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Arguments for using feed ingredients of animal origin in broiler diets

In general

Nutritional ingredients of animal origin have an excellent digestibility and an optimal nutritional profile of their amino acids, fatty acids, calcium and phosphorus. At the same time they have lit- tle or no anti-nutritional factors present in contrast to products of vegetable origin where good digestion and utilization of the ingredients, as well as a good balancing of different ingredients are much more critical and challenging to realize.

In cases of sub-optimal nutrition where the health and wellbeing of the animal as well as the environment (unnecessary output of nutrients and greenhouse gasses) are compromised, Sonac’s range of feed ingredients play a vital role.

Arguments for using feed ingredients of animal origin in broiler diets In general Nutritional ingredients of

Feed ingredients of animal origin that are currently allowed to be used in EU in poultry feeds are:

• Animal fats • Porcine hemoglobin • DCP, dicalcium phosphate (Delfos) • Non ruminant gelatin (pellet binder)

Improvement by nature
Improvement
by nature
Arguments for using feed ingredients of animal origin in broiler diets In general Nutritional ingredients of
Arguments for using feed ingredients of animal origin in broiler diets In general Nutritional ingredients of

Animal fats

Sustainability

Carbon Footprint (CFP)

Category 3 animal fats for feed use are produced from animal by-products, such as skins, fat deposits and viscera. These fats are appearing as co-products in the production of meat for the food chain. Sonac considers the re-use of these high quality edible fats in the feeding of farm animals to be much nearer the principle of a closed production chain than the alternative use of these fats for biofuels where they are definitively burned and taken out of the system. Most animal fats (like pork and poultry fat) show high digestibility and therefore bio-availability for poultry.

Local for local

Animal fats need to be processed very shortly after the slaughtering process (because of risks of decay and oxidation). Sonac process- ing locations are within easy reach of slaugh- tering facilities. Likewise end-users of these fats are located within a reasonable distance of the fat producing plant. So here we see the principle of local processing for local produc- tion in practice!

No land use/ land use

change

Obviously by using animal fats we are reducing the need for fats coming from plant sources such as sunflower, rapeseed, palm or soya. It also partly replaces starch- like products such as wheat, barley and corn. This reduces the claim on land use for strictly agricultural animal feed crops.

The described benefits all accumulate in the Carbon Footprint (greenhouse gasses output, expressed as kg CO2-equivalent / ton of product) of animal fats that is much lower than the foot- print for vegetable oils. See below figure:

Foodgrade fat Cat 3 poultry fat Cat 3 mixed fat Soybean oil Palm oil Rapeseed oil
Foodgrade fat
Cat 3 poultry fat
Cat 3 mixed fat
Soybean oil
Palm oil
Rapeseed oil
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000

Carbon footprint (kg CO 2 eq per tonne)

  • Carbon footprint of fat

  • LULUC emissions of fat

  • Carbon footprint of oil

  • LULUC emissions of oil

Figure 1: Carbon footprints of cat 3 poultry and mixed fat and food grade fat and three different vegetable oils per ton of product (taken from Blonk, 2010)

Comparison CFP animal fats vs. vegetable oils The Carbon Footprint (CFP) of poultry fat is only
Comparison CFP animal fats vs. vegetable oils
The Carbon Footprint (CFP) of poultry fat is only 39 % of the CFP of Soy oil and 22 % of
that of palm oil. If we would add the LULUC (land use and Land use change) trait to this
figure poultry fat has just 12 % (to soy oil) or 16 % (to palm oil) of the effect on green-
house gas emission that the vegetable oils have.
(LULUC = the effect that growing crops (land use) and land use change (e.g. deforesting)
have on the carbon footprint)

Animal fats

Relation to health

Overview of the fatty acid profile of some fats

Needless to say that a big proportion of the dietary fat is directly depos- ited in body fat tissues. In broilers this is mainly in subcutaneous fat.

Chemi-

Name

Poultry

Pork

Soy-

Palm

Rapeseed

cal

fat

fat

bean

oil

oil

oil

C-12

Lauric

0,5

0,2

0

0,2

0,2

C-14

Myristic

1

2

0,2

1

0

C-16:0

Palmitic

19

 

10,5

43

  • 24 100,0%

4,5

C-18:0

Stearic

  • 7 1,5

 

4

5

  • 15 95,0%

C-18:1

Oleic

  • 33 58

 
  • 39 38,5

22

   

relative utilization

 
             

90,0%

C-18:2

Linoleic

  • 22 20

  • 11 54,5

 

11

 

C-18:3

Linolenic

  • 2 0,2

1

7,5

 

9

85,0%

 

80,0%

75,0%

 

70,0%

Pork fat and especially poultry fat is rich in linoleic acid (C-18:2, ω6). This is one of the essential fatty acids that animals need to receive through the food they eat. Linoleic acid (among other functions) plays an important role in the immune system and its response. It is also vital in processes related to fertility and reproduction (hormones and tissue structure). Oleic acid is also known as a healthy fatty acid (olive oil contains up to 75 %). Like linoleic acid it has a declining effect on the formation of bad LDL lipoproteins in blood (to transport the fat): see figure 2.

mg/dL

mmol/L

2.4

 
  • TC

 

0.062

2.0

  • LDL-C

 

0.052

   

1.6

  • HDL-C

0.041

1.2

   

0.031

0.8

   

0.021

0.4

       

0.01

0.0

 

0.00

-0.4

       

-0.01

-0.8

 

-0.021

-1.2

-0.031

-1.6

 

-0.041

 

12:0

14:0

16:0

trans-18:1

18:0

cis-18:1

18:2n-6

(n=2)

(n=3)

(n=9)

(n=7)

(n=5)

(n=12)

(n=16)

Furthermore unsaturated fatty acids like oleic and linoleic acid exert a positive effect on the digestion of other fatty acids (fats) present in

the gut lumen. This is nicely described by Wiseman (1998) in figure 3.

1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 U:S-ratio chicken 1,5 week age chicken 7,5 week
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
U:S-ratio
chicken 1,5 week age
chicken 7,5 week age

Figure 3: Effect of fatty acid U:S-ratio on digestion in broilers.

The higher the unsaturated : saturated ratio of the fat the better it is absorbed. This is more important for young animals (like broilers or piglets) than for older ones. The figure above shows the effect of fatty acid U:S ration on digestion in broilers. Improved fat digestion means more efficient production (less feed necessary), less waste

through excretion to the environment and fewer health issues

(because of wet droppings diarrhoea)

Individual fatty acids (every 1% of energy increase)

Figure 2: Effects of lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0), palmitic (16:0), elaidic (trans-18:1), stearic (18:0), oleic (cis-18:1), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids on total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (from Hu et ai, 2001).

Animal fats

In animal fats the fatty acids are bound to glycerol: so called triglycerides. It is known that if you offer the fatty acids in a free form (so not bound to glycerol like in fatty acids blends) this especially for young chicken is more difficult to digest (to process). This is illustrated in figure 4 and 5.

Low FFA (10 %) content

High FFA (50 %) content

38 38 36 36 34 34 32 32 30 30 28 28 26 26 24 24
38
38
36
36
34
34
32
32
30
30
28
28
26
26
24
24
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
3.25
3.5
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
3.25
3.5
U/S Ratio
U/S Ratio
Birds - young
Birds - old
Birds - young
Birds - old
Pigs - young
Pigs - old
Pigs - young
Pigs - old
Dietary Energy of fat (MJ/kg)
Dietary Energy of fat (MJ/kg)
Source: Wiseman et al., 1998

Figure 4: Effect of U:S-ratio of low FFA fats on ME-content

Figure 5: Effect of U:S-ratio of high FFA fats on ME-content

The young broiler suffers the most from the high FFA content of the fat: the ME-content of the fat dropped from 32 MJ/kg to 28 MJ/kg (-/- 12,5 %) by increasing the FFA content of the fat used. It can also be noted that in general for all the animals the available energy content is decreased.

Vice versa if the (fat) digestion is jeopardized by a bacterial over- growth in the gut (E-coli, Clostridium) the bird benefits from easier digestible feed ingredients like animal fats.

To summarize

Compared to vegetable fats animal fats have a higher sustainability profile (shorter transport chains, no land use change, much lower carbon foot print) and in some cases a healthier nutritional value (e.g. pig fat in comparison to palm oil). Animal fats offered by Sonac are triglycerides. They are always easily digested and are most particularly useful at times when optimal nutrition is critical e.g. with very young animals and when there are health challenges.

Animal fats In animal fats the fatty acids are bound to glycerol: so called triglycerides. It
Animal fats In animal fats the fatty acids are bound to glycerol: so called triglycerides. It

Hemoglobin

Strictly protein

Hemoglobin is a high density protein source (90 % protein, high available lysine level). It has no ANF’s present that can influence digestion or health in a negative way. No bulky, unneces- sary components present. It has a high biological value (figure 6), which means that the protein can be utilized almost completely (figure 7) by the animal, implying hardly any spillage into the environment.

0,49 0,48 0,5 0,45 0,4 0,37 0,37 0,36 0,35 0,3 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0
0,49
0,48
0,5
0,45
0,4
0,37
0,37
0,36
0,35
0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05
0
Hemoglobin
potato
soy protein
whey powder
fish meal
powder
protein
concentrate
(delac)
Figure 6: Essential amino acids as part of the crude protein of different proteins
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Arg
His
Ile
Leu
Lys
Met
Cis
Phe
Thr
Ala
Asp
Glu
Gly
Ser
Tyr
N
Pigs
Poultry

Figure 7: Digestibility of hemoglobin powder in pigs and poultry

Hemoglobin

Concentration of the produced

feed:

So being such a concentrated source of protein hemoglobin makes it possible to formulate high density diets. High dense diets show, of course, technical advantages: better ADG, less feed needed to pro- duce one kg of meat, but also the manure production is less and of a better quality as can be seen in next overview:

Effect of diet concentration on litter score

 

Nutrient

Litter score

PV-459

AME+ 250 kcal/kg

+1.8

PV-404

AME+ 150 kcal/kg

+0.5

(taken from Dr v/d Aar: Sonac’s China lecture 2009; scale 1-10 with 10 being very dry)

Litter quality plays a very important role in the well being (hock burns as a result of too wet litter is even part of legislation on chicken welfare) but also zootechnical performance of broilers as well as on carcass quality.

The importance of influencing litter quality in a positive way will even become more important as the industry will diminish the use of anti- biotics as is required by government and public opinion.

Sustainability

Carbon Footprint (CFP)

Because of its origin as a byproduct of the meat industry the CFP of hemoglobin is expected to be much lower than that of specially pro- duced proteins like fish meal. The CFP of fish meal is 1.7 - 3.6 kg CO 2 eq/kg of protein and for hemoglobin the CFP is only 0.95 kg CO 2 eq/kg of protein (Blonk, 2011).

Relation to health

Hemoglobin has a high iron content and is for a protein source rela- tively low in potassium (11 g/kg at 90 % protein) as compared to soya (22 g/kg at 44 % protein). This means expressed on a protein equiva- lent a factor 4 lower K level. Potassium is a key driver in determining the moisture content of the litter as can be seen in next figure:

850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 0 5 10 15 20 25 Dietary potassium
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
0
5
10
15
20
25
Dietary potassium content (g/kg)
Moistrure content of droppings (g/kg)

Figure 8: Effect of Potassium on moisture in litter (v/d Aar, 2009)

Re-using this high quality protein source in animal feed is of course a sparing action towards specially produced vegetable protein sources or fish meal. Fish meal is becoming an ever more scarce and some- times very expensive raw material for which especially the aqua feed and cat food producers will always pay a premium to get it. Looking for a sustainable alternative would be a wise thing to do. Also with respect to Salmonella contamination fish meal poses a risk. Further- more more and more public concern is raised against the commercial fishing only for the production of fish meal.

Recently a lot more attention is paid to the amino acid valine. Hemo- globin is a rich source of valine.

DCP, dicalcium phosphate (Delfos)

Sonac’s DCP is produced from bone material. In human nutrition it is sold and used to treat osteoporosis (weak legs through decalcification of bones) . With chicken the incident of broken bones during handling is a major problem (Knowles 1998). In surveys in the UK it was estimated that among broilers at slaughter- ing more than 3 % had broken legs.

DCP works very well to counteract the imbalance in the simultaneous uptake of calcium and phosphorus from the animal’s gut.

Sustainability

In feed DCP from bones competes with mineral phosphate sources like MCP (monocalcium-phosphate) and DCP that are produced from rock phosphate. Apart from its use in animal feed the major field of application of rock phosphates is in fertilizers. The current world demand is estimated to be about 148 million tonnes per year. The rock phosphate is found in the soil and needs to be mined. The min- ing, processing and transport of rock phosphates is an energy intense matter. 80% of the mines are found in only a few countries: China, Morocco, Brazil and the USA. The mining reserves are finite: the world reserve is diminishing and the estimation is that at the current level of extraction the phosphate reserve will last for another 50 years only.

So this is not sustainable at all, apart from also being energy intensive to produce.

Historical global sources of phosphorous fertilizers (1800-2000)

22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 Human excreta 6 Phosphate Guano rock 4 2
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
Human excreta
6
Phosphate
Guano
rock
4
2
Manure
0
Year
Phosphate rock
Manure
Guano
Human excreta
Phosphorus (MT/yr)
1800
1805
1810
1815
1820
1825
1830
1835
1840
1845
1850
1855
1860
1865
1870
1875
1880
1885
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000

Figure 9: The excretion of phosphate rock in the last decades.

Heavy metals and dioxins

Mineral phosphates may contain elevated levels of heavy metals (especially Fluor) and dioxins. This is why maximum allowable levels of inclusion have been put in place by the EU to prevent the use of phos- phate sources showing high levels leading to environmental pollution. Sonac’s DCP is well below all the maximum levels required.

Fluor also acts as an antagonist in the uptake of phosphates from the gut lumen. The same is true for aluminium and magnesium both of which can also be present at high levels in some mineral phosphates. Again these problems are overcome through the use of Sonac’s DCP.

 

Maximum

 

EU max

DCP

allowance

Sonac

levels

Arsenic

mg/ kg

 
  • 10 < 1

 

Cadmium

mg /kg

 
  • 10 < 1

 

Fluor

mg/ kg

 

2000

50

Lead

mg/ kg

 

15

<3

Mercury

       

Aluminum

mg/ kg

   

<10

Dioxin

Ng TEQ/ kg

 

0,5

-

Magnesium

g/ kg

   

<0,2

Maximum of contaminants in feed ingredients (GMP+ certification PDV, 2006)

Non ruminant gelatin (pellet binder)

Non ruminant gelatine can be used as a nutritional pellet binder. It has a very high protein content (85%) and typical inclusion levels in the feed (< 0,5%) are very low. This implicates that non ruminant gelatin is an ideal binder for energy and protein concentrated feeds, like broiler feed.

Concentration: Under critical technological circumstances (e.g. high fat addition as in concentrated broiler diets) gelatin binders deliver good quality pellets. So this indirectly helps to reduce the manure production. Good quality and durable pellets also mean less feed spillage and hence manure production.

Summary Sub-optimal nutrition leads to unnecessary excretion of nutrients into the environment. As a rule of
Summary
Sub-optimal nutrition leads to unnecessary excretion of nutrients
into the environment. As a rule of thumb products of animal origin
have an excellent digestibility and a good nutritional profile (little
non nutritious material present). So by using animal products as feed
ingredients fewer mistakes in formulation are made.
Animal fats score highly with respect to sustainability and have a
Carbon Foot Print (CFP) which is only 12% that of soy oil and 16%
that of palm oil. Animal fats are very well digested and healthy for
the target animal: the oleic acid (and linoleic acid in the case of
poultry fat) content is high compared to most vegetable oils. Since
animal fats are triglycerides they are always easily digested and are
most particularly useful at times when optimal nutrition is critical e.g.
with very young animals and when there are health challenges .
DCP: a Dicalcium phosphate produced from pig bones. No further
depletion of the finite reserve of rock phosphates is necessary when
using this source of phosphorus. Bone DCP contains a very low level of
heavy metals and dioxins compared to much of the mineral phosphate
sources. It can be a way of adjusting the (sub) clinical sub-optimal
nutrition status of the animal by replenishing the body reserves of
phosphorus and calcium with an easily digestible source of calcium
and phosphorus.
Non ruminant gelatin: a nutritious 100 % protein pellet binder. It
facilitates the production of difficult-to-produce high density diets:
less flow of unnecessary and unused nutrients into the environment.
References:
• Aar, Dr P van der, Schothorst Feed Research, China lecture 2009
• Blonk milieuadvies, Carbon footprint assessment of cat 3 and foodgrade fat,
2010
Hemoglobin: a high density protein fit to formulate high density
diets to minimize the output to the environment. High dense diets
have a positive influence on the litter quality. Hemoglobin had a
low Potassium level, that helps again to improve the litter quality.
Hemoglobin replaces specially produced vegetable proteins or fish
meal, that come from less sustainable production systems. With
hemoglobin there is no risk of salmonella contamination.
• EAPA, Brochure: Important opportunity to improve piglets health and welfare
benefits, 2007
• Hu Frank B. , MD, PhD, JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPh, and Walter C. Willett,
MD,DrPh, Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical
Review,Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 20, No.1, 5-19 (2001).
• Wiseman, J., J. Powles and F. Salvador. 1998. Comparison between pigs and
poultry in the prediction of the dietary energy values of fats. Animal feed
science and Technology 71: 1-9
• Several product brochures of Sonac
08/2011
08/2011

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