to comfort with emotional closeness and with relationship satisfaction, and positively related to loneliness and trait anxiety.[9]


Types of intimacy
Scholars distinguish between four different forms of intimacy: physical, emotional, cognitive, and experiential.[10] Physical intimacy is sensual proximity or touching,[11] examples include being inside someone's personal space, holding hands, hugging, kissing, caressing, and other sexual activity. Emotional intimacy, particularly in sexual relationships, typically develops after a certain level of trust has been reached and personal bonds have been established. The emotional connection of "falling in love", however, has both a biochemical dimension, driven through reactions in the body stimulated by sexual attraction (PEA),[12] and a social dimension driven by "talk" that follows from regular physical closeness or sexual union.[13]

Bonding between a mother and child.

Cognitive or intellectual intimacy takes place when two people exchange thoughts, share ideas and enjoy similarities and differences between their opinions. If they can do this in an open and comfortable way, then can become quite intimate in an intellectual area. Experiential intimacy is when two people get together to actively involve themselves with each other, probably saying very little to each other, not sharing any thoughts or many feelings, but being involved in mutual activities with one another. Imagine observing two house painters whose brushstrokes seemed to be playing out a duet on the side of the house. They may be shocked to think that they were engaged in an intimate activity with each other, however from an experiential point of view, they would be very intimately involved.[14] It is worth distinguishing intimate (communal) relationships from strategic (exchange) relationships. Physical intimacy occurs in the latter but it is governed by a higher-order strategy, of which the other person may not be aware. One example is getting close to someone in order to get something from them or give them something. That "something" might not be offered so freely if it did not appear to be an intimate exchange and if the ultimate strategy had been visible at the outset.[15] Mills and Clark (1982) found that strategic (exchange) relationships are fragile and easily break down when there is any level of disagreement. Emotionally intimate (communal) relationships are much more robust and can survive considerable (and even ongoing) disagreements.

Physical and emotional intimacy

Sleep thou, and I will wind thee in my arms.... So doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle gently entwist; the female ivy so enrings the barky fingers of the elm. O, how I love thee! How I dote on thee! Titania, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act 4, Scene 1

Love is an important factor in physical and emotional intimate relationships. Love is qualitatively and quantitatively different to liking, and the difference is not merely in the presence or absence of sexual attraction. There are two types of love in a relationship; passionate love and companionate love. Companionate love involves diminished

Intimate relationship potent feelings of attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment, the profound feeling of mutual caring, feeling proud of a mate's accomplishment, and the satisfaction that comes from sharing goals and perspective. In contrast, passionate love is marked by infatuation, intense preoccupation with the partner, throes of ecstasy, and feelings of exhilaration that come from being reunited with the partner.[16] Two people who are in an intimate relationship with one another are often called a couple, especially if the members of that couple have placed some degree of permanency to their relationship. These couples often provide the emotional security that is necessary for them to accomplish other tasks, particularly forms of labor or work.


History of intimate relationships

Ancient philosophers: Aristotle
Ancient philosophers mused over ideas of marital satisfaction, faithfulness, beauty, and jealousy although their concepts and understandings were often inaccurate or misleading.[1] Over 2,300 years ago, interpersonal relationships were being contemplated by Aristotle. He wrote: "One person is a friend to another if he is friendly to the other and the other is friendly to him in return" (Aristotle, 330 BC, trans. 1991, pp.7273). Aristotle believed that by nature humans are social beings.[2] Aristotle also suggested that relationships were based on three different ideas: utility, pleasure, and virtue. People are attracted to relationships that provide utility because of the assistance and sense of belonging that they provide. In relationships based on pleasure, people are attracted to the feelings of pleasantness when the parties engage. However, relationships based on utility and pleasure were said to be short-lived if the benefits provided by one of the partners was not reciprocated. Relationships based on virtue are built on an attraction to the others' virtuous character.[1] Aristotle also suggested that relationships based on virtue would be the longest lasting and that virtue-based relationships were the only type of relationship in which each partner was liked for themselves. Although Aristotle put forth much consideration about relationships, like many other ancient philosophers, he did not use systematic methods and therefore could not conclude that his thoughts and ideas were correct.[1] The philosophical analysis used by Aristotle dominated the analysis of intimate relationships until the late 1880s.[17]

1880s to early 1900s

Modern psychology and sociology began to emerge in the late 19th century. During this time theorists often included relationships into their current areas of research and began to develop new foundations which had implications in regards to the analysis of intimate relationships.[17] Freud wrote about parentchild relationships and their effect on personality development.[2] Freud's analysis proposed that people's childhood experiences are transferred or passed on into adult relationships by means of feelings and expectations.[17] Freud also founded the idea that individuals usually seek out marital partners who are similar to that of their opposite-sex parent.[17] In 1891, James wrote that a person's self-concept is defined by the relationships endured with others.[2] In 1897, Durkheim's interest in social organization led to the examination of social isolation and alienation.[2] This was an influential discovery of intimate relationships in that Durkheim argued that being socially isolated was a key antecedent of suicide.[2] This focus on the darker side of relationships and the negative consequences associated to social isolation were what Durkheim labeled as anomie.[17] Simmel wrote about dyads, or partnerships with two people, and examined their unique properties in the 1950s.[1] Simmel suggested that dyads require consent and engagement of both partners to maintain the relationship but noted that the relationship can be ended by the initiation of only one partner.[17] Although the theorists mentioned above sought support for their theories, their primary contributions to the study of intimate relationships were conceptual and not empirically grounded.[1]

Intimate relationship


Empirical research
The use of empirical investigations in 1898 was a major revolution in social analysis.[17] A study conducted by Monroe,[18] examined the traits and habits of children in selecting a friend. Some of the attributes included in the study were kindness, cheerfulness and honesty.[1] Monroe asked 2336 children aged 7 to 16 to identify "what kind of chum do you like best?" The results of the study indicate that children preferred a friend that was their own age, of the same sex, of the same physical size, a friend with light features (hair and eyes), friends that did not engage in conflict, someone that was kind to animals and humans, and finally that they were honest. The two characteristics that children reported as least important included wealth and religion.[18] The study by Monroe was the first to mark the significant shift in the study of intimate relationships from analysis that was primarily philosophical to those with empirical validity.[1] This study is said to have finally marked the beginning of relationship science.[1] However, in the years following Monroe's influential study, very few similar studies were done. There were limited studies done on children's friendships, courtship and marriages, and families in the 1930s but few relationship studies were conducted before or during World War II.[17] Intimate relationships did not become a broad focus of research again until the 1960s and 1970s when there was a vast amount of relationship studies being published.[1]

1960s and 1970s

An important shift was taking place in the field of social psychology that influenced the research of intimate relationships. Until the late 1950s, the majority of studies were non-experimental.[17] By the end of the 1960s more than half of the articles published involved some sort of experimental study.[17] The 1960s was also a time when there was a shift in methodology within the psychological discipline itself. Participants consisted mostly of college students, experimental methods and research were being conducted in laboratories and the experimental method was the dominant methodology in social psychology.[17] Experimental manipulation within the research of intimate relationships demonstrated that relationships could be studied scientifically.[1] This shift brought relationship science to the attention of scholars in other disciplines and has resulted in the study of intimate relationships being an international multidiscipline.[1]

1980s to 2000s
In the early 1980s the first conference of the International Network of Personal Relationships (INPR) was held. Approximately 300 researchers from all over the world attended the conference.[17] In March 1984, the first journal of Social and Personal Relationships was published.[17] In the early 1990s the INPR split off into two groups; in April 2004 the two organizations rejoined and became the International Association for Relationship Research (IARR).[1]

Current study
Today, the study of intimate relationships (relationship science) uses participants from diverse groups and examines a wide variety of topics that include family relations, friendships, and romantic relationships, usually over a long period.[1] Current study includes both positive and negative or unpleasant aspects of relationships. Research being conducted by John Gottman (2010) and his colleagues involves inviting married couples into a pleasant setting, in which they revisit the disagreement that caused their last argument. Although the participants are aware that they are being videotaped, they soon become so absorbed in their own interaction that they forget they are being recorded.[1] With the second-by-second analysis of observable reactions as well as emotional ones, Gottman is able to predict with 93% accuracy the fate of the couples' relationship.[1] Another current area of research into intimate relationships is conducted by Terri Orbuch and Joseph Veroff (2002). They monitor newlywed couples using self-reports over a long period (a longitudinal study). Participants are required to provide extensive reports about the natures and the statusses of their relationships.[1] Although many of

Intimate relationship the marriages have ended since the beginning of the study, this type of relationship study allows researchers to track marriages from start to finish by conducting follow-up interviews with the participants in order to determine which factors are associated with marriages that last and which with those that do not.[1] Though the field of relationship science is still relatively young, research conducted by researchers from many different disciplines continues to broaden the field.[1] Evidence also points to the role of a number of contextual factors that can impact intimate relationships. In a recent study on the impact of Hurricane Katrina on marital and partner relationships, researchers found that while many reported negative changes in their relationships, a number also experienced positive changes. More specifically, the advent of Hurricane Katrina led to a number of environmental stressors (e.g., unemployment, prolonged separation) that negatively impacted intimate relationships for many couples, though other couples' relationships grew stronger as a result of new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and higher levels of communication and support.[19] As a result, environmental factors are also understood to contribute heavily to the strength of intimate relationships. One study suggests that married straight couples and cohabiting gay and lesbian couples in long-term intimate relationships may pick up each other's unhealthy habits. The study reports three distinct findings showing how unhealthy habits are promoted in long-term, intimate relationships: through the direct bad influence of one partner, through synchronicity of health habits, and through the notion of personal responsibility.[][]


[1] Miller, Rowland & Perlman, Daniel (2008). Intimate Relationships (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-337018-7 [2] Perlman, D. (2007). The best of times, the worst of times: The place of close relationships in psychology and our daily lives. Canadian Psychology, 48, 718. [3] Dalton, M. (1959) Men Who Manage, New York: Wiley. [4] Ridley-Duff, R.J. (2010) Emotion, Seduction and Intimacy: Alternative Perspectives on Human Behaviour (Third Edition), Seattle: Libertary Editions (http:/ / www. libertary. com/ book/ emotion-seduction-intimacy), ISBN 978-1-935961-00-0 [5] Moore, M. (1985) "Nonverbal Courtship Patterns in Women: Contact and Consequences", Ethnology and Sociobiology, 6: 237247. [6] Ridley-Duff, R.J. (2005) "Interpersonal Dynamics: A Communitarian Perspective", paper to the 1st ENROAC-MCA Conference 7th9th April, Antwerp (http:/ / digitalcommons. shu. ac. uk/ ciod_papers/ 1/ ). [7] Aronson, E. (2003) The Social Animal, Ninth Edition, New York: Worth Publishers. [8] Vitalio, D. (2005) Be Your Woman's Hero, not Wuss: Part 1, internet newsletter 21st April 2005. [9] Khaleque, A. (2004). Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjustment. Social Indicators Research, 69, 351-360. [10] Kakabadse, A., Kakabadse, N. (2004) Intimacy: International Survey of the Sex Lives of People at Work, Basingstoke: Palgrave [11] University of Florida physical intimacy (http:/ / www. counsel. ufl. edu/ brochure. asp?include=brochures/ physical_intimacy. brochure) [12] Lowndes, L. (1996) How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You, London: Element. [13] Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. [14] Healthy Place (2008). How to Develop Intimate Relationships? HealthyPlace. HealthyPlace.com - Trusted Mental Health Information and Support - HealthyPlace. [15] Mills, J., Clark, K. (1982) "Exchange and communal relationships" in L. Wheeler (ed) Review of personality and social psychology (Vol III), Beverly Hills: Sage. [16] Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R.L. (1993). Historical and cross-cultural perspectives on passionate love and sexual desire. Annual Review of Sex Research, 4, 6797 [17] Vangelisti, A.L., & Perlman, D. (2006). The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relationships. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. [18] Monroe, W.S. (1898). Discussion and reports. Social consciousness in children. Psychological Review, 15, 6870. [19] Lowe, S. R., Rhodes, J. E., & Scoglio, A. A. (2012). "Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36", 286-300. doi: 10.1177/0361684311434307 (http:/ / pwq. sagepub. com/ )

Intimate relationship


External links
International Association for Relationship Research (http://www.iarr.org) Process of Adaption in Intimate Relationships (http://www.utexas.edu/research/pair/) Pure Relationship (Christian perspective) (http://www.christiansinindia.in/thoughts-on-purity/)

The English word "love" can refer to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes, ranging from interpersonal affection ("I love my lover") to pleasure ("I loved that meal"). It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and personal attachment.[1] It can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection"the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another".[2] And it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.[3] In terms of interpersonal attraction, four forms of love have traditionally been distinguished, based on ancient Greek precedent: the love of kinship or familiarity (in Greek, storge), the love of friendship (philia), the love of sexual and/or romantic desire (eros), and self-emptying or divine love (agape).[4] [] Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of romantic love.[5] Non-Western traditions have also distinguished variants or symbioses of these states.[6] This diversity of uses and meanings, combined with the complexity of the feelings involved, makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states.

Archetypal lovers Romeo and Juliet portrayed by Frank Dicksee

Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts.[7] Love may be understood as part of the survival instinct, a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species.[8]

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Love The word "love" can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Often, other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that English relies mainly on "love" to encapsulate; one example is the plurality of Greek words for "love." Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus make it doubly difficult to establish any universal definition.[9] Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love. As a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like), love is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy); as a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is often applied to close friendships. When discussed in the abstract, love usually refers to interpersonal love, an experience felt by a person for another person. Love often involves caring for or identifying with a person or thing (cf. vulnerability and care theory of love), including oneself (cf. narcissism). In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have also changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry.[10] Because of the complex and abstract nature of love, discourse on love is commonly reduced to a thought-terminating clich, and there are a number of common proverbs regarding love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the good of another."[] Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value," as opposed to relative value.[citation needed] Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another."[11] Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness".[12] Love is sometimes referred to as being the "international language", overriding cultural and linguistic divisions.
Fraternal love (Prehispanic sculpture from 250900 A.D., of Huastec origin). Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.


Impersonal love
A person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal if they value it greatly and are deeply committed to it. Similarly, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love, but impersonal love coupled with altruism and strong spiritual or political convictions.[13] People can also "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is also involved, this condition is called paraphilia.[14]



Interpersonal love
Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. It is a more potent sentiment than a simple liking for another. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love that are not reciprocated. Interpersonal love is most closely associated with interpersonal relationships.[13] Such love might exist between family members, friends, and couples. There are also a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania. Throughout history, philosophy and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the last century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have added to the understanding of the nature and function of love.

Biological basis
Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or thirst.[] Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of love, divides the experience of love into three partly overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire; romantic attraction determines what partners mates find attractive and pursue, conserving time and energy by choosing; and attachment involves sharing a home, parental duties, mutual defense, and in humans involves feelings of safety and security.[15] Three distinct neural circuitries, including neurotransmitters, and three behavioral patterns, are associated with these three romantic styles.[15]

Pair of Lovers. 14801485

Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which act in a manner similar to amphetamines, stimulating the brain's pleasure center and leading to side effects such as increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years.[] Since the lust and attraction stages are both considered temporary, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding that promotes relationships lasting for many years and even decades. Attachment is generally based on commitments such as marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been linked to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin to a greater degree than short-term relationships have.[] Enzo Emanuele and coworkers reported the protein molecule known as the nerve growth factor (NGF) has high levels when people first fall in love, but these return to previous levels after one year.[16]

Psychological basis
Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last and most common form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three

Love components. Non-love does not include any of these components. Liking only includes intimacy. Infatuated love only includes passion. Empty love only includes commitment. Romantic love includes both intimacy and passion. Companionate love includes intimacy and commitment. Fatuous love includes passion and commitment. Lastly, consummate love includes all three.[17] American psychologist Zick Rubin sought to define love by psychometrics in the 1970s. His work states that three factors constitute love: attachment, caring, and intimacy.[18] [19] Following developments in electrical theories such as Coulomb's law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as "opposites attract." Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personalitypeople tend to like people similar to themselves. However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves (e.g., with an orthogonal Grandmother and grandchild, Sri Lanka immune system), since this will lead to a baby that has the best of both [20] worlds. In recent years, various human bonding theories have been developed, described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and affinities. Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose work in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the "concern for the spiritual growth of another," and simple narcissism.[] In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling. Psychologist Erich Fromm maintained in his book The Art of Loving that love is not merely a feeling but is also actions, and that in fact, the "feeling" of love is superficial in comparison to ones commitment to love via a series of loving actions over time.[13] In this sense, Fromm held that love is ultimately not a feeling at all, but rather is a commitment to, and adherence to, loving actions towards another, ones self, or many others, over a sustained duration.[13] Fromm also described Love as a conscious choice that in its early stages might originate as an involuntary feeling, but which then later no longer depends on those feelings, but rather depends only on conscious commitment.[13]


Evolutionary basis
Evolutionary psychology has attempted to provide various reasons for love as a survival tool. Humans are dependent on parental help for a large portion of their lifespans comparative to other mammals. Love has therefore been seen as a mechanism to promote parental support of children for this extended time period. Another factor may be that sexually transmitted diseases can cause, among other effects, permanently reduced fertility, injury to the fetus, and increase complications during childbirth. This would favor monogamous relationships over polygamy.[21]

Comparison of scientific models

Biological models of love tend to see it as a mammalian drive, similar to hunger or thirst.[] Psychology sees love as more of a social and cultural phenomenon. Certainly love is influenced by hormones (such as oxytocin), neurotrophins (such as NGF), and pheromones, and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love. The conventional view in biology is that there are two major drives in love: sexual attraction and attachment. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to its mother. The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of companionate love and passionate love. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate); companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal.



Cultural views
Ancient Greek
Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word "love" is used. For example, Ancient Greek has the words philia, eros, agape, storge, and xenia. However, with Greek (as with many other languages), it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time, the Ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo having the same meaning as phileo. Agape ( agp) means love in modern-day Greek. The term s'agapo means I love you in Greek. The word agapo is the verb I love. It generally refers to a "pure," ideal type of love, rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros. It has also been translated as "love of the soul." Eros ( rs) (from the Greek deity Eros) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word erota means in love. Plato refined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as "love of the body." Philia ( phila), a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept addressed and developed by Aristotle.[citation needed] It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality, and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. It can also mean "love of the mind." Storge ( storg) is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring. Xenia ( xena), hospitality, was an extremely important practice in Ancient Greece. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and his guest, who could previously have been strangers. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was expected to repay only with gratitude. The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythologyin particular, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

Ancient Roman (Latin)

The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word "love." am is the basic verb meaning I love, with the infinitive amare (to love) as it still is in Italian today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come amansa lover, amator, "professional lover," often with the accessory notion of lecheryand amica, "girlfriend" in the English sense, often as well being applied euphemistically to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is amor (the significance of this term for the Romans is well illustrated in the fact, that the name of the City, Romein Latin: Romacan be viewed as an anagram for amor, which was used as the secret name of the City in wide circles in ancient times),[22] which is also used in the plural form to indicate love affairs or sexual adventures. This same root also produces amicus"friend"and amicitia, "friendship" (often based to mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to "indebtedness" or "influence"). Cicero wrote a treatise called On Friendship (de Amicitia), which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love), which addresses, in depth, everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents. Latin sometimes uses amre where English would simply say to like. This notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by placere or delectre, which are used more colloquially, the latter used frequently in the love poetry of Catullus. Diligere often has the notion "to be affectionate for," "to esteem," and rarely if ever is used for romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun diligentia, however, has the meaning of "diligence" or "carefulness," and has little semantic overlap with the verb. Observare is a synonym for diligere; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun,

Love observantia, often denote "esteem" or "affection." Caritas is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean "charitable love"; this meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan Roman literature. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb.


Chinese and other Sinic cultures

Two philosophical underpinnings of love exist in the Chinese tradition, one from Confucianism which emphasized actions and duty while the other came from Mohism which championed a universal love. A core concept to Confucianism is Ren ("benevolent love", ), which focuses on duty, action and attitude in a relationship rather than love itself. In Confucianism, one displays benevolent love by performing actions such as filial piety from children, kindness from parent, loyalty to the king and so forth. The concept of Ai () was developed by the Chinese philosopher Mozi in the 4th century BC in reaction to Confucianism's benevolent love. Mozi tried to "Ai," the traditional Chinese replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to character for love () consists of a heart (, middle) inside of "accept," family and clan structures with the concept of "universal love" (jin'i, ). "feel," or "perceive," () which In this, he argued directly against Confucians who believed that it was natural shows a graceful emotion. It can also and correct for people to care about different people in different degrees. Mozi, be interpreted as a hand offering ones by contrast, believed people in principle should care for all people equally. heart to another hand. Mohism stressed that rather than adopting different attitudes towards different people, love should be unconditional and offered to everyone without regard to reciprocation, not just to friends, family and other Confucian relations. Later in Chinese Buddhism, the term Ai () was adopted to refer to a passionate caring love and was considered a fundamental desire. In Buddhism, Ai was seen as capable of being either selfish or selfless, the latter being a key element towards enlightenment. In contemporary Chinese, Ai () is often used as the equivalent of the Western concept of love. Ai is used as both a verb (e.g. wo ai ni , or "I love you") and a noun (such as aiqing , or "romantic love"). However, due to the influence of Confucian Ren, the phrase Wo ai ni (I love you) carries with it a very specific sense of responsibility, commitment and loyalty. Instead of frequently saying "I love you" as in some Western societies, the Chinese are more likely to express feelings of affection in a more casual way. Consequently, "I like you" (Wo xihuan ni, ) is a more common way of expressing affection in Chinese; it is more playful and less serious.[23] This is also true in Japanese (suki da, ). The Chinese are also more likely to say "I love you" in English or other foreign languages than they would in their mother tongue.

Rumi, Hafiz and Sa'di are icons of the passion and love that the Persian culture and language present. The Persian word for love is eshgh [citation needed], derived from the Arabic ishq, however is considered by most to be too stalwart a term for interpersonal love and is more commonly substituted for 'doost dashtan' ('liking')[citation needed]. In the Persian culture, everything is encompassed by love and all is for love, starting from loving friends and family, husbands and wives, and eventually reaching the divine love that is the ultimate goal in life [citation needed]. Over seven centuries ago, Sa'di wrote: The children of Adam are limbs of one body Having been created of one essence. When the calamity of time afflicts one limb The other limbs cannot remain at rest.

Love If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others You are not worthy to be called by the name of "man".


In Japanese Buddhism, ai () is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment. Amae ( ), a Japanese word meaning "indulgent dependence," is part of the child-rearing culture of Japan. Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Some sociologists have suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae.

Turkish (Shaman and Islamic)

Ohatsu and Tokubei, characters of Sonezaki Shinj

In Turkish, the word "love" comes up with several meanings. A person can love a god, a person, parents, or family. But that person can "love" just one special person, which they call the word "ak." Ak is a feeling for to love, or being "in love" (Ak), as it still is in Turkish today. The Turks used this word just for their loves in a romantic or sexual sense. If a Turk says that he is in love (Ak) with somebody, it is not a love that a person can feel for his or her parents; it is just for one person, and it indicates a huge infatuation. The word is also common for Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani (eq) and Kazakh ().

Religious views
Abrahamic religions
Christianity The Christian understanding is that love comes from God. The love of man and womaneros in Greekand the unselfish love of others (agape), are often contrasted as "ascending" and "descending" love, respectively, but are ultimately the same thing.[] There are several Greek words for "love" that are regularly referred to in Christian circles.
Robert Indiana's 1977 Love sculpture spelling Agape: In the New Testament, agap is charitable, selfless, ahava. altruistic, and unconditional. It is parental love, seen as creating goodness in the world; it is the way God is seen to love humanity, and it is seen as the kind of love that Christians aspire to have for one another.

Phileo: Also used in the New Testament, phileo is a human response to something that is found to be delightful. Also known as "brotherly love." Two other words for love in the Greek language, eros (sexual love) and storge (child-to-parent love), were never used in the New Testament. Christians believe that to Love God with all your heart, mind, and strength and Love your neighbor as yourself are the two most important things in life (the greatest commandment of the Jewish Torah, according to Jesus; cf. Gospel of Mark chapter 12, verses 2834). Saint Augustine summarized this when he wrote "Love God, and do as thou wilt."


89 The Apostle Paul glorified love as the most important virtue of all. Describing love in the famous poem in 1 Corinthians, he wrote, "Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, and always perseveres." (1 Cor. 13:47, NIV)

Saint Augustine says that one must be able to decipher the difference between love and lust. Lust, according to Saint Augustine, is an overindulgence, but to love and be loved is what he has sought for his entire life. He even says, I was in love with love. Finally, he does fall in love and is loved back, by God. Saint Augustine says the only one who can love you truly and fully is God, because love with a human only allows for flaws such as jealousy, suspicion, fear, anger, and contention. According to Saint Augustine, to love God is to attain the peace which is yours. (Saint Augustine's Confessions) Christian theologians see God as the source of love, which is mirrored in humans and their own loving relationships. Influential Christian theologian C.S. Lewis wrote a book called The Four Loves. Benedict XVI wrote his first encyclical on "God is love". He said that a human being, created in the image of God, who is love, is able to practice love; to give himself to God and others (agape) and by receiving and experiencing God's love in contemplation (eros). This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them.[] In Christianity the practical definition of love is best summarised by St. Thomas Aquinas, who defined love as "to will the good of another," or to desire for another to succeed.[] This is the explanation of the Christian need to love others, including their enemies. As Thomas Aquinas explains, Christian love is motivated by the need to see others succeed in life, to be good people. Judaism In Hebrew, Ahava is the most commonly used term for both interpersonal love and love between God and God's creations. Chesed, often translated as loving-kindness, is used to describe many forms of love between human beings. The commandment to love other people is given in the Torah, which states, "Love your neighbor like yourself" (Leviticus 19:18). The Torah's commandment to love God "with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might" (Deuteronomy 6:5) is taken by the Mishnah (a central text of the Jewish oral law) to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one's life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all of one's possessions, and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity (tractate Berachoth 9:5). Rabbinic literature differs as to how this love can be developed, e.g., by contemplating divine deeds or witnessing the marvels of nature. As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: "See life with the wife you love" (Ecclesiastes 9:9). The biblical book Song of Solomon is considered a romantically phrased metaphor of love

Sacred Love Versus Profane Love (160203) by Giovanni Baglione. Intended as an attack on his hated enemy the artist Caravaggio, it shows a boy (hinting at Caravaggio's homosexuality) on one side, a devil with Caravaggio's face on the other, and between an angel representing pure, meaning non-erotic, love.

The Apostle John wrote, "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him." (John 3:1617, NIV) John also wrote, "Dear friends, let us love one another for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love." (1 John 4:78, NIV)

Love between God and his people, but in its plain reading, reads like a love song. The 20th-century Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point of view as "giving without expecting to take" (from his Michtav me-Eliyahu, Vol.1). Islam Love encompasses the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood that applies to all who hold faith. Amongst the 99 names of God (Allah), there is the name Al-Wadud, or "the Loving One," which is found in Surah [Quran 11:90 [24]] as well as Surah [Quran 85:14 [25]]. God is also referenced at the beginning of every chapter in the Qur'an as Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, or the "Most Compassionate" and the "Most Merciful", indicating that nobody is more loving, compassionate and benevolent than God. The Qur'an refers to God as being "full of loving kindness." The Qur'an exhorts Muslim believers to treat all people, those who have not persecuted them, with birr or "deep kindness" as stated in Surah [Quran 6:8-9 [26]]. Birr is also used by the Qur'an in describing the love and kindness that children must show to their parents. Ishq, or divine love, is the emphasis of Sufism in the Islamic tradition. Practitioners of Sufism believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God "looks" at himself within the dynamics of nature. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Sufism is often referred to as the religion of love.[citation needed] God in Sufism is referred to in three main terms, which are the Lover, Loved, and Beloved, with the last of these terms being often seen in Sufi poetry. A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through love, humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace. The saints of Sufism are infamous for being "drunk" due to their love of God; hence, the constant reference to wine in Sufi poetry and music.[27]


Eastern religions
Buddhism In Buddhism, Kma is sensuous, sexual love. It is an obstacle on the path to enlightenment, since it is selfish. Karu is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. It is complementary to wisdom and is necessary for enlightenment. Advea and mett are benevolent love. This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. This is quite different from ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex and which rarely occurs without self-interest. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others' welfare. The Bodhisattva ideal in Mahayana Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world. The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish, altruistic love for all sentient beings.

Love Hinduism In Hinduism, kma is pleasurable, sexual love, personified by the god Kamadeva. For many Hindu schools, it is the third end (Kama) in life. Kamadeva is often pictured holding a bow of sugar cane and an arrow of flowers; he may ride upon a great parrot. He is usually accompanied by his consort Rati and his companion Vasanta, lord of the spring season. Stone images of Kamadeva and Rati can be seen on the door of the Chennakeshava temple at Belur, in Karnataka, India. Maara is another name for kma. In contrast to kma, prema[28] or prem refers to elevated love. Karuna is compassion and mercy, which impels one to help reduce the suffering of others. Bhakti is a Sanskrit term, meaning "loving devotion to the supreme God." A Kama (left) with Rati on a temple person who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. Hindu writers, theologians, and wall of Chennakesava Temple, Belur philosophers have distinguished nine forms of bhakti, which can be found in the Bhagavata Purana and works by Tulsidas. The philosophical work Narada Bhakti Sutras, written by an unknown author (presumed to be Narada), distinguishes eleven forms of love. In certain Vaishnava sects within Hinduism, attaining unaldulterated, unconditional and incessant love for Godhead is considered the foremost goal of life. Gaudiya Vaishnavas who worship Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the cause of all causes consider Love for Godhead (Prema) to act in two ways: sambhoga and vipralambha (union and separation)two opposites .[] In the condition of separation, there is an acute yearning for being with the beloved and in the condition of union there is supreme happiness and nectarean. Gaudiya Vaishnavas consider that Krishna-prema (Love for Godhead) is not fire but that it still burns away one's material desires. They consider that Ka-prema is not a weapon, but it still pierces the heart. It is not water, but it washes away everythingone's pride, religious rules, and one's shyness. Krishna-prema is considered to make one drown in the ocean of transcendental ecstasy and pleasure. The love of Radha, a cowherd girl, for Krishna is often cited as the supreme example of love for Godhead by Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Radha is considered to be the internal potency of Krishna, and is the supreme lover of Godhead. Her example of love is considered to be beyond the understanding of material realm as it surpasses any form of selfish love or lust that is visible in the material world. The reciprocal love between Radha (the supreme lover) and Krishna (God as the Supremely Loved) is the subject of many poetic compositions in India such as the Gita Govinda and Hari Bhakti Shuddhodhaya. In the Bhakti tradition within Hinduism, it is believed that execution of devotional service to God leads to the development of Love for God (taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya), and as love for God increases in the heart, the more one becomes free from material contamination (krishna-prema asvada haile, bhava nasa paya). Being perfectly in love with God or Krishna makes one perfectly free from material contamination. and this is the ultimate way of salvation or liberation. In this tradition, salvation or liberation is considered inferior to love, and just an incidental by-product. Being absorbed in Love for God is considered to be the perfection of life.[]




Political views
Free love
The term free love has been used [29] to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movements initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[30] Much of the free-love tradition is an offshoot of anarchism, and reflects a civil libertarian philosophy that seeks freedom from state regulation and church interference in personal relationships. According to this concept, the free unions of adults are legitimate relations which should be respected by all third parties whether they are emotional or sexual relations. In addition, some free-love writing has argued that both men and women have the right to sexual pleasure. In the Victorian era, this was a radical notion. Later, a new theme developed, linking free love with radical social change, and depicting it as a harbinger of a new anti-authoritarian, anti-repressive sensibility.[31] Many people in the early 19th century believed that marriage was an important aspect of life to "fulfill earthly human happiness." Middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. This mentality created a vision on strongly defined gender roles, which led to the advancement of the free love movement.[32] While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. Rather, it has argued that love relations that are freely entered into should not be regulated by law. The term "sex radical" is also used interchangeably with the term "free lover", and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love".[citation needed] By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forceful sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases.[33] These are also beliefs of Feminism. Laws of particular concern to free love movements have included those that prevent an unmarried couple from living together, and those that regulate adultery and divorce, as well as age of consent, birth control, homosexuality, abortion, and sometimes prostitution; although not all free love advocates agree on these issues. The abrogation of individual rights in marriage is also a concernfor example, some jurisdictions do not recognize spousal rape or treat it less seriously than non-spousal rape. Free-love movements since the 19th century have also defended the right to publicly discuss sexuality and have battled obscenity laws.

Philosophical views
Philosophy of love is the field of social philosophy and ethics which attempts to explain the nature of love. The philosophical investigation of love includes the tasks of distinguishing between the various kinds of personal love; asking if and how love is/can be justified; asking what the value of love is; and what impact love has on the autonomy of both the lover and the beloved. There are many different theories which attempt to explain what love is, and what function it serves. It would be very difficult to explain love to a hypothetical person who had not himself or herself Graffito in East Timor experienced love or being loved. In fact, to such a person love would appear to be quite strange if not outright irrational behavior. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of love there are: psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider love to be very healthy behavior; there are evolutionary theories which hold that love is part of the process of natural selection;

Love there are spiritual theories which may, for instance consider love to be a gift from God; there are also theories that consider love to be an unexplainable mystery, very much like a mystical experience.


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary (1998) + Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2000) Merriam Webster Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ love) Fromm, Erich; The Art of Loving, Harper Perennial (1956), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2 C.S. Lewis, The Four Loves, 1960. Stendhal, in his book On Love (Paris, 1822), distinguished carnal love, passionate love, a kind of uncommitted love that he called "taste-love", and love of vanity. Denis de Rougemont in his book Love in the Western World traced the story of passionate love (l'amour-passion) from its courtly to its romantic forms. Benjamin Pret, in the introduction to his Anthology of Sublime Love (Paris, 1956), further distinguished "sublime love", a state of realized idealisation perhaps equatable with the romantic form of passionate love. [6] (J. Mascar, translator) [8] Helen Fisher. Why we love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love. 2004. [12] http:/ / www. worldtransformation. com/ what-is-love/ What is love?. In The Book of Real Answers to Everything! Griffith, J. 2011. ISBN 9781741290073. [13] Fromm, Erich; The Art of Loving, Harper Perennial (September 5, 2000), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2 [15] http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ helenfisher/ archives_of_sex_beh. pdf Dening the Brain Systems of Lust, Romantic Attraction, and Attachment by Fisher et. al [17] Sternberg, R.J. (1986). "A triangular theory of love". Psychological Review 93 (2): 119135. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.93.2. [21] The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 14, Commitment, Love, and Mate Retention by Lorne Campbell and Bruce J. Ellis. [22] Thomas Kves-Zulauf, Reden und Schweigen, Munich, 1972. [23] JFK Miller, " Why the Chinese Don't Say I Love You (http:/ / shanghai. urbanatomy. com/ index. php/ i-ahearts-shanghai/ 85-i-love-shanghai/ 429-why-the-chinese-dont-say-qi-love-youq)" [24] http:/ / www. usc. edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ quran/ verses/ 011-qmt. php#011. 090 [25] http:/ / www. usc. edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ quran/ verses/ 085-qmt. php#085. 014 [26] http:/ / www. usc. edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ quran/ verses/ 006-qmt. php#006. 8-9 [28] http:/ / toolserver. org/ %7Edispenser/ cgi-bin/ dab_solver. py?page=Love& editintro=Template:Disambiguation_needed/ editintro& client=Template:Dn [29] The Handbook (http:/ / library. syr. edu/ digital/ collections/ h/ Hand-bookOfTheOneidaCommunity/ ) of the Oneida Community claims to have coined the term around 1850, and laments that its use was appropriated by socialists to attack marriage, an institution that they felt protected women and children from abandonment [30] McElroy, Wendy. "The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism." Libertarian Enterprise .19 (1996): 1. [31] Dan Jakopovich, Chains of Marriage, Peace News (http:/ / www. peacenews. info/ webextras/ article. php?id=33) [32] Spurlock, John C. Free Love Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America. New York, NY: New York UP, 1988. [33] Passet, Joanne E. Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women's Equality. Chicago,IL: U of Illinois P, 2003.

Chadwick, Henry (1998). Saint Augustine Confessions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-283372-3. Fisher, Helen. Why We Love: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. ISBN0-8050-6913-5. Giles, James (1994). "A theory of love and sexual desire". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 24 (4): 339357. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00259.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00259. x). Kierkegaard, Sren (2009). Works of Love. New York City: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN978-0-06-171327-9. Oord, Thomas Jay (2010). Defining Love: A Philosophical, Scientific, and Theological Engagement. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos. ISBN978-1-58743257-6. Singer, Irving (1966). The Nature of Love (v.1 reprinted and later volumes from The University of Chicago Press, 1984 ed.). Random House. ISBN0-226-76094-4. Unknown parameter |subtitle= ignored (help) Sternberg, R.J. (1986). "A triangular theory of love". Psychological Review 93 (2): 119135. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119).

Love Sternberg, R.J. (1987). "Liking versus loving: A comparative evaluation of theories". Psychological Bulletin 102 (3): 331345. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.331 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.331). Tennov, Dorothy (1979). Love and Limerence: the Experience of Being in Love. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN0-8128-6134-5. Wood Samuel E., Ellen Wood and Denise Boyd (2005). The World of Psychology (5th ed.). Pearson Education. pp.402403. ISBN0-205-35868-3.


External links
Media related to Love at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Love at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of love at Wiktionary Learning materials related to Have a Happy Relationship at Wikiversity

Physical attractiveness

[][][] Adonis restored and completed by Franois Venus de Milo at the Louvre has been described as a "classical vision of beauty". However, one expert claimed her "almost matronly" "representation" was meant to convey an Duquesnoy, formerly in the collection of Cardinal [1] Mazarin (Louvre Museum). "impressive appearance" rather than "ideal female beauty".

Physical attractiveness


Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical traits are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful. The term often implies sexual attractiveness or desirability, but can also be distinct from the two; for example, adults may regard children as attractive for various reasons. There are many factors which influence one person's attraction to another, with physical aspects being one of them. Physical attraction itself includes universal perceptions common to all human cultures, as well as aspects that are culturally and socially dependent, along with individual subjective preferences. In many cases, humans attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, to physically attractive people without consciously realizing it.[5] From research done in the United States and United Kingdom, it was found that the association between intelligence and physical attractiveness is stronger among men than among women.[6] In recent times, evolutionary psychologists have tried to answer why individuals who are more physically attractive should also on average be more intelligent, and have put forward the notion that both general intelligence and physical attractiveness may be indicators of underlying genetic fitness.[7]

Ishtar, Mesopotamian goddess of sexual love and war. The goddess has been associated with [2][3][4] sexuality, love, fertility, and sex.

Physical attractiveness is a characteristic that suggests fertility and health. These factors contribute to the probability of survival and reproduction for continuing life on Earth.[8] Men, on average, tend to be attracted to women who are shorter than they are, have a youthful appearance, and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face,[] full breasts, full lips, and a low waist-hip ratio.[9] Women, on average, tend to be attracted to men who are taller than they are, display a high-degree of facial symmetry, masculine facial dimorphism, and who have broad shoulders, a relatively narrow waist, and a V-shaped torso.[][]

General contributing factors

Generally, physical attraction can be studied from a number of perspectives, including universal perceptions common to all human cultures, cultural and social aspects, and individual subjective preferences. Additionally, the perception of attractiveness can have a significant effect on how people are judged in terms of employment or social opportunities, friendship, sexual behavior, and marriage.[10] Some physical features are attractive in both men and women, particularly bodily[] and facial symmetry,[][][][] although one contrary report suggests that "absolute flawlessness" with perfect symmetry can be "disturbing".[] Symmetry may be evolutionarily beneficial as a sign of health because asymmetry "signals past illness or injury".[] One study suggested people were able to "gauge beauty at a subliminal level" by seeing only a glimpse of a picture for one-hundredth of a second.[] Other important factors include youthfulness, skin clarity and smoothness of skin; and "vivid color" in the eyes and hair.[] However, there are numerous differences based on gender. A 1921 study of the reports of college students regarding those traits in individuals which make for attractiveness and repulsiveness argued that static traits, such as beauty or ugliness of features, hold a position subordinate to groups of physical elements like expressive behavior, affectionate disposition, grace of manner, aristocratic bearing, social accomplishments, personal habits.[11]

Physical attractiveness


Male physical attractiveness

Women, on average, tend to be more attracted to men who have a relatively narrow waist, a V-shaped torso, and broad shoulders. Women also tend to be more attracted to men who are taller than they are, and display a high degree of facial symmetry, as well as relatively masculine facial dimorphism.[][] With regard to male-male-attractiveness, one source reports that the most important factor that attracts gay men to other males is the man's physical attractiveness.[12]

Facial attractiveness
Sexual dimorphism Studies have shown that ovulating heterosexual women prefer faces with masculine traits associated with increased exposure to testosterone during key developmental stages, such as a broad forehead, relatively longer lower face, prominent chin and brow, chiseled jaw and defined cheekbones.[13] The degree of differences between male and female anatomical traits is called sexual dimorphism. Female respondents in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (n = 55) were significantly more likely to choose a masculine face than those in menses and luteal phases (n = 84),[14] (or in those taking hormonal contraception).[][][15] It is suggested that the masculinity of facial features is a reliable indication of good health, or, alternatively, that masculine-looking males are more likely to achieve high status.[16] However, the correlation between attractive facial features and health has been questioned.[17] Sociocultural factors, such as self-perceived attractiveness, status in a relationship and degree of gender-conformity, have been reported to play a role in female preferences for male faces.[18] Studies have found that women who perceive themselves as physically attractive are more likely to choose men with masculine facial dimorphism, than are women who perceive themselves as physically unattractive.[] In men, facial masculinity significantly correlates with facial symmetryit has been suggested that both are signals of developmental stability and genetic health.[19] One study called into question the importance of facial masculinity in physical attractiveness in men arguing that when perceived health, which is factored into facial masculinity, is discounted it makes little difference in physical attractiveness.[20] In a cross-country study involving 4,794 women in their early twenties, a difference was found in women's average "masculinity preference" between countries.[21] Symmetry Symmetrical faces and bodies may be signs of good inheritance to women of child-bearing age seeking to create healthy offspring. Studies suggest women are less attracted to men with asymmetrical faces,[] and symmetrical faces correlate with long term mental performance[] and are an indication that a man has experienced "fewer genetic and environmental disturbances such as diseases, toxins, malnutrition or genetic mutations" while growing.[] Since achieving symmetry is a difficult task during human growth, requiring billions of cell reproductions while maintaining a parallel structure, achieving symmetry is a visible signal of genetic health. Studies have also suggested that women at peak fertility were more likely to fantasize about men with greater facial symmetry,[] and other studies have found that male symmetry was the only factor that could significantly predict the likelihood of a woman experiencing orgasm during sex. Women with partners possessing greater symmetry reported significantly more copulatory female orgasms than were reported by women with partners possessing low symmetry, even with many potential confounding variables controlled.[22] This finding has been found to hold across different cultures. It has been argued that masculine facial dimorphism (in men) and symmetry in faces are signals advertising genetic quality in potential mates.[23] Low facial and body fluctuating asymmetry may indicate good health and intelligence, which are desirable features.[24] Studies have found that women who perceive themselves as being more physically attractive are more likely to favor men with a higher degree of facial symmetry, than are women who perceive themselves as being less physically attractive.[] It has been found that symmetrical men (and women) have a tendency to begin to have sexual intercourse at an earlier age, to have more sexual partners, and to have more one-night stands. They are also more likely to be prone to infidelity.[] A study of quarterbacks in the American

Physical attractiveness National Football League found a positive correlation between facial symmetry and salaries.[] Body scent A number of double-blind studies have found that women prefer the scent of men who are rated as facially attractive.[25] For example, a study by Anja Rikowski and Karl Grammer had individuals rate the scent of t-shirts slept in by test subjects. The photographs of those subjects were independently rated, and Rikowski and Grammer found that both males and females were more attracted to the natural scent of individuals who had been rated by consensus as facially attractive.[26] Additionally, it has also been shown that women have a preference for the scent of men with more symmetrical faces, and that women's preference for the scent of more symmetrical men is strongest during the most fertile period of their menstrual cycle. Within the set of normally cycling women, individual women's preference for the scent of men with high facial symmetry correlated with their probability of conception.[27] Genetics Studies have explored the genetic basis behind such issues as facial symmetry and body scent and how they influence physical attraction. In one study in which women wore men's T-shirts, researchers found that women were more attracted to the bodily scents in shirts of men who had a different type of gene section within the DNA called Major histocompatibility complex (MHC).[] MHC is a large gene area within the DNA of vertebrates which encodes proteins dealing with the immune system[] and which influences individual bodily odors.[] One hypothesis is that humans are naturally attracted by the sense of smell and taste to others with dissimilar MHC sections, perhaps to avoid subsequent inbreeding while increasing the genetic diversity of offspring.[] Further, there are studies showing that women's natural attraction for men with dissimilar immune profiles can be distorted with use of birth control pills.[] Other research findings involving the genetic foundations of attraction suggest that MHC heterozygosity positively correlates with male facial attractiveness. Women judge the faces of men who are heterozygous at all three MHC loci to be more attractive than the faces of men who are homozygous at one or more of these loci. Additionally, a second experiment with genotyped women raters, found these preferences were independent of the degree of MHC similarity between the men and the female rater. With MHC heterozygosity independently seen as a genetic advantage, the results suggest that facial attractiveness in men may be a measure of genetic quality.[28][29]


For the Romans especially, "beardlessness" and "smooth young bodies" were considered beautiful to both men and women.[30] For Greek and Roman men, the most desirable traits of boys were their "youth" and "hairlessness". Pubescent boys were considered a socially appropriate object of male desire, while post-pubescent boys were considered to be "" or "past the prime".[30] This was largely in the context of pederastry (adult male interest in adolescent boys). Today, men and women's attitudes towards male beauty has changed. For example, body hair on men may even be preferred (see below).

A 2010 OkCupid study of 200,000 of its male and female customers found that women users are, except during their early to mid-twenties, open to searches from both somewhat older and somewhat younger men; they have a larger potential dating pool than men until age 26. At age 20 women, in a "dramatic change", begin sending private messages to significantly older men. Another such change occurs at age 29, accompanied by an end to messages to significantly younger men. Male desirability to women peaks in the late 20s and does not fall below the average for all men until 36.[]

Physical attractiveness


Waist-to-chest ratio
The mesomorphic physique of a slim waist, broad shoulders and muscular chest are often found to be attractive to females.[] Further research has shown that, when choosing a mate, the traits females look for indicate higher social status, such as dominance, resources, and protection.[31] An indicator of health in males (a contributing factor to physical attractiveness) is the android fat distribution pattern which is categorized as more fat distributed on the upper body and abdomen, commonly referred to as the "V shape."[31] When asked to rate other men, both heterosexual and homosexual men found low waist-to-chest ratios (WCR) to be more attractive on other men, with the gay men showing a preference for lower WCR (more V-shaped) than the straight men.[32] Evidence supports waist-to-chest importance in physical attractiveness: "waist-to-chest ratio plays the most important role in the perception of male attractiveness. A leaner waist line coupled with a larger, more muscular chest and shoulders creates the popular "V" shape to the body".[33] Other researchers found that waist to chest ratio was the largest determinant of male attractiveness, while body mass index and waist to hip ratio were not as much of a factor.[34] Women focus primarily on the ratio waist to chest or more specifically waist to shoulder. This is analogous to the waist to hip ratio that men prefer. Key body image for a man in the eyes of a woman would include big shoulders, chest, upper back, and a slim waist area.[35] Research has additionally shown that college males had a better satisfaction with their body than college females. The research also found that when a college female's waist to hip ratio went up, their body image satisfaction decreased.[36] The results indicate that males had significantly greater body image satisfaction than did females. Some research has shown that body weight may have a stronger affect than WHR when it comes to perceiving attractiveness of the opposite sex. It was found that waist to hip ratio played a smaller role in body preference than body weight in regards to both sexes.[37] Psychologists Viren Swami and Martin J. Tovee compared female preference for male attractiveness cross culturally, between Britain and Malaysia. They found that females placed more importance on WCR (and therefore body shape) in urban areas of Britain and Malaysia, while females in rural areas placed more importance on BMI (therefore weight and body size). Both WCR and BMI are indicative of male status and ability to provide for offspring, as noted by evolutionary theory.[38] Females have been found to desire males that are normal weight and have the average WHR for a male. Females view these males as attractive and healthy. Males who had the average WHR but were overweight or underweight are not perceived as attractive to females. This suggests that WHR is not a major factor in male attractiveness, but a combination of body weight and a typical male WHR seem to be the most attractive. Research has shown that men who have a higher waist to hip ratio and a higher salary are perceived as more attractive to women.[39]

Men often perceive a more muscular male body as being ideal compared to what women perceive to be the ideal male body.[40] This is due to the within-gender prestige granted by increased muscularity and within-gender competition for increased muscularity.[40] Men perceive the attractiveness of their own musculature by the closeness their body resembles the "muscle man".[41] This "muscle man" ideal is characterized by large muscular arms, especially biceps, a large muscular chest that tapers to their waist and broad shoulders.[41]

Physical attractiveness


Studies based in China, England, the United States, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Spain, and France have suggested that women consider men more attractive whose erect penis is longer and thicker.[]

Height and erect posture

Females' sexual attraction towards males may be determined by the height of the man.[42] Height in men is associated with status or wealth in many cultures (in particular those where malnutrition is common),[] which is beneficial to women romantically involved with them. One study conducted of women's personal ads support the existence of this preference; the study found that in ads requesting height in a mate, 80% requested a height of 6.00 feet (1.83m) or taller.[] The online dating Website eHarmony only matches women with taller men, because of complaints from women matched with shorter men.[] Recent studies have shown that heterosexual women often prefer men taller than they are, rather than a man with above average height. While women usually desire men to be at least the same height as themselves or taller, several other factors also determine male attractiveness, and the male-taller norm is not universal.[] Professor Adam Eyre-Walker, from the University of Sussex, has stated that there is, as yet, no evidence that these preferences are evolutionary preferences, as opposed to merely cultural preferences.[43] In a double-blind study by Graziano et al., it was found that, in person, using a sample of women of normal size, they were on average most attracted to men who were of medium height (5'9"- 5'11") and less attracted to both men of shorter height (5'5"- 5'7") and men of tallest height (6'2"- 6'4").[44] Additionally, women seem more receptive to an erect posture than men, though both prefer it as an element of beauty.[] According to one study (Yee N., 2002), gay men who identify as "Only Tops" tend to prefer shorter men, while gay men who identify as "Only Bottoms" tend to prefer taller men.[45]

Studies based in the United States, New Zealand, and China have shown that women rate men with no trunk (chest and abdominal) hair as most attractive, and that attractiveness ratings decline as hirsutism increases.[46][47] Another study, however, found that moderate amounts of trunk hair on men was most attractive, to the sample of British and Sri Lankan women.[] Further, a degree of hirsuteness (hairiness) and a waist-to-shoulder ratio of 0.6 is often preferred when combined with a mesomorphic physique.[] In a study using Finnish women, women with hairy fathers were more likely to prefer hairy men, suggesting that preference for hairy men is either the result of genetics or imprinting.[48] Among gay men, another study (Yee N., 2002) reported gay males who identify as "Only Tops" prefer less hairy men, while gay males who identify as "Only Bottoms" prefer hairier men.[45]

Skin color
Testosterone has been shown to darken skin color in laboratory experiments.[49] In his foreword to Peter Frost's 2005 Fair Women, Dark Men, University of Washington sociologist Pierre L. van den Berghe writes: "Although virtually all cultures express a marked preference for fair female skin, even those with little or no exposure to European imperialism, and even those whose members are heavily pigmented, many are indifferent to male pigmentation or even prefer men to be darker."[50] Despite this, the aesthetics of skin tone varies from culture to culture. Manual laborers who spent extended periods of time outside developed a darker skin tone due to exposure to the sun. As a consequence, an association between dark skin and the lower classes developed. Light skin became an aesthetic ideal because it symbolized wealth. "Over time society attached various meanings to these colored differences. Including assumptions about a person's race, socioeconomic class, intelligence, and physical attractiveness."[51]

Physical attractiveness According to one study (Yee N., 2002), gay men who identify as "Only Tops" tend to prefer lighter-skinned men while gay men who identify as "Only Bottoms" tend to prefer darker-skinned men.[45] More recent research has suggested that redder and yellower skin tones,[] reflecting higher levels of oxygenated blood,[] melanin pigment and net dietary intakes of fruit and vegetables,[] appears healthier, and therefore more attractive.[52]


Female physical attractiveness

Attractiveness research indicates that heterosexual men tend to be attracted to young[] and beautiful women[53] with bodily symmetry.[] Rather than decreasing it, modernity has only increased the emphasis men place on women's looks.[54] Evolutionary psychologists attribute such attraction to an evaluation of the fertility potential in a prospective mate.[]

Facial features
Attractiveness research has attempted to determine which facial aspects communicate attractiveness. Facial symmetry has been shown to be considered attractive in women,[55][] and men have been found to prefer full lips,[56] a high forehead, broad face, small chin, small nose, a short and narrow jaw, high cheekbones[][57][58] clear, smooth skin, and wide-set eyes.[] The shape of the face in terms of "how everything hangs together" is an important determinant of beauty.[] A University of Toronto study found correlations between facial measurements and attractiveness; researchers varied the distance between eyes, and between eyes and mouth, in different drawings of the same female face, and had the drawings evaluated; they found there were ideal A University of Toronto study found that ideal proportions perceived as attractive (see photo).[] These proportions facial proportions of Jessica Alba were close to [] (46% and 36%) were close to the average of all female profiles. [] the average of all female profiles. Women with thick, dark limbal rings in their eyes have also been found to be more attractive. The explanation given is that because the ring tends to fade with age and medical problems, a prominent limbal ring gives an honest indicator of youth.[59] In another cross-cultural study, more neotenized (i.e., youthful looking) female faces were found to be most attractive to men while less neotenized female faces were found to be less attractive to men, regardless of the females' actual age.[60] One of these desired traits was a small jaw.[] In a study of Italian women who have won beauty competitions, it was found that their faces had more "babyish" (pedomorphic) traits than those of the "normal" women used as a reference.[] Michael R. Cunningham of the Department of Psychology at the University of Louisville found, using a panel of Asian, Hispanic and White judges, that the Asian, Hispanic and White female faces found most attractive were those that had "neonate large eyes, greater distance between eyes, and small noses"[] and his study led him to conclude that "large eyes" were the most "effective" of the "neonate cues".[] This idea of Western beauty is shown through some Asian cultures as women strive to physically change the eyelid structure to reflect the typical Western eyelid.[61] East Asian blepharoplasty, also known as the double eyelid surgery, shows the lengths Asian women will go to reach this western ideal of physical attractiveness. Cunningham also said that "shiny" hair may be indicative of "neonate vitality".[] Using a panel of Blacks and Whites as judges, Cunningham found more neotenous faces were perceived as having both higher "femininity" and "sociability".[] In contrast, Cunningham found that faces that were "low in neoteny" were judged as "intimidating".[] Cunningham noted a "difference" in the preferences of Asian and white judges with Asian judges preferring women with "less mature faces" and smaller mouths than the White judges.[]

Physical attractiveness Cunningham hypothesized that this difference in preference may stem from "ethnocentrism" since "Asian faces possess those qualities", so Cunningham re-analyzed the data with "11 Asian targets excluded" and concluded that "ethnocentrism was not a primary determinant of Asian preferences."[] Rather than finding evidence for purely "neonate" faces being most appealing, Cunningham found faces with "sexually-mature" features at the "periphery" of the face combined with "neonate" features in the "center of the face" most appealing in men and women.[] Upon analyzing the results of his study, Cunningham concluded that preference for "neonate features may display the least cross-cultural variability" in terms of "attractiveness ratings"[] and, in another study, Cunningham concluded that there exists a large agreement on the characteristics of an attractive face.[62][63] In computer face averaging tests, women with averaged faces have been shown to be considered more attractive.[][] This is possibly due to average features being more familiar and, therefore, more comfortable.[55] Commenting on the prevalence of whiteness in supposed beauty ideals in his book White Lies: Race and the Myth of Whiteness, Maurice Berger notes that the schematic rendering in the idealized face of a notable study conducted with American subjects had "straight hair," "light skin," "almond-shaped eyes," "thin, arched eyebrows," "a long, thin nose, closely set and tiny nostrils" and "a large mouth and thin lips",[64] though the author of the study noted the consistency between his results and those conducted on other races. As Dr. Liu Jieyu says in the article White Collar Beauties, "The criterion of beauty is both arbitrary and gendered. The implicit consensus is that women who have fair skin and a slim figure with symmetrical facial features are pretty." All of these requirements are socially constructed and force people to change themselves to fit these criterion.[65] One psychologist speculated there were two opposing principles of female beauty: prettiness and rarity. So on average, symmetrical features are one ideal, while unusual, stand-out features are another.[] A study performed by the University of Toronto found that the most attractive facial dimensions were those found in the average female face. However, that particular University of Toronto study looked only at white women.[66]


Cross-cultural data shows that the reproductive success of women is tied to their youth and physical attractiveness[67] such as the pre-industrial Sami where the most reproductively successful women were 15 years younger than their man.[68] One study covering 37 cultures showed that, on average, a woman was 2.5 years younger than her male partner, with the age difference in Nigeria and Zambia being at the far extreme of 6.5 to 7.5 years. As men age, they tend to seek a mate who is ever younger.[] 25% of eHarmony's male customers over the age of 50 request to only be matched with women younger than 40.[] A 2010 OkCupid study of 200,000 of its male and female users found that female desirability to men peaks at age 21, and falls below the average for all women at 31. After age 26 men have a larger potential dating pool than women; by 48 their pool is almost twice as large. The median 31 years-old male user searches for women aged 22 to 35, while the median 42 years-old male searches for women 27 to 45. The age skew is even greater with messages to other users; the median 30 years-old male messages teenage girls as often as women his own age, while mostly ignoring women a few years older than him. Excluding the most and least beautiful 10% of women, however, women's attractiveness does not change between 18 and 40.[] The common explanation for this preference is that men have evolved to be attracted to women with high child-bearing potential and therefore prefer young women. A stronger preference of youthfulness (detected by female hormone markers) reflects female fertility and the reproductive value mean.[69] As females age, the estrogen-to-androgen production ratio changes and results in female faces to appear more and more masculine (thus appearing less "attractive").[69] In a small (n=148) study performed in the United States using male college students at one university, the mean age expressed as ideal for a wife was found to be 16.87 years old, while 17.76 was the mean ideal age for a brief sexual encounter; however, the study sets up a framework where "taboos against sex with young girls" are purposely diminished, and biased their sample by removing any participant over the age of 30, with a mean participant age of 19.83.[70] In a study of penile tumescence, men were found most aroused by pictures of young adult females.[71]

Physical attractiveness


Research has shown that most men enjoy the sight of female breasts.[72] Some studies indicate that men prefer large, firm breasts,[73][74] while a contradictory study of British undergraduates found men preferring small breasts on women.[75] Smaller breasts are widely associated with youthfulness.[citation needed] Cross-culturally, another study found "high variability" regarding the ideal breast size.[75] Some researchers in the United Kingdom have speculated that a preference for larger breasts may have developed in Western societies because women with larger breasts tend to have higher levels of the hormones estradiol and progesterone, which both promote fertility.[76] A study showed that men prefer symmetrical breasts.[][77] Breast symmetry may be particularly sensitive to developmental disturbances and the symmetry differences for breasts are large compared to other body parts. Women who have more symmetrical breasts tend to have more children.[78]

Biological anthropologist, Helen B. Fisher of the Center for Human Evolution Studies in the Department of Anthropology of Rutgers University, said that, "perhaps, the fleshy, rounded buttocks... attracted males during rear-entry intercourse."[79] Bobbi S. Low et al. of the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Michigan, said the female "buttocks evolved in the context of females competing for the attention and parental commitment of powerful resource-controlling males" as an "honest display of fat reserves" that could not be confused with another type of tissue,[80] although T. M. Caro, professor in the Center for Population Biology and the Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, at University of California, Davis, rejected that as being a necessary conclusion, stating that female fatty deposits on the hips improve "individual fitness of the female", regardless of sexual selection.[80] Fat distribution is also practical, leading to "beauty". In order to retain agility, reserves of fat should be placed as close to the centre of gravity as possible, which is near to the navel. In men, fat can be placed inside and around the abdomen. Women cannot do this because their abdomens are already occupied by a uterus and possibly a fetus. So the next available place is on the buttocks, upper thigh and thorax. If the fat is kept to reasonable proportions then it doesn't affect athletic performance (see the "wobbly" bottoms of many Olympic athletes). So the inherent design of fat distribution is a good indication of femininity and good health. [citation needed]

Physical attractiveness


Body mass
Body Mass Index (BMI) is an important determinant to the perception of beauty.[] Even though the Western ideal is for a thin woman, some cultures prefer plumper women,[][] which has been argued to support that attraction for a particular BMI merely is a cultural artifact.[] The attraction for a proportionate body also influences an appeal for erect posture.[75] One cross-cultural survey comparing body-mass preferences among 300 of the most thoroughly studied cultures in the world showed that 81% of cultures preferred a female body size that in English would be described as "plump".[81] Availability of food influences which female body size is attractive which may have evolutionary reasons. Societies with food scarcities prefer larger female body size than societies having plenty of food. In Western society males who are hungry prefer a larger female body size than they do when not hungry.[82] In the United States, women overestimate men's preferences for thinness in a mate. In one study, American women were asked to choose what their ideal build was and what they thought the build most attractive to men was. Women chose slimmer than average figures for both choices. When American men were independently asked to choose the female build most attractive to them, the men chose figures of average build. This indicates that women may be misled as to how thin men prefer women to be.[] Some speculate that thinness as a beauty standard is one way in which women judge each other[] and that thinness is viewed as prestigious for within-gender evaluations of other women.[40] A reporter surmised that thinness is prized among women as a "sign of independence, strength and achievement."[] Some implicated the fashion industry for the promulgation of the notion of thinness as attractive.[]
Betty Grable's iconic pin-up girl photo, popular among GIs fighting in World War II

Waisthip ratio
Ethnic groups vary with regard to their ideal waist-to-hip ratio for women,[83] ranging from 0.6 in China,[84] to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts of South America and Africa,[85][86][87] and divergent preferences based on ethnicity, rather than nationality, have also been noted.[88][89] A cross-cultural analysis that found isolated peoples preferring high WHR (0.9) over a low WHR (0.7) suggested that many such "cross-cultural" tests "may have only reflected the pervasiveness of Western media";[90] however many evolutionary psychologists believe preference for low WHR is a signal for fertility and biologically based.[91]

Most men tend to be taller than their female partner.[92] It has been found that, in Western societies, most men prefer shorter women and tend to view taller women as less attractive[93] and people view heterosexual couples where the woman is taller to be less ideal.[93] Women who are 0.7 to 1.7 standard deviations below the mean female height have been reported to be the most reproductively successful,[94] since fewer tall women get married compared to shorter women.[93] However, in other ethnic groups, such as the Hadza, study has found that height is irrelevant in choosing a mate.[]

Physical attractiveness


Leg-to-body ratio
A study using Polish participants by Sorokowski found 5% longer legs than an individual used as a reference was considered most attractive.[] The study concluded this preference might stem from the influence of leggy runway models.[] The Sorokowski study was criticized for using a picture of the same person with digitally altered leg lengths which Dr. Marco Bertamini felt were unrealistic.[] Another study using British and American participants, found "mid-ranging" leg-to-body ratios to be most ideal.[40] A study by Swami et al. of British male and female undergraduates showed a preference for men with legs as long as the rest of their body and women with 40% longer legs than the rest of their body.[38] The researcher concluded that this preference might be influenced by American culture where long legged women are portrayed as more attractive.[38] The Swami et al. study was criticized for using a picture of the same person with digitally altered leg lengths which Marco Bertamini felt were unrealistic.[] Bertamini also criticized the Swami study for only changing the leg length while keeping the arm length constant.[] Bertamini's own study which used stick figures mirrored Swami's study, however, by finding a preference for leggier women.[] According to some studies, most men prefer women with small feet,[95][96] such as in ancient China where foot binding was practiced.[97]

Men have been found to prefer long-haired women.[][98][99] An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that malnutrition and deficiencies in minerals and vitamins causes loss of hair or hair changes. Hair therefore indicates health and nutrition during the last 23 years. Lustrous hair is also often a cross-cultural preference.[100] One study reported non-Asian men to prefer blondes and Asian men to prefer black-haired women.[99]

Movement patterns
The way an individual moves can indicate health and even age and influence attractiveness.[100] In a study that reflected the views of 700 individuals, through a series of 5 studies, 3 of which involved animated representations of people walking. The physical attractiveness perceived increased by about 50 percent when women walked with a hip sway.[101]

Skin tone and skin radiance

A preference for lighter-skinned women has remained prevalent over time, even in cultures without European contact, though exceptions have been found.[102] Anthropologist Peter Frost stated that since higher-ranking men were allowed to marry the perceived more attractive women, who tended to have fair skin, the upper classes of a society generally tended to develop a lighter complexion than the lower classes by sexual selection (see also Fisherian runaway).[50][102][103] In contrast, one study on men of the Bikosso tribe in Cameroon found no preference for attractiveness of females based on lighter skin color, bringing into question the universality of earlier studies that had exclusively focused on skin color preferences among non-African populations.[103] Today, skin bleaching is not uncommon in parts of the world such as Africa,[104] and a preference for lighter-skinned women generally holds true for African Americans,[105] Latin Americans,[106] and Asians.[107] One exception to this has been in contemporary Western culture, where tanned skin used to be associated with the sun-exposed manual labor of the lower-class, but has generally been considered more attractive and healthier since the mid-20th century.[][][108][109][110] More recent work has extended skin color research beyond preferences for lightness, arguing that redder (higher a* in the CIELab colour space) and yellower (higher b*) skin has healthier appearance.[] These preferences have been attributed to higher levels of red oxygenated blood in the skin, which is associated with aerobic fitness and lack of cardiac and respiratory illnesses,[] and to higher levels of yellow-red antioxidant carotenoids in the skin, indicative of

Physical attractiveness more fruit and vegetables in the diet and, possibly more efficient immune and reproductive systems.[] Research has additionally shown that skin radiance or glowing skin indicates health, thus skin radiance influences perception of beauty and physical attractiveness.[][]


Eye color
A study where photographs of several women were manipulated (so that their faces would be shown with either the natural eye color of the model or with the other color) showed that, in average, brown-eyed men have no preference regarding eye color, but blue-eyed men prefer women of the same eye color.[]

Other determinants
There has been research suggesting that women at the "fertile stage" of the menstrual cycle appear more attractive to single unattached men, but it is not clear exactly how this process works.[] Another study comparing British and American subjects concluded that there is a correlation between intelligence and physical attraction. The study concluded that intelligence is a big factor in physical attractiveness, particularly in males.[111]

Possible gender differences for preferences

For both men and women, there appear to be universal criteria of attractiveness both within and across cultures and ethnic groups.[][112] When considering long term relationships, some studies have concluded that men place a higher emphasis on physical attractiveness in a partner than women do.[113][114][][115][116] On the other hand, some studies have found little difference between men and women in terms of the weight they place on physical characteristics when they are choosing partners for short-term relationships,[117][118][119][120] in particular with regard to their implicit, as opposed to explicitly articulated, preferences.[121] Other recent studies continue to find sex differences for long-term relationships.[122][123][124][125] Some evolutionary psychologists, including David Buss, have argued that this long-term relationship difference may be consequence of ancestral humans who selected partners based on secondary sexual characteristics, as well as general indicators of fitness which allowed for greater reproductive success as a result of higher fertility in those partners,[126] although a male's ability to provide resources for offspring was likely signaled less by physical features.[] It is argued that the most prominent indicator of fertility in women is youth,[127][] while the traits in a man which enhance reproductive success are proxies for his ability to accrue resources and protect.[] Studies have shown that women pay greater attention to physical traits than they do directly to earning capability or potential to commit,[128] including muscularity, fitness and masculinity of features; the latter preference was observed to vary during a woman's period, with women preferring more masculine features during the late-follicular (fertile) phase of the menstrual cycle.[129][130] Additionally, women process physical attractiveness differently, paying attention to both individual features and the aesthetic effect of the whole face.[131] A 2003 study in the area concluded that heterosexual women are about equally aroused when viewing men or women. Heterosexual men were only aroused by women. This study verified arousal in the test subjects by connecting them to brain imaging devices.[132][133][134][135] Notably, the same study reported arousal for women upon viewing animals mating.

Physical attractiveness


It has been shown that women prefer men with a more masculine facial dimorphism during the fertile period of the menstrual cycle and men with a more feminine facial dimorphism during other parts of the cycle.[] This distinction supports the sexy son hypothesis, which posits that it is evolutionarily advantageous for women to select potential fathers who are more genetically attractive,[136] rather than the best caregivers.[137] Bonnie Adrian's book, Framing the Bride, discusses the emphasis Taiwanese brides place on physical attractiveness for their wedding photographs. Globalization and western ideals of beauty have spread and have become more prevalent in Asian societies where brides go through hours of hair and makeup to "transform everyday women with their individual characteristics into generic look-alike beauties in three hours' time." These brides go through hours of makeup to transform themselves into socially-constructed beauty.[138] According to strategic pluralism theory, men may have correspondingly evolved to pursue reproductive strategies that are contingent on their own physical attractiveness. More physically attractive men accrue reproductive benefits from spending more time Asian bride exemplifying wedding day beauty. seeking multiple mating partners and relatively less time investing in offspring. In contrast, the reproductive effort of physically less attractive men, who therefore will not have the same mating opportunities, is better allocated either to investing heavily in accruing resources, or investing in their mates and offspring and spending relatively less time seeking additional mates.[139]

Facial similarity and racial bias

Several studies have suggested that people are generally attracted to people who look like them[140] and they generally evaluate faces that exhibit features of their own ethnic or racial group as being more attractive.[99] Although both men and women use children's "facial resemblance" to themselves in "attractiveness judgments," a greater percentage of women in one study (37% n=30) found hypothetical children whose faces were "self-morphs" of themselves as most attractive when compared to men (30% n=23).[141] However, one report in The Guardian suggested there was a "Caucasian beauty standard" spreading worldwide because of the proliferation of the Western entertainment industry.[] The more similar a judged person is toward the judging person, the more the former is liked. However, this effect can be reversed. This might depend on how attractiveness is conceptualized: similar members (compared to dissimilar ones) of the opposite sex are judged as more likable in a prosocial sense. Again, findings are more ambiguous when looking for the desiring, pleasure related component of attractiveness.[142] This might be influenced by the measure one uses (subjective ratings can differ from the way one actually reacts) and by situational factors: while men usually prefer women whose face resembles their own, this effect can reverse under stress, when dissimilar females are preferred.[143]

Physical attractiveness


Social effects
Perceptions of physical attractiveness contribute to generalized assumptions based on those attractions. Individuals assume that when someone is beautiful, they have many other positive attributes that make the attractive person more likeable.[8] This is also called the 'beautiful-is-good' effect.[8] Across cultures, what is beautiful is assumed to be good; attractive people are assumed to be more extroverted, popular, and happy. This could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, as from a young age, attractive people receive more attention that helps them develop these characteristics.[][144] In one study, beautiful people were found to be generally happier than less beautiful or plain people, perhaps because these outgoing personality traits are linked to happiness, or perhaps because beauty led to increased economic benefits which partially explained the increased happiness.[] In another study testing first impressions in 56 female and 17 male participants at University of British Columbia, personality traits of physically attractive people were identified more positively and more accurately than those who were less physically attractive. It was explained that people pay closer attention to those they find physically beautiful or attractive, and thus perceiving attractive individuals with greater distinctive accuracy. The study believes this accuracy to be subjective to the eye of the beholder.[145] However, attractiveness varies by society; in ancient China, a small foot was considered attractive, so foot binding was practiced by confining young girls' feet in tightly bound shoes to prevent the feet from growing to normal size.[] In England, women used to wear corsets that severely constricted their breathing and damaged vital internal organs, in order to achieve a visual effect of an exaggeratedly low Waist-to-Hip ratio. People make judgments of physical attractiveness based on what they see, but also on what they know about the person. Specifically, perceptions of beauty are malleable such that information about the person's personality traits can influence one's assessment of another person's physical beauty. A 2007 study had participants first rate pictures for attractiveness. After doing distracting math problems, participants saw the pictures again, but with information about the person's personality. When participants learned that a person had positive personality characteristics (e.g., smart, funny, kind), that person was seen as more physically attractive.[146] Conversely, a person with negative personality characteristics (e.g., materialistic, rude, untrustworthy) was seen as less physically attractive. This was true for both females and males. Physical attractiveness can have various effects. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11,000 people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as less attractive.[147] People who described themselves as less attractive earned, on average, 13% less than those who described themselves as more attractive, while the penalty for being overweight was around 5%. According to further research done on the correlation between looks and earnings in men, the punishment for unattractiveness is greater than the benefits of being attractive. However, in women the punishment is found to be equal to the benefits.[148] Another study suggests that more physically attractive people are significantly more likely on average to earn considerably higher wages. Differences in income due to attractiveness was much more pronounced for men rather than women, and held true for all ranges of income.[149] It is important to note that other factors such as self-confidence may explain or influence these findings as they are based on self-reported attractiveness as opposed to any sort of objective criteria; however, as one's self-confidence and self-esteem are largely learned from how one is regarded by his/her peers while maturing, even these considerations would suggest a significant role for physical appearance. One writer speculated that "the distress created in women by the spread of unattainable ideals of female beauty" might possibly be linked to increasing incidence of depression.[] Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those who are perceived as being more attractive, including the ability to get better jobs and promotions; receiving better treatment from authorities and the legal system; having more choices in romantic partners and, therefore, more power in relationships; and marrying into families with more money.[][][][144][150] Those who are attractive are treated and judged more positively than those who are considered unattractive, even by those who know them. Also, attractive individuals behave more positively

Physical attractiveness than those who are unattractive.[151] One study found that teachers tend to expect that children who are attractive are more intelligent, and are more likely to progress further in school. They also consider these students to be more popular.[152] Voters choose political candidates who are more attractive over those who are less attractive.[153] Men and women use physical attractiveness as a measure of how "good" another person is.[154] In 1946, Soloman Asch coined the Implicit Personality Theory, meaning that the presence of one trait tends to imply the existence of other traits. This is also known as the halo effect. Research suggests that those who are physically attractive are thought to have more socially desirable personalities and lead better lives in general.[155] This is also known as the "what-is-beautiful-is-good effect." Discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance is sometimes referred to as lookism. Some researchers conclude that little difference exists between men and women in terms of sexual behavior.[156][157] Symmetrical men and women have a tendency to begin to have sexual intercourse at an earlier age, to have more sexual partners, to engage in a wider variety of sexual activities, and to have more one-night stands. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely to have open relationships.[] Additionally, they have the most reproductive success. Therefore, their physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations.[158][159][160][161] Concern for improving physical attractiveness has led many persons to consider alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. It has led scientists working with related disciplines such as computer imaging and mathematics to conduct research to suggest ways to surgically alter a face in terms of distances between facial features, to make it closer to an ideal face with "agreed-upon standards of attractiveness", by using algorithms to suggest an alternative which still resembles the current face.[] One research study found that cosmetic surgery as a way to "boost earnings" was "not profitable in a monetary sense."[] Perhaps people try to look more beautiful because they think it would make them happier. However, research shows that physical attractiveness seems to only have a marginal effect on happiness.[162]


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BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2009. [45] Yee, N. (2002). Beyond Tops and Bottoms Correlations between Sex-Role Preference and Physical Preferences for Partners among Gay Men [49] Robins, A.H. (1991). Biological perspectives on human pigmentation. Cambridge University Press [50] see Steve Sailer, Blondes Have Deeper Roots (http:/ / vdare. com/ sailer/ 050612_blondes. htm) (2005) [51] Jones, Trina. Shades of Brown: The Law of Skin Color. Duke Law School. 2000. [54] Jackson, L. B. (1992). Physical appearance and gender: sociobiological and sociocultural perspectives. State University of New York Press. [55] Berscheid and Reis, 1998 [59] How Big Is Your Limbal Ring? | Psychology Today (http:/ / www. psychologytoday. com/ blog/ love-sex-and-babies/ 201104/ how-big-is-your-limbal-ring) [60] Jones, D. Sexual Selection, Physical Attractiveness and Facial Neoteny: Cross-Cultural Evidence and Implications. p.723 [61] Chee, Elaine, and Chai Teck Choo. "Asian blepharoplasty-an overview." Orbit 30.1 (2011): 58-61. [63] From Cunningham (1986) Research with Western subjects disclosed significant consistency in evaluating attractiveness (Hatfield & Sprecher, 1986; Iliife, 1960). The females judged to be most attractive may have such similar facial features that they were hard to distinguish one from another (Light, Hollander, & Kayra-Stuart, 1981). Cross-cultural investigations on the judgment of facial attractiveness tended to highlight societal differences, but rough agreements in facial aesthetic preferences were shown by Asian-American and Caucasian females (Wagatsuma & Kleinke, 1979), Chinese, Indian, and English females judging Greek males (Thakerar & Iwawaki, 1979), South African and American males and females (Morse, Gruzen, & Reis, 1976), and blacks and whites judging males and females from both races (Cross & Cross, 1971). [64] Berger, M. (1999). White lies: race and the myths of whiteness. Farrar, Strous and Giroux, Canada. [65] Sexualized Labour? White-Collar Beauties in Provincial China. Liu Jieyu. 2008 [67] Hechter, M. (2011). Social Norms. Russell Sage Foundation. pp. 300 [69] Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1999). Facial attractiveness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(12), 452-460. [71] Quinsey, V.L. The Etiology of Anomalous Sexual Preferences in Men. Queen's University Department of Psychology. [72] Scientific proof that men look at women's breasts first and their face is almost last (http:/ / www. dailytelegraph. com. au/ lifestyle/ scientific-proof-that-men-look-at-womens-breasts-first-and-their-face-is-almost-last/ story-e6frf00i-1225770286482) The Daily Telegraph [73] Physical Attractiveness in Adaptationist Perspective (http:/ / www. uoregon. edu/ ~sugiyama/ docs/ LSsugiyama-buss_c09CEforrequests. pdf) in Evolutionary Psychology Handbook, Lawrence S. Sugiyama (2005). [74] Buss, David M.The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, John Wiley and Sons, 2005, pg. 325 ISBN 0-471-26403-2, ISBN 978-0-471-26403-3 [75] Furnham, Adrian, Gianna Caroline Fischer, Lauren Tanner, Melanie Dias, and Alastair McClelland 1998. [76] Hourglass figure fertility link - BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 3682657. stm) [79] Fisher, H.B. (1982). The Sex Contract - The Evolution of Human Behavior. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc. [80] Caro, T.M. & D. W. Sellen, D.W. (1990). The Reproductive Advantages of Fat in Women. Ethology and Sociobiology. (11)5 1-66 0162-3095 [81] Brown, Peter J. and Jennifer Sweeney. 2009. THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND THE BODY. AnthroNotes Volume 30 No. 1. [86] as PDF (http:/ / www. fas. harvard. edu/ ~hbe-lab/ acrobatfiles/ profilewhr. pdf) [92] http:/ / www. staff. ncl. ac. uk/ daniel. nettle/ procroysoc. pdf [93] Scar, R. Height and Reproductive Success: How a Gambian Population Compares to the West. Human Nature Winter 2006. [94] BBC News: "Tall men 'top husband stakes (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ health/ 2190461. stm) [97] Berman, J.E. (1993). Female Genital Mutilation, Yes, but Don't Condone It. Accessed date November 6, 2009, from http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1993/ 11/ 30/ opinion/ l-understand-female-genital-mutilation-yes-but-don-t-condone-it-015393. html [99] Bereczkei, T. Hair length, facial attractiveness, personality attribution; A multiple fitness model of hairdressing [100] The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 10 "Physical Attractiveness in Adaptationist Perspective" by Lawrence S. Sugiyama. [101] Texas A&M University, "Clues To Mysteries Of Physical Attractiveness Revealed." (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2007/ 05/ 070523105948. htm), Science Daily, 2007, May 24 [102] Peter Frost "Fair Women, Dark Men: The Forgotten Roots of Color Prejudice," (2005). [103] Dixson, Barnaby. Human Physique and Sexual Attractiveness: Sexual Preferences of Men and Women in Bakossiland, Cameroon http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ b74147t360040220/ fulltext. pdf


Physical attractiveness
[107] Skin whitening big business in Asia | PRI.ORG (http:/ / www. pri. org/ world/ asia/ skin-whitening-big-business-asia. html) [110] Tan is 'In': Study Finds Light Brown More Attractive than Pale or Dark Skin (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news78679968. html) [111] Kanazawa, S. (2011) Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness. pgs 7-14, url=http:/ / journals2. scholarsportal. info. myaccess. library. utoronto. ca/ tmp/ 5181975288283953712. pdf [112] as PDF (http:/ / www2. psych. purdue. edu/ ~kip/ 392F/ Langlois. pdf) [114] Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Biology of beauty". Newsweek. June 3, 1996 [118] Sex differences in mate preferences revisited: Do people know what they initially desire in a romantic partner?, By Eastwick, Paul W.; Finkel, Eli J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 94(2), Feb 2008, 245-264, Norman P. Lia, , , Katherine A. Valentinea and Lily Patel [119] Mate preferences in the US and Singapore: A cross-cultural test of the mate preference priority model, Personality and Individual Differences Volume 50, Issue 2, January 2011, Pages 291-294 [121] Implicit and explicit preferences for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner: A double dissociation in predictive validity, Eastwick, Paul W.; Eagly, Alice H.; Finkel, Eli J.; Johnson, Sarah E. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Jul 18, 2011 [126] Symons D. 1995. Beauty is in the adaptations of the beholder: the evolutionary psychology of human female sexual attractiveness. In Sexual Nature, Sexual Culture: Chicago Series on Sexuality, History, and Society, ed. P.R. Abramson, S.D. Pinkerton, pp. 80119. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [127] Sex Differences: Developmental and Evolutionary Strategies by Linda Mealey and Mother Nature by Sarah Hardy. [128] Women drawn to men with muscles (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ 2007/ 07/ 10/ us-sex-muscles-idUSEIC04599320070710?feedType=RSS) [130] Women's choice of men goes in cycles (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 376321. stm) [131] How Ladies Size Up Facial Attractiveness (http:/ / healthland. time. com/ 2009/ 08/ 26/ how-ladies-size-up-facial-attractiveness/ ) [132] Study on differences in Male, Female sexuality. June 2003 (http:/ / www. futurepundit. com/ archives/ 001393. html) [133] Federally funded study measures arousal (http:/ / faculty. wcas. northwestern. edu/ JMichael-Bailey/ The Washington Times. htm) [134] New York Times. "What do women want?" Study on human sexuality (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 01/ 25/ magazine/ 25desire-t. html) [135] ScienceDaily. "Study Suggests Difference Between Female And Male Sexuality" (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2003/ 06/ 030613075252. htm) [136] The Selfish Gene (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Selfish-Gene-Richard-Dawkins/ dp/ 0192860925) [137] University of Michigan. (http:/ / www. umich. edu/ news/ index. html?Releases/ 2003/ Oct03/ r102203) [138] Adrian, Bonnie. Framing the Bride: Globalizing Beauty and Romance in Taiwan's Bridal Industry. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Print. [140] (Locke & Horowitz, 1990). [144] Clark, M.S.; & Mills, J. (1979) [147] http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ US/ Careers/ 07/ 08/ looks/ Do Pretty People Earn More from cnn.com [148] (http:/ / simplelink. library. utoronto. ca/ url. cfm/ 264698) [150] De Santis, A; and Kayson, W.A. 1999 [154] Science rewrites the rules of attraction (http:/ / www. sensualism. com/ beauty/ attraction. html) [156] Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Biology of beauty." Newsweek. June 3, 1996 [157] Sexual atrractiveness predicted by voice attractiveness (http:/ / www. psychdaily. com/ article/ 613) [161] Evolution producing more 'beautiful' women (http:/ / www. news. com. au/ story/ 0,27574,25845304-36398,00. html)


Kanazawa, S. (2011). Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness. "Intelligence, 39"(1), 7-14.

Same-sex relationship


Same-sex relationship

A same-sex relationship is a relationship between two persons of the same sex and can take many forms, from romantic and sexual, to non-romantic close relationships. The term is mainly associated with homosexual people. In their essential psychological respects, these relationships are regarded as equivalent to opposite-sex relationships.[1] The term same-sex relationship is not strictly related to the sexual orientation of the participants. As bisexual, pansexual, asexual and also heterosexual people may participate in same-sex relationships, some activists[][] claim that referring to a same-sex relationship as a "gay relationship" or a "lesbian relationship" is a form of bisexual erasure. The term same-sex marriage is used similarly.

Same-sex relationships in history

The lives of many historical figures, including Socrates, Alexander the Great, Lord Byron, Edward II, Hadrian, Julius Caesar, Michelangelo, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Oscar Wilde, Vita Sackville-West, Alfonsina Storni and Christopher Marlowe included or were centered upon love and sexual relationships with people of their own sex. Terms such as gay or bisexual have often been applied to them; some, such as Michel Foucault, regard this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times,[] though others challenge this.[2]

Forms of same-sex relationships throughout history

Same-sex relationships can be grouped into three categories:[][]
Association Egalitarian Annotations See also

Features two partners with no relevance to age. Additionally, both play the same socially accepted sex role Sexuality and as heterosexuals of their own sex. This is exemplified by relationships currently prevalent in Western gender society between partners of similar age and sex. identity-based cultures Two-Spirit, Hijra and travesti

Gender-structured Features each partner playing a different gender role. This is exemplified by traditional relations between men in the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and Central and South Asia, non-postemodern Latin America (including, but not solely, both men-third gender relations and an equivalent to butch-femme for [3] both sexes), as well as Two-Spirit or shamanic gender-changing practices seen in native societies. In North America, this is best represented by the butchfemme practice. Age-structured Features partners of different ages, usually one adolescent and the other adult. This is exemplified by pederasty among the Classical Greeks or those engaged in by novice samurai with more experienced [3][4] warriors; southern Chinese, and Reino do Congo's, male youth marriage rites; traditional [5] sex-involving masculinity trainment in parts of the South Pacific, and pre-colonial Central Africa; and ongoing Central Asian and Middle Eastern practices.

Shudo, Pederasty

Usually one form of same-sex relationship predominates in a society, although others are likely to co-exist. Historian Rictor Norton has pointed out [6] that in ancient Greece, egalitarian relationships co-existed (albeit less privileged) with the institution of pederasty, and fascination with adolescents can also be found in modern sexuality, both opposite-sex and same-sex. Egalitarian same-sex relationships are the principal form present in the Western world, while age- and gender-structured same-sex relationships are less common (though they are still significant and coexist with the postmodern egalitarian form in Latin America, where male heterosexuals and "butch" i.e. macho, active/insertive bisexuals and pansexuals can even share a single identity).[] As a byproduct of growing Western cultural dominance, this form is spreading from Western culture to non-Western societies although there are still defined differences between the various cultures.

Same-sex relationship


Same-sex relationships in militaries

A few ancient and medieval societies, such as Greece and Japan, fostered erotic love bonds between experienced warriors and their apprentices.[citation needed] It was believed that a man and youth who were in love with each other would fight harder and with greater morale. A classic example of a military force built upon this belief is the Sacred Band of Thebes. However, other ancient and medieval cultures such as the Saxons and Vikings did not engage in this practice openly; therefore, these examples should not be regarded as a general rule for ancient cultures. The adoption of Christianity by the Roman Emperor Constantine in the fourth century and subsequent predominance of Christianity led to a diminished emphasis on erotic love among military forces. By the time of the Crusades, the military of Europe was asserting that carnal relations between males were sinful and therefore had no place in an army that served their perception of God's will. One reason that the Knights Templar, a prominent military order, was destroyed was through accusations of sodomy; these allegations were probably fabricated, however.

Examples in art and literature

The record of same-sex love has been preserved through literature and art. Male homoerotic sensibilities are visible in the foundations of art in the West, to the extent that those roots can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Plato's Symposium also gives readers commentary on the subject, at one point considering the claim that male-male love is superior to male-female love. The European tradition of homoeroticism was continued in the works of artists and writers such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Shakespeare. Since the Renaissance, both male and female homoeroticism has remained a common, if subtle and hidden, theme in the visual arts of the West. In Iranian (Persian) societies homoeroticism was present in the work of such writers as Abu Nuwas and Omar Khayyam. A large corpus of literature, numbering in the hundreds of works, fostered the shudo tradition in Japan, together with a widespread tradition of homoerotic shunga art.[7]

Young men sipping tea, reading poetry, and having sex Individual panel from a hand scroll on same-sex themes, paint on silk; China, Qing dynasty (c. 18th19th); Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana

In the Chinese literary tradition, works such as Bian er Zhai and Jin Ping Mei survived the many purges to record the homoerotic climate of their time. Today, the Japanese anime subgenre yaoi centers on gay youths. Japan is unusual in that the culture's male homoerotic art has typically been the work of female artists addressing a female audience, mirroring the case of lesbian eroticism in western art. In the twentieth century, entertainers such as Nol Coward, Madonna, k.d. lang, and David Bowie have brought homoeroticism into the field of western popular music. It is through these and other modern songwriters and poets that female homoerotic work by women, rather than erotic art by men with lesbian themes, has had its greatest cultural impact in the West since the ancient Greek poet Sappho.[citation needed] In the 1990s, a number of American television comedies began to feature themes on same-sex relationships and characters who expressed same-sex attractions. The 1997 coming-out of comedian Ellen DeGeneres on her show Ellen was front-page news in America and brought the show its highest ratings. However, public interest in the show swiftly declined after this, and the show was cancelled after one more season. Immediately afterward, Will & Grace, which ran from 1998 to 2006 on NBC, became the most successful series to date focusing on male-male sexual relationships. Showtime's Queer as Folk, running from 2000 to 2005, was noted for its somewhat frank depiction of gay life, as well as its vivid sex scenes, containing the first simulated explicit sex scene between two men shown on American television.

Same-sex relationship Playwrights have penned such popular homoerotic works as Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Tony Kushner's Angels in America. Same-sex relationships have also been a frequent theme in Broadway musicals, such as A Chorus Line and Rent. In 2005, the film Brokeback Mountain was a financial and critical success internationally. Unlike most same-sex couples in film, both the film's lovers were traditionally masculine and married. The movie's success was considered a milestone in the public acceptance of the American gay rights movement.


Platonic same-sex relationships

Other forms of same-sex relationships (which may or may not include romantic aspects or sexuality) include romantic friendships, bromances and other forms of closely bonded same-sex relationships.

Same-sex couples

Part of a series on

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights

Laws around the world Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage LGBT adoption Military service Immigration issues Violence against LGBT people Legal aspects of transsexualism LGBT rights organizations Opposition
LGBT portal

State protections and prohibitions regarding (romantic or sexual) same-sex couples vary by jurisdiction. In some locations, same-sex couples are extended full marriage rights just as opposite-sex couples, and in other locations they may be extended limited protections or none at all. Policy also varies regarding the adoption of children by same-sex couples.

Same-sex relationship


State recognition of same-sex couples

Government recognition of same-sex marriage is presently available in thirteen countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Sweden) and several sub-national jurisdictions (parts of Mexico and the United States) allow same-sex couples to marry. Same-sex marriages are due to become legal in Uruguay (August 1, 2013) and New Zealand (August 19, 2013). Bills legalizing same-sex marriage have been proposed, are pending, or have passed at least one legislative Two men marrying in Amsterdam within the first house in Andorra, Colombia, Finland, Luxembourg, Nepal, Taiwan, month that marriage was opened to same-sex and the United Kingdom, as well as in the legislatures of several couples in the Netherlands (2001). sub-national jurisdictions (in Scotland as well as parts of Australia, Mexico, and the United States). Other countries, including the majority of European nations, Colombia and Ecuador, have enacted laws allowing civil unions or domestic partnerships, designed to give gay couples similar rights as married couples concerning legal issues such as inheritance and immigration. Although same-sex marriages are not recognized federally in the United States, same-sex couples can legally marry in eleven states (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Washington) and the District of Columbia and receive state-level benefits.[8][9] Bills legalizing same-sex marriage have been passed in Minnesota and Rhode Island and take effect on August 1, 2013. The state of New Jersey does not grant same-sex marriages, but recognizes same-sex marriages performed in other jurisdictions. Also, several states offer civil unions or domestic partnerships, granting all or part of the state-level rights and responsibilities of marriage.[10] Thirty-one states have constitutional restrictions limiting marriage to one man and one woman.[11]

Same-sex couples as parents

LGBT parenting is when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are parents to one or more children, either as biological or non-biological parents. Same-sex male couples face coptions which include: "foster care, variations of domestic and international adoption, diverse forms of surrogacy (whether "traditional" or gestational), and kinship arrangements, wherein they might coparent with a woman or women with whom they are intimately but not sexually involved."[12][][13][14][15] LGBT parents can also include single people who are parenting; to a lesser extent, the term sometimes refers to families with LGBT children.

Male same-sex couple with child.

In the 2000 U.S. Census, 33 percent of female same-sex couple households and 22 percent of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under eighteen living in their home.[16] Some children do not know they have an LGBT parent; coming out issues vary and some parents may never come out to their children.[17][18] LGBT parenting in general, and adoption by LGBT couples may be controversial in some countries. In January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child.[19][20] In the U.S., LGBT people can legally adopt in all states.[21] There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents fare as well as those raised by heterosexual parents. More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents'

Same-sex relationship sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with one or more gay parents.[] No research supports the widely held conviction that the gender of parents matters for child well-being.[] It is well-established that both men and women have the capacity to be good parents, and that having parents of both genders does not enhance adjustment. The methodologies used in the major studies of same-sex parenting meet the standards for research in the field of developmental psychology and psychology generally. They constitute the type of research that members of the respective professions consider reliable.[22] If gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents were inherently less capable than otherwise comparable heterosexual parents, their children would evidence problems regardless of the type of sample. This pattern clearly has not been observed. Given the consistent failures in this research literature to disprove the null hypothesis, the burden of empirical proof is on those who argue that the children of sexual minority parents fare worse than the children of heterosexual parents.[] Professor Judith Stacey, of New York University, stated: Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights.[23] These organizations include the American Academy of Pediatrics,[] the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,[24] the American Psychiatric Association,[25] the American Psychological Association,[26] the American Psychoanalytic Association,[27] the National Association of Social Workers,[1] the Child Welfare League of America,[28] the North American Council on Adoptable Children,[29] and Canadian Psychological Association (CPA). CPA is concerned that some persons and institutions are mis-interpreting the findings of psychological research to support their positions, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems of belief or values.[30]


Same-sex sexuality
Types of relationships vary from one couple to the next. As in heterosexual relationships, some same-sex relationships are meant to be temporary, casual, or anonymous sex. Other relationships are more permanent, being in committed relationship with one another and not having sexual relationships with anyone else. Some are open relationships, and while committed to each other, allow themselves and their partner to have relationships with others.[citation needed] Other couples may be in secret, whether because of family upbringing, religion, pressure from friends/family, and other reasons. The names of legal same-sex relationships vary depending on the laws of the land. Same-sex relationships may be legally recognized in the form of marriage, civil unions, domestic partnerships, or registered partnerships.

Same-sex relationships and sexual orientation

Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors.[31] People in a same-sex relationship may identify as homosexual, bisexual, or even occasionally heterosexual.[32][33] Equally, not all people with a bisexual or homosexual orientation seek same-sex relationships. According to a 1990 study of The Social Organization of Sexuality, out of 131 women and 108 men who self-reported same-sex attraction, only 43 men (40%) and 42 women (32%) had participated in gay sex.[34] In comparison, a survey by the Family Pride Coalition showed that 50% of gay men had fathered children[35] and 75% of lesbians had children,[36] and even more have had straight sex without having children.

Same-sex relationship


Laws against same-sex sexuality

A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. The precise sexual acts meant by the term sodomy are rarely spelled out in the law, but is typically understood by courts to include any sexual act which does not lead to procreation. Furthermore, Sodomy has many synonyms: buggery, crime against nature, unnatural act, deviant sexual intercourse. It also has a range of Rings indicate local or case-by-case application. similar euphemisms.[] While in theory this may include heterosexual oral sex, anal sex, masturbation, and bestiality, in practice such laws are primarily enforced against sex between men (particularly anal sex).[] In the United States, the Supreme Court invalidated all sodomy laws in Lawrence v. Texas in 2003. 47 out of 50 states had repealed any specifically anti-homosexual-conduct laws at the time. Some other countries criminalize homosexual acts In some Muslim nations (such as Iran) and African countries it remains a capital crime. In a highly publicized case, two male teenagers, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, were hanged in Iran in 2005 reportedly because they had been caught having sex with each other.[]

Men who have sex with men (MSM)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) refers to men who engage in sexual activity with other men, regardless of how they identify themselves; many choose not to accept social identities of gay or bisexual.[][][][][] The term was created in the 1990s by epidemiologists in order to study the spread of disease among men who have sex with men, regardless of identity.[] As a risk category, MSM are not limited to small, self-identified, and visible sub-populations. MSM and gay refer to different things: behaviors and social identities. MSM refers to sexual activities between men, regardless of how they identify whereas gay can include those activities but is more broadly seen as a cultural identity. MSM is often used in medical literature and social research to describe such men as a group for clinical study without considering issues of self-identification. As with any sexual relationship, people may begin with various forms of foreplay such as fondling, caressing, and kissing, and may or may not experiment with other practices, as they see fit. Sex between males can include mutual masturbation, frot, intercrural sex, oral sex and anal sex.

Women who have sex with women (WSW)

Women who have sex with women (WSW) is a term used to identify women who have sex with other women, but may or may not self-identify as lesbian or bisexual. The term includes transwomen (transgender women). Sex between two females can include tribadism and frottage, mutual masturbation, cunnilingus, and the use of sex toys for vaginal, anal, or oral penetration or clitoral stimulation. As with any sexual relationship, people may begin with various forms of foreplay such as fondling, caressing, and kissing, and may or may not experiment with other practices, as they see fit.

Same-sex relationship


Religious perspectives on same-sex sexuality

Religions have had differing views about love and sexual relations between people of the same sex. Presently, a large proportion of the Abrahamic sects view sexual relationships outside of a heterosexual marriage, including sex between same-sex partners, negatively, though there are groups within each faith that disagree with orthodox positions and challenge their doctrinal authority. Opposition to homosexual behavior ranges from quietly discouraging displays and activities to those who explicitly forbid same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively oppose social acceptance of homosexual relationships. Support of homosexual behavior is reflected in the acceptance of sexually heterodox individuals in all functions of the church, and sanctification of same-sex unions.

According to John Boswell's controversial thesis, saints Sergius and Bacchus may have been united in a pact called Adelphopoiesis, or "brother-making"

Some churches have changed their doctrine to accommodate same-sex relationships. Reform Judaism, the largest branch of Judaism outside Israel has begun to facilitate religious same-sex marriages for adherents in their synagogues. Jewish Theological Seminary, considered to be the flagship institution of Conservative Judaism, decided in March 2007 to begin accepting applicants in same-sex relationships, after scholars who guide the movement lifted the ban on ordaining people in same-sex relationships.[] In 2005, the United Church of Christ became the largest Christian denomination in the United States to formally endorse same-sex marriage. On the other hand, the Anglican Communion encountered discord that caused a rift between the African (except Southern Africa) and Asian Anglican churches on the one hand and North American churches on the other when American and Canadian churches openly ordained clergy in same-sex relations and began blessing same-sex unions. Other churches such as the Methodist Church had experienced trials of clergy in same-sex relations who some claimed were a violation of religious principles resulting in mixed verdicts dependent on geography. Some religious groups have even promoted boycotts of corporations whose policies support same-sex relations. In early 2005, the American Family Association threatened a boycott of Ford products to protest Ford's perceived support of "the homosexual agenda and homosexual marriage".[37]

[1] Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365, Application for leave to file brief amici curiae in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion, and brief amici curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion (http:/ / www. courtinfo. ca. gov/ courts/ supreme/ highprofile/ documents/ Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief. pdf) [2] Thomas K. Hubbard, Review of David M. Halperin, How to Do the History of Homosexuality. in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2003.09.22 [3] Prof. Dr. Luiz Mott, Federal University of Pelotas Etno-history of homosexuality in Latin America (http:/ / ich. ufpel. edu. br/ ndh/ downloads/ Luiz_Mott_Volume_04. pdf) [4] Prof. Dr. Luiz Mott, Federal University of Maranho 'Feiticeiros' or "male witches" from Angola in Portuguese America (http:/ / www. ppgcsoc. ufma. br/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=280& catid=68& Itemid=114) [5] Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (December, 1970). Sexual Inversion among the Azande. American Anthropologist, New Series, 72(6), 14281434. [6] Intergenerational and Egalitarian Models, (http:/ / www. infopt. demon. co. uk/ social19. htm) [7] Gregory M. Pflugfelder, Cartographies of Desire, passim [12] Berkowitz, D & Marsiglio, W (2007). Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities. Journal of Marriage and Family 69 (May 2007): 366381 [13] The Married Lesbian (http:/ / www. haworthpress. com/ store/ ArticleAbstract. asp?sid=3Q4EE45JK40W8L1DN0HJVF3U8WFT5DSC& ID=82829) [16] APA Policy Statement on Sexual Orientation, Parents & Children (http:/ / www. apa. org/ pi/ lgbc/ policy/ parents. html), American Psychological Association, July 28 & 30, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-04-06. [19] EMRK is for the LGBT adoption (http:/ / cmiskp. echr. coe. int/ tkp197/ view. asp?item=1& portal=hbkm& action=html& highlight=43546/ 02& sessionid=4859311& skin=hudoc-en)

Same-sex relationship
[20] Euronews: Gleichgeschlechtliche Adoptiveltern - Gerichtshof rgt Frankreich (german) (http:/ / www. euronews. net/ index. php?page=info& article=466057& lng=3) [21] ; Arkansas became to last state to permit adoption by same-sex couple when the Arkansas Supreme Court unanimously found the measure banning such adoptions unconstitutional in 2011. Metroweekly: Chris Geidner, "Arkansas High Court Strikes Down State's 2008 Adoption Ban," April 7, 2011 (http:/ / metroweekly. com/ poliglot/ 2011/ 04/ arkansas-high-court-strikes-do. html), accessed April 7, 2011 [22] Michael Lamb, Ph.D.: Affidavit - United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (2009) (http:/ / www. glad. org/ uploads/ docs/ cases/ 2009-11-17-doma-aff-lamb. pdf) [23] cited in Cooper & Cates, 2006, p. 36; citation available on http:/ / www. psychology. org. au/ Assets/ Files/ LGBT-Families-Lit-Review. pdf [24] Children with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents (http:/ / www. aacap. org/ cs/ root/ facts_for_families/ children_with_lesbian_gay_bisexual_and_transgender_parents) [25] Adoption and Co-parenting of Children by Same-sex Couples (http:/ / www. psych. org/ Departments/ EDU/ Library/ APAOfficialDocumentsandRelated/ PositionStatements/ 200214. aspx) [26] Sexual Orientation, Parents, & Children (http:/ / www. apa. org/ about/ governance/ council/ policy/ parenting. aspx) [27] Position Statement on Gay and Lesbian Parenting (http:/ / www. apsa. org/ About_APsaA/ POSITION_STATEMENTS/ GAY_AND_LESBIAN_PARENTING. aspx) [28] Position Statement on Parenting of Children by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults (https:/ / www. cwla. org/ programs/ culture/ glbtqposition. htm) [29] NACAC Position Statements (http:/ / www. nacac. org/ policy/ positions. html#Gay) [30] Marriage of Same-Sex Couples 2006 Position Statement Canadian Psychological Association (http:/ / www. cpa. ca/ cpasite/ userfiles/ Documents/ Marriage of Same-Sex Couples Position Statement - October 2006 (1). pdf) [32] When Gay guise happens to straight marriage (http:/ / www. psychotherapynetworker. org/ index. php?category=annual_conferences& sub_cat=saturday_workshops#514) [33] See Gay for pay [37] " Family group to boycott Ford for its gay support. (http:/ / find. galegroup. com/ ips/ infomark. do?& contentSet=IAC-Documents& type=retrieve& tabID=T003& prodId=IPS& docId=A133003422& source=gale& srcprod=GRGM& userGroupName=va0053_remote& version=1. 0)(American Family Association (AFA))(Brief Article)." PR Week (US) (June 6, 2005): 02. General Reference Center Gold. Thomson Gale. Newport News Public Library System. 7 April 2007.


External links
Arizona Central: Here's to 'bromance' (http://www.azcentral.com/ent/pop/articles/0324bromance-CR. html?&wired) (March 24, 2008) Seattle Times: Bromances aren't uncommon as guys delay marriage (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/ living/2004328748_bromance07.html) (April 7, 2008)

Human sexuality


Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the capacity to have erotic experiences and responses.[1] Human sexuality may also involve a person's sexual attraction to another person which may be determined by their sexual orientation whether it is to the opposite sex (heterosexuality), to the same sex (homosexuality), having both these tendencies (bisexuality),[2] to all gender identities (pansexuality or bisexuality),[] or not being attracted to anyone in a sexual manner (asexuality). Human sexuality impacts cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life. It can refer to issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty.[3] Some researchers assume that sexual behavior is determined by genetics, and others assert that it is molded by the environment.[4] This is the nature versus nurture debate, in which one can define nature as those behavioral traits that are due to innate characteristics, such as instincts and drives. The concept of nurture can be defined as the environmental factors or external stimuli that influence behavior, emotions, and thinking.[5] Biological and physical differences include the human sexual response cycle among men and women.[6] Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling and/or reproduction, including the sexual strategies theory, provide another perspective on sexuality,[7] as does social learning theory.[8] Socio-cultural aspects of sexuality include historical developments and religious beliefs, including Jewish views on sexual pleasure within the marriage and Christian views on avoidance of sexual pleasures.[6] The study of sexuality also includes human identity within social groups, sexually transmitted diseases, and infections (STDs and STIs) and birth control methods.

Nature-versus-nurture debate
Certain characteristics are believed to be innate in humans, although they may be modified by interactions with the physical and social environment.[9] Human sexuality is driven by genetics and mental activity. Normative characteristics, as well as social, cultural, educational, and environmental characteristics of an individual also moderate the sexual drive.[10] The sexual drive affects the development of personal identity[10] and many social activities.[11] There are two well-known theorists who formed the opposing positions in the nature versus nurture debate. Sigmund Freud, a firm supporter of the nature argument, believed that sexual drives are instinctive and viewed sexuality as the central source of human personality. John Locke, on the other hand, believed in the nurture argument, using his theory of the mind being seen as a "tabula rasa" or blank slate, the environment in which one develops drives their sexuality.[12]

Thomas Aquinas
Medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas held sexuality in accordance with virtues such as temperance and charity not to be evil in itself: "If we suppose the corporeal nature to be created by the good God we cannot hold that those things which pertain to the preservation of the corporeal nature and to which nature inclines, are altogether evil; wherefore, since the inclination to beget an offspring whereby the specific nature is preserved is from nature, it is impossible to maintain that the act of begetting children is altogether unlawful, so that it be impossible to find the mean of virtue therein; unless we suppose, as some are mad enough to assert, that corruptible things were created by an evil god, whence perhaps the opinion mentioned in the text is derived (Sent. iv, D, 26); wherefore this is a most wicked heresy."[13] The virtue of temperance tempers excess in acts and habits according to Aristotle and Aquinas's virtue ethics, where the aim is not necessarily total abstinence (although Aquinas holds this as easier to achieve), but a perfect mean according to good (i.e. such things as virtue, reason, natural law, Divine Law, and intelligence). Hence, chastity[14] and the habit of virginity, defined as "the continual meditation on incorruption in a corruptible flesh" are the parts of

Human sexuality the virtue temperance related to sexuality,[15] and are opposed by excess by lust. Aquinas argues that a reasoned use of sexuality should be according to its end, which is human procreation, again in accordance with charity and other virtues, i.e. "true good": "A sin, in human acts, is that which is against the order of reason. Now the order of reason consists in its ordering everything to its end in a fitting manner. Wherefore it is no sin if one, by the dictate of reason, makes use of certain things in a fitting manner and order for the end to which they are adapted, provided this end be something truly good. Now just as the preservation of the bodily nature of one individual is a true good, so, too, is the preservation of the nature of the human species a very great good. And just as the use of food is directed to the preservation of life in the individual, so is the use of venereal acts directed to the preservation of the whole human race. Hence Augustine says (De Bono Conjug. xvi): "What food is to a man's well being, such is sexual intercourse to the welfare of the whole human race." Wherefore just as the use of food can be without sin, if it be taken in due manner and order, as required for the welfare of the body, so also the use of venereal acts can be without sin, provided they be performed in due manner and order, in keeping with the end of human procreation." Aquinas reckons lust to be a "mortal sin" and a "capital vice." The daughters, or consequences, of lust are described as "blindness of mind, thoughtlessness, inconstancy, rashness, self-love, hatred of God, love of this world and abhorrence or despair of a future world."[16] Moreover, as with any "mortal sin," Aquinas reckons that lust destroys the charity, and consequently also the happiness, in humans.[17]


Sigmund Freud
Freud's theory assumed that behavior was rooted in biology. He proposed that instincts are the principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and held that there are a large number of instincts but that they are reduced into two broad groups; Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers instincts toward aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty.[] Freud gave sexual drives a centrality in human life, actions, and behaviors that had not been accepted before his proposal. His instinct theory suggested that humans are driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasures, thus supporting the nature debate. Freud successfully redefined the term "sexuality" to make it cover any form of pleasure that can be derived from the human body,[] raised the notion that the pre-genital zones are primitive areas of preliminary enjoyment preceding sexual intercourse and orgasm.[18] He reasoned that pleasure lowers tension, while displeasure raises it, influencing the sexual drive in humans. His developmentalist perspective was governed by inner forces, especially biological drives and maturation, and his view that humans are biologically inclined to seek sexual gratification demonstrates the nature side of the debate.[12]

John Locke
Locke (1632 1704) rejected the assumption that there are innate differences among people, and argued that people are shaped strongly by their social environments, especially by education.[12] He believed that it would be accurate to view a childs mind as a tabula rasa or blank slate; whatever goes into the mind will come from the surrounding environment.[12] As the person develops, they discover their identity. Locke proposed to follow a child from its birth and observe the changes that time makes, saying that one will find that as the mind, through sensory information, becomes furnished with ideas, it becomes more awake and aware. He said that after some time, the childs mind begins to know the objects which are most familiar. As the childs brain develops, he or she begins to know the people and social surroundings of daily life and can then distinguish the known from the unknown. This view supports the nurture side of the debate.[19] Locke believed that there are no natural obstructions that would block the development of childrens inherent potential for acting freely and rationally and that everyone is born to become independent beings and benefit from the environment.[20] Human sexual behavior is different than the sexual behavior of most other animal species, in that it seems to be affected by several factors. For example, while most non-human species are driven to partake in sexual behavior

Human sexuality when reproduction is possible, humans are not sexually active just for the sake of reproduction.[] The environment, culture, and social setting play major roles in the perception, attitudes, and behaviors of sexuality. Sexual behavior is also affected by the inability to detect sexual stimuli, incorrect labeling, or misattribution. This may in turn impede an individuals sexual performance.[]


Evolutionary aspects
Sex in private distinguishes humans from bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Testis and penis size are related to family structure: monogamy or promiscuity, harem, in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, respectively (see The Third Chimpanzee and Why is Sex Fun? by Jared Diamond). Involvement of the father in education, concealed ovulation, and menopause in women, are quite unique to our species, at least when compared to other hominins. Concealed (or hidden) ovulation means that the phase of fertility is not detectable in humans, whereas chimpanzees advertise ovulation by an obvious swelling of the genitals. Women can be partly aware of their ovulation, along the menstrual phases, but men are essentially unable to detect ovulation in women. Most primates have semi-concealed ovulation; thus, one can think that the common ancestor had semi-concealed ovulation, that he transmitted to gorillas, but that later evolved into concealed ovulation in humans and advertised ovulation in chimpanzee (see "Why is Sex Fun?").

Biological and physiological aspects

The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with human reproduction and the physical means with which to carry it out (sexual intercourse). They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses,[21] heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.[22]

Physical anatomy and reproduction

Men and women are anatomically similar except when it comes to the reproductive system and genitalia. Both men and women have different physical mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and procreate. Both men and women react to sexual stimuli in somewhat of the same fashion with only minor differences. Women have a monthly reproductive cycle and the male sperm production cycle is more continuous.[6] Brain The brain is the structure that translates nerve impulses from the skin into pleasurable sensations. It controls nerves and muscles used during sexual behavior. The brain regulates the release of hormones which are believed to be the physiological origin of sexual desire. The cerebral cortex, which is the outer layer of the brain and allows for thinking and reasoning is believed to be the origin of sexual thoughts and fantasies. Beneath the cortex is the limbic system, which consists of the amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, and septal area. These structures are where emotions and feelings are believed to originate from and are important for sexual behavior. The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is the small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes complete elimination of sexual behavior. One of the reasons for the importance of the hypothalamus is its relation to the pituitary gland which lies right beneath it. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones secreted are oxytocin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.[6] Oxytocin is also known as the Hormone of Love. Oxytocin is released in both men and women during sexual intercourse when an orgasm is achieved. It is believed that oxytocin is involved with maintaining close relationships. The hormone is also released in women when they give birth or are breastfeeding.[23] Both prolactic and oxytocin stimulate milk production in women. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS) is responsible for ovulation in women by triggering egg maturity and in men it stimulates sperm production.[24] Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Human sexuality triggers ovulation which is the release of a mature egg.[6] Female anatomy and reproductive system Women have both external (genitalia) and internal reproductive organs. For the women, their genitalia can be collectively known as the vulva. The vulva includes the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, and urethral opening. Womens genitalia vary in appearance from person to person, differing in size, shape, and color. A womans feelings towards her genitalia are directly related to her participation and enjoyment of anything sexual. External female anatomy The mons veneris is also known as the "Mount of Venus." This area is the soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the area where the pubic bone comes together.[25] Following puberty, this area grows in size. It is sensitive to stimulation due to many nerve endings gathering in this area.[6] The labia (minora and majora) are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum in women. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. Labia majora would also be known as the outer lips. In between the labia majora are the labia minora. These two hairless folds of skin meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch. The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn bright red or wine colored.[6] Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The External female genitals labia minora are composed of connective tissues that are richly supplied with blood vessels which cause the pinkish appearance.[] The purpose of the labia minora is to protect the vaginal and urethral opening by covering them in a sexually unstimulated state. Located at the base of the labia minora are the Bartholin's glands which contribute a few drops of an alkaline fluid to the vagina via ducts which helps to counteract acidity of the outer vagina since sperm cannot live in an acidic environment.[6] The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis, but with its tip or glans alone harboring more nerve endings than the penis or any other part of the human body, making the clitoris extremely sensitive to touch.[][][] This small, elongated erectile structure has only one known functionfocus sexual sensations. The clitoris is also the main source of orgasm in women.[][26][][] The thick secretions that collect here in the clitoris are called smegma.[6] The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. This opening has many nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch. It is surrounded by the bulbocavernosus muscle which is a ring of sphincter muscles that contract and relax. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal. Within the vaginal opening, there is something called the hymen which is a thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. To rupture the hymen is considered to be losing ones virginity. The urethral opening expels urine from the bladder. This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. This opening connects to the bladder with the urethra.[6]


Human sexuality The last part of the external organs used for sexual pleasure are the breasts. Western culture is one of the few that find breasts to be erotic.[6] The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.[] Their purpose is to provide milk to a developing infant. They develop during puberty due to an increase in estrogen, and each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 mammary glands, which are milk producing glands. It is the more fatty tissue one has that determines the size of breasts, and heredity plays a huge role in determining size.[6] A mammary gland is composed of fifteen to twenty irregularly shaped lobes, each of which includes alveolar glands, and a duct (lactiferous duct) that leads to the nipple and opens to the outside. The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles. Other connective tissue, which forms dense strands called "suspensory ligaments," extends inward from the skin of the breast to the pectoral tissue to support the weight of the breast. The breasts are really modified sweat glands, which are made up of fibrous tissues and fat that provide support and contain nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.[] Internal female anatomy The females internal reproductive organs consist of the vagina, uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The vagina is the sheath-like canal in women that extends from the vulva to the cervix. The vagina receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. This is also known as the birth canal and can expand to 10 centimeters during labor and delivery. The vagina is located behind the bladder but in front of the rectum. The vagina is normally The female reproductive system collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication, which allows the penis to be inserted. The vagina has three layered walls, and is a self-cleaning organ with natural important bacterium within it to keep the production of yeast down.[6] The G-Spot, named after the German doctor who first reported it in 1950, may be located in the front wall of the vagina and may cause orgasms. This area can vary in size and location from woman to woman, or be non-existent in some women, and various researchers dispute its structure and existence.[6][][] The uterus is also known as the womb; a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg, called a zygote, will implant itself and grow into a fetus.[6] The uterus lies in the pelvic cavity behind the bladder, in front of the bowel, and above the vagina. Normally, it is positioned in a ninety-degree angle tilting forward, although in about twenty percent of women it tilts backwards.[] The uterus consists of three layers with the innermost layer being the endometrium. The endometrium is where the egg is implanted. During ovulation, this thickens up for implantation, but if implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus.[6] The Fallopian tubes are the passageways that an egg travels down to the uterus during ovulation. These extend about four inches from both sides of the uterus. There are finger like projections at the end of the tubes that brush the ovaries and pick up the egg once it is released. The egg then travels for about three to four days down to the uterus.[6] After sexual intercourse, sperm swim up this funnel from the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain both the egg and the sperm, encouraging fertilization and nourishing the egg until it reaches the uterus. If an egg splits in two after fertilization, identical twins are produced. If separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm, the mother gives birth to non-identical or fraternal twins."[]


Human sexuality The ovaries are the female gonads, and they are developed from the same embryonic tissue as the male gonads (testicles). These are suspended by ligaments and are the source where the egg or ova are stored and developed before ovulation. The ovaries are also responsible for producing female hormones: progesterone and estrogen. Within the ovaries, each egg is surrounded by other cells and contained within a capsule called a primary follicle. At puberty, one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis. Once matured these are now called Graafian follicles.[6] The female, unlike the male, does not manufacture the sex cells. A girl baby is born with about 60,000 of these cells. Only about 400 eggs in a womens lifetime will mature.[] A females ovulation is based on a monthly cycle with the fourteenth day being the most fertile. Days five through thirteen are known as the Preovulatory stages. During this stage, the pituitary gland in the brain secretes Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Then a negative feedback loop is enacted when estrogen is secreted to inhibit the release of FSH. This estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surge triggers ovulation. Day fourteen, ovulation, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary. Once the follicle ruptures, the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity where the fallopian tubes pick up the ovum with the fimbria. The cervical mucus changes to aid in the movement of sperm. Days fifteen to twenty-eight, the Post-ovulatory stage, the Graafian follicle that once held the ovum is now called the corpus luteum, and it now secretes estrogen. Progesterone increases inhibiting LH release. The endometrium thickens to get ready for implantation, and the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. If the egg does not become fertilized and does not implant menstruation begins. Days one to four, menstruation, estrogen and progesterone decreases and the endometrium starts thinning. Now the endometrium is sloughed off for the next three to six days. Once menstruation ends the cycle begins again with an FSH surge from the pituitary gland.[6] Male anatomy and reproductive system Men also have both internal and external (genitalia) structures that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Men produce their sperm on a cycle, but unlike the females ovulation cycle, the male sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.[6] External male anatomy


Human sexuality


The male genitalia are the penis (which has both internal and external structures) and the scrotum (holds the testicles). The penis's purpose is for sexual intercourse and is a passageway for sperm and urine. An average sized unstimulated penis is about 3.75inches in length and 1.2inches in diameter. When erect on average, men are most between 4.5 to 6inches in length and 1.5inches in diameter; 4.5 inches in circumference. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaft, glans, and the root.[6] The shaft of the penis consists of three cylinder-shaped bodies of spongy tissue filled with tiny blood vessels, which run the length of the organ. Two of these bodies lie side by side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa. The third is a tube which lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis (glans) called the corpus spongiosum.[] The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through External male genitals the shaft so that sperm and urine have a way out the body. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura, and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body also known as the bulb. The root is also surrounded by two muscles: bulbocavernosus muscle and ischiocavernosus muscle which aid in urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that usually covers the glans, and in many cultures, is removed at birth in a controversial procedure called circumcision.[6] Circumcision is one of the oldest forms of body modification known to exist. The second external structure is the scrotum. Here the testicles are held away from the body so that sperm can be produced in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. Sweat glands are also located in this region to aid in temperature control. Internal male anatomy Males also have internal reproductive structures as well, and these consist of the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowpers gland.[6] The testicles are the male gonads. This is where sperm and male hormones (androgens) are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules that measure all together over a quarter of a mile. Cells called the Leydig cells or interstitial cells of Leydig are between the tubules and produce hormones. The

The male reproductive system

Human sexuality hormones that are produced are called androgens, and they consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by the spermatic cord which is a tube like structure that contains blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.[6] The next internal structure is the four part duct system that transports sperm. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The seminiferous tubules are the testicles converging to form coiled tubes that are felt at the top and back of each testicle. Each tubule uncoiled is about twenty feet long. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferens.[6] The vas deferens is also known as ductus deferens, and is a muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The vas deferens also passes upward along the side of the testicles to become part of the spermatic cord.[] The expanded end is the ampulla which stores sperm before ejaculation. The third part of the duct system are the ejaculatory ducts which are one inch long paired tubes that pass through the prostate gland. This is where semen is produced.[6] The prostate gland is a solid, chestnut-shaped organ that surrounds the first part of the urethra (tube which carries the urine and semen and the fourth part of the duct system[6]) in the male.[] The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles help produce seminal fluid that gets mixed with sperm to create semen.[6] The prostate gland lies under the bladder, in front of the rectum. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone which produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone which produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen.[] The seminal vesicles secrete fructose for sperm activation and mobilization, prostaglandins to cause uterine contractions which aids in movement through the structure, and bases which help neutralize the acidity of the vagina because sperm cannot survive in an acidic environment. The last internal structure is the Cowpers glands, or bulbourethral glands, which are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. These structures


Sexual response cycle

The sexual response cycle is a model that describes the physiological responses that take place in men and women during sexual activity. This model was created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle consists of four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. The excitement phase is the phase in which one attains the intrinsic motivation to pursue sex. The plateau phase sets the stage for orgasm. Orgasm may be more biological for men and more psychological for women. Orgasm is the release of tension, and the resolution period is the unaroused state before the cycle begins again.[6] The male sexual response cycle starts out in the excitement phase where two centers in the spine are responsible for an erection. Vasoconstriction begins in the penis, the heart rate increases, scrotum thickens, spermatic cord shortens, and the testicles become engorged in blood. The second phase, plateau, the penis increases in diameter, the testicles become even more engorged, and the Cowpers glands secrete preseminal fluid. The third stage, orgasm, during which rhythmic contractions occur every 0.8 secondsWikipedia:Verifiability, consists of two phases in men. The first phase of orgasm is the emission phase in which contractions of the vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles encourage ejaculation which is the second phase of orgasm. This phase of orgasm is called the expulsion phase and this phase cannot be reached without an orgasm. Finally, the resolution phase is when the male is now in an unaroused state which consists of a refractory period (rest period) before the cycle can begin. This rest period may increase with a mans age.[6] The female sexual response begins with the excitement phase which can last from several minutes to several hours. Characteristics of this phase include increased heart and respiratory rate and an elevation of blood pressure. Flushed skin or blotches of redness may occur on the chest and back; breasts increase slightly in size and nipples may become hardened and erect. The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the woman's clitoris and labia minora and the woman's vagina begins to swell. The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening grows tighter and her uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating liquid. The second phase, called the plateau phase, is characterized primarily by the intensification of all of the changes begun during the excitement

Human sexuality phase. The plateau phase extends to the brink of orgasm, which initiates the resolution stage, the reversal of all of the changes begun during the excitement phase. During the orgasm stage the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rates reach maximum peaks. The pelvic muscle near the vagina, the anal sphincter and the uterus contract. While muscle contractions in the vaginal area create a high level of pleasure, all orgasms are centered in the clitoris, whether they result from direct manual stimulation applied to the clitoris or indirect pressure resulting from the thrusting of penis during intercourse [6][27][28][]


Sexual dysfunction and sexual problems

Men and women have many sexual problems which frequently arise because of other problems within a relationship or simply because of individual differences. These differences consist of differences in expectations, assumptions, desire, preferred behaviors, and relationship conflicts. Although these differences create sexual problems in both men and women, problems among men and women are different. The World Health Organizations International Classifications of Diseases defines sexual problems as the various ways in which an individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he or she would wish. Sexual disorders, according to the DSM-IV-TR, are disturbances in sexual desire and psycho-physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress, and interpersonal difficulty. There are four major categories of sexual problems: desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders.[6] 1. Hypoactive sexual desire 1. Low sexual drive 2. Occurs at the excitement phase 2. Sexual aversion 1. Anticipation of any kind of sexual interactions causes great anxiety 3. Sexual arousal disorder 1. In men, erectile dysfunction 2. In women, the difficulty of becoming aroused 4. Orgasmic disorders 1. In men, premature ejaculation and ejaculatory incompetence 2. In women, the inability to have an orgasm 5. Hypersexuality (sexual addiction) 6. Sexual pain disorders 1. In men, four different disorders: 1. Dyspareunia (pain during intercourse due to a physical problem) 2. Post-ejaculatory syndrome (pain in the genitals during or after orgasm) 3. Priapism (prolonged erection) 4. Coital cephalalgia (migraine headaches during and after orgasm) 2. In women, three different disorders: 1. Dyspareunia (recurrent genital pain during intercourse) 2. Vaginismus (vagina involuntarily closes) 3. Noncoital sexual pain disorder (genital pain due to arousal)

Human sexuality


Psychological aspects
Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses. Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality.[29] Psychological studies of sexuality focus on psychological influences that affect sexual behavior and experiences.[22] Early psychological analyses were carried out by Sigmund Freud, who believed in a psychoanalytic approach. He also conjectured the concepts of erogenous zones, psychosexual development, and the Oedipus complex, among others.[30] Behavior theorists such as John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner examine the actions and consequences and their ramifications. These theorists would, for example, study a child who is punished for sexual exploration and see if they grow up to associate negative feelings with sex in general.[31] Social-learning theorists use similar concepts, but focus on cognitive activity and modeling.

Sigmund Freud with daughter Anna

Gender identity is a person's own sense of identification as female, male, both, neither, or somewhere in between. The social construction of gender has been discussed by a wide variety of scholars, Judith Butler notable among them. Recent contributions consider the influence of feminist theory and courtship research.[32][33] Sexual behavior and intimate relationships are strongly influenced by a persons sexual orientation.[34] Sexual orientation refers to your degree of emotional and physical attraction to members of the opposite sex, same sex, or both sexes.[34] Heterosexual people are attracted to the members of the opposite sex. Homosexual people are attracted to people of the same sex. Those who are bisexual are attracted to both men and women. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been ignored or tolerated by the Christian church.[] During the 12th century however, hostility toward homosexuality began to spread throughout religious and secular institutions. By the end of the 19th century, homosexuality was viewed as a pathology.[] Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud adopted more accepting stances. Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made significant contributions to society.[] Freud believed all human beings as capable of becoming either heterosexual or homosexual; neither orientation was assumed to be innate.[35] Freud claimed that a persons orientation depended on how the Oedipus complex was resolved. He believed that male homosexuality resulted when a young boy had an authoritarian, rejecting mother and turned to his father for love and affection and later to men in general. He believed female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identified with her father and became fixated at that stage.[35] Freud and Ellis thought homosexuality resulted from reversed gender roles. This view is reinforced today by the medias portraying male homosexuals as effeminate and female homosexuals as masculine.[35] Whether a person conforms or does not conform to gender stereotypes does not always predict sexual orientation. Society believes that if a man is masculine he is heterosexual, and if a man is feminine he must be homosexual. There is no strong evidence that a homosexual or bisexual orientation must be associated with atypical gender roles. Today, homosexuality is no longer considered to be a pathology. In addition, many factors have been linked to homosexuality including: genetic factors, anatomical factors, birth order, and hormones in the prenatal environment.[35]

Human sexuality


Reasons for sexual activity

Other than the need of extending one's family tree, there are many other reasons people have sex. According to one study conducted on college students (Meston & Buss, 2007), the four main reasons for sexual activities are: physical attraction, as a means to an end, to increase emotional connection, and to alleviate insecurity.[36]

Sexuality and age

Child sexuality
In the past, children were often assumed not to have sexuality until later development. Sigmund Freud was one of the first researchers to take child sexuality seriously. His ideas, such as psychosexual development and the Oedipus conflict, have been highly debated but regardless, acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was a huge milestone.[37] Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, actions, and behavior arguing that sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth. He explains this in his theory of infantile sexuality, and claims that sexual energy (libido) is the single most important motivating force in adult life.[] Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to ones sexual and emotional development. From the initial days of life, the mother's connection to the infant has an effect on the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment.[38] Freud described two currents of emotional life in all of us: an affectionate current, including our bonds with the important people in our lives, and a sensual current, including our wish to gratify sexual impulses. During adolescence, a young person tries to integrate these two emotional currents. This is a difficult task and the risks are many. There are numerous inner conflicts and failures of development that may keep a person repeating immature sexual patterns; this is evident in much that we see on the news.[38] The real challenge is to bring about a convergence of the two currents; the affectionate and the sensual. The sexual over excitement often characteristic of adolescent experimentation is not adaptive in a grown adult. Freuds work led him to establish the stages of psychosexual development where he describes infantile sexuality through steps.[12] From the moment of birth an infant is driven in their actions by the desire for bodily and sexual pleasure. This is seen by Freud as the desire to release mental energy. At first, infants gain such release, and derive pleasure from the act of sucking. Freud terms this the oral stage of development. Its followed by a stage in which the center of pleasure or energy release is the anus, mainly in the act of defecation. This is termed the anal stage. Then, the young child develops an interest in its genitalia as a site of pleasure known as the phallic stage. According to Freud, the child then develops a deep sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, and a hatred of the parent of the same sex. This is known as the Oedipus complex. However, this gives rise to socially derived feelings of guilt in the child, who eventually recognizes that it can never supersede the stronger parent. A male child also perceives himself to be at risk, he fears that if he persists in pursuing the sexual attraction for his mother, he may be harmed by the father. Both the attraction for the mother and the hatred are usually repressed, and the child typically resolves the conflict of the Oedipus complex by coming to identify with the parent of the same sex. This happens at the age of five, whereupon the child enters a latency period in which sexual motivations become much less pronounced. This lasts until puberty when mature genital development begins and the pleasure drive refocuses around the genital area.[] Freud believed that this is the progression inherent in normal human development, and is to be observed beginning at the infant level. The instinctual attempts to satisfy the pleasure drive are frequently checked by parental control and social influencing. For the child, the developmental process is in essence a movement through a series of conflicts. The successful resolution of these conflicts is crucial to adult mental health. Many mental illnesses, particularly hysteria, Freud held, can be traced back to unresolved conflicts experienced at this stage, or to events which otherwise disrupt the normal pattern of infantile development. For example, homosexuality is seen by some Freudians as resulting from a failure to resolve the conflicts of the Oedipus complex, particularly a failure to identify with the parent of the same sex; the obsessive concern with washing and personal hygiene which characterizes the behavior of some neurotics is seen as resulting from unresolved conflicts or repressions occurring at the anal stage.[]

Human sexuality Alfred Kinsey also examined child sexuality in his Kinsey Reports. Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions. For example, they wonder where babies come from, they notice the differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play (often mistaken for masturbation). Child sex play includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends (playing doctor).[37] Sex play with others usually decreases as children go through their elementary school years, yet they still may possess romantic interest in their peers. Curiosity levels remain high during these years, but it is not until adolescence that the main surge in sexual interest occurs.[37]


Sexuality in late adulthood

Adult sexuality originates in childhood. However, like many other human capacities, sexuality is not fixed, but matures and develops. A common stereotype suggests that people tend to lose interest in and ability to engage in sexual acts once they reach late adulthood. This stereotype is reinforced by Western pop culture, which often ridicules older adults that try to engage in sexual activities. Men are shown suffering heart attacks from over-excitement, and women are depicted as grateful if anyone shows an interest in them. The term "dirty old man" is applied to older men who show an interest in sex beyond a level the speaker considered appropriate . The language for older women, by contrast, is sexless,[] and older women are portrayed as sexually unattractive and undesirable. Sexuality, however, is similar to most other aspects of aging. Age does not necessarily change the need or desire to be sexually expressive or active. If a couple has been in a long-term relationship, the frequency of sexual activity may decrease, but not necessarily their satisfaction with each other. Many couples find that the type of sexual expression may change, and that with age and the term of relationship there is increased intimacy and love. If sex and sexual intimacy are important aspects in one's life during young and middle adulthood they will continue to be factors in older adulthood.[] Physical changes do, however, occur with age. One aspect of aging that is particular to a woman's experience is the menopause. This process, which occurs toward the late forties or early fifties, is dependent on a womans biological makeup. Common signs of the menopause include lengthening or shortening of the menstrual cycle and blood loss that becomes either heavier or lighter than usual. Hot flashes may occur up to two years prior to menopause and continue for several years after.[39] Night sweats are a common symptom for women who are approaching menopause. Loss of muscle tone in the urinary tract may cause more frequent urination, while some women become more prone to urinary tract infections. Skin may also become more dry or oily than usual. Hormonal changes may also be the reason for vaginal dryness, joint pain and abdominal weight gain.[39] Many women are made to feel that because they are no longer able to reproduce, they are no longer able to be sexually active. Some women may experience a decline in sexual desire because of the decline in production of the hormone estrogen. However, many other women report an increase in desire and activity. This is likely because there is no longer a concern about pregnancy, and children are generally self-sufficient; postmenopausal woman may even be more assertive in expressing their needs.[] Although men do not experience an equivalent process to the menopause, they may experience the male climacteric. This occurs between the ages of 35 and 60. Although remaining fertile, climacteric men may feel unsatisfied with their achievements and lifestyles. They may also experience a range of unpleasant emotions and physical symptoms that are linked to the aging process.[39] A gradual decrease in testosterone production may cause physical symptoms such as a lack of energy, erectile dysfunction, and muscle deterioration. These changes may also coincide with weakening health in the heart, prostate, kidneys, hearing and digestive systems, due to aging.[39] One out of every four men between the ages of 65 to 80 has severe problems getting or keeping erections, and this percentage increases with men over 80 years of age. These changes can be accommodated by increased manual stimulation and other modes of sexual expression in addition to normal intercourse.[] Drugs are also available to treat erectile dysfunction.

Human sexuality Two other factors that may have an increasing impact on sex and sexual activity as an individual ages are partner availability and health problems, including the effects of medication.[] A recent interview study involving 3,000 adults between the ages of 57 and 85 found that the percentage of sexually active older adults is higher for those that are in good health than those in poor health. Older women may also be less sexually active as a result of outliving their partners or men's tendency to marry younger women. Older adults who engage in sexual activity, intimacy, and companionship tend to be more satisfied with life.[37] For older women, partner availability is a particularly serious issue. Women outnumber men by increasingly larger numbers as they age. Many divorced, widowed, or never-married older women may find themselves alone and looking more towards masturbation for sexual gratification.[]


Sociocultural aspects
Human sexuality can also be understood as part of the social life of humans, governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo. This focus narrows the view to groups within a society.[22] The socio-cultural context of society places major influences on and form social norms, including the effects of politics and the mass media. In the past people fought for their civil rights, and such movements helped to bring about massive changes in social norms examples include the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism.[40][41]
Women's liberation demonstration, 1970

The link between constructed sexual meanings and racial ideologies has been studied in the past. It is found sexual meanings are constructed to maintain racial-ethnic-national boundaries, by denigration of "others," and regulation of sexual behavior within the group. "Both adherence to and deviation from such approved behaviors, define and reinforce racial, ethnic, and nationalist regimes."[42][43] The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries (such as Australia and much of Europe) "age-appropriate" sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.[44] Sex education covers a range of topics, including the physical, mental, and social aspects of sexual behavior. Where one is geographically placed also plays a role in when society feels it is appropriate for a child to learn about sexuality. In the United States, sexuality is on the hush-hush or is unspoken of which happens to limit sources of sexual knowledge. According to TIME magazine and CNN, 74% of teenagers reported that their major source of sexual information were their peers and the media compared to only 10% naming their parents or a sex education course;[6] therefore society makes a huge impact on peoples views when it comes to the acceptable and unacceptable behaviors and attitudes towards sexuality. Societys views on sexuality have many influences from the past and the present. Even religion and philosophy make an impact. One theorist, Vygotsky states that a childs development cannot be understood only by the individual alone. The only way to truly understand development is by looking at the individual and the environment or external social world in which the development is occurring.[45]

Religious sexual morality

Most world religions have sought to address the moral issues that arise from people's sexuality in society and in human interactions. Each major religion has developed moral codes covering issues of sexuality, morality, ethics etc., which have sought to guide people's sexual activities and practices. The influence of religion on sexuality is especially apparent in the long debated issue of gay marriage versus civil union. When it comes to Judaism it is said that sex is sacred between man and women, within marriage, and should be enjoyed. Celibacy is sinful.[6] Actually, the Jewish do not believe that sex is shameful, sinful, or obscene, although the Jewish faith emphasizes that sexual

Human sexuality desire should be controlled and channeled only to be satisfied at the proper time, place, and manner, between husband and wife, out of mutual love and desire for one another. This means that all sexual contact is permissible only within marriage because it is believed that all sexual contact leads to intercourse; therefore sex requires commitment and responsibility. The primary purpose of sex according to the Jewish is to reinforce the marital bond and to procreate making any sexual act permissible as long as it does not involve ejaculation outside the vagina. Sex is the right of the woman, not the man and it is should only be experienced in times of joy because it is a selfish personal satisfaction that must be pleasurable for both parties. Men cannot force women to have sex, and women cannot take away sex as punishment because it is an offense to use sex to manipulate or as a weapon. Finally, sex cannot be experienced while intoxicated or quarreling.[46] Traditionally, Christianity has viewed human sexuality as primarily though not exclusively aimed at reproduction and as tainted by concupiscence after the Fall. Saint Paul spoke of the flesh as at war with the spirit and struggled to control it, though he saw the body itself as holy and a temple of the Holy Spirit (I Cor 6:19). He stated that a celibate lifestyle was preferable for serving God undistracted, which was later cited as a reason for priests having to give up sex and marriage. Saint Augustine believed that sex was only justified in marriage with a view toward procreation, and that when aimed exclusively at pleasure it was tainted by sin. Saint Augustine speaks of the three goods of marriage, the good of fidelity (fidei), of offspring (prolis), and of the sacramental bond (sacramenti). The Bible states within the first commandment to procreate, but the misconception about sex being shameful or sinful is contradicted. In the book of Genesis 2:24-25, it states that a husband must stick to his wife and they shall become one flesh. And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed. The becoming one flesh is the sexual act which according to this, does not lead into shame. On the other hand, both husband and wife are supposed to be submissive sexually to their partner, no longer having authority over their own bodies, and cannot deny each other sex in order to refrain from satisfying in temptation from out the marriage since fidelity (faithfulness to a sexual partner) is important. The bible may permit sexual activity within a marriage between man and women; it is a sin to engage in homosexuality, bestiality (sexual relations with animals), incest (sexual relations within the immediate family structure), fornication (sex outside marriage), adultery (cheating on husband or wife), rape, and viewing pornography. It is believed that those who are sexually immoral are separated from God and will not share in Gods inheritance upon death. To engage in any of these sinful sexual activities in the past, punishment was death.[47] The Catholic Church teaches that sexuality is "noble and worthy"[48] but that it must be used in accordance with natural law. For this reason, all sexual activity must occur in the context of a marriage between a man and a woman and must not be divorced from the possibility of conception. All forms of sex not open to conception are considered intrinsically disordered and sinful, such as any sex with contraceptives, autosexual activity (e.g. masturbation), and homosexual acts. Recent currents of Catholic thought, such as John Paul II's Theology of the Body, have placed special emphasis on the dignity and beauty of human sexuality, calling it a special gift of God that is preserved and respected by reserving it for marriage. Sex is sanctified by the rebirth of Christ. It helps us to grow and create bonds of love. Within the Islamic faith, sexual desire is considered to be a natural urge that should not be suppressed, although, the concept of free sex is not accepted; therefore these urges should be fulfilled responsibly. Marriage is considered to be a good deed and it does not hinder spiritual wayfaring. The term used for marriage within the Quran is nikah which literally means sexual intercourse.[] Although, Islam was sexually restrained, the Islamic faith emphasized sexual pleasure within marriage. It is acceptable for a man to have more than one wife, but he must take care of that wife physically, mentally, emotionally, financially, and spiritually.[49] They oppose celibacy and monasticism (withdrawing from society to devote ones self to prayer, solitude, and contemplation).[] The views on sexuality in Hinduism emphasizes that sex is only appropriate between husband and wife in which satisfying sexual urges through sexual pleasure is an important duty of marriage. Any sex before marriage is considered to interfere with their intellectual development, especially between birth and the age of 25 which is said


Human sexuality to be brahmacharya; therefore, this should be avoided. Kama (sensual pleasures) is one of the four purusharthas or aims of life (dharma, artha, kama, and moksha).[50] One of the sacred texts which happen to be popular within Western culture, the Kama Sutra, was created by the Hindus as manual for love making in marriage. This text emphasizes pleasure being the aim of intercourse and even goes in depth about homosexual desires which are believed to be the same as heterosexual desires. Even within Hindu temples (places of worship) there were depictions of sexuality within the sculptures. Such temples are at Khajuraho and Konarak, but due to colonialism, Hindus became more rigid in their views about sexuality, and then internalized Victorian ideals of heterosexual monogamy.[51] Buddhism emphasizes the Middle Way which is never reaching the extremes. According to this religion, moderation in everything is key to enlightenment or nirvana; therefore, human sexuality should fall in the middle on a continuum from extreme Puritanism to extreme permissiveness. Buddhist also emphasize kama which is a sign that their basis of belief uses Hinduism as their foundation. But all in all, Buddhism does not have an specific rules to break that has horrible consequences as other religions do because Buddhists do not believe in sin, there is only the skilled and unskilled, and the feeling of pleasure is neither.[52]


Sexuality in history
Sexuality has always been a vital part of the human existence and in societies from the long hunting and gathering phases of history to the rise of agriculture, the long centuries of the agricultural period of history,[53] as well as during modern times (44). For all civilizations throughout time, there have been a few common, special characteristics of how sexuality was managed through sexual standards, representations, and behavior.[53] Art and artifacts from past eras help portray humans perceptions of sexuality throughout time.[6] Pre-modern developments Sexuality and the rise of agriculture Before the rise of agriculture there were groups of hunter/gatherers (H/G) or nomads inhabiting the world. Within these groups, some implications of male dominance existed, but there were also ample signs that women were active participants in sexuality with bargaining power of their own. These H/G groups had less restrictive sexual standards that emphasized sexual pleasure and enjoyment, but with definite rules and constraints. Some underlying continuities or key regulatory standards contended with the tension between recognition of pleasure, interest, and the need, for the sake of social order and economic survival. H/G groups also place high value on certain types of sexual symbolism. Two common tensions of H/G societies are expressed in their art which emphasizes male sexuality and prowess with equally common tendencies to blur gender lines in sexual matters. Some examples of these male dominated portrayals is the Egyptian creation myth when the sun god Atum masturbates in the water creating the Nile River, or in the Sumerian myth of the Gods semen filling the Tigris.[53] Within primitive art, female forms are depicted as passive, faceless, fat, and with clothing displaying their breasts or pubic hair. Male forms had pronounced

The prehistoric Venus of Willendorf

Min: the ancient Egyptian god of fertility

Human sexuality phallic apparatuses. Males were associated with animals, and wore jewelry and ornaments to adorn the penis. Hunter/gatherer groups even had phallic sticks and monuments depicting penises. Rituals of cross-dressing were also common. During the Siberian Bear ceremony, people would dress as the opposite sex for ceremonial purposes. Most people believed that to transcend gender boundaries has a spiritual meaning. Even some priests and shamans were bisexual or having two-spirit behavior. Some Native American groups had initiation rites where older uncles penetrate younger nephews at the first sign of puberty, clearly showing that H/G groups did not hold firm boundaries on sexual orientation. Even in Sicily, there are rock carvings of homoerotic scenes. The Inuit communities in North America had lovers camps in which couples would go for sexual activity.[53] Another tension is also expressed in actual sexual expressions which combine the importance of sexual pleasure with the need of birth control. There were three common methods of birth control used in these times, all having implications for frequency and pleasure in sexual expression. These methods are: 1. Women nursed their babies for long periods of time, at least up to six years. 2. Women used fertility awareness or the rhythm method in which keeping tract of menstruation was pertinent. 3. Couples also abstained from intercourse which could also be the reason for the acceptance of male homosexual behavior.[53] Introduction of agriculture (9000 BCE to 8000 BCE) Once agricultural societies emerge, the sexuality framework shifts in many ways that persist for many millennia in much of Asia, Africa, Europe, and parts of the Americas. On common characteristic that became new to these societies was the collective supervision of sexual behavior due to the population increases and more concentrated communities due to urbanization. It was a normal event for a child to witness parents having sex because many parents shared the same sleeping quarters with other relatives. Also, due to landownership, determining a childs paternity became important, and society became patriarchal in family life. These changes in sexual ideology were used to try and control female sexuality and to differentiate standards by gender. With these ideologies, sexual possessiveness and increases in jealousy emerged. With the domestication of animals, new opportunities for bestiality (sex with animals) flourished. Mostly males performed these types of sexual acts and many societies acquired firm rules against it. These acts also explain the many depictions of the half-man, half animal mythical creatures, and the sports of gods and goddesses with animals.[53] Along with agriculture came increased amounts of labor. Due to this increase labor, the importance of having children increased. Because of this, birth rates increased, breastfeeding durations may have decreased, procreation gains more attention and significance, increases in infertility among couples emerges, and womens roles in society changes to the child bearer, mother, and care-giver. Because of this need for children, there was also an increase in disapproval about masturbation, especially for men. On the other hand, although having children were important for labor, it was also important to keep this to a minimum in order to keep the population to a minimum so again birth control is extremely important. Some methods of birth control used during these times are breastfeeding, not allowing sex before marriage especially for women, and the frequency of sexual activity might have decreased in mature adulthood, but before menopause. Herbs were also used to limit fertility or induce abortion is needed. It was even found that some societies used condoms made out of animal bladders, although, this was not common.[53]


Human sexuality Sexuality in the classical period (1000 BCE to 500 CE) While still holding onto earlier precedents of earlier civilizations, each classical civilization established a somewhat distinctive approach to gender, artistic expression of sexual beauty, and to particular behaviors such as homosexuality. Some of these distinctions are portrayed in sex manuals which were also common among these civilizations. These civilizations consist of China, Greece/Rome, Persia, and India, and each has their own history in the sexual world.[53] 1. Chinawith the introduction of Confucianism under the later Zhou dynasty, and then greater acceptance of Confucian values under the mature Han dynasty had direct implications on sexual standards in classical China. This society moves from tolerant and expressive to increasing regulation in interests of social hierarchy and family order. The Zhou dynasty shared a strong appreciation for sexual pleasure, sexual prowess was widely appreciated, and polygamy was common. The classical Chinese in the 12th century BCE described male and female orgasms as fire and water, and poems used copulation imagery to represent the relationship between humans and gods. The Chinese also generated the first known sex manuals that portrayed graphic terms of body parts such as the penis being a dragon stalk or jade stalk and a clitoris being a jade pearl. Orgasms were described as bursting clouds. Along with these manuals, some explicit pornography was available for both men and women. The classical Chinese people also linked sexuality with basic philosophical principles such as being heterosexual helps a man balance yin and yang. Masturbation was considered to be wrong for men, but accepted for women as long they did not penetrate themselves with a foreign object. Premarital sex was condemned, especially in the Book of Songs. Fears of deviance increased, and accusations of incest increased. The emperor also lived a polygamous lifestyle with many concubines, but only one empress which he would only have sex with during his most fertile days. Due to the costs of taking care of a family, the more concubines one has, the more wealth this person has.[53] 2. Greece and Romethe ancient Greeks and Romans placed a strong emphasis on marriage and the family. There was also a belief in procreation being the primary purpose of marital sex, and couples had children for the state;[6] therefore, in Greek society, marriage was based on economic arrangements, not sexual ones, and monogamy was emphasized with control over female sexuality. Due to this, value was placed on female restraint and virginity, and women were expected to experience periods of celibacy in order to conserve social energy for bountiful crops.[53] Greek and Roman males were allowed considerable sexual freedom outside of marriage, and in Greece, sexual relations between men and adolescent boys were encouraged as part of the boys intellectual, emotional, and moral development.[6] In Sparta (a Greek city-state), males were taken away to be trained by other males once hitting a certain age, and women had more public freedom with respect to the state duty of reproduction. By 500 BCE, in the Greek mainland of Miletus, an industry to manufacture dildos emerged, and the use of olive oil as lubricant became popular. These societies did not use appropriate birth control methods because the Greco/Romans had no knowledge of how pregnancy or conception occurs. The use of a copper sulfate mixture as a contraceptive was apparent. Since birth control was unattainable, infanticide (killing of infant girls) was used to keep populations at bay. Female slaves were used as prostitutes. Brothels spread widely. Even one Athenian ruler, Pericles, took a mistress after his divorce that owned and ran a brothel to the elite. In this society, masturbation was tolerated for men, but for women it was limitedeven with the manufactured dildos. Castrated men or eunuchs were responsible for the bureaucratic functions of the government, and performed the hair cutting and dressing of the elite male. Greco/Roman times encouraged homosexuality between males. Lesbianism existed, but it was not as apparent. Once the Greeks gave power to the Romans, two shifts in sexuality became noteworthy. The first is that the opinion of women increased, and the second is the increased disapproval of homosexuality. One the other hand, Romans showed an increase interest in highly sexual art, generated sex manuals, and made prostitutes register with the state for taxation purposes.[53] 3. Persiain this classical civilization there were laws against abortion. Polygamy was encouraged. Eunuchs were used in the courts. Persia absorbed influences from Egyptian precedents concerning sexuality and Indian ideas about the spirituality surrounding sex. Persia is also influenced by earlier Mesopotamian traditions. Persians


Human sexuality learned exclusively from Greece particularly with regard to homosexual behavior between older men and younger boys in the elite classes.[53] 4. Indiain this classical civilization, sexual pleasure was regarded as the best of all earthly pleasures. Indians also placed importance on reproduction, and state there is a link between sex and spirituality. The early stories about the gods and goddesses involved sexual themes. Incarnations of the gods had sexual liaisons, and all major gods were always paired with goddesses who provided the basic life force. During the Gupta period, the sexual manual the Kama Sutra became available, and is still available in the present times. This manual explained ways to maximize sexual pleasure and paid great attention towards the importance of foreplay. Arranged marriages were performed with the parents choosing a suitable mate within the same caste. In this society, it was the mans responsibility to keep his wife and himself happy which showed an emphasis on mutuality. Although marriage was arranged based on caste and not love, love was also emphasized as important in marriage. This is why it is advised that after marriage, a couple should wait 4 nights before intercourse so that can be properly acquainted. Polygamy was also allowed, but not common. India also established the first ever global sex trade by trading female slaves with Egypt for prostitution or marriage as a concubine. Brothels also existed and were controlled by the government. Prostitutes were accomplished and educated and were considered to be powerful and divine in sexual force. Female virginity was important for marriage, abortion was illegal, female beauty standards emphasized qualities appropriate for childbirth, and homosexuality and castration were looked down upon. In the final centuries BCE, some laws began to target non-vaginal sex.[53] Modern developments During the 18th and 19th centuries, during the beginning of the industrial revolution, many changes in sexual standards have occurred. New dramatic artificial birth control devices are introduced such as the condom and diaphragm. Doctors started claiming a new role in sexual matters urging that their advice was crucial to sexual morality and health. A significant new pornographic industry blossomed, and Japan adopted its first ever laws against homosexuality. On the other hand, in western societies, the definition of homosexuality is constantly changing, and western influence on others is increasing in strength. New contacts created serious issues around sexuality and sexual traditions. There were also major shifts in sexual behavior. During this period, the ages at which puberty starts to decrease, so a new focus on adolescence as a time of sexual confusion and danger emerges. Finally, there was a new focus on the purpose of marriage being for love rather than just economics and reproduction.[53] 1. Victorian erathis era was during the 19th century after Queen Victoria reigned in England. It was an era of public prudery and purity. Sexual pleasure was denied. People were influenced by conservative reforms of the British Evangelicals in the late 1700s and early 1800s.[6] Victorian sexual morality consisted of many aspects. It was believed that sex should be confined to marriage, and that the young should control their impulses, especially men. In marriage, sexual pleasure was to be moderated by restraint. Sexual activity was negatively linked to health stating that male orgasm was taxing.[53] Victorian physicians believed that the loss of semen was as detrimental to a mans health as the loss of blood.[6] It was even said that man can go insane or prematurely die from excessive sexual intercourse. Warning about venereal diseases increased in order to scare people out of having sexual relations outside of marriage. Even a French doctor once advised that marriage was good for health because it leads to sexual boredom which in turn protect against heart attacks. Victorians were also against masturbation of any kind. Young men were imprisoned in asylums for the treatment of obsessive masturbation.[53] Masturbation was such an issue that different devices were created to prevent it. A spermatorrhea ring was used to prevent male nocturnal emissions (wet dreams), and a surgical appliance made up of leather straps and metal pockets to prevent masturbation.[6] Cliterodectomies were performed against female habitual masturbators. Sex was emphasized to be for male pleasure, and something that women do not enjoy. During the Victorian Era, there was a ban on art and literature regarded as lewd. There was a ban on the publicity and sale for the manufacture of any birth control items and abortion. Mainly, the people of this era showed extreme restraint.[53]


Human sexuality 2. Sexual Revolution and Birth Control--The sexual revolution is a sign of a new youth culture that included commitment to sexual expression.[53] The sexual revolution, occurring in the 1960s and 70s, happened to be an era of free love. Mechanization and more efficient means of production led to shorter work weeks and more leisure time. The invention of the automobile allowed for the escape from adult supervision at any time. During this period, women gained equality in society through the Women's rights movement, women also began to take active roles in sexual matters. The introduction of penicillin in 1940 decreased fears about sexually transmitted diseases and infections. In the 1960s, the availability of birth control allowed for sexual freedom among women. The pill and the IUD came about. This emergence of birth control also allowed for spontaneity in sexual endeavors.[6] Margaret Sanger brought about birth control while working with the scientist Gregory Pinkus who developed the birth control pill. Sanger also worked with Katherine McCormick who funded the birth control project, and John Rocke, a Catholic priest, who tried to convince the Catholic Church to change their beliefs and regulations on birth control.[54] The separation between sexual pleasure and reproduction emerged allowing for more emphasis on sexual pleasure in society. Then in the 1980s, HIV/AIDs surfaced to existence.[53] 3. Alfred Kinseys researchAlfred Kinsey initiated the modern era of sex research. He collected data by giving questionnaires to his students at Indiana University, but then switched to personal interviews interested in male and female sexual behaviors. Kinsey and his colleagues sampled a total of 5,300 men and 5,940 women. His findings found that most people masturbate, that many engaged in oral sex, women are capable of having multiple orgasms, and that many men had had some type of homosexual experience in their lifetime. Many believe that he was the major influence in changing 20th century attitudes about sex, and Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University continues to be a major center for the study of human sexuality.[6] 4. Masters and Johnsons researchBefore William Masters, a physician, and Virginia Johnson, a behavioral scientist, the study of anatomy and physiological studies of sex was still limited to experiments with lab animals. Masters and Johnson started to directly observe and record the physical responses in humans that are engaged in sexual activity under laboratory settings. They covered 10,000 episodes of sexual acts consisting of 312 men and 382 women. This led to methods of treating clinical problems and abnormalities. Masters and Johnson opened the very first sex therapy clinic in 1965. In 1970, they described their therapeutic techniques in their book Human Sexual Inadequacy.[6] 5. Todays InfluencesSexuality of today is not only influenced by human ancestry or religions. Sexuality of today is also influenced by the internal commercial society within societiesmainly western. According to a Time Magazine/CNN survey, 74% of teenagers said that friends and television were their main sources of sexual education. The fact that the average American child spends six to eight hours a day watching, listening to, or reading some form of media explains their reasoning behind these findings.[6] In addition to television, contemporary women's magazines contain a number of scripts about sexual relationships and women's sexual roles that research has shown to have both empowering and problematic effects on women's developing sexual identities and sexual attitudes.[55]


Prostitution and survival sex

People sometimes exchange sex for money or access to other resources. This practice, called prostitution, takes place under many varied circumstances. The person who receives payment for sexual services is called a prostitute and the person who receives such services is known by a multitude of terms, including "john". Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country, from being a punishable crime to a regulated profession. Estimates place the annual revenue generated from the global prostitution industry to be over $100 billion.[56] Prostitution is sometimes referred to as "the world's oldest profession".[57] Prostitution may be a voluntary individual activity or facilitated or forced by pimps. Survival sex is a form of prostitution engaged in by people in extreme need, usually when homeless or otherwise disadvantaged people trade sex for food, a place to sleep, or other basic needs, or for drugs.[58] The term is used by

Human sexuality sex trade and poverty researchers and aid workers.[59][60]


Sexual behavior
Human sexual behavior, driven by the desire for pleasure, encompasses the search for a partner or partners, interactions between individuals, physical, emotional intimacy, and sexual contact that may lead to foreplay, masturbation and ultimately orgasm.[61] Human sexual activities or human sexual practices or human sexual behavior refers to the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts from time to time, and for a wide variety of reasons. Sexual activity normally results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle. Sexual activity also includes conduct and activities which are intended to arouse the sexual interest of another, such as strategies to find or attract partners (mating and display behavior), and personal interactions between individuals, such as flirting and foreplay. Human sexual activity has biological, physical and emotional aspects. Biologically, it refers to the reproductive mechanism as well as the basic biological drive that exists in all species and can encompass sexual intercourse and sexual contact in all its forms. Emotional aspects deal with the intense personal bonds and emotions generated between sexual partners by a sexual activity. Physical issues around sexuality range from purely medical considerations to concerns about the physiological or even psychological and sociological aspects of sexual behaviour. In humans, sex has been claimed to produce health benefits as varied as improved sense of smell,[62] stress and blood pressure reduction,[63][64] increased immunity,[65] and decreased risk of prostate cancer.[66][67][68] Sexual intimacy, as well as orgasms, increases levels of the hormone oxytocin, also known as "the love hormone", which helps people bond and build trust.[69][70][71] A long-term study of 3,500 people between 30 and 101 by clinical neuropsychologist David Weeks, MD, head of old age psychology at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital in Scotland, found that "sex helps you look between four and seven years younger", according to impartial ratings of the subjects' photos. Exclusive causation, however, is unclear, and the benefits may be indirectly related to sex and directly related to significant reductions in stress, greater contentment, and better sleep that sex promotes.[72][73][74] In contrast to its benefits, sexual intercourse can also be a disease vector.[75] There are 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) every year in the U.S.,[76] and worldwide there are over 340 million STDs a year.[77] More than half of all STDs occur in adolescents and young adults aged 1524 years.[78] At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a sexually transmitted disease.[76][79] In the U.S., about 30% of 1517-year old adolescents have had sexual intercourse, but only about 80% of 1519-year old adolescents report using condoms for their first sexual intercourse.[80] More than 75% of young women age 1825 years felt they were at low risk of acquiring an STD in one study.[81]

Sexually transmitted infections

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are bacterial, viral or parasitic infections that are spread mainly by sexual activity (including vaginal and anal intercourse and oral-genital contact).[35] Many people cannot tell that their partner has an STI because many are asymptomatic (showing no symptoms).[35] Anyone that is engaging in sexual activity is at risk for contracting STIs, but the risks can be minimized by safe sex practices such as using condoms. Many people believe that STIs are retributions for having premarital or immoral sex, sometimes linking these beliefs with religious prohibitions. Others believe they result from promiscuity. Whilst there is no direct causal link between these types of sexual activity and STI's, there may be an increased likelihood of contracting disease when having sex with multiple partners. Furthermore, hundreds of people, both men and women, have caught STIs from adulterous partners. In addition, newborns have contracted them from their infected mothers. In the past, STIs have been referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) but today, health professionals refer to them as STIs to emphasize that they are infectious diseases (other disease such as heart disease are not).[35]

Human sexuality Chlamydia Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and bleeding in between periods, although most women do not experience any symptoms.[35] Symptoms in men include pain when urinating, and abnormal discharge from their penis.[82] If left untreated in both men and women, Chlamydia can infect the urinary tract and potentially lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause serious problems during pregnancy and even has the potential to cause infertility. It can cause a woman to have a potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy, in which the child is born outside of the uterus. However, Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics. Herpes simplex viruses The two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-1 is acquired orally and causes cold sores. HSV-2 is acquired during sexual contact and affects the genitals. Some people are asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms. Those that do experience symptoms usually notice them 2 to 20 days after exposure which last 2 to 4 weeks. Symptoms can include small fluid-filled blisters, headaches, backaches, itching or tingling sensations in the genital or anal area, pain during urination, Flu like symptoms, swollen glands, or fever. Herpes is spread through skin contact with a person infected with the virus. The virus affects the areas where it entered the body. This can occur through kissing, vaginal intercourse, oral sex or anal sex. The virus is most infectious during times when there are visible symptoms, however those who are asymptomatic can still spread the virus through skin contact.[83] The primary attack is the most severe because the body does not have any antibodies built up. After the primary attack, one might have recurring attacks that are milder or might not even have future attacks. There is no cure for the disease but there are antiviral medications that treat its symptoms and lower the risk of transmission (Valtrex). It is important to note that although HSV-1 is typically the "oral" version of the virus, and HSV-2 is typically the "genital" version of the virus, a person with HSV-1 orally CAN transmit that virus to their partner genitally. The virus, either type, will settle into a nerve bundle either at the top of the spine, producing the "oral" outbreak, or a second nerve bundle at the base of the spine, producing the "gential" outbreak. Human papillomavirus (HPV) The human papillomavirus is the most common STI in the United States.[84] There are more than 40 different strands of HPV and many do not cause any health problems. In 90% of cases the bodys immune system clears the infection naturally within 2 years.[85] Some cases may not be cleared and can lead to genital warts (bumps around the genitals that can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like cauliflower) or cervical cancer and other HPV related cancers. Symptoms might not show up until advanced stages. It is important for women to get pap smears in order to check for and treat cancers. There are also two vaccines available for women (Cervarix and Gardasil) that protect against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. HPV can be passed through genital-to-genital contact as well as during oral sex. It is important to remember that the infected partner might not have any symptoms. Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is caused by bacterium that lives on moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, throat, and eyes. The infection can spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth or anus. Symptoms of Gonorrhea usually appear 2 to 5 days after contact with an infected partner however, some men might not notice symptoms for up to a month. Symptoms in men include burning and pain while urinating, increased urinary frequency, discharge from the penis (white, green, or yellow in color), red or swollen urethra, swollen or tender testicles, or sore throat. Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge, burning or itching while urinating, painful sexual intercourse, severe pain in lower abdomen (if infection spreads to fallopian tubes), or fever (if infection spreads to fallopian tubes), however many women do not show any symptoms.[86] There are some antibiotic resistant strains for Gonorrhea but most cases can be cured with antibiotics.


Human sexuality Syphilis Syphilis is an STD caused by a bacterium. If acquired, syphilis needs to be treated adequately, otherwise it can cause long-term complications and death.[87] Clinical manifestations of syphilis include the ulceration of the uro-genital tract, mouth or rectum; if left untreated the symptoms worsen. In recent years, the prevalence of syphilis has declined in Western Europe, but it has increased in Eastern Europe (former Soviet states). A high incidence of syphilis can be found in places such as Cameroon, Cambodia, Papua New Guinea.[88] Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis is a common STD that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.[89] Trichomoniasis affects both women and men, but symptoms are more common in women.[90] Most patients are treated with an antibiotic called metronidazole, which is very effective.[91] HIV/AIDS HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) damages the body's immune system which interferes with fighting off disease-causing agents. The virus kills CD4 cells, which are white blood cells that help fight off various infections. HIV is carried in body fluids, and is spread by sexual activity. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, breast feeding, childbirth, and from mother to child during pregnancy.[92] When HIV is at its most advanced stage, an individual is said to have AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).[93] There are different stages of the progression of and HIV infection. The stages include primary infection, asymptomatic infection, symptomatic infection, and AIDS. In the primary infection stage, an individual will have flu like symptoms (headache, fatigue, fever, muscle aches) for about 2 weeks. In the asymptomatic stage, symptoms usually disappear, and the patient can remain asymptomatic for years. When HIV progresses to the symptomatic stage, the immune system is weakened, and has a low cell count of CD4+ T Cells. When the HIV infection becomes life-threatening, it is called AIDS. People with AIDS fall prey to opportunistic infections and die as a result.[35] When the disease was first discovered in the 1980s, those who had AIDS were not likely to live longer than a few years. There are now antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) available to treat HIV infections. There is no known cure for HIV or AIDS but the drugs help suppress the virus. By suppressing the amount of virus in the body, people can lead longer and healthier lives. Even though their virus levels may be low they can still spread the virus to others.[94]


Birth control
The birth control pill was introduced in 1960 however, until recently condoms and other birth control options that did not require a visit to the doctor were kept behind the counter in drugstores. This inhibited many people from purchasing them. Today, there are numerous contraceptive devices for males as well as females that are sold openly. 1. Relatively Ineffective Methods 1. Withdrawal (coitus interruptus): One of the most popular ways in which young people try to avoid pregnancy. This method involves the man withdrawing his penis just before reaching orgasm and ejaculating outside his partners vagina.[35] 2. Douching: Some women believe douching is an effective method because it washes out the contents of the vagina (doing it after sex would get rid of sperm). Many do not know that no matter how rapidly a woman douches after sex some sperm have already traveled into the cervix.[35] 3. Lactational amenorrhea (breast-feeding): When a woman is breast-feeding the sucking response of the baby on her nipple inhibits the pituitary from releasing FSH and LH. This prevents ovulation and normal menstrual cycles. 2. Fertility awareness methods 1. Calendar method: This method has been promoted by the Catholic Church as a morally acceptable form of family planning. The calendar method is based on 3 assumptions:[95]

Human sexuality Ovulation occurs 14 days before a womans menstrual cycle, plus or minus 2 days Sperm can remain alive for up to 3 days The ovum can be fertilized 24 hours after it has been released from the ovary Using those 3 concepts, a woman with a regular cycle can count backwards from the first day of her period to figure out when she will be ovulating and avoid having sex during that time in the following month. 1. Basal body temperature method: This method involves recording a womans body temperature throughout her menstrual cycle. A womans basal (resting) temperature rises just before ovulation. The rise in temperature tells a woman when she is most fertile.[96] 2. Billings method: Mucus is discharged from the cervix throughout a womans menstrual cycle. It changes from white and sticky to clear and stretchy (like an egg white) a day or two before ovulation.[35] The billings method is a form of natural birth control that teaches a woman to recognize when she is fertile by examining her cervical mucus.[97] To prevent pregnancy, a woman should refrain from sex during the time when she is most fertile. 3. Sympto-thermal method: Combination of the basal body temperature method and the billings method to prevent pregnancy. 2. Spermicides: Substances that Kill Sperm A spermicide is a chemical product that comes in the form of a foam, jelly, or cream.[98] The purpose of a spermicide is to kill any sperm before it reaches the cervix. In order to increase the effectiveness of them, spermicides should be used with other barrier forms of birth control (condoms, diaphragms, cervical cap, etc.). 1. Barrier methods: Preventing Sperm from Meeting Egg 1. Male condoms: Thin sheaths made from lamb intestine, latex rubber, synthetic or polyurethane elastomers that fit over the penis and trap sperm.[35] Condoms are highly effective in preventing the transmission of STIs. 2. Female condoms: Thin sheath or pouch that a woman wears during sex. It lines the vagina entirely and helps prevent STIs as well.[99] 3. Diaphragm: A shallow, dome-shaped, silicone cup inserted into the vagina to prevent pregnancy.[100] 4. Cervical cap: A cervical cap resembles a small thimble and is inserted into the vagina to prevent pregnancy 5. Leas shield: Similar to the cervical cap this method is cup-shaped and made of silicone. It has a 1-way valve that allows the passage of cervical secretions.[35] 6. Contraceptive sponge: A soft, disk-shaped device that is made of polyurethane foam that covers the cervix.[101] 2. Intrauterine devices (IUD) An IUD is a small t-shaped piece of plastic or metal that is placed in the uterus to prevent fertilization. There are 2 types: one is covered with copper, and the other releases the hormone progesterone.[102] IUDs have not been extremely popular in the United States. In the past, IUDs had a thread hanging outside of a womans body which easily spread bacteria causing pelvic inflammatory disease. Now, IUDs are very safe. They have polyethylene strings which are not as likely to cause infection.[35] 1. Hormonal methods 1. Oral contraception: Medications taken by women to prevent pregnancy. These pills may contain a combination of the hormones estrogen, progestin, or progestin alone. Combinations of estrogen and progestin prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).[103] Pills are taken for 21 days followed by a 7 day break when a woman menstruates. The pill is highly effective if taken every day at the same time.[35] 2. Injectable contraception: A hormonal method for those who cannot remember to take the pill every day at the same time. Depo-Provera is an injectable medicine that prevents pregnancy for up to 3 months with each injection.[104] It contains progestin and works by preventing ovulation by inhibiting the release of LH and


Human sexuality FSH.


Sexual attraction
Sexual attraction is an important aspect of the sexuality of the person being observed, as well as of the person observing. Each person determines the qualities that they find attractive, which vary from person to person. A person's sexual orientation has a significant influence on which qualities they will find attractive. The qualities that people can find sexually attractive may depend on the physical quality, including both looks and movements of a person but can also be influenced by voice or smell as well as by individual preferences resulting from a variety of genetic, psychological, and cultural factors.

Creating a relationship
People both consciously and subconsciously seek to attract others with whom they can form deeper relationships. This may be for companionship, for procreation, for an intimate relationship, besides other possible purposes. This involves interactive processes whereby people find and attract potential partners, and maintain a relationship. These processes, which involve attracting one or more partners, and maintaining sexual interest, can include: Flirting can be used to attract the sexual attention of another in order to encourage romance or sexual relations, and can involve body language, conversation, joking or brief physical contact.[105]

The Flirt, by Eugene de Blaas

Seduction is the process whereby one person deliberately entices another to engage in some sort of human sexual behavior.[106] The medium of communication of sexual interest can be verbal or visual. Dating is the process of arranging meetings or outings with a potential partner to investigate or enhance their suitability for an intimate partnership. The prospect of physical intimacy is, at times, the most effective means of sexual attraction. This can be by way of an expression of feelings such as close friendship or love, including holding hands, hugging, kissing, or caressing.

Legal issues
There are many laws and social customs which prohibit, or in some way have an impact on sexual activities. These laws and customs vary from country to country, and have varied over time. They cover, for example, a prohibition to non-consensual sex, to sex outside of marriage, to sexual activity in public, besides many others. Many of these restrictions are non-controversial, but some have been the subject of public debate. Most societies consider it a serious crime to force someone to engage in sexual acts or to engage in sexual activity with someone who does not consent. This is called sexual assault, and if sexual penetration occurs it is called rape, the most serious kind of sexual assault. The details of this distinction may vary among different legal jurisdictions. Also, what constitutes effective consent in sexual matters varies from culture to culture and is frequently debated. Laws regulating the minimum age at which a person can consent to have sex (age of consent) are frequently the subject of debate, as is adolescent sexual behavior in general.

Human sexuality


[2] [3] [4] [6] [7] [8] [9] University of California, Santa Barbara's SexInfo Carlson, Neil R. and C. Donald Heth. "Psychology: the Science of Behaviour." 4th Edition. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2007. 684. http:/ / news. change. org/ stories/ nature-vs-nurture-debates-over-sexuality Human Sexuality Today by Bruce M. King (ISBN# 978-0-13-604245-7) Sexual Strategies Theory: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Mating by David M. Buss and David P. Schmitt http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m2372/ is_n1_v35/ ai_20746724/ pg_12/ ?tag=content;col1 Csongradi, C. (n.d.). A new look at an old debate. access excellence. retrieved 12 November 2011, from www.accessexcellence.org/LC/SER/BE/whata.php [10] Boccadoro L., Carulli S., (2008) Il posto dell'amore negato. (The place of the denied love. Sexuality and secret psychopathologies Abstract). Tecnoprint Editrice, Ancona. ISBN 978-88-95554-03-7 [11] Deleuze and Guattari (1972) Anti-Oedipus pp. 322, 1145 [12] Crain, W. C. (1980). Theories of development: concepts and applications (fifth edition ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [18] (http:/ / www. enotes. com/ psychoanalysis-encyclopedia/ three-essays-theory) [20] (http:/ / facts. org/ childhood/ Ke-Me/ Locke-John-1632-1704. html) [21] Ellen Ross, Rayna Rapp Sex and Society: A Research Note from Social History and Anthropology Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. 1981), pp. 5172 [22] Rathus, Spencer A., Jeffrey S. Nevid, and Lois Fichner-Rathus. 2007. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity. Allyn & Bacon. [26] "The amount of time of sexual arousal needed to reach orgasm is variable and usually much longer in women than in men; thus, only 2030% of women attain a coital climax. b. Many women (7080%) require manual clitoral stimulation..." [30] What is Psychosexual Development? Psychology from About.com. (http:/ / psychology. about. com/ od/ theoriesofpersonality/ ss/ psychosexualdev. htm) Retrieved 12 October 2009. [31] B. F. Skinner and behaviorism. From essortment. (http:/ / www. essortment. com/ all/ bfskinner_rgjj. htm) Retrieved 12 October 2009. [32] Buss, D.M. (2002) Human mating strategies. Samdunfsokonemen, 4: 4858. [33] Farrell, W. (1988) Why Men Are The Way They Are, New York: Berkley Books [34] Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2007). Introduction to psychology: gateways to mind and behavior (11th ed.). Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth. [35] King, B. (2009). Human Sexuality Today (Sixth ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc. [37] Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (4thed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. [38] (http:/ / pn. psychiatryonline. org/ content/ 40) [39] http:/ / www. eehow. com/ info_8420507_signs-symptoms-climacteric. html [40] Escoffier, Jeffrey. (Editor): Sexual Revolution. Running Press, 2003. ISBN 1-56025-525-0. Retrieved 12 October 2009. [41] Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 The New York Times, 5 February 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2009. [42] Joane Nagel (August 2000). "Ethnicity and Sexuality". Annual Review of Sociology 26: 107133. . [43] Joane Nagel (2001). "Racial, Ethnic, and National Boundaries: Sexual Intersections and Symbolic Interactions". Symbolic Interaction 24 (2): 123139. . [44] Think Sex from TheAge.com.au. Retrieved 11 October 2009. [48] Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today, no. 49: AAS 58 (1966), 1070 [49] Peter N. Stearns Major Patterns of Change and Continuity: World History in Brief [53] Stearns, Peter N. Sexuality in World History ISBN# 9780415777773 [54] The Pill PBS Documentary [55] Kim, J. L., & Ward, L. M. Striving for pleasure without fear: Short-term effects of reading a women's magazine on women's sexual attitudes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 326226. doi: 10.1177/0361684312442856 (http:/ / pwq. sagepub. com/ ) [57] The prostitution of women and girls Page 5; Ronald B. Flowers 1998 [61] Sex. From Likeitis.org. (http:/ / www. likeitis. org/ sex_print. html) Retrieved 12 October 2009. [62] Wood, H. Sex Cells Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 88 (February 2003) | [63] Doheny, K. (2008) "10 Surprising Health Benefits of Sex," (http:/ / www. webmd. com/ sex-relationships/ features/ 10-surprising-health-benefits-of-sex) WebMD (reviewed by Chang, L., M.D.) [64] Light, K.C. et al., "More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women." Biological Psychology, April 2005; vol 69: pp 521. [65] Charnetski CJ, Brennan FX. Sexual frequency and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological Reports 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):839-44. Data on length of relationship and sexual satisfaction were not related to the group differences. [66] Michael F. Leitzmann; Edward Giovannucci. Frequency of Ejaculation and Risk of Prostate CancerReply. JAMA. (2004);292:329. [67] Leitzmann MF, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Ejaculation Frequency and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer. JAMA. (2004);291(13):15781586. [68] Giles GG, Severi G, English DR, McCredie MR, Borland R, Boyle P, Hopper JL. Sexual factors and prostate cancer. BJU Int. (2003);92(3):211-6.PMID 12887469 [69] Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS 3rd. Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life. Prog Neurobiol. (2009);88(2):127-51. PMID 19482229

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[70] Riley AJ. Oxytocin and coitus. Sexual and Relationship Therapy (1988);3:2936 [71] Carter CS. Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (1992);16(2):131144 [75] " Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) (http:/ / www. 4parents. gov/ sexrisky/ stds/ common_std/ common_std. html)". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. [76] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ std/ stats08/ surv2008-Complete. pdf), 2008. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; November 2009. Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ std/ stats08/ 2008survFactSheet. PDF) [77] World Health Organization Fact Sheet on Sexually Transmitted Diseases. (http:/ / www. who. int/ mediacentre/ factsheets/ fs110/ en/ print. html) Accessed 27 May 2010 [78] Weinstock H, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (2004);36(1):610. [79] Sex Infections Found in Quarter of Teenage Girls (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 03/ 12/ science/ 12std. html?_r=1). The New York Times. 12 March 2008. [80] CDC. Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 1024 Years United States, 20022007. MMWR 20009; 58 (No. SS-6):159 (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ mmwr/ pdf/ ss/ ss5806. pdf) [81] Yarnall KS, McBride CM, Lyna P, Fish LJ, Civic D, Grothaus L, Scholes D. Factors associated with condom use among at-risk women students and nonstudents seen in managed care. Prev Med. (2003);37(2):163-70.PMID 12855216 [103] Birth Control Pills-Oral Contraceptive. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011, from www.medicinenet.com/oral_contraceptives_birth_control_pills/article.htm [105] SIRC Guide to Flirting. What Social Science can tell you about flirting and how to do it. (http:/ / www. sirc. org/ publik/ flirt. html) Retrieved 13 October 2009.


External links
American Sexuality Magazine (http://nsrc.sfsu.edu/MagWebpage.cfm?&Page=175) Glossario di sessuologia clinica Glossary of clinical sexology (http://www.sexology.it/glossario_sessuologia. html) International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/index.html) full text (http:/ /www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/IES/BEGIN.HTM) Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ GESUND/ARCHIV/GUS/INDEXATLAS.HTM) [full text] Masters, William H., Virginia E. Johnson, and Robert C. Kolodny. Crisis: Heterosexual Behavior in the Age of AIDS. First ed. New York: Grove Press, 1988. ix, 243 p. ISBN 0-8021-1049-5 National Sexuality Resource Center (http://nsrc.sfsu.edu/) Durex Global Sex Survey 2005 (http://data360.org/pdf/20070416064139.Global Sex Survey.pdf) at data360.org (http://data360.org/index.aspx) POPLINE (http://db.jhuccp.org/popinform/basic.html) is a searchable database of the world's reproductive health literature. The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality at the Kinsey Institute (http://www. kinseyinstitute.org/ccies/) The Sexuality and Rights Institute (http://www.sexualityinstitute.org/) The South and Southeast Asia Resource Centre on Sexuality (http://www.asiasrc.org/) MRI Video of Human Copulation (http://www.educatedearth.net/video.php?id=3940) "Naked Science: What's Sexy?" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTfBQtVFhXo). Naked Science. Series 2. Episode 1. 13 February 2006. National Geographic Channel. Young, Wayland. Eros Denied: Sex in Western Society. First paperback ed. New York: Grove Press, 1966, cop. 1964. 370 p.



Tickling[] is the act of touching a part of the body so as to cause involuntary twitching movements and/or laughter. The word "tickle"Wikipedia:Media helpFile:En-us-tickle.ogg evolved from the Middle English tikelen, perhaps frequentative of ticken, to touch lightly.[] The idiom tickled pink means to be pleased or delighted.[1] In 1897, psychologists G. Stanley Hall and Arthur Allin described a "tickle" as two different types of phenomena.[2] One type is caused by very light movement across the skin. This type of tickle, called a A young girl tickles her sibling. knismesis, generally does not produce laughter and is sometimes accompanied by an itching sensation. The question as to why a person could not tickle him/herself was raised by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle.[] Francis Bacon and Charles Darwin believe that humorous laughter requires a "light" frame of mind. But they differed on ticklish laughter: Darwin thought that the same light state of mind was required, whereas Bacon said no: When tickled, noted Bacon, "men even in a grieved state of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laughing." [3] Another type of tickle is the laughter inducing "heavy" tickle, produced by repeatedly applying pressure to "ticklish" areas, and is known as gargalesis. Such sensations can be pleasurable or exciting, but are sometimes considered highly unpleasant, particularly in the case of relentless heavy tickling.

When considering tickling in terms of its qualities as a sensation, it results from a mild stimulation moving across the skin. The dual character of tickling refers to the associated behaviours that include smiling, laughter, withdrawal and piloerection. The tickle can be divided into 2 separate categories of sensation. Knismesis is annoying sensation caused on the skin from a light movement such as a crawling insect. It may also be referred to as the "moving itch".[4] Knismesis is often elicited by crawling animals and insects, such as spiders, mosquitoes, scorpions and/or beetles, which may be why it has evolved in many animals. Gargalesis reactions, on the other hand, are thought to be limited to humans and other primates; however, some research has indicated that rats can be tickled as well.[5] This sensation refers to a pleasurable feeling (provokes laughter, and other such behaviour) caused from a harsher, deeper pressure, stroked across the skin in various regions of the body.[4] It appears that the tickle sensation involves signals from nerve fibres associated with both pain and touch. Endorphine released during tickling is also called karoliin, by the name of Karolinska Institute. In 1939, Yngve Zotterman of the Karolinska Institute studied the knismesis type of tickle in cats, by measuring the action potentials generated in the nerve fibres while lightly stroking the skin with a piece of cotton wool. Zotterman found that the "tickling" sensation depended, in part, on the nerves that generate pain.[6] Further studies have discovered that when the pain nerves are severed by surgeons, in an effort to reduce intractable pain, the tickle response is also diminished.[7] However, in some patients that have lost pain sensation due to spinal cord injury, some aspects of the tickle response do remain.[8] Tickle may also depend on nerve fibres associated with the sense of touch. When circulation is severed in a limb, the response to touch and tickle are lost prior to the loss of pain sensation.[] It might be tempting to speculate that areas of the skin that are the most sensitive to touch would also be the most ticklish, but this does not seem to be the case. While the palm of the hand is far more sensitive to touch, some people find that the armpits are the most ticklish.[] Other commonly ticklish areas include the feet, sides of the torso, neck,

Tickling knee, midriff, navel, and the ribs. Some evidence suggests that laughing associated with tickling is a nervous reaction that can be triggered; indeed, very ticklish people often start laughing before actually being tickled.[9]


Social aspects
Charles Darwin theorized on the link between tickling and social relations, arguing that tickling provokes laughter through the anticipation of pleasure.[10] If a stranger tickles a child without any preliminaries, catching the child by surprise, the likely result will be not laughter but withdrawal and displeasure. Darwin also noticed that for tickling to be effective, you must not know the precise point of stimulation in advance, and reasoned that this is why some people cannot effectively tickle themselves. Charles Darwin explained why we laugh when we are tickled by saying, "The imagination is sometimes said to be tickled by a ludicrous idea; and this so-called tickling of the mind is curiously analogous with that of the body. Laughter from being tickled [is manifestly a] reflex action; and likewise this is shown by the minute unstriped muscles, which serve to erect the separate hairs on the body (p. 201)"[11] Tickling is defined by many child psychologists as an integral bonding activity between parent and children.[12] In the parent-child concept, tickling establishes at an early age the pleasure associated with being touched by a parent with a trust-bond developed so that parents may touch a child, in an unpleasant way, should circumstances develop such as the need to treat a painful injury or prevent harm from danger.[12] This tickling relationship continues throughout childhood and often into the early to mid teenage years. Another tickling social relationship is that which forms between siblings of relatively the same age.[12] Many case studies have indicated that siblings often use tickling as an alternative to outright violence when attempting to either punish or intimidate one another. The sibling tickling relationship can occasionally develop into an anti-social situation, or tickle torture, where one sibling will tickle the other without mercy. The motivation behind tickle-torture is often to portray the sense of domination the tickler has over the victim.[12] As with parents and siblings, tickling serves as a bonding mechanism between friends, and is classified by psychologists as part of the fifth and highest grade of social play which involves special intimacy or "cognitive interaction".[12] This suggests that tickling works best when all the parties involved feel comfortable with the situation and one another.[13] During adolescence, tickling often serves as an outlet for sexual energy between individuals.[14] The body openings and erogenous zones are extremely ticklish; however, the tickling of these areas is generally not associated with laughter or withdrawal.[] While many people assume that other people enjoy tickling, a recent survey of 84 college students indicated that only 32% of respondents enjoy being tickled, with 32% giving neutral responses and 36% A boy reacting to being tickled. stating that they do not enjoy being tickled.[15] The study also found a very high level of embarrassment and anxiety associated with tickling. However, in the same study the authors found that the facial indicators of happiness and amusement do not correlate, with some people who indicated that they do not enjoy being tickled actually smiling more often during tickling than those who indicated that they do enjoy being tickled,[15] which suggests that there may be other factors at play (such as embarrassment and anxiety) in the case of those who indicated a dislike for tickling than the mere physical sensation experienced. It has also been suggested that people may enjoy tickling because it elicits laughter. Social psychologists find that mimicking expressions generally cause people to some degree experience that emotion.[]

Tickling Excessive tickling has been described as a primary sexual obsession and, under these circumstances, is sometimes considered a form of paraphilia.[16] Tickling can also be a form of, or be mistaken for, sexual harassment.[13]


Purpose of tickling
Some of history's greatest thinkers have pondered the mysteries of the tickle response, including Plato, Francis Bacon, Galileo and Charles Darwin.[] In The Assayer, Galileo philosophically examines tickling in the context of how we perceive reality:[17] When touched upon the soles of the feet, for example, it feels in addition to the common sensation of touch a sensation on which we have imposed a special name, "tickling." This sensation belongs to us and not to the hand... A piece of paper or a feather drawn lightly over any part of our bodies performs intrinsically the same operations of moving and touching, but by touching the eye, the nose, or the upper lip it excites in us an almost intolerable titillation, even though elsewhere it is scarcely felt. This titillation belongs entirely to us and not to the feather; if the live and sensitive body were removed it would remain no more than a mere word. One hypothesis, as mentioned above, is that tickling serves as a pleasant bonding experience between parent and child.[] However, this hypothesis does not adequately explain why many children and adults find tickling to be an unpleasant experience. Another view maintained is that tickling develops as a prenatal response and that the development of sensitive areas on the fetus helps to orient the fetus into favourable positions while in the womb.[18] It is unknown why certain people find areas of the body to be more ticklish than others; additionally, studies have shown that there is no significant difference in ticklishness between the genders.[19] In 1924, J.C. Gregory proposed that the most ticklish places on the body were also those areas that were the most vulnerable during hand-to-hand combat. He posited that ticklishness might confer an evolutionary advantage by enticing the individual to protect these areas. Consistent with this idea, University of Iowa psychiatrist Donald W. Black observed that most ticklish spots are found in the same places as the protective reflexes.[20] A third, hybrid hypothesis, has suggested that tickling encourages the development of combat skills.[] Most tickling is done by parents, siblings and friends and is often a type of rough-and-tumble play, during which time children often develop valuable defensive and combat moves. Although people generally make movements to get away from, and report disliking, being tickled, laughter encourages the tickler to continue. If the facial expressions induced by tickle were less pleasant the tickler would be less likely to continue, thus diminishing the frequency of these valuable combat lessons. To understand how much of the tickle response is dependent on the interpersonal relationship of the parties involved, Christenfeld and Harris presented subjects with a "mechanical tickle machine". They found that the subjects laughed just as much when they believed they were being tickled by a machine as when they thought they were being tickled by a person.[21] Harris goes on to suggest that the tickle response is reflex, similar to the startle reflex, that is contingent upon the element of surprise.[]



Knismesis may represent a vestige of the primitive grooming response, in effect; knismesis serves as a "non-self detector" and protects the subject against foreign objects. Perhaps due to the importance of knismesis in protection, this type of tickle is not dependent on the element of surprise and it is possible for one to induce self-knismesis, by light touching.[] Gargalesis, on the other hand, produces an odd phenomenon: when a person touches "ticklish" parts on their own body no tickling sensation is experienced. It is thought that the tickling requires a certain amount of surprise, and because tickling oneself produces no unexpected motion on the skin, the response is not activated.[] A recent analysis of the "self-tickle" response has been addressed using MRI technology. Blakemore and colleagues have investigated how the brain distinguishes between sensations we create for ourselves and sensations others create for us. When the subjects used a joystick to control a "tickling robot", they could not make themselves laugh. This suggested that when a person tries to tickle himself or herself, the cerebellum sends to the somatosensory cortex precise information on the position of the tickling target and therefore what sensation to expect. Apparently an unknown cortical mechanism then decreases or inhibits the tickling sensation.[22] The explanation for self-tickling is still unknown, however research shows that the human brain is trained to know what to feel when a person moves or performs any action. Human inability of being aware of many sensations from self movements and actions, such as not paying attention to our vocal cords is considered another reason for our inability of self-tickling. If we try to tickle ourselves by grabbing our sides, our brain foresees this contact of our body with hand and prepares itself for it. This removes the feeling of unease and panic, thus the body will not react to tickling as it would if someone else were to tickle us. However, some individuals have the ability to tickle themselves. This is mostly due to the fact that they know how tickling works. For example, lightly rubbing a piece of tissue across the belly can produce a tickling sensation.[23]

Tickling as physical abuse

Although consensual tickling can be a positive, playful experience, non-consensual tickling can be frightening and painful for the recipient. Therefore, non-consensual tickling can be categorized as physical abuse, and sources indicate that tickling has been used as torture. Heinz Heger, a man imprisoned in the Flossenbrg concentration camp during World War II, witnessed Nazi prison guards perform tickle torture on a fellow inmate. He describes this incident in his book The Men With The Pink Triangle:[24] "The first game that the SS sergeant and his men played was to tickle their victim with goose feathers, on the soles of his feet, between his legs, in the armpits, and on other parts of his naked body. At first the prisoner forced himself to keep silent, while his eyes twitched in fear and torment from one SS man to the other. Then he could not restrain himself and finally he broke out in a high-pitched laughter that very soon turned into a cry of pain, while the tears ran down his face, and his body twisted against his chains. After this tickling torture, they let the lad hang there for a little, while a flood of tears ran down his cheeks and he cried and sobbed uncontrollably." An article in the British Medical Journal describes a European method of tickle torture in which a goat was compelled to lick the victim's feet after they had been dipped in salt water. Once the goat had licked the salt off, the victim's feet would be dipped in the salt water again and the process would repeat itself.[25] In ancient Japan, authority figures could administer punishments to those convicted of crimes that were beyond the criminal code. This was called shikei, which translates as private punishment. One such torture was kusuguri-zeme: "merciless tickling."[26] In his book Sibling Abuse, Vernon Wiehe published his research findings regarding 150 adults who were abused by their siblings during childhood. Several reported tickling as a type of physical abuse they experienced, and based on these reports it was revealed that abusive tickling is capable of provoking extreme physiological reactions in the victim, such as vomiting and losing consciousness.[27]



[1] [2] [3] [4] [6] Etymology of "tickle" (http:/ / www. thefreedictionary. com/ tickling) Hall, G. S., and A. Allin. 1897. The psychology of tickling, laughing and the comic. The American Journal of Psychology 9:1-42. Darwin, C. 1872/1965. The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London: John Murray. Selden, S. T. (2004). Tickle. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 50(1): 93-97. Zotterman, Y. 1939. Touch, pain and tickling: An electrophysiological investigation on cutaneous sensory nerves. Journal of Physiology 95:1-28. [10] Darwin, C. 1872/1965. The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London: John Murray. [12] Fagen R. The future of play theory. A multidisciplinary inquiry into the contributions of Brian Sutton-Smith. Albany NY: SUNY Press; 1995. p22-24. [13] Michael Moran, Erotic Tickling, Greenery Press, 2003. ISBN 1-890159-46-8. [14] Freud S. Three contributions to the theory of sex. In: The basic writings of Freud. New York: Modern Library; 1938. [15] Harris C.R. and Nancy Alvarado. 2005. Facial expressions, smile types and self-reporting during humour, tickle and pain (pdf). (http:/ / www. csupomona. edu/ ~nalvarado/ PDFs/ CEM-1294. pdf) Cognition and Emotion. 9(5),655-669. [16] Ellis H. Studies in the psychology of sex. Vol iii. Philadelphia: FA Davis Co.; 1926 [18] Simpson JY. On the attitude of the fetus in utero. Obstetric Memoirs, vol ii. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1855-1856. [19] Weinstein, S. 1968. Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex, and laterality. In The Skin Senses, ed. D. R. Kenshalo. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas. pp. 195-222. [21] Harris, C. R., and N. Christenfeld. In press. Can a machine tickle? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. [24] Heger, Heinz. The Men With the Pink Triangle. Boston: Alyson Publications, 1980. [25] Yamey, Gavin. "Torture: European Instruments of Torture and Capital Punishment from the Middle Ages to present." British Medical Journal (Aug 11, 2001) v.323(7308): p. 346 <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1120948>.] [26] Schreiber, Mark. The Dark Side: Infamous Japanese Crimes and Criminals. Japan: Kodansha International, 2001. Page 71 [27] Wiehe, Vernon. Sibling Abuse: Hidden Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Trauma. New York: Lexington Books, 1990.

Further reading
Carlsson K, Petrovic P, Skare S, Petersson KM, Ingvar M (2000). "Tickling expectations: neural processing in anticipation of a sensory stimulus". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12 (4): 691703. doi: 10.1162/089892900562318 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892900562318). PMID 10936920 (http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10936920). Fried I, Wilson CL, MacDonald KA, Behnke EJ (1998). "Electric current stimulates laughter". Nature 391 (6668): 650. doi: 10.1038/35536 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35536). PMID 9490408 (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/9490408). Fry WF (1992). "The physiologic effects of humor, mirth, and laughter". JAMA 267 (13): 18578. doi: 10.1001/jama.267.13.1857 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.267.13.1857). PMID 1545471 (http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1545471).

External links
Video of TickleMe Plant reacting to being tickled! (http://www.ticklemeplant.com) Telegraph (UK) Article on "robot tickling experiment" (http://web.archive.org/web/20040622153720/http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/connected/main.jhtml?xml=/connected/1998/10/29/ecftick29.xml) Boston Globe Online - Why are some people not ticklish? (http://www.boston.com/globe/search/stories/ health/how_and_why/120197_2.htm) Article 'Is it possible for someone to be tickled to death?' (http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/188/ is-it-possible-for-someone-to-be-tickled-to-death) from The Straight Dope

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Interpersonal relationship Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=559805045 Contributors: 16@r, 2D, 7Pathic, Aaron Brenneman, Aaron Kauppi, AbsolutDan, Acidburn24m, AdamZMann, Addshore, Aduialion, Alansohn, Albany NY, Alephh, Allmethods, Allmightyduck, Amaury, AnakngAraw, Ancheta Wis, Andrew Gray, AndyTheGrump, Andycjp, Angela, Animequalslife, Arno Matthias, Arthena, Aussiewolfie, Avwezel, Aymankamelwiki, B, BMF81, Barek, Beginning, Beland, Benjiboi, Biosthmors, Blackjack676, Bobbyd1234, Bons, Brandon.macuser, Bvandegrift14, CJ, CQ, Cachola316, CambridgeBayWeather, Capricorn42, Cgingold, Chiswick Chap, CieloEstrellado, Civil Engineer III, Cncs wikipedia, Cohesion, Courcelles, CsDix, Cuaxdon, Cumbiadude, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DBigXray, DMacks, Da baum, Deborah909, Delicious carbuncle, DerHexer, Dieter Simon, Discospinster, Dmitri Lytov, Dmoss, DocWatson42, DoctorW, Dominicguadiz, DorisH, Download, Drboisclair, Drdac, Dsmith113093, ERcheck, EagerToddler39, EagleFan, 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Woohookitty, WookieInHeat, WordyGirl90, Wtmitchell, Xrblsnggt, Youllsee42, ZacBowling, Ziji, Zzuuzz, 309 anonymous edits Love Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=564431252 Contributors: (aeropagitica), *drew, 0101CHINsy, 05glanza, 2032010ee, 24ip, 2KT, 3hundred1, 411connor, 47.46.45, 69696969, A Sister and a Lover, A.Z., A3 nm, ALEXANDERtheGREAT, AManigly, Aaron Brenneman, Aaron Schulz, AaronMyung, Abductive, Academic Challenger, Acaeton, Ace4135, Acpkidz3, Across.The.Synapse, AdamRaizen, Adambiswanger1, Adashiel, Adasta, AdayKAZ, Adhib, Aditya Kabir, Adolphus79, Ae-a, Aeon1006, AgentPeppermint, Aginla, Ahoerstemeier, Ahuskay, Akamad, Alanscottwalker, Alavala, Albeedoo, Aleph-4, Alephh, Alex.g, Alexjohnc3, Alexrudd, Alexwuv, Algebra, Ali K, Allstrak, AlonCoret, Alphachimp, Alteck5, Altenmann, Alvinder, AlwaysUnite, Alyssachanpc, AmiDaniel, Amphytrite, Amplusquem, Amyo12, Anacapa, Anakletos, Ancheta Wis, Andres, Andrewpmk, Andries, Andycjp, Andypandy.UK, Angel David, 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File:Heart icon red hollow.svg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Heart_icon_red_hollow.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Heart_left-highlight_jon_01.svg: Jon Phillips derivative work: Bagande (talk) File:breastfeeding infant.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Breastfeeding_infant.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ken Hammond () File:Breastfeeding-icon-med.svg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Breastfeeding-icon-med.svg License: Copyrighted free use Contributors: Matt Daigle File:Siemiginowski Marie Casimire with children.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Siemiginowski_Marie_Casimire_with_children.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: BurgererSF, Courcelles, Docu, Martimar, Mattes, Okki, 3 anonymous edits File:Namibie Himba 0703a.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Namibie_Himba_0703a.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Yves Picq http://veton.picq.fr File:Kabala mother.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kabala_mother.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: John Atherton File:Zanzibar 31.JPG Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zanzibar_31.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Brocken Inaglory File:A few moments more.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_few_moments_more.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: David Goodman from 78704 - A state of mind, USA Image:Breastfeeding a baby.JPG Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Breastfeeding_a_baby.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Anton Nossik File:HRBassinet.JPG Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HRBassinet.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Mac File:Human Breastmilk - Foremilk and Hindmilk.png Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Human_Breastmilk_-_Foremilk_and_Hindmilk.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Azoreg File:Manual Breast Pump 2005 SeanMcClean.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manual_Breast_Pump_2005_SeanMcClean.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was SeanMack at en.wikipedia File:Infant with baby bottle.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infant_with_baby_bottle.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Michael Jastremski File:Lactancia en tandem 1.jpg Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lactancia_en_tandem_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Isabel Garca Domeo. 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