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Confederate Guerrillas

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Contents
Articles
Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War William Quantrill William T. Anderson Cole Younger Marcellus Jerome Clarke John Mobberly John S. Mosby Stovepipe Johnson Archie Clement Silas M. Gordon Champ Ferguson Frank James Joseph C. Porter George M. Todd 1 4 11 25 29 32 34 44 46 48 49 52 56 63

References
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Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War


Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War followed the same general patterns of irregular warfare conducted in 19th century Europe. Structurally, they can be divided into three different types of operationsthe so-called 'People's War', 'partisan warfare', and 'raiding warfare'. Each has distinct characteristics that were common practice during the Civil War years (18611865).

Types of guerrilla warfare


The concept of a 'People's war,' first described by von Clausewitz in his classic treatise On War, was the closest example of a mass guerrilla movement in the era. In general during the Civil War, this type of irregular warfare was conducted in the hinterland of the Border States (Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and northwestern Virginia / West Virginia). It was marked by a vicious neighbor-against-neighbor quality as other grudges got settled. It was frequent for residents of one part of a single county to take up arms against their counterparts in the rest of the vicinity. Bushwhacking, murder, assault, and terrorism were characteristics of this kind of fighting. Few participants wore uniforms or were formally mustered into the actual armies. In many cases, it was civilian against civilian, or civilian against opposing enemy troops. One such example was the opposing irregular forces operating in Missouri and northern Arkansas from 1862 to 1865, most of which were pro-Confederate or pro-Union in name only. They preyed on civilians and isolated military forces of both sides with little regard for politics. From these semi-organized guerrillas, several groups formed and were given some measure of legitimacy by their governments. Quantrill's Raiders, who terrorized pro-Union civilians and fought Federal troops in large areas of Missouri and Kansas, was one such unit. Another notorious unit, with debatable ties to the Confederate military, was led by Champ Ferguson along the Kentucky-Tennessee border. Ferguson became one of the few figures of the Confederate cause to be executed after the war. Dozens of other small, localized bands terrorized the countryside throughout the border region during the war, bringing total war to the area that lasted until the end of the Civil War and, in some areas, beyond. Partisan warfare, in contrast, more closely resembled commando operations of the 20th century. Partisans were small units of conventional forces, controlled and organized by a military force for operations behind enemy lines. The 1862 Partisan Ranger Act passed by the Confederate Congress authorized the formation of these units and gave them legitimacy, which placed them in a different category than the common 'bushwhacker' or 'guerrilla'. John Singleton Mosby formed a partisan unit that was very effective in tying down Federal forces behind Union lines in northern Virginia in the last two years of the war. Groups such as Blazer's Scouts, White's Comanches, the Loudoun Rangers, McNeill's Rangers, and other similar forces at times served in the formal armies, but often were loosely organized and operated more as partisans than as cavalry, especially early in the war. Lastly, deep raids by conventional cavalry forces were often considered 'irregular' in nature. The "Partisan Brigades" of Nathan Bedford Forrest and John Hunt Morgan operated as part of the cavalry forces of the Confederate Army of Tennessee in 1862 and 1863. They were given specific missions to destroy logistical hubs, railroad bridges, and other strategic targets to support the greater mission of the Army of Tennessee. Morgan led raids into Kentucky as well. In his last raid, he violated orders by going across the Ohio River and raiding in Ohio and Indiana as well, as he wanted to bring the war to the northern states. This long raid diverted thousands of Union troops. He captured and paroled nearly 6,000 troops, destroyed bridges and fortifications,

Morgan's Raiders enter Washington, Ohio

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War and ran off livestock. By mid-1863, Morgan's Raiders had been mostly destroyed in the late days of the Great Raid of 1863. Some of his followers continued under their own direction, such as M. Jerome Clarke, who kept on with raids in Kentucky. The Confederacy conducted few deep cavalry raids in the latter years of the war, mostly because of the losses in experienced horsemen and the offensive operations of the Union army. Federal cavalry conducted several successful raids during the war but in general used their cavalry forces in a more conventional role. A good exception was the 1863 Grierson's Raid, which did much to set the stage for General Ulysses S. Grant's victory during the Vicksburg Campaign.

Union countermeasures against the Confederate guerrillas


Federal counter-guerrilla operations were successful in reducing the impact of Confederate guerrilla warfare. In Arkansas, Federal forces used a wide variety of strategies to defeat irregulars. These included the use of Arkansas Unionist forces as anti-guerrilla troops, the use of riverine forces such as gunboats to control the waterways, and the provost marshal's military law enforcement system to spy on suspected guerrillas and to imprison those captured. Against Confederate raiders, the Federal army developed an effective cavalry themselves and reinforced that system by numerous blockhouses and fortification to defend strategic targets. However, Federal attempts to defeat Mosby's Partisan Rangers fell short of success because of Mosby's use of very small units (1015 men) operating in areas considered friendly to the Rebel cause. Another regiment known as the "Thomas Legion", consisting of white and anti-Union Cherokee Indians, morphed into a guerrilla force and continued fighting in the remote mountain back-country of western North Carolina for a month after Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. That unit was never completely suppressed by Union forces, but voluntarily ceased hostilities after capturing the town of Waynesville, North Carolina, on May 10, 1865.

Prolonging the war through guerrilla action


In the late 20th century, several historians focused on the Confederate government's decision to not use guerrilla warfare to prolong the war. Near the end of the war, there were those in the administration, notably President Jefferson Davis, who advocated continuing the southern fight as a guerrilla conflict. He was opposed by generals such as Lee who ultimately believed that surrender and reconciliation were better than guerrilla warfare.

Notable Civil War guerrillas, partisans, jayhawkers, and rangers

William QuantrillCSA

William T. AndersonCSA

Cole YoungerCSA

Marcellus Jerome ClarkeM. Jerome Clarke, aka "Sue Mundy"CSA

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War

James H. Lane (Senator)James H. LaneUSA

John MobberlyCSA

John S. MosbyCSA

Adam Johnson (colonel)"Stovepipe" JohnsonCSA

Other notable bushwhackers, jahawkers, and guerrillas of the Civil War included "Tinker Dave" Beaty,[1] Archie Clement, Silas M. Gordon, Champ Ferguson, Charles R. Jennison, Frank James, James Montgomery, Joseph C. Porter, and George M. Todd.

References
[1] Bryant, Lloyd D. "David "Tinker Dave" Beaty - (L2)." (http:/ / homepages. rootsweb. com/ ~bp2000/ tinker_dave. htm) History of Fentress County, Tennessee. The Fentress County Historical Society.

Nichols, Bruce, Guerrilla Warfare in Civil War Missouri, McFarland & Co. Inc., 2006. ISBN 0786427337. U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 volumes in 4 series. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1880-1901. Lowell Hayes Harrison, James c. Klotter, A New History of Kentucky (http://books.google.com/ books?id=63GqvIN3l3wC&printsec=frontcover#PPA206,M1), Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1997

External links
"Guerilla Warfare in Kentucky" (http://www.bryansbush.com/hub.php?page=articles&layer=a0807) Article by Civil War historian/author Bryan S. Bush

William Quantrill

William Quantrill
William Clarke Quantrill

Born Died Buriedat Allegiance

July 31, 1837 Canal Dover (now Dover), Ohio June 6, 1865 (aged27) Louisville, Kentucky St. John's Catholic Cemetery Louisville Kentucky United States of America Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate States Army guerrilla Yearsof service 1861-1865 Rank Battles/wars Captain American Civil War

Lawrence, Kansas

William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 June 6, 1865) was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War. After leading a Confederate bushwhacker unit along the Missouri-Kansas border in the early 1860s, which included the infamous raid and sacking of Lawrence, Kansas in 1863, Quantrill eventually ended up in Kentucky where he was mortally wounded in a Union ambush in May 1865, aged 27.

Early life
Quantrill was the oldest of 12 children, four of which did not make it past infancy.[1]. He was born at Canal Dover (now just Dover), Ohio, on July 31, 1837. His father was Thomas Henry Quantrill, formerly of Hagerstown, Maryland. His mother, Caroline Cornelia Clark, was a native of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. They were married on October 11, 1836, and moved to Canal Dover the following December. William was well educated and followed in his fathers footsteps and became a school teacher at the age of sixteen. In 1854 his abusive father died of tuberculosis. His father left his family with a huge financial debt and his mother had to turn her home into a boarding house in order to survive. William helped support the family working as a school teacher but left home a year later and headed to Mendota, Illinois.[2]. In Illinois William continued his career as a teacher but soon moved again to Indiana. While in Indiana William worked as a bookkeeper for a lumberyard in Fort Wayne, Indiana, as well as working as a school teacher all in order to try and support his family. However, unable to earn a decent wage, he quickly took up gambling and moved out to Salt Lake City, Utah. It was during this time that he learned how to use the Bowie knife, Sharps rifle and the Colt revolver. At the age of 19 he moved to Missouri at the urging of his friends and his mother. She was able to find a family friend that would take William

William Quantrill with him to Missouri.[3]. Henry Torrey and Harmon Beeson were traveling to Missouri to become farmers and offered to pay for Williams land if he would work for them until the age of twenty-one. They settled at Marais des Cygnes but things did not go as well as planned. After about a year, William became restless and wanted to sell his claim. A dispute arose over the claim and he went to court with Torrey and Beeson. The court awarded the men what was owed to them but William only paid half of what the court had mandated. His relationship with Beeson was never the same but he remained friends with Torrey. After his split with Torrey and Beeson William joined a group of Missouri ruffians and became somewhat of a drifter. The group helped protect Missouri farmers from the Jayhawkers for pay and slept wherever someone would let them stay. Then William traveled back to Utah and then to Colorado but returned in less than a year to Lawrence, Kansas in 1859. It was at this time that Williams political views started to take shape and his attitudes towards the slavery issue started.[4] Before 1860 William Quantrills political view appeared to be in support of the anti-slavery side. He wrote to his good friend W.W. Scott in January 1858 that the Lecompton Constitution was a swindle and that James H. Lane; a Northern sympathizer, as a good man as we have here. He also called the Democrats the worst men we have for they are all rascals, for no one can be a democrat here without being one.[5]. One year later in 1859 he was back in Lawrence, Kansas where he taught school until it closed in 1860. He then took up with brigands and turned to cattle rustling and anything else that could earn him a dollar. He also learned the profitability of capturing runaway slaves, where he devised treacherous plans to set up free black men to be used as bait for runaway slaves so that he could capture them and return them to their masters in exchange for the reward money. His new lifestyle may have been the reason for his change of political views. In February of 1860 William wrote a letter to his mother expressing his views on the anti-slavery supporters. He told her that the pro-slavery movement was right and that he now detested Jim Lane. He said that the hanging of John Brown had been too good for him and that, the devil has got unlimited sway over this territory, and will hold it until we have a better set of man and society generally.[6].

Guerrilla leader
In 1861 William went to Texas with a slaveholder named Marcus Gill. There he met Joel B. Mayes and joined the Cherokee Nations. Joel B. Mayes was a confederate sympathizer and a war chief of the Cherokee Nations in Texas. Mayes was half Scot-Irish half Cherokee Indian and had moved from Georgia to the old Indian Territory in 1838. Joel B. Mayes enlisted and served as a private in Company A of the 1st Cherokee Regiment in the Confederate army. It was Mayes that taught William guerrilla warfare tactics. He would learn the ambush fighting tactics used by the Native Americans as well as sneak attacks and camouflage. Quantrill, in the company of Mayes and the Cherokee Nations joined with General Sterling Price and fought at the Battle of Wilsons Creek and Lexington in August and September of 1861.[7] William deserted General Prices army and went to Blue Springs, MO to form his own Army of loyal men who had great belief in him and the Confederates cause. By Christmas of 1861 he had 10 men that would follow him full-time into his pro-Confederate guerilla organization.[8]. These men were: William Haller, George Todd, Joseph Gilcrist, Perry Hoy, John Little, James Little, Joseph Baughan, William H. Gregg, James A. Hendricks, and John W. Koger. Later in 1862 the Younger brothers as well as Bloody Bill Anderson and the James brothers would join Quantrills army.[9].

William Quantrill

Lawrence Massacre
The most significant event in Quantrill's guerrilla career took place on August 21, 1863. Lawrence had been seen for years as the stronghold of the anti-slavery forces in Kansas and as a base of operation for incursions into Missouri by Jayhawkers and pro-Union forces. It was also the home of James H. Lane, a Senator infamous in Missouri for his staunch anti-slavery views and also a leader of the Jayhawkers. Moreover, during the weeks immediately preceding the raid, Union General Thomas Ewing, Jr., had ordered the detention of any civilians giving aid to Quantrill's Raiders. Several female relatives of the guerrillas were imprisoned in a makeshift jail in Kansas City, Missouri. On August 14, the building collapsed, killing four young women and seriously injuring others. Among the casualties was Josephine Anderson, sister of one of Quantrill's key guerrilla allies, William T. "Bloody Bill" Anderson. Another of Anderson's sisters, Mary, was permanently crippled in the collapse. Quantrill's men believed the collapse was deliberate, and the event fanned them into a fury. Many historians believe that Quantrill had actually planned to raid Lawrence in advance of the building's collapse, in retaliation for earlier Jayhawker attacks[10] as well as the burning of Osceola, Missouri. Early on the morning of August 21, Quantrill descended from Mount Oread and attacked Lawrence at the head of a combined force of as many as 450 guerrillas. Senator Lane, a prime target of the raid, managed to escape through a cornfield in his nightshirt, but the guerrillas, on Quantrill's orders, killed 183 men and boys "old enough to carry a rifle", Quantrill, known to be armed with several French pinfire revolvers, his favorite weapon of choice, carried out several personally,[11] dragging many from their homes to execute them before their families. The ages of those killed ranged from as young as 14 all the way up to 90. When Quantrill's men rode out at 9 a.m., most of Lawrence's buildings were burning, including all but two businesses. His raiders looted indiscriminately and robbed the town's bank. On August 25, in retaliation for the raid, General Ewing authorized General Order No. 11 (not to be confused with General Ulysses S. Grant's General Order of the same name). The edict ordered the depopulation of three-and-a-half Missouri counties along the Kansas border (with the exception of a few designated towns), forcing tens of thousands of civilians to abandon their homes. Union troops marched through behind them, burning buildings, torching planted fields and shooting down livestock to deprive the guerrillas of food, fodder, and support. The area was so thoroughly devastated that it became known thereafter as the "Burnt District". Quantrill and his men rode south to Texas, where they passed the winter with the Confederate forces.

Last years
While in Texas, Quantrill and his 400 men quarreled. His once-large band broke up into several smaller guerrilla companies. One was led by his notable lieutenant, William "Bloody Bill" Anderson, whose men came to be known for tying the scalps of slain unionists to the saddles and bridles of their horses. Quantrill joined them briefly in the fall of 1863 during fighting north of the Missouri River. In the spring of 1865, now leading only a few dozen men, Quantrill staged a series of raids in western Kentucky. He rode into a Union Grave of Capt. William Quantrill in Fourth Street ambush on May 10 near Taylorsville, Kentucky, armed with several Cemetery, Dover, Ohio French pinfires which bore his name, and received a gunshot wound to the chest. He was brought by wagon to Louisville, Kentucky and taken to the military prison hospital, located on the north side of Broadway at 10th Street. He died from his wounds on June 6, 1865 at the age of 27.[12]

William Quantrill

Claim of post-1865 survival


In August, 1907, news articles appeared in Canada and the United States claiming that J.E. Duffy, a member of a Michigan cavalry troop that dealt with Quantrill's raiders during the Civil War, had met Quantrill at Quatsino Sound, on northern Vancouver Island while investigating timber rights in the area. Duffy claimed to recognize the man, living under the name of John Sharp, as Quantrill. Duffy said that Sharp admitted he was Quantrill and discussed in detail raids in Kansas and elsewhere. Sharp claimed that he had survived the ambush in Kentucky, though receiving a bayonet and bullet wound, making his way to South America where he lived some years in Chile. He returned to the United States, working as a cattleman in Fort Worth, Texas. He then moved to Oregon, acting as a cowpuncher and drover, before reaching British Columbia in the 1890s, where he worked in logging, trapping and finally as a mine caretaker at Coal Harbour at Quatsino.

Grave of Capt. William Quantrill in Higginsville, Missouri

Within some weeks after the news stories were published two men came to British Columbia, travelling to Quatsino from Victoria, leaving Quatsino on a return voyage of a coastal steamer the next day. On that day Sharp was found severely beaten, dying several hours later without giving information about his attackers. The police were unable to solve the murder.[13]

Marriage
During the war, Quantrill met thirteen-year-old Sarah Katherine King at her parents' farm in Blue Springs, Missouri. They married and she lived in camp with Quantrill and his men. At the time of his death, she was seventeen.[14]

Reputation and legacy


Quantrill's actions remain controversial to this day. Some historians view him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw; James M. McPherson, one of America's most prominent experts on the Civil War today, calls him and Anderson "pathological killers" who "murdered and burned out Missouri Unionists."[15] Some of Quantrill's celebrity later rubbed off on other ex-Raiders Jesse and Frank James, and Cole and Jim Younger who went on after the war to apply Quantrill's hit-and-run tactics to bank and train robbery. The William Clarke Quantrill Society[16] continues to research and celebrate his life and deeds.

Quantrill's Raiders reunion circa 1875

William Quantrill

In fiction
Dark Command (1940), in which John Wayne opposes former schoolteacher turned guerrilla fighter "William Cantrell" in the early days of the Civil War. William Cantrell is a thinly veiled portrayal of William Quantrill. Renegade Girl (1946) deals with tension between Unionists and Confederates in Missouri. Kansas Raiders (1950), in which Jesse James (played by Audie Murphy) falls under the influence of Quantrill. Woman They Almost Lynched (1953), featuring Quantrill's wife Kate as a female gunslinger. The Stranger Wore a Gun (1953), in which a former Quantrill Raider becomes bank robber until his old comrades catch up with him. Gunsmoke 's first television season episode Reunion '78 [17] features a showdown between cowboy Jerry Shand, who has just arrived in Dodge City, and long-time resident Andy Cully, hardware dealer (a one-time character.) Cully turns out to have been one of Quantrill's Raiders, and Shand, hailing from Lawrence, Kansas, has an old score to settle with him. Quantrill's Raiders (1958), focusing on the raid on Lawrence. A 1959 episode of the TV show The Rough Riders entitled "The Plot to Assassinate President Johnson" [18], as the title suggests, involves Quantrill in a plot to assassinate President Andrew Johnson. Young Jesse James (1960), also depicts Quantrill's influence on Jesse James. Arizona Raiders (1965), in which Audie Murphy plays an ex-Quantrill Raider who is assigned the task of tracking down his former comrades. The TV series Hondo featured both Quantrill and Jesse James in the 1967 episode "Hondo and the Judas" [19]. In 1968's Bandolero!, Dean Martin plays Dee Bishop, a former Quantrill Raider who admits to participating in the attack on Lawrence. His brother Mace, played by James Stewart, was a member of the Union Army under General William Tecumseh Sherman. The Legend of the Golden Gun (1979), in which two men attempt to track down and kill Quantrill. A Belgian comic series, Les Tuniques Bleues ("The Blue Coats") depicts Quantrill as twisted, even psychotic. Lawrence: Free State Fortress (1998), depicts the attack on Lawrence. The 2000 episode entitled "The Ballad of Steeley Joe" [20] on the series The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne depicted both Jesse James and William Quantrill. The USA Network's television show Psych, in an episode entitled "Weekend Warriors" [21], featured a Civil War re-enactment that included William Quantrill. The episode spoke about Quantrill's actions in Lawrence, but the reenactment featured his death at the hands of a fictional nurse Jenny Winslow, whose family was killed at Lawrence. In the novel Gone to Texas, by Asa (aka Forrest) Carter, Josey Wales is a former member of a Confederate Raiding Party led by "Bloody Bill" Anderson, Quantrill's Lieutenant. The book is the basis of the Clint Eastwood film The Outlaw Josey Wales. Quantrill's Lawrence Massacre of 1863 is depicted in Spielberg's mini-series Into the West (2005) Depicted in Robert Schenkkan's play The Kentucky Cycle. The novel Woe To Live On (1987) by Daniel Woodrell was filmed as Ride With The Devil (1999) by Ang Lee. The film features a harrowing recreation of the Lawrence massacre and is notable for its overall authenticity. Quantrill, played by John Ales, makes brief appearances. In the novel True Grit by Charles Portis, and the 1969 and 2010 film versions thereof, Rooster Cogburn boasts of being a former member of Quantrill's Raiders, and LaBoeuf excoriates him for being part of the "border gang" that murdered men, women, and children alike during the raid on Lawrence, Kansas. In Bradley Denton's alternate history tale "The Territory", Samuel Clemens joins Quantrill's Raiders and is with them when they attack Lawrence, Kansas. It was nominated for a Hugo, Nebula and World Fantasy Award for best novella.

William Quantrill

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [Edward E. Leslie, The Devil Knows How to Ride, Random House, 1996.406-406,410] [Richard Brownlee, Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy, Library of Congress 1958, 54] [Richard Brownlee, Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy, Library of Congress 1958, 55] [Edward E. Leslie, The Devil Knows How to Ride, Random House, 1996] [William Connelley, Quantrill and the Border Wars, Pageant Book Co, 1956, 72-74] [William Connelley, Quantrill and the Border Wars, Pageant Book Co, 1956,94-96. My Dear Mother, February 8, 1860] [Oklahoma Historical Society, John Bartlett Meserve, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol. 15, no.1, March 1937. Taken from, http:/ / digital. library. okstate. edu/ Chronicles/ v015/ v015p056. html. Accessed on 08/30/09.57-59] [8] [Richard Brownlee, Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy, Library of Congress 1958] [9] [John McCorkle, Three Years With Quantrill, written by O.S. Barton, Armstrong Herald Print, 1914. 25-26. Accessed through the Library of Congress online catalogue, http:/ / catalog. loc. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. cgi?DB=local& Search_Arg=three+ years+ with+ quantrill& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=100& hist=1& type=quick. Accessed on 9/08/2009] [10] Paul Wellman, A Dynasty of Western Outlaws, 1961 [11] Mills, Charles (2002-04-05). Treasure Legends Of The Civil War (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=p4kRKWBgBnYC& pg=PA32& lpg=PA32& dq="old+ enough+ to+ carry+ a+ rifle"+ quantrill). BookSurge Publishing. pp.32. ISBN978-1588986467. . [12] Kentucky Historical Society (http:/ / kentucky. gov/ kyhs/ hmdb/ MarkerSearch. aspx?mode=County& county=108) [13] McKelvie, B.A., Magic, Murder & Mystery, Cowichan Leader Ltd. (printer), 1966, pp. 55 to 62.; The American West, Vol. 10, American West Pub. Co., 1973, pp. 13 to 17; Leslie, Edward E., The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate Raiders, Da Capo Press, 1996, p. 404, 417, 488, 501. [14] Sarah King Head at Find a Grave (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=5399477) [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] James M. McPherson: "Was It More Restrained Than You Think?", The New York Review of Books, February 14, 2008 William Clarke Quantrill Society (http:/ / www. wcqsociety. com) http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0594332/ http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0690350/ http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0604522/ http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0697271/ http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0824606/

References
The American West, Vol. 10, American West Pub. Co., 1973, pp.13 to 17. Banasik, Michael E., Cavalires of the bush: Quantrill and his men, Press of the Camp Pope Bookshop, 2003. Connelley, William Elsey, Quantrill and the border wars, The Torch Press, 1910 (reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, 2004). Dupuy, Trevor N., Johnson, Curt, and Bongard, David L., Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, Castle Books, 1992, 1st Ed., ISBN 0-7858-0437-4. Edwards, John N., Noted Guerillas: The Warfare of the Border, St. Louis: Bryan, Brand, & Company, 1877. Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5. Gilmore, Donald L., ""Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas border, Pelican Publishing, 2006. Leslie, Edward E., The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate Raiders, Da Capo Press, 1996, ISBN 0-306-80865-X. McKelvie, B.A., Magic, Murder & Mystery, Cowichan Leader Ltd. (printer), 1966, pp. 55 to 62 Mills, Charles, Treasure Legends Of The Civil War, Apple Cheeks Press, 2001, ISBN 1-588-98646-2. Peterson, Paul R., Quantrill of Missouri: The Making of a Guerrilla WarriorThe Man, the Myth, the Soldier, Cumberland House Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1-581-82359-2. Peterson, Paul R., Quantrill in Texas: The Forgotten Campaign, Cumberland House Publishing, 2007. Schultz, Duane, Quantrill's war: the life and times of William Clarke Quantrill, 1837-1865, St. Martin's Press, 1997. Wellman, Paul I., A Dynasty of Western Outlaws, University of Nebraska Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8032-9709-2.

William Quantrill

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Further reading
Castel, Albert E., William Clarke Quantrill, University of Oklahoma Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8061-3081-4. Geiger, Mark W. Financial Fraud and Guerrilla Violence in Missouri's Civil War, 1861-1865 (http://yalepress. yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300151510), Yale University Press, 2010, ISBN 9780300151510 Schultz, Duane, Quantrill's War: The Life and Times of William Clarke Quantrill, 1837-1865, Macmillan Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-312-16972-8.

Historiography
Crouch, Barry A. "A 'Fiend in Human Shape?' William Clarke Quantrill and his Biographers," Kansas History (1999) 22#2 pp 142-156 analyzes the highly polarized historiography

External links
William Clark Quantrill Society (http://www.wcqsociety.com) Official website for the Family of Frank & Jesse James: Stray Leaves, A James Family in America Since 1650 (http://www.ericjames.org) T.J. Stiles, Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (http://www.lastrebel.com) Guerrilla raiders in an 1862 Harper's Weekly story, with illustration (http://www.sonofthesouth.net/ leefoundation/civil-war/1862/september/quantrill-raiders-raid.htm) Quantrill's Guerrillas Members In The Civil War (http://www.kansasheritage.org/research/quantrill.html) Quantrill flag at Kansas Museum of History (http://www.kshs.org/cool2/flag.htm) A comprehensive on-line resource for all things related to William Clarke Quantrill and the men who followed him (http://quantrillsguerrillas.com) "Guerilla Warfare in Kentucky" (http://www.bryansbush.com/hub.php?page=articles&layer=a0807) Article by Civil War historian/author Bryan S. Bush

William T. Anderson

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William T. Anderson
William T. Anderson

Nickname Born Died Buriedat Allegiance

Bloody Bill 1839 Hopkins County, Kentucky October 26, 1864 (aged 24/25) Albany, Missouri Pioneer Cemetery Richmond, Missouri Confederate States of America

Service/branch Partisan Rangers Yearsof service 18631864 Rank Unit Battles/wars Captain Quantrill's Raiders

Battle of Fort Blair Lawrence Massacre Centralia Massacre Orrick, Missouri

William T. Anderson (1839 October 26, 1864), better known as Bloody Bill, was a pro-Confederate guerrilla leader in the American Civil War. Anderson led a band that targeted Union loyalists and Federal soldiers in Missouri and Kansas; he became notorious for brutality and the number of people he killed. Raised by a family of Southerners in Kansas, Anderson began supporting himself by stealing and selling horses in 1862. After his father was killed by a Union-loyalist judge, Anderson fled Kansas for Missouri. There, he robbed travelers and killed several Union soldiers. In early 1863, Anderson joined Quantrill's Raiders, a pro-Confederate group of guerrillas that operated in Missouri. He became skilled at guerrilla warfare, earning the trust of the group's leaders, William Quantrill and George M. Todd. Anderson's acts as a guerrilla led the Union to imprison his sisters; after one of them died in custody, Anderson devoted himself to revenge. He took a leading role in the Lawrence Massacre, and later participated in the Battle of Fort Blair. In late 1863, while Quantrill's Raiders spent the winter in Texas, animosity developed between Anderson and Quantrill. Anderson, perhaps falsely, implicated Quantrill in a murder, leading to the latter's arrest by Confederate authorities. Anderson subsequently returned to Missouri as the leader of a group of raiders and became the most feared guerrilla in the state, killing and robbing dozens of Union soldiers and civilian sympathizers throughout central Missouri. Although Union supporters viewed him as incorrigibly evil, Confederate sympathizers in Missouri saw his actions as justified, possibly owing to their mistreatment by Union forces. In September 1864, he led a raid

William T. Anderson of Centralia, Missouri. Unexpectedly, they were able to capture a passenger train, the first time Confederate guerrillas had done so. In what became known as the Centralia Massacre, possibly the war's deadliest and most brutal guerrilla action, his men killed 24 Union soldiers on the train and set an ambush later that day that killed more than 100 Union militiamen. A month later, Anderson was killed in battle. Historians formed disparate appraisals of Anderson: some saw him as a sadistic, psychopathic killer, but for others, his actions could not be separated from the general lawlessness of the time.

12

Early life
William T. Anderson[1] was born in 1839 in Hopkins County, Kentucky, to William C. and Martha Anderson.[2] His siblings were Jim, Elias, Mary Ellen, Josephine and Janie.[3] His schoolmates recalled him as a well-behaved, reserved child.[2] During his childhood, Anderson's family moved to Missouri,[2] where his father found employment on a farm and the family became well respected. In 1856, William C. Anderson transported freight to New Mexico on a wagon train, and upon his return, built a cabin in Kansas. The next year, his family relocated to the cabin, traveling southwest on the Santa Fe Trail[4] and settling 13 miles (unknown operator: u'strong'km) east of Council Grove, Kansas.[3] The Anderson family supported slavery, although they did not own slaves; however, their move to Kansas was likely for economic, rather than political reasons.[5] At that time, there was significant debate about slavery in Kansas, and many residents of the Northern United States had moved there to ensure that it would not become a slave state.[6][7] Animosity soon developed between these immigrants and Confederate sympathizers,[5] but there was little unrest in the Council Grove area.[8] After settling near Council Grove, the family became friends with A. I. Baker, a local judge who was a Confederate sympathizer.[9] By 1860, William T. Anderson was a joint owner of a 320-acre (unknown operator: u'strong'km2) property that was worth $500 and his family had a net worth of around $1,000.[10] On June 28, 1860, Martha Anderson died after being struck by lightning.[11] In the late 1850s, Ellis Anderson fled to Iowa after killing an Indian. Around the same time, William T. Anderson fatally shot a member of the Kaw tribe, after the man allegedly tried to rob him as he traveled outside of Council Grove.[8] He joined the freight shipping operation that his father worked for and was given a position known as "second boss" for a wagon trip to New Mexico. The trip was not successful: he returned to Missouri without the shipment, purportedly because his horses had disappeared with the cargo. After he returned to Council Grove, he began horse trading, taking horses from towns in Kansas, transporting them to Missouri, and returning with more horses.[11]

Horse trading and outlawry


After the Civil War began in 1861, the demand for horses increased, and Anderson began stealing horses to sell as far away as New Mexico. He worked with his brother Jim, their friend Lee Griffith, and several accomplices strung along the Santa Fe Trail.[12] In late 1861, Anderson traveled south with brother Jim and Judge Baker, in an apparent attempt to join the Confederate Army.[13] Anderson had stated to a neighbor that he sought to fight for financial reasons, rather than loyalty to the Confederacy.[14] However, the group was attacked by the Union's 6th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry in Vernon County, Missouri;[15] the cavalry likely assumed they were Confederate guerrillas.[16] The Anderson brothers escaped, but Baker was captured and spent four months in prison before returning to Kansas, professing loyalty to the Union. One way that he sought to prove his loyalty to the Union was by severing his ties with Anderson's sister Mary, his former lover.[13] Upon his return to Kansas, Anderson continued horse trafficking, but ranchers in the area soon became aware of his operations.[12][16] In May 1862, Baker issued an arrest warrant for Griffith, whom Anderson helped hide.[17] Some local citizens suspected that the Anderson family was assisting Griffith and traveled to their house to confront William C. Anderson. After hearing their accusations against his sons, he was incensedhe found Baker's involvement particularly infuriating. The next day, he traveled to the Council Grove courthouse with a gun, intending to force Baker to withdraw the warrant. As he entered the building, he was restrained by a constable and

William T. Anderson fatally shot by Baker. William Anderson buried his father[18] and was subsequently arrested for assisting Griffith. However, he was quickly released owing to a problem with the warrant, and fled to Agnes City, fearing that he would be lynched. There he met Baker, who temporarily placated him by providing a lawyer. Anderson remained in Agnes City until he learned that Baker would not be charged, as the judge's claim of self defense had been accepted by legal authorities. Anderson was outraged[19] and went to Missouri with his siblings.[20] William and Jim Anderson then traveled southwest of Kansas City, robbing travelers to support themselves.[20] On July 2, 1862, William and Jim Anderson returned to Council Grove[21] and sent an accomplice to Baker's house claiming to be a traveler seeking supplies. Baker and his brother-in-law brought the man to a store,[22] where they were ambushed by the Anderson brothers. After a brief gunfight, Baker and his brother-in-law fled into the store's basement. The Andersons barricaded the door to the basement and lit the store on fire, killing Baker and his brother-in-law. They also burnt Baker's home and stole two of his horses before returning to Missouri on the Santa Fe Trail.[22][23] William and Jim Anderson soon formed a gang with a man named Bill Reed; in February 1863, the Lexington Weekly Union recorded that Reed was the leader of the gang.[24] In his book about Missouri during the Civil War, Bruce Nichols stated that Reed led the gang until mid-July of that year.[25] William Quantrill, a Confederate guerrilla leader, later claimed to have encountered them in July and rebuked them for robbing Confederate sympathizers;[20] in their biography of Anderson, Albert Castel and Tom Goodrich speculate that this rebuke may have resulted in a deep resentment of Quantrill by Anderson.[24] Anderson and his gang subsequently traveled east of Jackson County, Missouri, avoiding territory where Quantrill operated and continuing to support themselves by robbery.[26] They also attacked Union soldiers, killing seven by early 1863.[26]

13

Quantrill's Raiders
Missouri had a large Union presence throughout the Civil War, but also many civilians whose sympathies lay with the Confederacy. From July 1861 till the end of the war, the state suffered up to 25,000 deaths from guerrilla warfare, more than any other state.[27][28][29] Confederate General Sterling Price failed to gain control of Missouri in his 1861 offensive and retreated into Arkansas, leaving only the guerrillas to challenge Union hegemony.[30] Quantrill was at the time the most prominent guerrilla in the KansasMissouri area.[27] In early 1863, William and Jim Anderson traveled to Jackson County, Missouri, to join him. William Anderson was initially given a chilly reception from other raiders, who perceived him to be brash and overconfident.[31]

In May 1863, Anderson joined members of Quantrill's Raiders on a raid near Council Grove,[31] in which they robbed a store 15 miles (unknown operator: u'strong'km) west of the town. After the robbery, the group was intercepted by a United States Marshall accompanied by a large posse. In the resulting skirmish, several raiders were captured or killed and the rest of the guerrillas, including Anderson, split into small groups to return to Missouri.[32] Castel and Goodrich speculated that this raid may have given Quantrill the idea of a launching an attack deep in Kansas.[33] In early summer 1863, Anderson was made a lieutenant, serving in a unit led by George M. Todd. In June and July, Anderson took part in several raids that killed Union soldiers, in Westport, Kansas City, and Lafayette County, Missouri.[34][35] The first reference to Anderson in Official Records of the American Civil War concerns his activities at this time, describing him as the captain of a band of guerrillas. He commanded 3040 men, one of whom was Archie Clement, an 18-year-old with a predilection for torture and mutilation[36] who was loyal only to

A photograph of William Quantrill, under whom Anderson served in 1863

William T. Anderson Anderson.[37] By late July, Anderson was leading groups of guerrillas on raids;[38] they were often pursued by Union volunteer cavalry after these attacks.[39] Quantrill's Raiders had a support network in Jefferson County, Missouri, that provided them with numerous hiding places. Anderson's sisters aided the guerrillas by gathering information inside Union territory.[40] In August 1863, however, Union General Thomas Ewing, Jr., attempted to thwart the guerrillas by arresting their female relatives,[41] and Anderson's sisters were confined in a three-story building on Grand Avenue in Kansas City with a number of other girls. While they were confined, the building collapsed, killing one of Anderson's sisters.[42] In the aftermath, rumors that the building had been intentionally sabotaged by Union soldiers spread quickly:[43] Anderson apparently believed this. Biographer Larry Wood wrote that Anderson's motivation shifted after the death of his sister, arguing that killing then became his focusand an enjoyable act.[44] Castel and Goodrich maintain that killing became more than a means to an end at that point for Anderson: it became an end in itself.[45]

14

Lawrence Massacre
Although Quantrill had considered the idea of a raid on Lawrence, Kansas, before the building collapsed in Kansas City, the deaths convinced the guerrillas to make a bold strike.[46] Quantrill attained near-unanimous consent to travel 40 miles (unknown operator: u'strong'km) into Union territory to strike Lawrence. The guerrillas gathered at the Blackwater River in Johnson County, Missouri.[47] Anderson was placed in charge of 40 men, of which he was perhaps the angriest and most motivatedhis fellow guerrillas considered him one of the deadliest fighters there.[48][49] On August 19, the group, which proved to be the most guerrillas under one commander in the war, began the trip to Lawrence.[50] En route, some guerrillas robbed a Union supporter, but Anderson knew the man and reimbursed him.[51]

A painting of the Lawrence Massacre, in which Anderson played a leading role

After reaching Lawrence, the guerrillas immediately killed a number of Union Army recruits and one of Anderson's men took their flag.[52] The Provost Marshal of Kansas, a Union captain who commanded military police, surrendered to the guerrillas and Anderson took his uniform.[53] (Guerrillas often wore uniforms stolen from Union soldiers.)[54] They proceeded to pillage and burn many buildings, killing almost every man they found, but taking care not to shoot women.[53] Anderson personally killed 14 people. Although some men begged him to spare them, he persisted,[55] but he relented when a woman pleaded with him not to torch her house.[56] The guerrillas under Anderson's command, notably including Archie Clement and Frank James, killed more than any of the other group.[57] They left town at 9a.m., after a company of Union soldiers approached the town.[58] The raiding party was pursued by Union forces, but eventually managed to break contact with the soldiers and scatter into the Missouri woods.[59] After a dead raider was scalped by a Union-allied Lenape Indian during the pursuit, one guerrilla leader pledged to adopt the practice of scalping.[60]

William T. Anderson

15

Texas
On August 25, 1863, General Ewing retaliated against the Confederate guerrillas by issuing General Order No. 11, an evacuation order that evicted almost 20,000 people from four Missouri counties and burned many of their homes. The order was intended to rob the guerrillas of their support network in Missouri. On October 2, a group of 450 guerrillas under Quantrill's leadership met at Blackwater River in Jackson County and left for Texas. They departed earlier in the year than they had planned, owing to increased Union pressure. En route, they entered Baxter Springs, Kansas, the site of Fort Blair. They attacked the fort on October 6, but the 90 Union troops there quickly took refuge inside, suffering minimal losses.[61] Shortly after the initial assault, a larger group of Union troops approached Fort Blair, unaware that the fort had been attacked and that the men they saw outside the fort dressed in Union uniforms were actually disguised guerrillas.[62] The guerrillas charged the Union forces, killing about 100. Anderson and his men were in the rear of the charge, but gathered a large amount of plunder from the dead soldiers, irritating some guerrillas from the front line of the charge.[63] Not satisfied with the number killed, Anderson and Todd wished to attack the fort again, but Quantrill considered another attack too risky. He angered Anderson by ordering his forces to withdraw.[64]

A painting by George Caleb Bingham depicting General Order No. 11, which was prompted by the Lawrence Massacre

On October 12, Quantrill and his men met General Samuel Cooper at the Canadian River and proceeded to Mineral Springs, Texas, to rest for the winter.[65] Anderson married Bush Smith, a woman from Sherman, Texas, who worked in a saloon.[66][67] Anderson ignored Qantrill's request to wait until after the war and then separated his men from Quantrill's band. The tension between the two groups markedly Anderson around the time of his wedding in increasedsome feared that open warfare would resultbut by the Sherman, Texas wedding, relations had improved.[68] Anderson did not noticeably change after his marriage and some guerrillas spread rumors that he was not legally married.[67][69] The couple lived in a house he built in Sherman and had one child, who died as an infant.[70] In March, at the behest of General Price, Quantrill reassembled his men, sending most of them into active duty with the Confederate Army. He retained 84 men and reunited with Anderson.[71] Quantrill appointed him a first lieutenant, under only he and Todd.[72][73] A short time later, one of Anderson's men was accused of stealing from one of Quantrill's men. Quantrill expelled him and warned him not to come back, and the man was fatally shot by some of Quantrill's men when he attempted to return.[72] Wood,[74] Castel and Goodrich,[73] and Daniel Sutherland of the University of Arkansas[75] record that this incident angered Anderson, and he took 20 men to visit the town of Sherman. They told General Cooper that Quantrill had ordered the man killed; the general then had Quantrill arrested.[74] Sutherland described Anderson's betrayal of Quantrill as a "Judas" turn.[75] (In his biography of Quantrill, historian Duane Schultz counters that General Benjamin McCulloch had Quantrill arrested after his refusal to deploy to Corpus Christi.)[76] Quantrill was taken into custody, but soon escaped. Anderson was told to recapture him and gave chase, but he was unable to locate his former commander and stopped at a creek.[77] There, his men briefly engaged a group of guerrillas loyal to Quantrill, but no one was injured in the confrontation. Upon returning to the Confederate leadership, Anderson was commissioned as a captain by General Price.[78]

William T. Anderson

16

Return to Missouri
Anderson and his men rested in Texas for several months before returning to Missouri. Although he learned that Union General Egbert B. Brown had devoted significant attention to the border area,[79] Anderson led raids in Cooper and Johnson County, Missouri, robbing local residents.[80][81] On June 12, Anderson and 50 of his men engaged 15 members of the Missouri State Militia, killing and robbing 12. After the attack, one of Anderson's guerrillas scalped a dead militiaman.[82] The next day, in Southeast Jackson County, Anderson's group ambushed a wagon train carrying members of the Union 1st Northeast Missouri Cavalry, killing nine.[83] The attacks prompted the Kansas City Daily Journal of Commerce to declare that rebels had taken over the area.[84] Anderson and his men dressed as Union soldiers, wearing uniforms taken from those they killed. In response, Union militias developed hand signals to verify that approaching men in Union uniforms were not guerrillas. The guerrillas, however, quickly learned the signals, and local citizens became wary of Union troops, fearing that they were disguised guerrillas.[84] On July 6, a Confederate sympathizer brought Anderson newspapers containing articles about him. Anderson was upset by the critical tone of the coverage and sent letters to the publications.[85][86] In the letters, Anderson took an arrogant and threatening, yet playful, tone, boasting of his attacks. He protested the execution of guerrillas and their sympathizers, and threatened to attack Lexington, Missouri. He concluded the letters by describing himself as the commander of "Kansas First Guerrillas" and requesting that local newspapers publish his replies.[87] The letters were given to Union generals and were not published for 20 years.[88] In early July, Anderson's group robbed and killed several Union sympathizers in Carroll and Randolph counties.[89] On July 15, Anderson and his men entered Huntsville, Missouri, and occupied the town's business district.[90] Anderson killed one hotel guest whom he suspected was a U.S. Marshall, but spoke amicably with an acquaintance he found there.[91] Anderson's men robbed the town's depository, gaining about $40,000 in the robbery, although Anderson returned some money to the friend he had met at the hotel.[92]

Growing infamy
In June 1864, Todd usurped Quantrill's leadership of their group, forcing him to leave the area. Todd rested his men in July to allow them to prepare for a Confederate invasion of Missouri. As Quantrill and Todd became less active, Anderson emerged as the best known, and most feared, Confederate guerrilla in Missouri.[93] By August, the St. Joseph Herald, a Missouri newspaper, was describing him as "the Devil".[94] As Anderson's profile increased, he was able to recruit more guerillas.[95] Anderson was selective, turning away all but the fiercest applicants as he sought fighters similar to himself.[96][97] His fearsome reputation gave a fillip to his recruiting efforts. Jesse James enlisted, joining his brother Frank; they later became famous outlaws.[98] General Clinton B. Fisk ordered his men to find and kill Anderson, but they were thwarted by Anderson's support network and his forces' superior training and arms.[94] Many militia members had been conscripted and lacked the guerillas' boldness and resolve.[99] In 1863, most Union troops left Missouri and only four regiments remained there. These regiments were composed of troops from out of state, who sometimes mistreated local residentsfurther motivating the guerrillas and their supporters. The Union militias sometimes rode slower horses and may have been intimidated by Anderson's reputation.[100]

Jesse and Frank James in 1872, eight years after they served under Anderson

William T. Anderson On July 23, 1864, Anderson led 65 men to Renick, Missouri, robbing stores and tearing down telegraph wires on the way. They had hoped to attack a train, but its conductor learned of their presence and turned back before reaching the town. The guerrillas then attacked Allen, Missouri. At least 40 members of the 17th Illinois Cavalry and the Missouri State Militia were in town but took shelter in a fort. The guerrillas were only able to shoot their horses before reinforcements arrived, killing three of Anderson's men.[101] In late July, the Union military sent a force of 100 well-equipped soldiers, and 650 other men, after Anderson. On July 30, Anderson and his men kidnapped the elderly father of the local Union militia's commanding officer. They tortured him until he was near death and sent word to the man's son in an unsuccessful attempt to lure him into an ambush, before releasing the father with instructions to spread word of his mistreatment.[102] On August 1, while searching for militia members, Anderson and some of his men stopped at a house full of women and requested food. While they rested at the house, a group of local men attacked.[103] The guerrillas quickly forced the attackers to flee, and Anderson shot and injured one woman as she fled the house. This action angered his men, who saw themselves as the protectors of women, but Anderson dismissed their concerns, stating that such things were inevitable. They chased the men who had attacked them, killing one and mutilating his body. By August 1864, they were regularly scalping the men that they killed.[104] In early August, Anderson and his men traveled to Clay County. Around that time, he received further media coverage: the St. Joseph Morning Herald deemed him a "heartless scoundrel", publishing an account of his torture of a captured Union soldier. On August 10, while traveling through Clay County, Anderson and his men engaged 25 militia members, killing five of them and forcing the rest to flee. After hearing of the engagement, General Fisk commanded a colonel to lead a party with the sole aim of killing Anderson.[105]

17

Missouri River and Fayette


On August 13, Anderson and his men traveled through Ray County, Missouri, to the Missouri River, where they engaged Union militia.[106] Although they forced the Union forces to flee, Anderson and Jesse James were injured in the encounter and the guerrillas retired to Boone County, to rest.[107] On August 27, Union soldiers killed at least three of Anderson's men, and the next day, the 4th Missouri Volunteer Cavalry pursued them, but Anderson launched an ambush that killed seven Union soldiers. Anderson's men mutilated the bodies, earning the guerrillas the description of "incarnate fiends" from the Columbia Missouri Statesman. On August 30, Anderson and his men attacked a steamboat on the Missouri River, killing the captain and gaining control of the boat. They used it to attack other boats, bringing river traffic to a virtual halt.[108] In mid-September, while traveling through Howard County, Union soldiers ambushed two of Anderson's parties, killing five men in one day. They found the guerrillas' horses decorated with the scalps of Union soldiers. A short time later, another six of Anderson's men were ambushed and killed by Union troops;[109] after learning of these events, Anderson was outraged and left the area to seek revenge.[110] Anderson met Todd and Quantrill on September 24, 1864; although they had clashed in the past, they agreed to work together. Anderson suggested that they attack Fayette, Missouri, targeting the 9th Missouri cavalry, which was based at the town. Quantrill disliked the idea because the town was fortified, but Anderson and Todd prevailed. Clad in Union uniforms, the guerrillas generated little suspicion as they approached the town,[111] even though it had received warning of nearby guerrillas.[112] However, a guerrilla fired his weapon before they reached the town, and the cavalry quickly withdrew into their fort while civilians hid. Anderson and Todd launched an unsuccessful attack against the fort, leading charge after futile charge without injury. The defeat resulted in the deaths of five guerrillas but only two Union soldiers, further maddening Anderson.[113] On September 26, Anderson and his men reached Monroe County, Missouri,[114] and traveled towards Paris, but learned of other nearby guerrillas and rendezvoused with them near Audrain County. Anderson and his men camped with at least 300 men, including Todd.[115] Although a large group of guerrillas was assembled, their leaders felt that there were no promising targets to attack, because all of the large towns nearby were heavily guarded.[116]

William T. Anderson

18

Raid on Centralia
On the morning of September 26, Anderson left his camp with about 75 men to scout for Union forces. They soon arrived at the small town of Centralia and proceeded to loot it, robbing people and searching the town for valuables.[117][118] They found a large supply of whiskey and all began drinking. Anderson retreated into the lobby of the town hotel to drink and rest. A stagecoach soon arrived, and Anderson's men robbed the passengers, including Congressman James S. Rollins and a plainclothes sheriff. (The two were prominent Unionists, and did not reveal their identities.)[119][120] As the guerrillas robbed the stagecoach passengers, a train arrived. The guerrillas blocked the railroad, forcing the train to stop.[121] Anderson's men quickly took control of the train, which included 23 off-duty Union soldiers as passengers.[122] This was the first capture of a Union passenger train in the war.[123] Anderson ordered his men not to harass the women on the train, but the guerrillas robbed all of the men, finding over $9,000 and taking the soldiers' uniforms.[124][125] Anderson forced the captured Union soldiers to form a line and announced that he would keep one for a prisoner exchange, but would execute the rest. He addressed the prisoners, castigating them for the treatment of guerrillas by Union troops. After selecting a sergeant for a potential prisoner swap, Anderson's men shot the rest.[126] Anderson gave the civilian hostages permission to leave but warned them not to put out fires or move bodies.[127] Although he was alerted of the congressman's presence in the town, he opted not to search for him.[128] The guerrillas set the passenger train on fire and derailed an approaching freight train.[129] Anderson's band then rode back to their camp, taking a large amount of looted goods.[130]

Battle with Union soldiers


Anderson arrived at the guerrilla camp and described the day's events, the brutality of which unsettled Todd.[131] By mid-afternoon, the 39th Missouri Volunteer Infantry had arrived in Centralia. From the town, they saw a group of about 120 guerrillas and pursued them. The guerrillas heard that the cavalry was approaching,[131] and Anderson sent a party to set an ambush. They drew the Union troops to the top of a hill; a group of guerrillas led by Anderson had been stationed at the bottom and other guerrillas hid nearby.[132] Anderson then led a charge up the hill.[133] Although five guerrillas were killed by the first volley of Union fire, the Union soldiers were quickly overwhelmed by the well-armed guerrillas, and those who fled were pursued.[134] One Union officer reached Centralia and gave word of the ambush, allowing a few Union soldiers who had remained there to escape. However, most were hunted down and killed;[135] Anderson's men mutilated the bodies of the dead soldiers and tortured some survivors.[136] At Centralia, Anderson's men killed 125 soldiers in the battle and 22 from the train in one of the most decisive guerrilla victories of the Civil War. It was Anderson's greatest victory, surpassing Lawrence and Baxter Springs in the number of casualties and brutality.[136] The attack led to a near halt in rail traffic in the area and a dramatic increase in Union rail security.[137] Anderson achieved the same notoriety that Quantrill had previously enjoyed, and he began to refer to himself as "Colonel Anderson", partly in an effort to supplant Quantrill.[138][139] Sutherland saw the massacre as the last battle in the worst phase of the war in Missouri[140] and Castel and Goodrich described the slaughter as the Civil War's "epitome of savagery".[138] However, Frank James, who participated in the attack, later defended the guerrillas' actions, arguing that the federal troops were marching under a black flag, indicating that they intended to show no mercy.[140]

Aftermath of Centralia
Anderson left the Centralia area on September 27, pursued for the first time by Union forces equipped with artillery.[141][142] Anderson evaded the pursuit, leading his men into ravines that the Union troops would not enter for fear of ambush.[143] In the aftermath of the attacks, Union soldiers committed several revenge killings of Confederate-sympathizing civilians.[144] They burned Rocheport to the ground on October 2; the town was under close scrutiny by Union forces, owing to the number of Confederate sympathizers there, but General Fisk maintained that the fire was accidental.[145] Anderson watched the fire from nearby bluffs.[146]

William T. Anderson Anderson visited Confederate sympathizers as he traveled, some of whom viewed him as a hero for fighting the Union. Many of Anderson's men had a deep hatred of the Union, and he was adept at tapping into this emotion.[147] The Union soldier held captured at Centralia was impressed with the control that Anderson exercised over his men.[148] Although many of them wished to execute this Union hostage, Anderson refused to allow it.[149] On October 6, Anderson and his men traveled to meet General Price in Boonville, Missouri.[145][150] Price was disgusted that Anderson used scalps to decorate his horse, and would not speak with him until he removed them. He was, however, impressed by the effectiveness of Anderson's attacks.[150] Anderson presented him with a gift of fine Union pistols, likely captured at Centralia.[151] Price instructed Anderson to travel to the Missouri railroad and disrupt rail traffic,[150] making Anderson a de facto Confederate captain.[152] Anderson traveled 70 miles (unknown operator: u'strong'km) east with 80 men to New Florence, Missouri.[153] The group then traveled west, disregarding the mission assigned by General Price[154] in favor of looting. Anderson reached a Confederate Army camp; although he hoped to kill some injured Union prisoners there, he was prevented from doing so by camp doctors.[155] After Confederate forces under General Joseph O. Shelby conquered Glasgow, Anderson traveled to the city to loot. He visited the house of a well-known Union sympathizer, the wealthiest resident of the town, brutally beat him, and raped his 12- or 13-year-old black servant.[156][157] Anderson indicated that he was particularly angry that the man had freed his slaves and trampled him with a specially trained horse.[158] Local residents gathered $5,000, which they gave to Anderson; he then released the man, who died of his injuries in 1866.[159][160] Anderson killed several other Union loyalists and some of his men returned to the wealthy resident's house to rape more of his female servants.[160][159] He left the area with 150 men.[159]

19

Death
Union military leaders assigned Lieutenant Colonel Samuel P. Cox to kill Anderson, providing him a group of experienced soldiers. Soon after Anderson left Glasgow, a local woman saw him and told Cox of his presence.[161] He pursued Anderson's group with 150 men and soon engaged them in battle.[162] Anderson and his men charged the Union forces, killing five or six of them, but turned back under heavy fire.[163] Only Anderson and one other man, the son of a Confederate general, continued to charge after the others retreated. Anderson was hit by a bullet behind an ear, likely killing him instantly.[164] Four other guerrillas were killed in the attack.[163] The victory made a hero of Cox and led to his promotion.[165] Union soldiers identified Anderson by a letter found in his pocket and paraded his body through the streets of Richmond, Missouri.[166][167] The corpse was photographed[168] and displayed at a local courthouse Anderson's body several hours after he died for public viewing, along with Anderson's possessions.[169] Union soldiers claimed that Anderson was found with a string that had 53 knots, symbolizing each person he had killed.[167] Union soldiers buried Anderson's body in a field near Richmond in a fairly well-built coffin.[170][171] Union men cut off one of his fingers to steal a ring.[171][172] Flowers were placed at his grave, to the chagrin of Union soldiers.[173] In 1908, Cole Younger, a former guerrilla who served under Quantrill, reburied Anderson's body, and in 1967, a memorial stone was placed at the grave.[174] Archie Clement led the guerrillas after Anderson's death, but the group splintered by mid-November.[174][175] Most Confederate guerrillas lost heart around that time, owing to a cold winter and the failure of General Price's 1864 Missouri campaign, which ensured that the state would remain under Union control.[176] As the Confederacy collapsed, most of Anderson's men joined Quantrill's forces or traveled to Texas.[177] Jim Anderson moved to

William T. Anderson Sherman, Texas, with his two sisters. In 1868, he married his brother's widow.[70]

20

Legacy
After the war, information about Anderson initially spread through memoirs of Civil War combatants and works by amateur historians.[178] He was later discussed in biographies of Quantrill, which typically cast him as a inveterate murderer.[179] Three biographies of Anderson were written after 1975.[180][181] Asa Earl Carter's novel The Rebel Outlaw: Josey Wales features Anderson as a main character. In 1976, the book was adapted into a film,[182] The Outlaw Josey Wales, which portrays a man who joins Anderson's gang after his wife is killed by Union-backed raiders.[181] Anderson also appears as a character in several films about Jesse James.[182] Historians have been mixed in their appraisal of Anderson. Wood describes him as the "bloodiest man in America's deadliest war"[183] and characterizes him as the clearest example of the war's "dehumanizing influence".[28] Castel and Goodrich view Anderson as one of the war's most savage and bitter combatants, but they also argue that the war made savages of many others.[184][173] According to journalist T. J. Stiles, Anderson was not necessarily a "sadistic fiend",[185] but illustrated how young men became part of a "culture of atrocity" during the war.[185] He maintains that Anderson's acts were seen as particularly shocking in part because his cruelty was directed towards white Americans of equivalent social standing, rather than targets deemed acceptable by American society, such as Native Americans or foreigners.[185] In a study of 19th-century warfare, historian James Reid posits that Anderson suffered from delusional paranoia, which exacerbated his aggressive, sadistic personality. He sees Anderson as obsessed with, and greatly enjoying, the ability to inflict fear and suffering in his victims, and suggests he suffered from the most severe type of sadistic personality disorder. Reid draws a parallel between the Bashi-bazouks and Anderson's group, arguing that they behaved similarly.[186]

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Anderson's middle name is unknown, Wood speculates that it was "Thomas", his grandfather's name. (Wood 2003, p.157) Wood 2003, p.1 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.11 Wood 2003, p.3 Wood 2003, p.4 Wood 2003, pp.34 At that time, some U.S. states allowed slavery, primarily those in the south, and some did not, primarily those in the north; whether newly-created states would be "slave states" was a contentious and hotly-debated issue. (Wood 2003, pp.35) [8] Wood 2003, p.10 [9] Wood 2003, p.6 [10] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.12 [11] Wood 2003, p.11 [12] Wood 2003, p.12 [13] Wood 2003, p.13 [14] Geiger 2009, p.18 [15] Although Wood states that Baker's group sought to join the Confederate army, Castel and Goodrich write that the group planned to conduct "Jayhawker" guerrilla raids on behalf of the Union. (Wood 2003, p.13)(Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.13) [16] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.13 [17] Wood 2003, p.14 [18] Wood 2003, p.15 [19] Wood 2003, p.16 [20] Wood 2003, p.17 [21] Wood 2003, pp.178 [22] Wood 2003, p.18 [23] Wood 2003, p.20 [24] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.19 [25] Nichols 2004, p.151

William T. Anderson
[26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] Wood 2003, p.21 Wood 2003, p.xi Wood 2003, p.viii Geiger 2009, p.1 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.9 Wood 2003, p.22 Wood 2003, p.24 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.22 Wood 2003, p.25 Wood 2003, p.26 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.234 Schultz 1997, p.73 Wood 2003, p.28 Wood 2003, p.27 Wood 2003, p.29 Wood 2003, p.30 Wood 2003, p.31 Wood 2003, p.32 Wood 2003, p.34 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.27 Wood 2003, p.35 Wood 2003, p.357 Wood 2003, p.379 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.28 Wood 2003, p.389 Wood 2003, p.40 Wood 2003, p.41 Wood 2003, pp.423 Wood 2003, p.39 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.29 Wood 2003, p.44 Wood 2003, p.48 Wood 2003, p.45 Wood 2003, p.4951 Wood 2003, p.52 Wood 2003, p.523 Wood 2003, pp.556 Wood 2003, p.56 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.323 Wood 2003, p.58 Wood 2003, p.579 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.36 Wood 2003, p.59 Schultz 1997, p.266 Petersen 2007, p.222 Wood 2003, p.5960 Wood 2003, p.60 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.34 Wood 2003, p.61 Sutherland 2009, p.199 Schultz 1997, p.272 Wood 2003, p.62 Wood 2003, p.63 Wood 2003, p.64 Wood 2003, p.65 Wood 2003, p.66

21

[82] Wood 2003, p.667 [83] Wood 2003, p.67 [84] Wood 2003, p.68

William T. Anderson
[85] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.42 [86] Wood 2003, p.70 [87] Wood 2003, pp.705 [88] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.44 [89] Wood 2003, pp.759 [90] Wood 2003, p.79 [91] Wood 2003, p.80 [92] Wood 2003, pp.7981 [93] Castel & Goodrich 1998, pp.389 [94] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.52 [95] Wood 2003, p.82 [96] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.54 [97] Schultz 1997, p.278 [98] Wood 2003, p.823 [99] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.53 [100] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.513 [101] Wood 2003, p.83 [102] Wood 2003, pp.868 [103] Wood 2003, pp.889 [104] Wood 2003, pp.901 [105] Wood 2003, p.94 [106] Wood 2003, p.95 [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] Wood 2003, p.967 Wood 2003, pp.98100 Wood 2003, p.1001 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.59 Wood 2003, p.102 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.2 Wood 2003, pp.1034 Wood 2003, p.104 Wood 2003, p.105 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.70 Wood 2003, p.106 Castel & Goodrich 1998, pp.703 Wood 2003, p.107 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.73 Wood 2003, p.108 Wood 2003, p.109 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.74 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.81 Wood 2003, p.110 Wood 2003, p.1112 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.85 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.84 Wood 2003, p.114 Wood 2003, p.116 Wood 2003, p.118 Wood 2003, p.119 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.91 Wood 2003, p.120 Wood 2003, p.121 Wood 2003, p.122 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.97 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.95 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.101 Sutherland 2009, p.203

22

[141] Wood 2003, p.123 [142] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.102 [143] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.103

William T. Anderson
[144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] Wood 2003, p.126 Wood 2003, p.127 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.105 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.1068 Wood 2003, p.125 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.108 Wood 2003, p.128 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.114 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.115 Wood 2003, p.12830 Wood 2003, p.131 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.120 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.117 Wood 2003, p.1312 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.121 Wood 2003, p.133 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.122 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.124 Wood 2003, p.134 Wood 2003, p.135 Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.125 Wood 2003, p.1389

23

[166] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.126 [167] Wood 2003, p.136 [168] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.127 [169] Schultz 1997, p.290 [170] Wood 2003, p.138 [171] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.130 [172] Some accounts of Anderson's death relate that he was decapitated, and his head impaled on a telegraph pole. Wood believes that these stories are inaccurate, citing a lack of documentary evidence. (Wood 2003, p.157) [173] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.144 [174] Wood 2003, p.139 [175] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.131 [176] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.132 [177] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.133 [178] Sutherland 2000, p.7 [179] Wood 2003, p.xii [180] Wood 2003, p.vii [181] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.vii [182] Mayo 2008, p.9 [183] Wood 2003, p.141 [184] Castel & Goodrich 1998, p.viii [185] Stiles 2003, p.127 [186] Reid 2000, p.4201

References Bibliography
Books Castel, Albert E.; Goodrich, Thomas (1998). Bloody Bill Anderson: The Short, Savage Life of a Civil War Guerrilla. Stackpole Books. ISBN978-0-8117-1506-5. Mayo, Mike (2008). American Murder: Criminals, Crimes and the Media. Visible Ink Press. ISBN978-1-57859-191-6. Nichols, Bruce (2004). Guerrilla Warfare in Civil War Missouri: 1863. McFarland. ISBN978-0-7864-1689-9.

William T. Anderson Petersen, Paul R. (2007). Quantrill in Texas: The Forgotten Campaign. Cumberland House Publishing. ISBN978-1-58182-582-4. Reid, James J. (2000). Crisis of the Ottoman Empire: Prelude to Collapse 18391878. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN978-3-515-07687-6. Schultz, Duane (1997). Quantrill's War: The Life & Times Of William Clarke Quantrill, 18371865. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN978-0-312-16972-5. Stiles, T. J. (2003). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Random House. ISBN978-0-375-70558-8. Sutherland, Daniel E. (2009). A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN978-0-8078-3277-6. Wood, Larry (2003). The Civil War Story of Bloody Bill Anderson. Eakin Press. ISBN978-1-57168-640-4. Journals Geiger, Mark (February 2009). "Indebtedness and the Origins of Guerrilla Violence in Civil War Missouri" (http:/ /www.international.ucla.edu/economichistory/geiger/geiger_jsh_art_1.pdf). The Journal of Southern History (Southern Historical Association) 75 (1): 134. Sutherland, Daniel (March 2000). "Sideshow no longer: A historiographical review of the guerrilla war" (http:// wsw.uga.edu/files/CW_Guerrilla_Historiography.pdf). Civil War History (Kent State University Press) 46 (1): 523. doi:10.1353/cwh.2000.0048.

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Cole Younger

25

Cole Younger
Cole Younger

A wounded Cole Younger following his arrest in 1876 Born Thomas Coleman Younger January 15, 1844 Younger family farm, Jackson County, Missouri, USA March 21, 1916 (aged72) Lee's Summit, Missouri, USA

Died

Nationality American Knownfor Banditry Parents Signature Henry Washington Younger, Bersheba Leighton Fristoe

Cole Younger

26

Thomas Coleman "Cole" Younger (January 15, 1844 - March 21, 1916) was an American Confederate guerrilla during the American Civil War and later an outlaw with the James-Younger gang. He was the eldest brother of Jim, John and Bob Younger.

Early life
Thomas Coleman "Cole" Younger, born on 15 January 1844, was a son of Henry Washington Younger, a prosperous farmer from Greenwood, Missouri and Bersheba Leighton Fristoe, daughter of a prominent Jackson County farmer. Cole was the seventh of fourteen children.

Civil War
During the American Civil War, savage guerrilla warfare wracked Missouri. Younger fought as a guerrilla under William Clarke Cole Younger as a younger man Quantrill. The fighting in Missouri during the Civil War was largely between pro-Union and pro-Confederate Missourians, though the bushwhackers held special hatred for the Union troops from Kansas who frequently crossed the border and earned a reputation for ruthlessness. Younger joined the Confederate guerrilla leader Quantrill in a raid on August 21, 1863, taking part in the killing of some 200 men and boys at Lawrence, Kansas, which the guerrillas looted and burned. Younger later claimed he left the bushwhacker ranks to enlist in the Confederate Army, and was sent to California on a recruiting mission. He returned after the Southern defeat to find Missouri under the rule of a militant faction of Unionists, the Radicals, who soon took over the regular Republican Party in the state. In the closing days of the war, the Radicals pushed through a new state constitution that barred Confederate sympathizers from voting, serving on juries, holding public office, preaching the gospel, or carrying out any number of public roles. The constitution also freed the slaves ahead of the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It enacted a number of reforms, but the restrictions on former Confederates created disunity.

Bandit career
Most of the former bushwhackers returned to peaceful lives. Many left Missouri for friendlier places, particularly Kentucky, where many had relatives. Most of their leaders, including Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, had been killed in the war. But a small core of Anderson's men, led by the ruthless Archie Clement, remained together. State authorities believed that Clement planned and led the first daylight peacetime armed bank robbery in U.S. history, holding up the Clay County Savings Association on February 13, 1866. The bank was run by the leading Radicals of Clay County, who had just held a public meeting for their party. The Radical Republican governor posted a reward for Clement, but he and his men conducted further robberies that year. On election day of 1866, Clement led his men into Lexington, Missouri, where they intimidated Radical voters and secured the election of a conservative slate of candidates. A state militia unit entered the town shortly thereafter and killed Clement when he resisted arrest. It is uncertain when Cole Younger and his brothers joined this gang. The first mention of his involvement came in 1868, when authorities identified him as a member of a gang who robbed Nimrod Long & Co., a bank in Russellville, Kentucky. Former guerrillas, John Jarrett (brother in law of Cole Younger), Arthur McCoy, and George and Oliver Shepard were also implicated. Oliver Shepard was killed resisting arrest and George was imprisoned. Once the more senior members of the gang had been killed, captured, or quit, its core thereafter consisted of the James and Younger brothers.

Cole Younger Witnesses repeatedly gave identifications that matched Cole Younger in robberies carried out over the next few years, as the outlaws robbed banks and stagecoaches in Missouri and Kentucky. On July 21, 1873, they turned to train robbery, derailing a locomotive and looting the express car on the Rock Island Railroad in Adair, Iowa. Younger and his brothers were also suspects in hold-ups of stage coaches, banks, and trains in Missouri, Kentucky, Kansas, and West Virginia. Following the robbery of the Iron Mountain Railroad at Gad's Hill, Missouri, in 1874, the Pinkerton National Detective Agency began to pursue the James and Younger brothers. Two agents (Louis J. Lull and John Boyle) engaged John and Jim Younger in a gunfight on a Missouri road on March 17, 1874; Boyle fled the scene, and both John Younger and Lull were killed. Simultaneously, another Pinkerton agent W.J. Whicher [1]who pursued the James brothers was abducted and later found dead alongside a rural road in Jackson County, Missouri. Some Younger families changed their last names to Jungers to avoid a family association with the gangsters. The James and Younger brothers survived for many more years than most Western outlaws because of their strong support among former Confederates. Jesse James became the public face of the gang, appealing to the public in letters to the press (even press releases left behind at robberies), claiming to be the victim of vindictive Radical Republicans. The gang, and Jesse James in particular, became a major electoral campaign issue, as pro-Southern Democrats defended the outlaws and Republicans attacked them.

27

Downfall of the gang


September 7, 1876 - there is little evidence Jesse James was ever in Minnesota, yet alone in Northfield, which is why he he was never indicted for the Northfield crimes. Cole Younger and his brother Bob both later said that they selected the bank because of its connection to two former Union generals and Radical Republican politicians, Benjamin Butler and Adelbert Ames. Three of the outlaws entered the bank, as the remaining five, led by Cole Younger, remained on the street to provide cover. The crime soon went awry, however, when the townspeople sent up the alarm and ran for their guns. Younger and his brothers began to fire in the air to clear the streets, but the townspeople (shooting from under cover, through windows and around the corners of buildings) opened a deadly fusillade, killing gang members Clell Miller and William Chadwell and badly wounding Bob Younger through the elbow. Herb Potter rode off in a hail of bullets. The outlaws killed two townspeople, including the acting cashier of the bank, and fled empty-handed. As hundreds of Minnesotans formed posses to pursue the fleeing gang, the outlaws separated. The James brothers made it back to Missouri, but the three Youngers (Cole, Bob, and Jim) did not. They and another gang member, Charlie Pitts, waged a gun battle with a local posse in a wooded ravine along the Watonwan River west of Madelia, Minnesota. Pitts was killed, and Cole, Jim, and Bob Younger were badly wounded and captured. Cole, asked about the robbery, responded, "We tried a desperate game and lost. But we are rough men used to rough ways, and we will abide by the consequences." Cole, Jim and Bob pleaded guilty to their crimes to avoid being hanged. They were sentenced to life in prison at the Stillwater Prison at Stillwater on November 18, 1876. Frank and Jesse James fled to Nashville, Tennessee, where they lived peacefully for the next three years. In 1879, Jesse returned to a life of crime, ending in his murder on April 3, 1882, in Saint Joseph, Missouri. Frank James surrendered to Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden on October 4, 1882. Eventually Frank James was acquitted, and lived quietly and peacefully thereafter. Herb Potter was shot and killed while taking up with another man's wife in December 1883.

Cole Younger gravesite in Lee's Summit, Missouri.

Cole Younger Bob Younger died in Stillwater prison on September 16, 1889, of tuberculosis. Cole and Jim were paroled on July 10, 1901, with the help of the prison warden. Jim committed suicide in a hotel room in St Paul, Minnesota, on October 19, 1902. Cole wrote a memoir that portrayed himself as a Confederate avenger more than an outlaw, admitting to only one crime, that at Northfield. He lectured and toured the south with Frank James in a wild west show, The Cole Younger and Frank James Wild West Company in 1903. On August 21, 1912, Cole declared that he had become a Christian and repented of his criminal past. Frank James died February 18, 1915. A year later, Cole Younger died March 21, 1916, in his home town of Lee's Summit, Missouri, and is buried in the Lee's Summit Historical Cemetery.

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Films
The 1941 movie Bad Men of Missouri featured Younger (played by Dennis Morgan) and his two outlaw brothers fighting the bank. The 1949 movie The Younger Brothers had Wayne Morris play Younger in a fictional story of the Youngers receiving their pardon. The 1957 movie The True Story of Jesse James, directed by Nicholas Ray, featured Alan Hale, Jr. playing Younger. The 1958 movie Cole Younger, Gunfighter featured Cole played by Frank Lovejoy. In 1960, Robert J. Wilke (19141989) played Younger in the episode "Perilous Passage", the series premiere of the NBC western Overland Trail, starring William Bendix and Doug McClure. In 1960, Bronco TV Western episode "Shadow of Jesse James" told the story of the Northfield Bank Robbery In "One Way Ticket", a 1962 episode of Cheyenne, Clint Walker, in the title role of Cheyenne Bodie, is a federal marshal escorting Younger, played by Philip Carey, to prison to begin his sentence. The 1972 movie The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid depicts this failed bank robbery, with Cliff Robertson in the role of Cole Younger. The 1980 movie The Long Riders depicts this era of the James-Younger gang exploits (with David Carradine playing Cole). The 1994 movie Frank and Jesse depicts the James-Younger gangs outlaw days (with Randy Travis playing Cole). The show "Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman portrayed by Ian Bohen in the episode "Baby Outlaws S3E21" The 2001 movie American Outlaws depicts the early years of the James-Younger Gang (with Scott Caan playing Cole) The 2010 movie True Grit depicts Cole Younger operating his Wild West show (with Don Pirl playing Cole)

References
[1] The story of Cole Younger by himself: being an autobiography of the Missouri ...By Cole Younger (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=IgFoB3sjQ2cC& pg=PT86& dq=John+ younger+ killed+ man+ in+ 1866& hl=en& ei=Jp3NTurtG-nv0gH2trgO& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDgQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=John younger killed man in 1866& f=false)

Brant, Marley. The Outlaw Youngers - "A Confederate Brotherhood", 1992 Wellman, Paul I. A Dynasty of Western Outlaws, 1961; 1992 Younger, T. Coleman, The Story of Cole Younger, by Himself, 1903

Marcellus Jerome Clarke

29

Marcellus Jerome Clarke


Marcellus Jerome Clarke

Marcellus Jerome Clarke as a Confederate soldier Nickname Born Died Allegiance Sue Mundy/Sue Munday 1844 Franklin, Kentucky March 15, 1865 Louisville, Kentucky United States of America Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate Army Yearsof service 18611865 Rank Unit Captain Company B, 4th Kentucky Infantry 1st Kentucky "Orphan" Brigade

Marcellus Jerome Clarke (also called M. Jerome Clarke)[1](1844March 15, 1865) was a Confederate captain who in 1864 became one of Kentucky's most famous guerrillas. He was rumored to be "Sue Mundy", a character publicized by George Prentice, editor of the Louisville Journal.

Confederate soldier
Marcellus Jerome Clarke was born in Franklin, Kentucky in 1844. At the age of 17 in 1861, he enlisted as M. Jerome Clarke in the 4th Kentucky Infantry, 1st Kentucky "Orphan" Brigade, Confederate States Army (CSA). While with the 4th Kentucky, Clarke was captured at Fort Donelson and later escaped from Camp Morgan. He saw action with the 4th Kentucky at the Battle of Chickamauga. Clarke was reassigned to Morgan's Men, the unit headed by Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. By then he was a captain.[1][2] While with Morgan's Men, he took part in the famous Morgan's Raid, storming into Union territory in Kentucky and across the border into the northern states of Ohio and Indiana, which was against Morgan's orders.

Marcellus Jerome Clarke

30

Confederate guerrilla
Following Morgan's death on September 4, 1864, Clarke formed his own guerrilla band, and returned to Kentucky in October. He raided throughout the state, killing Union soldiers and destroying supplies.[3] His raids seemed to inspire the Louisville Journal's stories of the infamous "Sue Mundy", and caused Major General Stephen G. Burbridge, military governor of Kentucky, substantial embarrassment. Combined with the fact that Clarke's gang (referred to by the Journal as "Mundy's Gang") had joined with William Quantrill's Raiders, Clarke was seen as a dangerous enemy of the Union. On the night of February 2, 1865, this joint force of Quantrill and Clarke rode into Lair Station, Kentucky and burned the railroad depot and freight cars. A week later on February 8, 1865, the guerrillas killed three soldiers, took four more prisoners, and destroyed the remnants of a wagon train.

Capture and hanging


On March 12, 1865, fifty Union soldiers from the 30th Wisconsin Infantry, under the command of Major Cyrus Wilson, surrounded a tobacco barn ten miles south of Brandenburg near Breckinridge County. They were to capture Clarke and his gang. Four Union soldiers were wounded in the altercation. With Clarke were Henry Medkiff and Henry C. Magruder, wounded in an earlier attack.[4] Major Wilson escorted the three men to Brandenburg, where they boarded a steamer for Louisville. Military authorities kept Clarke's trial a secret, and the verdict had been decided the day before the trial. He pleaded to be treated as a prisoner of war but was tried as a guerrilla.[2] On March 14, military authorities planned Clarke's execution, even though the trial had not started. At the brief hearing, Clarke was said to have "stood firm and spoke with perfect composure."[5] Clarke stated that he was a regular Confederate soldier and that the crimes he was being charged with he had not committed, or they had been committed by Quantrill. During the three-hour trial, Clarke was not allowed counsel or witnesses for his defense. Three days after his capture, Union authorities scheduled Clarke for public hanging just west of the corner of 18th and Broadway in Louisville.[2] On March 15, Rev. J.J. Talbott visited the 20-year-old Clarke in prison and notified him that he would be hanged that afternoon. Reportedly Clarke knelt and prayed, asking Talbott to baptize him. With Clarke dictating, the minister wrote four letters for him: to Clarke's aunt, his cousin, a young lady named Lashbrook, and his fiancee.[5] Clarke's last requests were for his body to be sent to his aunt and stepmother in Franklin to be buried in his Confederate uniform, next to his parents.[5] When the carriage arrived at the gallows, Clarke gave one last statement to the crowd. He said: "I am a regular Confederate soldier-not a guer[r]illa... I have served in the Army for nearly four years... I fought under General Buckner at Fort Donelson and I belonged to General Morgan's command when I entered Kentucky."[5] His last words were "I believe in and die for the Confederate cause."[6] Several thousand people were estimated to have attended Clarke's execution, attracted by rumors that he was "Sue Mundy".[2][5] After authorities cut Clarke's body down from the scaffold, some witnesses cut off buttons from his coat as keepsakes. Police arrested three men for fighting over his hat. On October 29, 1865, Union authorities hanged Henry Magruder behind the walls of the Louisville Military Prison. He had been allowed to heal from his wounds before being hanged. Before his death, Magruder wrote his memoir and declared he was the real "Sue Mundy".[7] Thus ended the careers of two famous Kentucky guerrillas.[5]

Marcellus Jerome Clarke

31

References
[1] Lowell Hayes Harrison, James C. Klotter, A New History of Kentucky (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=63GqvIN3l3wC& printsec=frontcover#PPA205,M1), Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1997, p. 206 [2] "Jerome Clarke ('Sue Mundy'), Kentucky Historical Marker Number 540" (http:/ / migration. kentucky. gov/ kyhs/ hmdb/ MarkerSearch. aspx?mode=Subject& subject=197) Kentucky Sue Mundy Markers. Kentucky.gov. Accessed 3 October 2006. [3] " 'Sue Mundy' Here: Kentucky Historical Marker Number 537" (http:/ / migration. kentucky. gov/ kyhs/ hmdb/ MarkerSearch. aspx?mode=Subject& subject=197) Kentucky Sue Mundy Markers, Kentucky.gov. Accessed 3 October 2006. [4] "Sue Mundy Captured: Kentucky Historical Marker Number 536" (http:/ / migration. kentucky. gov/ kyhs/ hmdb/ MarkerSearch. aspx?mode=Subject& subject=197) Kentucky Sue Mundy Markers, Kentucky.gov. Accessed 3 October 2006. [5] Vest, Stephen M. "Was She or Wasn't He?", Kentucky Living, November 1995, 25-26, 42. [6] " 'Sue Mundy's' Grave: Kentucky Historical Marker Number 562" (http:/ / migration. kentucky. gov/ kyhs/ hmdb/ MarkerSearch. aspx?mode=Subject& subject=197) Kentucky Sue Mundy Markers. Kentucky.gov. Accessed 3 October 2006. [7] Henry Magruder, Three Years In The Saddle: The Life and Confession of Henry Magruder: The Original Sue Munday, The Scourge of Kentucky, (Published by his captor Major Cyrus J. Wilson, Louisville, Kentucky, 1865)

External links
Bryan S. Bush "Guerrilla Warfare in Kentucky" (http://www.bryansbush.com/hub.php?page=articles& layer=a0807) Marcellus Jerome Clarke (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6194124) at Find a Grave

John Mobberly

32

John Mobberly
John W. Mobberly

Military Portrait of John Mobberly Born Died Place of burial Allegiance June 1, 1844 Loudoun County, Virginia April 5, 1865 (aged20) Loudoun County, Virginia Neersville, Virginia United States of America Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate Army Yearsof service 186265 Rank Unit Battles/wars Private Co. A 35th Battalion of Virginia Cavalry American Civil War -Battle of Brandy Station -George's Schoolhouse Raid

John W. Mobberly, also known as John Mobley or Morbly, (C. 1844 April 5, 1865) was a Confederate guerrilla who operated in the Loudoun Valley and Between the Hills region of Loudoun County, Virginia during the American Civil War. He also served as regular soldier in Elijah V. White's 35th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, nicknamed the "Comanches." Mobberly is sometimes reported as serving under John Mosby, although this is not grounded in fact. His legacy is surrounded in controversy as Federal soldiers and Union sympathizers in Loudoun County accused him of committing war atrocities, including slave-rustling, while pro-Southern Loudoun residents claimed him to be a hero, second only to Mosby in local popularity.

John Mobberly

33

Biography
Mobberly was born near Neersville, Virginia around the year 1844 [1]. At the start of the American Civil War Mobberly enlisted in Company A of the 35th Battalion at Hillsboro on September 15, 1862. He saw his first significant combat action at the Battle of Brandy Station on June 9, 1863 where he had a horse shot out from under him. Mobberly, with Mosby's Rangers, fought a May 17, 1864 skirmish with the Loudoun Rangers at Waterford, Mobberly shot a wounded Ranger Charles Stewart several times execution style, drawing ire from Federal sympathizers. Eight days later, he raided Berlin, Maryland (present day Brunswick). On November 10, in what became known as the Halltown Raid, he attacked a supply wagon en route to Halltown from Charles Town. On the 19th, Mobberly led a charge of the 35th against the pro-Union Swamp Dragoons in central West Virginia. On January 17, 1865, while serving as a scout, Mobberly led the advance guard in the George's Schoolhouse Raid. His luck ran out on April 5 when Charles Stewart, who survived the wounds inflicted by Mobberly in 1864, and a group of locals and Loudoun Rangers ambushed and killed Mobberly at Luther H. Potterfield's barn outside of Lovettsville.

References
Crouch, Richard E. Rough-Riding Scout: The Story of John Mobberly, Loudoun's Own Civil War Guerrilla Hero. Elden Editions: Arlington, Va., 1994. 1850 Federal Census 1860 Federal Census Confederate Civil War Service Records, Record No. 537: John W. Mobberly. Joseph Barry, The Strange Stories of Harpers Ferry: with Legends of the Surrounding County, Martinsburg, WV: Thompson Brothers, 1903. E.A. Paul, The Recent Capture Mobley, Payne, and Mackenzie Promotions Deaths, New York Times, Feb. 16, 1865. Stevan Meserve, The Civil War in Loudoun County, Virgina: A History of Hard Times.

References
[1] http:/ / www. us-census. org/ pub-ftp/ va/ loudoun/ 1850/ indx-m. txt

John S. Mosby

34

John S. Mosby
John S. Mosby

"The Gray Ghost" Nickname Born Died Place of burial Allegiance Gray Ghost Powhatan County, Virginia May 30, 1916 (aged82) Washington, D.C. Warrenton Cemetery, Warrenton, Virginia Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate States Army Yearsof service 18611865 Rank Battles/wars Colonel American Civil War

First Battle of Bull Run Peninsula Campaign

Relations Signature of John S. Mosby

John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 May 30, 1916), nicknamed the "Gray Ghost", was a Confederate cavalry battalion commander in the American Civil War. His command, the 43rd Battalion, 1st Virginia Cavalry, known as Mosby's Rangers or Mosby's Raiders, was a partisan ranger unit noted for its lightning quick raids and its ability to elude Union Army pursuers and disappear, blending in with local farmers and townsmen. The area of northern central Virginia in which Mosby operated with impunity was known during the war and ever since as Mosby's Confederacy. After the war, Mosby worked as an attorney and supported his former enemy's commander, President Ulysses S. Grant, serving as the U.S. consul to Hong Kong and in the Department of Justice.

John S. Mosby

35

Early life
Mosby was born in Powhatan County, Virginia, to Virginia McLaurine Mosby and Alfred Daniel Mosby, a graduate of Hampden-Sydney College. His father was a member of an old Virginia family of English origin whose ancestor, Richard Mosby, was born in England in 1600[1] and settled in Charles City, Virginia in the early 17th century. Mosby was named after his paternal grandfather, John Singleton. Mosby began his education at a school called Murrell's Shop. When his family moved to Albemarle County, Virginia (near Charlottesville) in about 1840, John attended school in Fry's Woods before transferring to a Charlottesville school at the age of ten. Because of his small stature and frail health, Mosby was the victim of bullies throughout his school career. Instead of becoming withdrawn and lacking in self-confidence, the boy responded by fighting back, although the editor of his memoirs recounted a statement Mosby made that he never won any fight in which he was engaged. In fact, the only time he did not lose a fight was when an adult stepped in and broke it up.[2] In 1849, Mosby entered the University of Virginia, taking Classical Studies and joining the Washington Literary Society and Debating Union. He was far above average in Latin, Greek, and literature (all of which he enjoyed), but mathematics was a problem for him. In his third year a quarrel erupted between Mosby and a notorious bully, George R. Turpin, a tavern keeper's son who was robust and physically impressive. When Mosby heard that Turpin had insulted him from a friend, Mosby sent Turpin a letter asking for an explanationone of the rituals in the code of honor to which Southern gentlemen adhered. Turpin became enraged and declared that on their next meeting, he would "eat him up raw!" Mosby decided he had to meet Turpin despite the risk; to run away would be dishonorable.[3] On March 29 the two met, Mosby having brought with him a small pepper-box pistol in the hope of dissuading Turpin from an attack. When the two met and Mosby said, "I hear you have been making assertions ..." Turpin put his head down and charged. At that point, Mosby pulled out the pistol and shot his adversary in the neck. The distraught 19-year-old Mosby went home to await his fate. He was arrested and arraigned on two charges: unlawful shooting (a misdemeanor with a maximum sentence of one year in jail and a $500 fine) and malicious shooting (a felony with a maximum sentence of 10 years in the penitentiary). After a trial that almost resulted in a hung jury, Mosby was convicted of the lesser offense but received the maximum sentence. Mosby later discovered that he had been expelled from the university before he was brought to trial.[4] There is nothing to suggest that Turpin, for all of his former violence, was likewise expelled for his notorious past. While serving time, Mosby won the friendship of his prosecutor, attorney William J. Robertson. When Mosby expressed his desire to study law, Robertson offered the use of his law library. Mosby studied law for the rest of his incarceration. Friends and family used political influence in an attempt to obtain a pardon. Gov. Joseph Johnson reviewed the evidence and pardoned Mosby on December 23, 1853. In early 1854, his fine was rescinded by the state legislature. The incident, trial, and imprisonment so traumatized Mosby that he never wrote about it in his memoirs.[5] After studying for months in Robertson's law office, Mosby was admitted to the bar and established his own practice in nearby Howardsville. About this time, Mosby met Pauline Clarke, who was visiting from out of town. He was Methodist and she was Catholic, but their courtship ensued. Her father was an active attorney and well-connected politician. They were married in a Nashville hotel on December 30, 1857 and after living for a year with Mosby's parents, the couple settled in Bristol, Virginia which was close to Clarke's hometown in Kentucky. They had two children before the Civil War and another was born during it.[6]

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Civil War
Mosby spoke out against secession, but joined the Confederate army as a Private at the outbreak of the war. He first served in William "Grumble" Jones's Washington Mounted Rifles. Jones became a Major and was instructed to form a more collective "Virginia Volunteers", which he created with two mounted companies and eight companies of infantry and riflemen, including the Washington Mounted Rifles. Mosby was upset with the Virginia Volunteers' lack of congeniality, and he wrote to the governor requesting to be transferred. However, his request was not granted. The Virginia Volunteers participated in the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas).

Mosby during the American Civil War

1861
After impressing J.E.B. Stuart with his ability to gather intelligence, Mosby was promoted to first lieutenant and assigned to Stuart's cavalry scouts. He helped the general develop attack strategies and was responsible for Stuart's "Ride around McClellan" during the Peninsula Campaign. Captured by Union cavalry, Mosby was imprisoned in the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C. for ten days before being exchanged. Even as a prisoner Mosby spied on his enemy. During a brief stopover at Fort Monroe he detected an unusual buildup of shipping in Hampton Roads. He found they were carrying thousands of troops under Ambrose Burnside from North Carolina on their way to reinforce John Pope in the Northern Virginia Campaign. When he was released, Mosby walked to army headquarters outside Richmond and personally related his findings to Robert E. Lee.[7]

John Singleton Mosby

John S. Mosby

37

1863
In January 1863, Stuart, with Lee's concurrence, authorized Mosby to form and take command of the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, Partisan Rangers. This was later expanded into Mosby's Command, a regimental-sized unit of partisan rangers operating in Northern Virginia. The Confederate government certified special rules to govern the conduct of partisan rangers. These included sharing in the disposition of spoils of war. Having previously been promoted to captain, on March 15, 1863, and major, on March 26, 1863, in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, Mosby was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel on January 21, 1864, and to colonel, December 7, 1864.[8]

Mosby is famous for carrying out a daring raid far inside Union lines at the Fairfax County courthouse in March 1863, where his men captured three Union officers, including Brig. Gen. Edwin H. Stoughton. Mosby wrote in his memoirs that he found Stoughton in bed and roused him with a "spank on his bare back." Upon being so rudely awakened the general indignantly asked what this meant. Mosby quickly asked if he had ever heard of "Mosby". The general replied, "Yes, have you caught him?" "I am Mosby," the Confederate ranger said. "Stuart's cavalry has possession of the Court House; be quick and dress." Mosby and his 29 men had captured a Union general, two captains, 30 enlisted men, and 58 horses without firing a shot.[9] Mosby endured his first serious wound of the war on August 24, 1863, during a battle near Annandale, Virginia, when a bullet hit him through his thigh and side. He retired from the field with his troops and returned to action a month later.[10]

Mosby's Rangers-Top row (left to right): Lee Herverson, Ben Palmer, John Puryear, Tom Booker, Norman Randolph, Frank Raham.# Second row: Robert Blanks Parrott, John Troop, John W. Munson, John S. Mosby, Newell, Neely, Quarles.# Third row: Walter Gosden, Harry T. Sinnott, Butler, Gentry.

1864
Mosby endured a second serious wound on September 14, 1864, while taunting a Union regiment by riding back and forth in front of it. A Federal bullet shattered the handle of his revolver before entering his groin. Barely staying on his horse to make his escape, he resorted to crutches during a quick recovery and returned to command three weeks later.[11] Mosby's successful disruption of supply lines, attrition of Union couriers, and disappearance in the disguise of civilians caused Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to tell Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan: The families of most of Moseby's men are know[n] and can be collected. I think they should be taken and kept at Fort McHenry or some secure place as hostages for good conduct of Mosby and his men. When any of them are caught with nothing to designate what they are hang them without trial.[12] On September 22, 1864, Union forces executed six of Mosby's men who had been captured out of uniform in Front Royal, Virginia; a seventh (captured, according to Mosby's subsequent letter to Sheridan, "by a Colonel Powell on a plundering expedition into Rappahannock") was reported by Mosby to have suffered a similar fate.[13] William Thomas Overby was one of the men selected for execution on the hill in Front Royal. His captors offered to spare him if he would reveal Mosby's location, but he refused. According to reports at the time, his last words were, "My last moments are sweetened by the reflection that for every man you murder this day Mosby will take a tenfold vengeance."[14] After the executions a Union soldier pinned a piece of paper to one of the bodies that read: "This shall be the fate of all Mosby's men."[15]

John S. Mosby

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After informing General Robert E. Lee and Confederate Secretary of War James A. Seddon of his intention to respond in kind, Mosby ordered seven Union prisoners, chosen by lot, to be executed in retaliation on November 6, 1864, at Rectortown, Virginia. Although seven men were duly chosen in the original "death lottery," in the end just three men were actually executed. One numbered lot fell to a drummer boy who was excused because of his age, and Mosby's men held a second drawing for a man to take his place. Then, on the way to the place of execution a prisoner recognized Masonic regalia on the uniform of Confederate Captain Montjoy, a recently inducted Freemason then returning from a raid. The condemned captive gave him a secret Masonic distress signal. Captain Montjoy substituted one [16] of his own prisoners for his fellow Mason[17] (though one source Captain Montjoy, wood engraving 1867 speaks of two Masons being substituted).[18] Mosby upbraided Montjoy, stating that his command was "not a Masonic lodge". The soldiers charged with carrying out the executions of the revised group of seven successfully hanged three men. They shot two more in the head and left them for dead (remarkably, both survived). The other two condemned men managed to escape separately.[19] On November 11, 1864, Mosby wrote to Philip Sheridan, the commander of Union forces in the Shenandoah Valley, requesting that both sides resume treating prisoners with humanity. He pointed out that he and his men had captured and returned far more of Sheridan's men than they had lost.[20] The Union side complied. With both camps treating prisoners as "prisoners of war" for the duration, there were no more executions. On November 18, 1864, Mosby's command defeated Blazer's Scouts at the Battle of Kabletown.[21] Mosby had his closest brush with death on December 21, 1864, near Rector's Crossroads in Virginia. Apparently having dinner with a family in a Southern home, Mosby was fired on through a window, and the ball entered his abdomen two inches below the navel.[10] He managed to stagger into the bedroom and hide his coat, which had his only insignia of rank. The commander of the Union detachment, Maj. Douglas Frazar of the 13th New York Cavalry, entered the house andnot knowing Mosby's identityinspected the wound and pronounced it mortal. Although left for dead, Mosby recovered and returned to the war effort once again two months later.[22]

1865
Several weeks after General Robert E. Lee's surrender, Mosby simply disbanded his rangers on April 21, 1865, in Salem, Virginia, as he refused to surrender formally. Many of his men obtained official parole documents from the Federals and returned to their homes, but Mosby himself traveled southward with a small party of officers to join up with General Joseph E. Johnston's army in North Carolina. Before he reached his fellow Confederates, he read in a newspaper of Johnston's surrender. Some of his colleagues proposed that they return to Richmond and capture the Union officers who were occupying the White House of the Confederacy, but Mosby rejected the plan, telling them, "Too late! It would be murder and highway robbery now. We are soldiers, not highwaymen."[23] Mosby was a wanted man, with a $5000 bounty on his head issued by Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock. He eluded capture in the area of Lynchburg, Virginia, until the end of June, when Ulysses S. Grant intervened directly in the case and paroled him.[24]

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Postbellum life
After the war, Mosby became an active Republican, saying it was the best way to help the South. Mosby went on to become a campaign manager in Virginia for President Ulysses S. Grant. In his autobiography Grant stated, "Since the close of the war, I have come to know Colonel Mosby personally and somewhat intimately. He is a different man entirely from what I supposed. He is able and thoroughly honest and truthful."[25] A major postbellum activity for Mosby was his prolific defense of J.E.B. Stuart, who had been blamed by some partisans of the Lost Cause for the Confederate failure at Gettysburg. Mosby had served Mosby and his former lieutenant John S. Russell under Stuart during the campaign and was fiercely loyal to the late general, writing, "He made me all that I was in the war. ... But for his friendship I would never have been heard of." He wrote numerous articles for popular publications and published a book length treatise in 1908, a work that relied on his skills as a lawyer to refute categorically all of the claims laid against Stuart. A recent comprehensive study of the Stuart controversy, written by Eric J. Wittenberg and J. David Petruzzi, called Mosby's work a tour de force.[26] Mosby's friendship with Grant, and his work with those whom many Southerners considered the enemy, made Mosby a highly controversial figure in Virginia. He received death threats, his boyhood home was burned down, and at least one attempt was made to assassinate him. Said Mosby: "There was more vindictiveness shown to me by the Virginia people for my voting for Grant than the North showed to me for fighting four years against him."[27] The danger contributed to the President's appointing him as U.S. consul to Hong Kong (18781885). Mosby then served as a lawyer in San Francisco, California with the Southern Pacific Railroad. Later he worked for the Department of the Interior, first enforcing federal fencing laws in Omaha, then evicting trespassers on government-owned land in Alabama. He also worked as an assistant attorney in the Department of Justice (190410).[28] "During General George S. Patton's childhood, one of the best friends of the Patton family was none-other-than Colonel John S. Mosby, the fabled 'Gray Ghost' of J.E.B. Stuart's legendary cavalry. Patton grew up Mosby's former residence in Washington, D.C. hearing tales of daring raids and stunning cavalry attacks from the Gray Ghost himself. During visits to the Patton Ranch in Southern California, Colonel Mosby would re-enact the Civil War with George; playing himself, he let George play the part of General Lee as they would recount the battles of the war, astride their horses."[29] In a 1907 letter, Mosby explained why he fought on the Confederate side, despite disapproving of slavery. While he believed the South had seceded to protect slavery, he had felt it was his patriotic duty to Virginia. "I am not ashamed of having fought on the side of slaverya soldier fights for his countryright or wronghe is not responsible for the political merits of the course he fights in ... The South was my country."[30] Mosby died in Washington, D.C., and was buried in Warrenton Cemetery in Warrenton, Virginia.[8]

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Monuments and memorials


The area around Middleburg, from where Mosby launched most of his behind-the-lines activities, was called "Mosby's Confederacy", even in the Northern press. The Mosby Heritage Area Association in Middleburg, headquartered in Middleburg, is actively involved in preserving the history, culture, and scenery of this historic area.[31] The John Singleton Mosby Museum is located in Warrenton, Virginia, at the historic Brentmoor estate where Mosby lived from 1875 to 1877. There are 35 monuments and markers [32] in Northern Virginia dedicated to actions and events related to Mosby's Rangers. John Mosby Highway [33], a section of US Route 50 between Dulles Airport and Winchester, Virginia, is named for Colonel Mosby. Mosby Woods Elementary School in the Fairfax County Public Schools system is named in his honor.[34] Mosby Woods subdivision in Fairfax City is also named in his honor. The post office branch for zip code 22042 (in Northern Virginia's Falls Church area) is referred to by the USPS as the Mosby branch. Loudoun County High School's (Leesburg, Virginia) mascot is the Raiders after Mosby's Raiders.
"War Loses Its Romance": Inscription of military quotation by John S. Mosby at Veterans Memorial at the Lackawanna County Courthouse in Scranton, Pennsylvania

In popular culture
Herman Melville's poem "The Scout Toward Aldie" was about the terror a Union brigade felt upon facing Mosby and his men. Virgil Carrington Jones published Ranger Mosby (1944), and Gray Ghosts and Rebel Raiders (1956). He also wrote the late-1950s television program, Ranger Mosby. A 1913 film entitled The Pride of the South, starred actor Joseph King as John Mosby. CBS Television produced The Gray Ghost during the 195758 television season. The show aired in syndication and starred Tod Andrews as Mosby.[35] In Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls the protagonist refers to Mosby as the best cavalry officer of the Civil War. Lee McGiffin wrote Iron Scouts of the Confederacy (1993), which told of two teenage boys who enlisted with Mosby's Rangers. The 1967 Disney television movie Willie and the Yank: The Mosby Raiders[36] starred Kurt Russell as a young Confederate serving under Mosby, portrayed by Jack Ging.[35] In the 1988 alternate history novel Gray Victory author Robert Skimin depicts Mosby as the head of military intelligence after the Confederacy wins the Civil War. He defends his friend, J.E.B. Stuart, from a court of inquiry investigating Stuart's actions in the battle of Gettysburg. In the novel, Skimin portrays Mosby as more pro-slavery than was the case historically. There is a computer game based on Mosby's Civil war activities, by Tilted Mill, called "Mosby's Confederacy". (2008) In the TV series How I Met Your Mother, Ted Mosby stated, after Barney Stinson found a pornographic film in which an actor shared the same name as Ted, "This is really bizarrethe only other famous Mosby I know was a Confederate general during the Civil War." (Season 3, Episode 6, "I'm Not That Guy"), apparently referring to Colonel John S. Mosby, who actually never became a general.

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Notes
[1] familysearch.org (http:/ / www. familysearch. org/ eng/ default. asp) [2] Mosby and Russell, pp. 67. Mosby made the statement to John S. Patton, who wrote in the Baltimore Sun about Mosby's difficulties at the University of Virginia. [3] Mosby and Russell, pp. 78. [4] Ramage, pp. 2024. [5] Wert, pp. 2627. [6] Ramage, pp. 2830. [7] Longacre, p. 107. [8] Allardice, p. 284. [9] Wert, pp. 2022. [10] Smith, p. 17. [11] Smith, p. 17; Wert, p. 209. [12] Neely, p. 79. [13] Boyle, p. 161. [14] Scott, p. 320 (quoting Overby). [15] Boyle, p. 155. [16] Engraving reproduced from Scott, p. 210. Scott refers to "Captain Mountjoy", but most references spell it "Montjoy". [17] Boyle. [18] Scott, pp. 355360. [19] Wert, pp. 24448. [20] Wert, pp. 24950. [21] Wert, pp. 25254. [22] Smith, p. 17; Wert, p. 267; "CivilWarAlbum.com" (http:/ / www. civilwaralbum. com/ misc5/ mosby1. htm). Mosby Heritage Area Tour. Mosby Heritage Area Association. . Retrieved 22 May 2011. [23] Wert, pp. 28790. [24] Wert, p. 290. Allardice, p. 284, claims that he remained a fugitive until being arrested in January 1866, when his wife obtained the special pardon from General Grant. [25] Grant, vol. 2, p. 142. [26] Wittenberg and Petruzzi, pp. 21928. [27] John Mosby (09.05.07). "Letter to Samuel Chapman" (http:/ / www. gilderlehrman. org/ search/ collection_pdfs/ 03/ 29/ 3/ 03293. pdf). . [28] McKnight, p. 1369. [29] http:/ / www. sonofthesouth. net/ leefoundation/ John_S_Mosby_Geroge_Patton. htm [30] Letter, Assistant Attorney General John S. Mosby to Captain Sam Chapman (June 4, 1907). (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927223250/ http:/ / www. gilderlehrman. org/ collection/ docs_archive/ docs_archive_Mosby. html) [31] Mosby Heritage Area Association (http:/ / www. mosbyheritagearea. org/ ) [32] http:/ / www. hmdb. org/ results. asp?SearchFor=Mosby%27s+ Rangers [33] http:/ / www. hmdb. org/ results. asp?Related=2669 [34] School website (http:/ / commweb. fcps. edu/ schoolprofile/ profile. cfm?profile_id=053). The website incorrectly refers to Mosby as a general. [35] Mosby's Rangers on DVD (http:/ / www. realitytvdvd. com/ mosbys-rangers-gray-ghost/ ). [36] IMDB (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0060715/ ).

References
Alexander, John H. Mosby's Men (http://www.archive.org/details/mosbysmen00alex). New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1907. OCLC297987971. Allardice, Bruce S. Confederate Colonels: A Biographical Register. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8262-1809-4. Barefoot, Daniel W. Let Us Die Like Brave Men: Behind the Dying Words of Confederate Warriors. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair Publisher, 2005. ISBN 978-0-89587-311-8. Boyle, William E. "Under the Black Flag: Execution and Retaliation in Mosby's Confederacy", Military Law Review 144 (Spring 1994): p.148ff. Crawford, J. Marshall. Mosby and His Men (http://books.google.com/books?id=C8BEAAAAIAAJ). New York: G. W. Carleton, 1867. OCLC25241469.

John S. Mosby Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/4367). 2 vols. Charles L. Webster & Company, 188586. ISBN 0-914427-67-9. Jones, Virgil Carrington. Ranger Mosby. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944. ISBN 0-8078-0432-0. Longacre, Edward G. Lee's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2002. ISBN 0-8117-0898-5. McGiffin, Lee. Iron Scouts of the Confederacy. Arlington Heights, IL: Christian Liberty Press, 1993. ISBN 1-930092-19-9. McKnight, Brian D. "John Singleton Mosby." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X. Mosby, John Singleton, and Charles Wells Russell. The Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby (http://books. google.com/books?id=Pj0sAAAAYAAJ). New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 1917. OCLC1750463. Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-19-506496-4. Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1986. ISBN 0-8131-0839-X. Siepel, Kevin H. Rebel: The Life and Times of John Singleton Mosby, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8032-1609-9. First published 1983 by St. Martin's Press. Smith, Eric. Mosby's Raiders, Guerrilla Warfare in the Civil War. New York: Victoria Games, Inc., 1985. ISBN 978-0-912515-22-9. Wert, Jeffry D. Mosby's Rangers: The True Adventure of the Most Famous Command of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. ISBN 0-671-74745-2. Winik, Jay. April 1865: The Month That Saved America. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. ISBN 978-0-06-089968-4. First published 2001. Wittenberg, Eric J., and J. David Petruzzi. Plenty of Blame to Go Around: Jeb Stuart's Controversial Ride to Gettysburg. New York: Savas Beatie, 2006. ISBN 1-932714-20-0. The Home of The American Civil War: John Mosby (http://www.civilwarhome.com/mosbybio.htm) John Singleton Mosby "A Long And Stormy Career" (http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/ AftermathAndReconstruction/johnsingletonmosby.html)

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Further reading
Evans, Clement A., ed. Confederate Military History: A Library of Confederate States History (http://www. archive.org/search.php?query=publisher:"Confederate Pub.Co."). 12 vols. Atlanta: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899. OCLC833588. Mosby, John Singleton. Mosby's Reminiscences and Stuart's Cavalry Campaigns (http://books.google.com/ books?id=kzoOAAAAIAAJ). New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1887. OCLC26692400. Mosby, John Singleton. Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign (http://books.google.com/ books?id=Pj0sAAAAYAAJ). New York: Moffat, Yard & Co., 1908. OCLC2219061. Munson, John W. Reminiscences of a Mosby Guerrilla (http://books.google.com/books?id=Z9rLMlOjXV0C). New York: Moffat, Yard, and Co., 1906. OCLC166633099. Scott, John. Partisan Life with Col. John S. Mosby (http://books.google.com/books?id=txhCAAAAIAAJ). New York: Harper & Brothers, 1867. OCLC1305753. Williamson, James Joseph. Mosby's Rangers: A Record of the Operations of the Forty-third Battalion Virginia Cavalry (http://books.google.com/books?id=ZBYPAAAAYAAJ). New York: Ralph B. Kenyon, 1896. OCLC17692024.

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External links
Col. John Mosby and the Southern code of honor (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~class/am483_97/Projects/ anderson/intro.html), University of Virginia Typed carbon copy letter, signed. John Mosby to Eppa Hunton. November 18, 1909. (http://www.lib.virginia. edu/speccol/exhibits/hoos/hunton.html) Mosby Heritage Area Association (http://www.mosbyheritagearea.org/) John S. Mosby (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=3080) at Find a Grave Works by or about John S. Mosby (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n82-212191) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) "Mosby, John Singleton". Appletons' Cyclopdia of American Biography. 1900. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mosby, John Singleton". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Stovepipe Johnson

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Stovepipe Johnson
Adam Rankin Johnson

Nickname Born Died Place of burial Allegiance

"Stovepipe" February 6, 1834 Henderson, Kentucky October 20, 1922 (aged88) Burnet, Texas Texas State Cemetery, Austin, Texas United States of America Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate States Army Yearsof service 186165 Rank Battles/wars Colonel (Brigadier General appointment not confirmed) American Civil War

Newburgh Raid Morgan's Raid

Adam Rankin "Stovepipe" Johnson (February 6, 1834 October 20, 1922) was an antebellum Western frontiersman and later an officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Permanently blinded during a skirmish in 1864, Johnson in 1887 founded the town of Marble Falls, Texas, which became known as "the blind man's town."

Early life
Johnson was born in Henderson, Kentucky, a son of Thomas J. and Juliet (Rankin) Johnson. Educated in the local schools, he went to work at age 12 in a drugstore for the next eight years. In 1854 he moved to Hamilton Valley in Burnet County, Texas, and worked as a surveyor on the West Texas frontier. He was a noted Indian fighter and provided supplies and animals for the Butterfield Overland Mail stations. On January 1, 1861, he married Josephine Eastland of Austin, with whom he had nine children.

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Civil War
When the Civil War began and his native Kentucky struggled to maintain its neutrality, Johnson returned home and joined Nathan B. Forrest's cavalry battalion as a scout. He escaped capture with Forrest after the Fort Donelson, when the Confederate commander decided to surrender his post to the Union besiegers. He later received a promotion to colonel in recognition for his exploits as commander of his Partisan Rangers, a regiment that often operated deep within Federal lines in Kentucky. Johnson's men harassed Union supply lines and isolated garrisons. In July 1862, in his Newburgh Raid, he captured the town of Newburgh, Indiana, despite a sizable Union militia presence, with only twelve men and two joints of stovepipe mounted on the running gear of an abandoned wagon to simulate a cannon. His capture of the first Northern city to fall to the Confederates was reported even in Europe, and Johnson's men thereafter called him "Stovepipe" for his ingenuity. In 1863, Johnson assumed command of a brigade in the cavalry division of Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. He participated in Morgan's Raid, and, following the Confederate disaster at the Battle of Buffington Island, Johnson led nearly 350 men across the rain-swollen Ohio River to safety. The remainder of Morgan's division was trapped on the Ohio side of the river and eventually had to surrender. Johnson was appointed brigadier general on September 6, 1864 to rank from June 1, 1864; this appointment was not confirmed by the Confederate Congress.[1] On August 21, 1864, he was blinded by an accidental shot from one of his own men during an attack at Grubb's Crossroads near Princeton, Kentucky. He was subsequently captured by the Federals and imprisoned for much of the rest of the war in Fort Warren.

Postbellum
Johnson returned to Texas after being exchanged and paroled in 1865. Despite being blind, he founded a town, established a company, and worked to harness the water power of the Colorado River. Johnson died in Burnet, Texas, and is interred at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin, Texas. He rests beside Josephine and near his grandson, Judge George Christian, Sr., and a great-grandson, former White House Press Secretary George Christian, Jr.

Notes
[1] Eicher, p. 601; United States War Department, The Military Secretary's Office, Memorandum relative to the general officers appointed by the President in the armies of the Confederate States--1861-1865 (1908) (Compiled from official records), p. 32. Caption shows 1905 but printing date is February 11, 1908. http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ memorandumrelati01unit, retrieved August 5, 2010..

References
Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Johnson, Adam R., The Partisan Rangers of the Confederate Army. Louisville, Kentucky: George G. Fetter, 1904. United States War Department, The Military Secretary's Office, Memorandum relative to the general officers appointed by the President in the armies of the Confederate States1861-1865 (1908) (Compiled from official records). Caption shows 1905 but printing date is February 11, 1908. http://www.archive.org/details/ memorandumrelati01unit, retrieved August 5, 2010. Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1959, ISBN 0-8071-0823-5. Johnson, E. Polk (1912). A History of Kentucky and Kentuckians: The Leaders and Representative Men in Commerce, Industry and Modern Activities (http://books.google.com/books?id=FXQUAAAAYAAJ). Lewis Publishing Company. pp.10031004. Retrieved 2008-11-10.

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External links
Texas State Cemetery Official Website (http://www.cemetery.state.tx.us)

Archie Clement
Archie Clement (January 1, 1846 December 13, 1866), a.k.a. "Little Arch", was a pro-Confederate guerrilla leader in the American Civil War, known for his brutality towards Union soldiers and pro-Union civilians in Missouri.

Little Archie, the bushwhacker


Clement was born in Stokes County, North Carolina and brought to Missouri with his family as a toddler.[1] By the beginning of the Civil War, he and his family were recorded as living in Big Oak Township, Cass County, Missouri.[2] A Confederate "bushwhacker" or guerrilla during the Civil War, Clement rose to notoriety in 1864 as a lieutenant of William T. Anderson. Clement soon became known as Bloody Bill's most trusted followeror, in the words of an enemy, "Bill Anderson's scalper and head devil." Standing just over five feet tall and weighing about 130 pounds, Clement's youth and slight stature belied his ferocity. Anderson (or one of his men) left this note on the body of a dead Unionist after a particularly vicious skirmish; "You come to hunt bush whackers. Now you are skelpt. Clemyent skelpt you. Wm. Anderson."[3] Clement took a prominent role in all of the major operations of Anderson's organization in 1864, including the Centralia Massacre, in which the guerrillas blocked the tracks of the Northern Missouri Railroad and forced a train to stop. They then robbed the civilian passengers and killed 22 Union soldiers found on board, returning home on furlough from the Atlanta campaign. Anderson left one Union sergeant alive for a possible prisoner exchange. The guerrillas shot the rest, and scalped and otherwise mutilated the corpses.[4] Following Anderson's death in an ambush by Union militia on October 27, 1864, Clement took command, continuing to fight into the next year. Following the surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia, Clement continued to fight, even demanding the surrender of the Missouri town of Lexington. Though some comrades, including Dave Pool, surrendered, Clement and Jesse James remained under arms. On May 15, 1865, Clement and James encountered a Union cavalry patrol; a skirmish ensued in which James was severely wounded.[5]

Clement, the outlaw leader


Beginning in 1866, Clement led his supporters into a new profession: bank robbery, especially of banks associated with Missouri Unionists. On February 13, a group of gunmen carried out the first daylight, peacetime, armed bank robbery in U.S. history when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, stealing more than $58,000 in cash and bonds. The bank was owned and operated by former Union militia officers, who recently had conducted the first Republican Party rally in Clay County's history. The state authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid and offered a reward for his capture. In later years, the list of suspects would grow to include Frank James, Cole Younger, John Jarrette, Oliver Shepard, Bud and Donny Pence, Frank Gregg, Bill and James Wilkerson, Joab Perry, Ben Cooper, Red Mankus and Allen Parmer (who later married Susan James, Frank and Jesse's sister). During the escape through the streets of Liberty, one of the gang shot dead an innocent bystander named George Wymore.[6] A string of robberies followed, many linked to Clement's gang. The hold-up most clearly linked to them was of Alexander Mitchell and Company in Lexington, Missouri, on October 30, 1866, in which they stole $2,000.

Archie Clement

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Death
As the pivotal election of 1866 approached, political violence flared across Missouri. Much of it was associated with Archie Clement, who harassed the Republican authorities who governed Missouri. On election day in November 1866, Clement led a group of some 100 former bushwhackers into the town of Lexington. Their gunfire and intimidation led to the defeat of the Republican Party in the election. In response, Governor Thomas C. Fletcher dispatched a platoon of state militia, led by Major Bacon Montgomery. Clement withdrew, only to return on December 13, 1866. Seeking to avoid a major battle in the center of town, Montgomery allowed Archie Clement to enroll his men in the state militia (as a joke, it seems); after the bushwhackers left, Clement went to the bar of the City Hotel for a drink. Seeing his opportunity, Montgomery dispatched a few men to apprehend Clement, who was wanted on a warrant for the Liberty robbery. The major's men found Little Arch drinking with an old friend and called out for him to surrender. Clement drew his revolvers and a wild gunfight ensued. Despite having sustained a gunshot wound to the chest, Archie managed to make it outside and onto his horse. Clement rode up the town's main street in an effort to escape only to be shot off his horse by a militia detachment stationed at the courthouse. Montgomery and his men approached the fallen bushwhacker, who, though mortally wounded, was trying to cock his revolver with his teeth. One of the soldiers asked, "Arch, you are dying. What do you want me to do with you?" Clement replied, "I've done what I always said I would do ... die before I'd surrender." Major Montgomery himself later stated of Clement's final moments, "I've never met better 'grit' on the face of the earth."[7] After Arch Clement's death, his organization continued to rob and be pursued by government troops. Out of this group rose Jesse James, who first achieved notoriety three years later.

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 1850 U.S. Census 1860 U.S. Census T.J. Stiles, Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002), 112, 151. Stiles, 111-27. Stiles, 153-6. Stiles, 167-75. Stiles, 182-7.

References
Edward E. Leslie,The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and His Confederate Raiders Yeatman, Ted P.: Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend, Cumberland House, 2001 Stiles, T.J.: Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War, Alfred A. Knopf, 2002

External links
Website for biographer T. J. Stiles, with newspaper reports of Clement's death and first-person account of the Clay County Savings Association robbery (http://www.tjstiles.net/bio.htm) Photo of Archie Clement (http://www.rulen.com/partisan/3rangers.htm) Clement on the Missouri Partisan Ranger (http://www.rulen.com/partisan/archie.htm)

Silas M. Gordon

48

Silas M. Gordon
Silas M. Gordon (18351888) was an anti-union bushwhacker who indirectly caused Platte City, Missouri, to be burned twice by forces during the American Civil War. The town of Gordonville, Texas, is named for him. Confederate Silas Gordon was born in Kentucky in 1835 and moved with his parents, William and Lewisboro (Muir) Gordon, to Platte County, Missouri. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Gordon engaged in various guerrilla actions, including kidnapping Union officers in Missouri. He was accused of masterminding the September 3 Platte Bridge Railroad Tragedy in which a Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad train derailed on a sabotaged Platte River bridge at St. Joseph, Missouri. Gordon and 30 to 40 of his followers set up camp in November 1861 by the Platte County Courthouse in Platte City. He was to engage Federal troops in November at Bee Creek, in which two Federals were killed. In December his band briefly captured Weston, Missouri. Gordon stole county records from the courthouse and threatened to kill the district judge if he came to Platte City. Union General David Hunter issued an order from neighboring Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to the Platte County trustees to either deliver Gordon within 10 days or have the city burned and the slaves in the county freed. In early December Col. James Morgan marched from St. Joseph to Platte City and set fire to the city and courthouse and captured three of Gordon's men on December 16 during the Burning of Platte City. On December 17 Morgan ignored the pleas for leniency from the father of one of the prisoners, a man named Black Triplett. Instead, Morgan took Triplett and prisoner Gabriel Case to the Bee Creek site where the Federals had been killed. Triplett was executed outright and Case was bayonetted as he fled. The letters "U.S." were scrawled in Triplett's blood on the Bee Creek bridge. Gordon joined the Missouri State Guard under Sterling Price and was in the Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Iuka, Second Battle of Corinth, and Battle of Vicksburg. He was reported to have joined guerilla fighter William Quantrill and Quantrill's Raiders in Texas. He returned to guerilla activities in Missouri in 1864 around Platte County. In July 1864, Union troops once again burned the city in an attempt to capture him (the courthouse was not to be rebuilt from the first fire until 1867). Gordon returned to Texas in Gordonville until his death.

External links
History-sites.com biography [1] History-sites.com biography 2 [2] Rebels Remembered: Si Gordon & John Thrailkill (Book) [3] History of Gordonville [4]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / history-sites. com/ mb/ cw/ mocwmb/ index. cgi?noframes;read=4758 http:/ / history-sites. com/ mb/ cw/ mocwmb/ index. cgi?noframes;read=1508 http:/ / www. civilwarbooklady. com/ cwdescriptionsRthruS. htm http:/ / www. tshaonline. org/ handbook/ online/ articles/ GG/ hlg29. html

Champ Ferguson

49

Champ Ferguson
Champ Ferguson (November 29, 1821 October 20, 1865) was a notorious Confederate guerrilla during the American Civil War. He claimed to have killed over 100 Union soldiers and pro-Union civilians.

Early life and origins of Confederate stance


Ferguson was born in Clinton County, Kentucky, on the Tennessee border, the oldest of ten children. Like his father, he became a farmer. Ferguson earned a reputation for violence. Reportedly, in 1858, he led a group of men who tied Sheriff James Read of Fentress County, Tennessee to a tree. Ferguson then rode his horse around the tree, hacking at Read repeatedly with a sword until he was dead. He is also claimed to have stabbed a man named Evans at a camp meeting. Evans survived.[1] In the 1850s, Ferguson moved with his wife and family to the Calfkiller River Valley in White County, Tennessee. For reasons not clear, Ferguson developed a passionate hatred for the Union cause. One tradition claims that Union soldiers raped his wife and daughter. Another belief is that he held grudges against a number of local Union men. Ferguson himself would claim that Confederate officials had promised him they would overlook his previous behaviour if he supported the southern war effort.

Guerrilla activities
During the Civil War, East Tennessee, a mostly mountainous region, was divided over secession from the Union. The terrain and lack of law enforcement due to the war gave guerrilla fighters and irregular military groups significant freedom in the region. There are substantial numbers of recorded incidents of guerrilla and revenge attacks, especially on the Cumberland Plateau. Even families were often divided. One of Champ Ferguson's brothers was killed as a member of the Union's 1st Kentucky Cavalry.[2] At the start of the war, Ferguson organized a unit and started attacking civilians believed to support the Union. Occasionally, his guerrilla band cooperated with Confederate military units led by Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan and Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler. Some evidence indicates Ferguson was actually made a captain of partisan rangers by Morgan. However, Ferguson's men were seldom subject to military discipline and frequently violated the normal rules of warfare. There are legends of Ferguson's alleged sadism, including stories that he decapitated prisoners and rolled their heads down hillsides and was willing to kill elderly and bedridden men. He was once arrested by Confederate authorities for the murder of a government official and was detained for two months in Wytheville, Virginia, though he was finally released.

Champ Ferguson

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Trial and hanging


At the war's end, Ferguson returned home to his farm. He was promptly arrested by Union troops and was tried in Nashville for 53 murders, an attempt to document his wartime activities. His trial attracted national attention and became a major media event. One of Ferguson's main adversaries during the conflict, "Tinker Dave" Beaty,[3] testified against himjust as Ferguson had led a band of guerrillas against any suspected or real pro-unionists, Beaty had led a band of guerrillas against any suspected or real Ferguson surrounded by his guards. pro-Confederates. Not surprisingly, each had done his best to kill the other. Ferguson acknowledged his band had killed many of the victims named and admitted killing over 100 men personally. Nevertheless, he insisted it was only part of his military duty. The number of wounded men and prisoners his band killed after the Battle of Saltville is still a matter of dispute. These were mostly members of the all-black 5th United States Colored Cavalry and their white officers. Ferguson and his men supposedly murdered the wounded in their beds at the hospital, and only the arrival of Thomas' Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders prevented further slaughter. Ferguson departed as soon as he heard that regular Confederate troops had arrived.
Ferguson's grave

On October 10, 1865, Champ was found guilty and sentenced to hang. He made a statement in response to the verdict: "I am yet and will die a Rebel ... I killed a good many men, of course, but I never killed a man who I did not know was seeking my life. ... I had always heard that the Federals would not take me prisoner, but would shoot me down wherever they found me. That is what made me kill more than I otherwise would have done. I repeat that I die a Rebel out and out, and my last request is that my body be removed to White County, Tennessee, and be buried in good Rebel soil."[4] He was hanged on October 20, 1865. His body was buried in the France Cemetery on Highway 84 (Monterey Highway) north of Sparta, White County, Tennessee.

Footnotes
[1] "Notorious Characters - The Fergusons - Atrocious Murders, Etc." (http:/ / www. webroots. org/ library/ usamilit/ pgotnky2. html) The Patriots and Guerillas - Chapter II. WebRoots.org. [2] North & South - The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 16, "I took time by the Forelock" Champ Ferguson's war (http:/ / www. northandsouthmagazine. com/ images/ volume11/ ind11-1. pdf), accessed April 16, 2010. [3] Bryant, Lloyd D. "David "Tinker Dave" Beaty - (L2)." (http:/ / homepages. rootsweb. com/ ~bp2000/ tinker_dave. htm) History of Fentress County, Tennessee. The Fentress County Historical Society. [4] Johnson, James. "Execution of Champ Ferguson." James K. Polk Papers, Box 1, Folder 9. (Tennessee State Library and Archives; Nashville Dispatch, 22 October 1865).

Champ Ferguson

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References
Johnson, James. "Execution of Champ Ferguson." James K. Polk Papers, Box 1, Folder 9. (Tennessee State Library and Archives; Nashville Dispatch, 22 October 1865). McDade, Arthur, "Tennessee Guerrilla Champ Ferguson Killed More Than 100 Men Before Facing The Hangman's Noose". America's Civil War. March 2001, Vol. 14, No. 1. Mays, Thomas D. Cumberland Blood: Champ Ferguson's Civil War (http://books.google.com/ books?id=Xwl2usI2XdIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false). Southern Illinois University Press, 2008. http://www.siu.edu/~siupress/MaysCumberlandBlood.html

External links
See (http://www.genforum.genealogy.com/ferguson/messages/8445.html) {reference only} "Guerilla Warfare in Kentucky" (http://www.bryansbush.com/hub.php?page=articles&layer=a0807) Article by Civil War historian/author Bryan S. Bush

Frank James

52

Frank James
Frank James

Frank (right) and Jesse James in 1872 Born January 10, 1843 Clay County, Missouri, USA February 18, 1915 (aged72) Clay County, Missouri

Died

Alexander Franklin "Frank" James (January 10, 1843[1] February 18, 1915) was an American outlaw. He was the older brother of outlaw Jesse James.[2]

Childhood
James was born Alexander Franklin James in Kearney, Missouri to Baptist minister Reverend Robert Sallee James and his wife Zerelda (Cole) James, who had moved from Kentucky. He was the oldest of three children. His father died in 1851 and his mother re-married Benjamin Simms in 1852. After his death she married a third time to Dr. Reuben Samuel in 1855 when Frank was 13 years old. As a child, James showed interest in his late father's sizable library, especially the works of William Shakespeare. Census records show that James attended school regularly, and he reportedly wanted to become a teacher.

Civil War
In 1861, when James was eighteen years old, the American Civil War began. Missouri remained in the Union although a minority favored secession (nearly three times more Missourians fought for the Union). The secessionists including Governor Jackson attempted to push the Union army out of the state but were eventually defeated. The James family was from the heavily Confederate western portion of the state. On September 13, 1861, the Missouri State Guard, including private Frank James, besieged Lexington, Missouri. James fell ill and was left behind when the Confederate forces later retreated. He surrendered to the Union troops, was paroled, and was allowed to return home. On his arrival, however, he was arrested by the local pro-Union militia and was forced to sign an oath of allegiance to the Union. After the withdrawal of regular Confederate troops in the fall of 1864, a bitter guerrilla conflict soon began between bands of pro-Confederate irregulars (commonly known as bushwhackers) and the Union homeguards. By early 1863, Frank, ignoring his parole and oath of allegiance, had joined the guerrilla band of Fernando Scott, a former saddler. He soon switched to the more active command led by William Clarke Quantrill. Union militiamen searching for Fernando Scott raided the Samuel farm and briefly hanged Dr. Reuben Samuel, Frank's stepfather, torturing him to reveal the location of the guerrillas. Shortly afterward, Frank took part with Quantrill's company in the August 21, 1863, Lawrence Massacre where approximately 200 mostly unarmed civilians

Frank James were killed.

53

Outlaw years and retirement


For the career of the James brothers after the Civil War, see Jesse James. During his years as a bandit, James was involved in at least four murders between 1868 and 1876, resulting in the deaths of bank employees or citizens. The most famous incident was the disastrous Northfield, Minnesota, raid on September 7, 1876, that ended with the death or capture of most of the gang. Five months after the killing of his brother Jesse in 1882, Frank James boarded a train to Jefferson City, Missouri, where he had an appointment with the governor in the state capitol. Placing his holster in Governor Crittenden's hands, he explained, "I have been hunted for twenty-one years, have literally lived in the saddle, have never known a day of perfect peace. It was one long, anxious, inexorable, eternal vigil." He then ended his statement by saying, "Governor, I haven't let another man touch my gun since 1861." Accounts say that James surrendered with the understanding that he would not be extradited to Northfield, Minnesota.[3] He was tried for only two of the robberies/murders one in Gallatin, Missouri for the July 15, 1881 robbery of the Rock Island Line train at Winston, Missouri, in which the train engineer and a passenger were killed, and the other in Huntsville, Alabama for the March 11, 1881 robbery of a United States Army Corps of Engineers payroll at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Among others, former Confederate General Joseph Orville Shelby testified on James' behalf in the Missouri trial. He was acquitted in both Missouri and Alabama. Missouri accepted legal jurisdiction over him for other charges, but they never came to trial. He was never extradited to Minnesota for his connection with the Northfield Raid. His New York Times obituary summarized his arrest and acquittal: "In 1882 ... Frank James surrendered in Jefferson City, MO. After his surrender James was taken to Independence, MO., where he was held in jail three weeks, and later to Gallatin, where he remained in jail a year awaiting trial. Finally James was acquitted and went to Oklahoma to live with his mother. He never was in the penitentiary and never was convicted of any of the charges against him."[2] In the last thirty years of his life, James worked a variety of jobs, including as a shoe salesman and then as a burlesque theater ticket taker in St. Louis. One of the theater's spins to attract patrons was their use of the phrase "Come get your ticket punched by the legendary Frank James." He also served as an AT&T telegraph operator in St. Joseph, Missouri. James took up the lecture circuit, while residing in Sherman, Texas. In 1902, former Missourian Sam Hildreth, a leading thoroughbred horse trainer and owner, hired James as the betting commissioner at the Fair Grounds Race Track [4] in New Orleans. He returned to the North Texas area where he was a shoe salesman at Sanger Brothers in Dallas. In his final years, James returned to the James Farm, giving tours for the sum of 25 cents.[5] He died there on February 18, 1915, aged 72 years. He left behind his wife Annie Ralston James and one son.[2]

Frank James

54

Portrayals
In 1939, Henry Fonda played Frank James and Tyrone Power played Jesse James in the film Jesse James. In 1940, Fonda played Frank James in the sequel The Return of Frank James. In 1949, Tom Tyler played Frank James in the film I Shot Jesse James, an account from Robert Ford's viewpoint, and the first western directed by Samuel Fuller. In 1954, Richard Travis portrayed Frank James in an episode of Jim Davis's syndicated western television series, Stories of the Century. Lee Van Cleef played Jesse James in the same episode. In 1957 Jeffrey Hunter played Frank James in The True Story of Jesse James. In 1972 John Pierce played Frank in The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid. In 1977 John Bennett Perry portrayed Frank James in an episode of Little House on the Prairie. In 1980, Stacy Keach played Frank James in the film The Long Riders, which featured four sets of real brothers playing sets of brothers in the gang. In 1980, country singer Johnny Cash portrayed Frank James in the concept album The Legend of Jesse James. In 1986, country singer Johnny Cash played Frank James in the film The Last Days of Frank and Jesse James, directed by William A. Graham. In 1992, Jamie Walters played Frank James in the American Western TV show "The Young Riders". In 1994, Bill Paxton played Frank in Frank & Jesse. In 1995, Leonard Nimoy played Frank James in the made-for-TV movie Bonanza: Under Attack. In 2001, Gabriel Macht portrayed James in the film American Outlaws. In 2007, Sam Shepard played Frank James in the film The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, considered to be the most accurate portrayal of the James brothers' story by the James family. In 2010, James Brolin appears in an uncredited cameo as Frank James in the Coen brothers' True Grit. The fictional character Rooster Cogburn is billed as appearing with James in The Cole Younger and Frank James Wild West Company in 1903.

References
[1] Petrone, Gerard S. (1998). Judgment at Gallatin: the trial of Frank James. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-398-4. [2] "Frank James Dies at 74" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9D05E5DD1238E633A2575AC1A9649C946496D6CF) (PDF). New York Times. February 19, 1915,. . Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Former Outlaw Was One of Last Survivors of Notorious Band." [3] James-Younger Gang: Frank James Trial (http:/ / www. civilwarstlouis. com/ History/ jamesgangfrankjamestrial. htm) [4] http:/ / www. fairgroundsracecourse. com/ about-track/ history [5] $0.25 in 1915 dollars would be $5 in 2007 dollars

Wellman, Paul I. A Dynasty of Western Outlaws. 1961; 1986.

Further reading
Copland, Aaron and Perlis, Vivian: Copland - 1900 Through 1942, St. Martin's/Marek, 1984. Settle, William A., Jr.: Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri, University of Nebraska Press, 1977 Yeatman, Ted P.: Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend, Cumberland House, 2001 Stiles, T.J.: Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (http://www.lastrebel.com), Alfred A. Knopf, 2002

Frank James

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External links
Official website for the Family of Frank & Jesse James: Stray Leaves, A James Family in America Since 1650 (http://www.ericjames.org) John Koblas, author of several Jesse James books (http://www.mnriv.com/koblas.html) A short profile of the James brothers (http://goofy313g.free.fr/calisota_online/exist/james.html) Biographical information for the James Family (http://www.millersparanormalresearch.com/Pages/ Jesse_James_Tombstone.htm) The James brothers' familiar connection to other notorious outlaws (http://kinnexions.com/smlfamily/outlaws. htm) An examination of the James Legend (http://www.theoutlaws.com/outlaws6b.htm) Summary of the Battle of Wilson's Creek where Frank fought (http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/mo004. htm) Summary of the Battle of Lexington where Frank fought (http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/mo006.htm) A history of Missouri during the Civil War (http://www.civilwarhome.com/missouriintro.htm) A site devoted to the Missouri Partisan Rangers and their history (http://www.rulen.com/partisan/) A description of the raid at Lawrence, Kansas (http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/ lawrence.htm) Booknotes interview with Ted Yeatman on Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend, October 28, 2001. (http://www.booknotes.org/Watch/165238-1/Ted+Yeatman.aspx)

Joseph C. Porter

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Joseph C. Porter
Joseph C. Porter

Born Died Service/branch Rank Unit

September 12, 1809 Jessamine County, Kentucky February 18, 1863 Wright County, Missouri Confederate States Army Colonel 1st Northeast Missouri Cavalry

Commands held 1st Northeast Missouri Cavalry

Joseph Chrisman Porter was a Confederate officer in the American Civil War, a key leader in the guerrilla campaigns in northern Missouri, and a figure of controversy. The main source for his history, Joseph A. Mudd (see below) is clearly an apologist; his opponents take a less charitable view of him, and his chief adversary, Union Colonel John McNeil, regarded him simply as a bushwacker and traitor, though his service under General John S. Marmaduke in the Springfield campaign ("Marmaduke's First Raid") and following clearly shows he was regarded as a regular officer by the Confederacy.

Early life
Joseph C. Porter was born in Jessamine County, Kentucky, to James and Rebecca Chrisman Porter. The family moved to Marion County, Missouri, in 1828 or 1829, where Porter attended Marion College in Philadelphia, Missouri, and was a member of the Presbyterian Church. About 1844, Porter married Mary Ann E. Marshall (d. DeWitt, AR about two years after the war closed, according to Porters sister). They subsequently moved to Knox County, remaining there until 1857, when they moved to Lewis County, and settled five miles east of Newark. Family members assert that only one photograph of Porter was known to exist, and it was destroyed when his home was burned by Union soldiers. Porter had strong Southern sympathies, and was subject to harassment by pro-Union neighbors, since he lived in an area where loyalties were sharply divided. His brother, James William Porter (b. 1827, m. Carolina Marshall, sister to Josephs wife Mary Ann, 1853), was also a Confederate officer and Joseph's trusted subordinate, reaching the rank of major. The brothers went to California during the Gold Rush of 1849, then returned to Missouri and farming together before the war.

Joseph C. Porter

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Civil War
The Porter brothers went south with Colonel Martin E. Greens regiment to join the Confederate attack on Lexington, September 1861. He had no military experience, but Joseph Porter proved to be a natural leader and was elected a lieutenant colonel (an official commission would come later) in the Missouri State Guard. He fought at Athens, Shelbina, Lexington and Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn Tavern, March 1862). In the spring of 1862 Porter returned home, on the orders of General Sterling Price, to raise recruits throughout northeast Missouri. His duties included the establishment of supply drops, weapons, caches and a network of pro-Southern informants. Throughout Porters brief military career, his status as a regular army officer was not fully recognized by his adversaries, particularly Colonel John McNeil. Those serving behind Union lines were not recognized as legal combatants and were threatened with execution if captured. Though most of his activities were guerrilla operations or harassment, a few battles were fought. On June 17, 1862, near Warren or New Market, in Warren Township, Marion County with 43 mounted men, he captured four men of the Union regiment he found there. The prisoners' weapons and horses taken, then they were paroled on their oath not to take up arms against the Confederacy until exchanged.

Cherry Grove
Moving northward through the western part of Marion, the eastern portion of Knox, and the western border of Lewis counties, Porter approached Sulphur Springs, near Colony, in Knox County. Along his route he collected perhaps 200 recruits. From Sulphur Springs he moved north, threatened the Union Home Guards at Memphis, picked up additional recruits in Scotland County, and moved westward into Schuyler County to get a company known to be there under Captain Bill Dunn. Union forces under Colonel Henry S. Lipscomb and others responded with a march on Colony. They overtook Porter at Cherry Grove, in the northeastern part of Schuyler County, near the Iowa line, where, with a superior force, they attacked and defeated him, routing his forces and driving them southward. Losses on both sides were minor. Porter retreated rapidly, pursued by Lipscomb, until his forces dispersed at a point about 10 miles west of Newark. Porter, with perhaps 75 men, remained in the vicinity of his home for some days, gathering recruits all the time, and getting ready to strike again.

Memphis
On Sunday, July 13, Porter approached Memphis, Missouri in four converging columns totalling 125169 men and captured it with little or no resistance. They first raided the Federal armory, seizing about a hundred muskets with cartridge boxes and ammunition, and several uniforms (Mudd, see below, was among those who would wear the Union uniform, as he claimed, for its superior comfort in the heat, a fact which would later draw friendly fire and aggravate the view of Porters troops as bushwhackers, neither obeying nor protected by the rules of war). They rounded up all adult males, who were taken to the court house to swear not to divulge any information about the raiders for forty-eight hours. Porter freed all militiamen or suspected militiamen to await parole, a fact noted by champions of his character. Citizens expressed their sympathies variously; Porter gave safe passage to a physician, an admitted supporter of the Union, who was anxious to return to his seriously ill wife. A verbally abusive woman was threatened with a pistol by one of Porters troops, perhaps as a bluff; Mudd intervened to prevent bloodshed. Porters troops entered the courthouse and destroyed all indictments for horse-theft; the act is variously understood as simple lawlessness, intervention on behalf of criminal associates, or interference with politically motivated, fraudulent charges. At Memphis, a key incident occurred which would darken Porters reputation, and which his detractors see as part of a consistent behavioral pattern which put him and his men beyond the norms of warfare. According to the "History of Shelby County, which is generally sympathetic to Porter, Most conceded that Col. Porters purpose for capturing

Joseph C. Porter Memphis, MO. was to seize Dr. Wm. Aylward, a prominent Union man of the community. Aylward was captured during the day by Captain Tom Stacy's men and confined to a house. After rousing him overnight and removing him, ostensibly to see Porter, guards claimed that he escaped. However, witnesses reported hearing the sounds of a strangling, and his body was found the next day, with marks consistent with hanging or strangulation.[1] At Memphis, Porter had been joined by Tom Stacy, generally regarded as a genuine bushwhacker even the sympathetic Mudd says of him if one of his men were captured and killed he murdered the man who did it if he could catch him, or, failing him, the nearest man he could catch to the one who did it.[2] Stacy's company was called "the chain gang" by the other members of Porter's command. Supporters of Porter attribute the murder of Aylward to Stacy (who would be mortally wounded at Vassar Hill.) However, a Union gentleman who came to inquire about Aylward and a captured officer before the discovery of the body stated that when he asked Porter about Aylward, the response was, "He is where he will never disturb anybody else."[3]

58

Vassar Hill
Union Col. (later General) John McNeil pursued Porter, who planned an ambush with perhaps 125 men according to participant Mudd [4] (though Federal estimates of Porter's strength ran from 400 to 600 men). The battle is called Vassar Hill in the History of Scotland County; Porter himself called it Oak Ridge, and Federal forces called it Pierces Mill, after a location 1.5 miles northwest of the battlefield. A detachment of three companies (C, H, I),[5] aboout 300 men of Merrills Horse,[6] under Major John Y. Clopper, was dispatched by McNeil from Newark against Porter, and attacked him at 2 p.m. on Friday, July 18, on the south fork of the Middle Fabius River, ten miles southwest of Memphis. Porter's men were concealed in brush and stayed low when the Federals stopped to fire prior to each charge. Porter's men held their fire until the range was very short, increasing the lethality of the volley.[7] Clopper was in the Federal front, and out of 21 men of his advance guard, all but one were killed and wounded.[8] The Federals made at least seven mounted charges according to Mudd, doing little but adding to the body count. A battalion of roughly 100 men [9] of the 11th Missouri State Militia Cavalry under Major Rogers arrived and dismounted. While Clopper claimed to have driven the enemy from the field after this, Mudd indicates that the Federals instead fell back and ended the engagement leaving Porter in possession of the field until he withdrew. Clopper's reputation suffered as a result of his poor tactics. Before the final charge one company officer angrily asked, "Why don't you dismount those men and stop murdering them?" [10] Union casualties were about 24 killed and mortally wounded (10 from Merrill's Horse and 14 from the 11th MSM Cavalry), and perhaps 59 wounded (24 from Merrill's Horse, and 35 from the 11th MSM Cavalry.) Porter's loss was as little as three killed and five wounded according to Mudd, or six killed, three mortally wounded, and 10 wounded left on the field according to the Shelby County History.[11] The Union dead were originally buried on the Jacob Maggard farm, which served as a temporary hospital.[12] After the fight, Porter moved westward a few miles, then south through Paulville, in the eastern part of Adair County; thence south-east into Knox County, passing through Novelty, four miles east of Locust Hill, at noon on Saturday, July 19, having fought a battle and made a march of sixty-five miles in less than twenty-four hours.[13]

Daniel and Joseph Budd

Joseph C. Porter

59

Florida
July 22: Detachments of F & G Companies (60 men total) of 3rd Iowa Volunteer Cavalry under Major Henry Clay Caldwell encountered Porter with 300 rebels at Florida in Monroe County, Missouri. The detachment fought outnumbered for one hour and fell back upon the post of Paris, Missouri, with 22 wounded and 2 captured.

Santa Fe
July 24: Major Caldwell and 100 men of his 3rd Iowa Volunteer Cavalry pursued Porter and his 400 men into dense brush near Botts farm, near Santa Fe, Missouri. Porter fled and was pursued into Callaway County, Missouri. The Second Battalion suffered one killed and ten wounded.

Moores Mill
July 28: Union forces under Colonel (later General ) Odon Guitar engaged Porter near Moore's Mill (now the village of Calwood) in Callaway County. The Union losses were 19 killed, 21 wounded. Guerrilla losses were 36-60 killed, 100 wounded. This was one of Porters most aggressive actions, involving a daring charge and disabling the Federal artillery, until forced to retreat by the arrival of Union reinforcements and the exhaustion of his ammunition.

Newark
August 1: McNeil had dispatched Lair to Newark. Porter headed westward from Midway, putting his brother Jim Porter in charge of one column, himself at the head of another, approaching the town from east and south simultaneously, and closing the trap on the completely surprised federals at 5 p.m. on July 31. Porter forced a company of 75 Federals to take refuge in a brick schoolhouse; when they refused terms, he had a loaded haywagon fired and threatened to run it into the building. The Federals surrendered, were paroled and permitted to keep their sidearms. The Federal loss in the Newark fight was 4 killed, 6 wounded, and 72 prisoners. The Confederate loss was reported at from 10 to 20 killed, and 30 severely wounded. Union soldiers were treated well, but the Union-sympathizing storekeepers had their businesses gutted, and citizens were subjected to abuse. Some claim this was in spite of Porters orders, and claimed that he bore his old neighbors no malice, while others view this action as Porters revenge for previous ill-treatment. Despite the victory at Newark, the high casualties on the winning side, attributed to chaotic advance and undisciplined exposure of Porter's troops to hostile fire, suggest growing disorder in his ranks. From here, records of his activitiesand even the degree to which he can be said to have a unified commandare unclear. Various forces with varying degrees of official relation to Porters command are credited with capturing Paris and Canton, and with bringing in new supplies and recruits. Porters numbers had swelled to a size likely to be unmanageable, particularly considering the lack of trained officers and that not more than a quarter of his 2000 or so troops had regulation equipment. Perhaps another quarter had squirrel-guns or shotguns, while the rest no arms at all. Porters objective was now to get south to Arkansas with his recruits, in order that they might be properly trained and equipped.

Kirksville
August 6, 1862 At Kirksville, Porter made a serious mistake in engaging Union forces under Col. John McNeil, whom he knew to have cannon perhaps in overconfidence, as a result of his sharpshooters ability to pick off the Federal artillerymen at Santa Fe. Traveling light had been Porters great advantage -- His troops lived off the country, and every man was his own quartermaster and commissary, in contrast to the elaborate baggage and supply trains of McNeil (History of Shelby County). Here Porter suffered unequivocal defeat, from which he would not recover.

Joseph C. Porter

60

Dispersal of Forces
At Clem's Mills, five miles west of Kirksville, Porter crossed the Chariton River, seeking to link up with Col. John A. Poindexter in Chariton County, known to have 1,200 or 1,500 recruits; their combined forces would be able to force a passage of the Missouri River at Glasgow or Brunswick, and open a line to the Confederacy. Three miles north of Stockton (now New Cambria), in western Macon County, Porter encountered 250 men of the First Missouri State Militia, under Lieut. Col. Alexander Woolfolk, coming up to unite with McNeil. There was a brief fight at Panther Creek, Friday, August 8. Porter was turned from his course and retreated toward the northeast, away from his intended line of march and ultimate goal. The next day, Col. James McFerran, of the First Missouri State Militia, joined Woolfolk with 250 more men and took command. He caught up with Porter at Walnut Creek, in Adair County and drove him eastward to the Chariton. At See's Ford, where he recrossed the Chariton, Porter set up an ambush on the east bank with 125 men. Porters forces opened fire at short range. Only two Federals were killed outright and 15 wounded, but the action seemed to have caused McFerran to break off pursuit. Porter passed on to Wilsonville, in the south-east part of Adair. Here, a mass desertion took place among his discouraged troops; in a few hours, 500 had drifted away.

Capture of Palmyra and the Allsman Incident


Porter wandered around the wilderness, his desertion-diminished troops feeding off the land, although there were some new recruits as well. On Friday, September 12, Porter, with 400 men, captured Palmyra, with 20 of its garrison, and held the place two hours, losing one man killed and one wounded. One Union citizen was killed and three Federals wounded. Porters objectives were to liberate Confederates held in the jail there, and to draw Federal forces away from the Missouri River, so as to open it to southward crossing by rebels seeking to join Confederate units. The Confederates carried away an elderly Union citizen named Andrew Allsman. The fate of Allsman remains something of a mystery, and there is disagreement as well about his character and his legitimacy as a target (see Palmyra Massacre). Porter quickly abandoned Palmyra to McNeil, and another period of wandering ensued, in the general direction of his own home near Newark. There were further desertions, and a number of bands of organized rebels refused to place themselves under Porters command, clearly indicating that he had lost public confidence. At Whaleys Mill, his men were definitively scattered, almost without a fight.

Death
After his rout by McNeil at Whaley's Mill, and the dispersion of his troops at Bragg's school house, Col. Porter kept himself hidden for a few days. He abandoned the idea of raising a militarily significant force, and entered Shelby County on a line of march to the South with fewer than 100 men remaining. He made his way safely through Monroe, Audrain, Callaway and Boone counties, and crossed the Missouri River in a skiff, continuing into Arkansas. Here he organized, from the men who had accompanied him and others whom he found in Arkansas, a regiment of Missouri Confederate cavalry. From Pocahontas, Arkansas, in the latter part of December, 1862, as acting brigadier, he moved with his command and the battalions of Cols. Colton Greene and J. Q. A. Burbridge, to cooperate with Gen. John S. Marmaduke in his attack on Springfield. Through a mistake of Gen. Marmaduke, Col. Porter's command did not participate in this attack. It moved on a line far to the east. After the expedition had failed, the commands of Marmaduke and Porter united east of Marshfield, and started to retreat into Arkansas. At the Battle of Hartville, in Wright Country on January 11, 1863, a small Federal force was encountered and defeated, although at severe loss to the Confederates, who had many valuable officers killed and mortally wounded. Among the latter was Colonel Porter,[14] shot from his horse with wounds to the leg from an artillery shell. In Oates's account, (118-119), Porter died an hour later. According to Mudd, however, Porter was shot from his horse with wounds to the leg and the hand while leading a charge; in this account, Porter managed to accompany the army on a

Joseph C. Porter difficult trek into Arkansas, arriving at Camp Sallado on January 20, and at Batesville January 25, where he died from his wounds on February 18, 1863. The early date is refuted by Porter's own report, dated February 3,[15] referencing the journey after the battle, as well as eyewitness Major G.W.C. Bennetts reference[16] to Porters column on the march several days after and dozens of miles away from the battle, and finally by Marmadukes noting Porter among the wounded,[17][18] in contrast to the listing of officers killed; additional near-contemporary sources also affirm Porter's survival of the journey to Arkansas.[19][20][21][22][23] The January 11 date seems to originate with a General Fitz Henry Warren, who reported as fact[24] the speculation that a burial observed by a recently paroled Lieutenant Brown[25] was that of Porter. The location of Col. Porter's grave remains unknown. Oral traditions suggest that he was at some point buried on the farm of his cousin Ezekiel Porter (said to be a volunteer ambulance driver during the war), just north of Hartville, in what is now known as Porter's Cemetery, near Competition, Missouri.

61

Legacy and Evaluation


Porter is credited variously with five and nine children, only two of whom were living at the time of Mudds book, his daughter, Mrs. O.M. White, and his son, Joseph I. Porter of Stuttgart, AR, who wrote: I know but little about the war and have been trying to forget what I do know about it. I hope never to read a history of it. Porters character is hard to estimate: clearly he possessed considerable personal courage, but was also a prudent tactician, often declining battle when he could not choose his ground and when he thought the potential for casualties disproportionate to projected gains. Declining the option to pursue the retreating Union force at Santa Fe, Mudd has him say I cant see that anything would be accomplished by pursuing the enemy. We might give them a drive and kill a dozen of them and we might lose a man or two, and I wouldnt give them one of my men for a dozen dead federals unless to gain some particular purpose. A number of atrocities are attributed to him, but the partisanship of accounts makes it difficult to ascertain his responsibility for the killings of Dr. Aylward, Andrew Allsman, James Dye at Kirksville, a wounded Federal at Botts' Farm, and others, though it must be concluded that he failed to communicate the unacceptability of such actions to his subordinates. There is reliable eyewitness testimony to his intervening to prevent the lynching of two captured Federals in retaliation for the execution of a Confederate prisoner at the Battle of Florida.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, pages 72-74 Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 72 Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, pages 79 Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 88 Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 90 Moore, Frank, The Rebellion Record, Fifth Volume, G.P. Putnam, 1868, page 558, from "The Fight near Memphis, Mo." in the Missouri Democrat [7] Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 85 [8] The History of Shelby Country, page 744 [9] Moore, Frank, The Rebellion Record, Fifth Volume, G.P. Putnam, 1868, page 558, from "The Fight near Memphis, Mo." in the Missouri Democrat [10] Banasik, Michael, Embattled Arkansas: The Prairie Grove Campaign of 1862, Broadfoot Publishing, 1998, page 124 [11] The History of Shelby Country, page 744 [12] Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 98, 101 [13] Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri, 1909, reprint Camp Pope, 1992, page 114 [14] History of Ozark County, Missouri, to 1865. (James A. Holmes University of Kansas, 1967), Ch VII specifies Porter among the 96 wounded in the engagement, in contrast with others (e.g., Col McDonald) among the 12 dead. (http:/ / www. rootsweb. com/ ~moozark/ holmeshistorybook7. htm) accessed November 13, 2007 [15] The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume XXII, Part 1, pages 205-207 [16] The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume XXII, Part 1, DECEMBER 31, 1862--JANUARY 25, 1863.--Marmaduke's expedition into Missouri. No. 12.--Report of Maj. G. W. C. Bennett, MacDonald's Missouri

Joseph C. Porter
Cavalry (Confederate.) (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. geocities. com/ captainbob61/ bennett. html& date=2009-10-25+ 16:56:46) accessed 12-28-07 [17] The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume XXII, Part 1, page 197 [18] The same date is used in the appendix of casualties in Frederick Goman's Up From Arkansas: Marmaduke's First Missouri Raid Including the Battles of Springfield and Hartville. Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Foundation (1999). [19] Holcombe, R.I., History of Greene County, 1883, Chapter 12.) states Here Emmett McDonald and Col. John M. Wymer, of St. Louis, both were killed and Col. Joe Porter mortally wounded, dying afterward, a week or so, near Little Rock (http:/ / thelibrary. springfield. missouri. org/ lochist/ history/ holcombe/ grch12pt2. html) accessed 12-28-07 [20] The Rebel colonel Joseph C. Porter was also wounded and died of his wounds at Batesville Arkansas on February 18, 1863. O.R. vol 22 pt. 1:189-91, 197, 199. cited in Eakin, Branded as Rebels, a list of bushwhackers, guerrillas, partisan rangers, confederates and southern sympathizers from Missouri during the war years / compiled by Joanne Chiles Eakin & Donald R. Hale. Lee's Summit, MO : J.C. Eakin & D.R. Hale, 1993, page 353. [21] The Reluctant Cannoneer: the Diary of Robert T. McMahan of the Twenty-Fifth Independent Ohio Light Artillery, ed. Michael E. Banasik (Unwritten Chapters of the War West of the River, II), Press of the Camp Pope Bookshop, p. 145, note 29 [22] J.O. Shelby, commanding the cavalry brigade at Hartville, reported on January 31 to General Marmaduke of Porters contributions to the battle, but does not mention Porter among the casualties he enumerates. (http:/ / www. pddoc. com/ skedaddle/ 010/ 0063. htm) accessed 12-28-07 [23] S.H. Boyd, commanding the post and district of Rolla, reports on March 6, 1863 Col. Porter died near Batesville. The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume XXII, Part 2, p. 145). [24] The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Vol 22, Part 1:189-91 [25] The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume 22, Part 2 p. 49

62

Oates, Stephen B., Confederate Cavalry West of the River: Raiding Federal Missouri, U-TX, 1961, rpt 1992. House, Grant, "Colonel Joseph C. Porter's 1862 Campaign in Northeast Missouri." M.A. thesis. Western Illinois University, 1989. Mudd, Joseph A., With Porter in North Missouri. Washington, DC: National Publishing Co., 1909. 452p. Roth, Dave and Sallee, Scott E., "Porter's Campaign in Northeast Missouri and the Palmyra Massacre." Blue & Gray Magazine 17 (February 2000): 52-60. A tour of modern-day Northeast Missouri sites involved in Porter's campaign of 1862. Illus. History of Shelby County, Chapter 8. (1884). Shelby County Historical Society. http://www.rootsweb.com/ ~moshelby/ContentsShelbyHistory1884.htm The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, Volume XXII, Part 1, pages 205-207 contain Porter's report. The header is: "HDQRS. PORTER'S BRIG., MISSOURI CAV., C. S. ARMY, Camp Allen, February 3, 1863."

George M. Todd

63

George M. Todd
George M. Todd (unknown October 21, 1864) was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War who served under the infamous William C. Quantrill. A participant in numerous raids, including the Lawrence Massacre in 1863, he was ultimately killed at the Second Battle of Independence in 1864. Todd had worked as a bridge mason before the war, and served with the Missouri State Guard before joining Quantrill in 1862. He rose to become one of Quantrill's principal lieutenants, and participated in various raids of his own as well as with Quantrill. During the First Battle of Independence on August 11, 1862, Todd served under Quantrill in a two-pronged attack on the city led by Col. John T. Hughes. During the fighting, Todd liberated several prisoners in the city jail, one of whom was the city marshal, James Knowles, who had been imprisoned for the killing of a rowdy citizen. Knowles and a Union captain named Thomas (whom Todd had captured at this same time) were summarily executed by Todd and his men, who wanted revenge for previous attacks made by those two on their command. On August 21, 1863, Todd participated in Quantrill's famous raid on Lawrence. Todd and his men participated in the Centralia Massacre, on September 27, 1864. Following the initial massacre of unarmed soldiers on a train, the guerrillas overran a relief force of inexperienced mounted infantry carrying single shot rifles, killing nearly all of them as well. Todd was killed during the first day's fighting at the Second Battle of Independence, on October 21, 1864, by a Union sharpshooter at a distance of 400 yards.[1] Todd was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery[2] in Independence, where his grave is a local historical attraction.[3]

Notes
[1] Roster of Quantrill's, Anderson's and Todd's Raiders (http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~Penningtons/ roster. htm) Retrieved on 12 July 2008 [2] George M. Todd (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GSln=todd& GSfn=george& GSmn=m. & GSbyrel=in& GSdyrel=in& GSob=n& GRid=25445660& df=all& ) at Findagrave.com [3] Where the Civil War Began (http:/ / www. wherethecivilwarbegan. com/ maps_nw. cfm) Retrieved on 12 July 2008

Article Sources and Contributors

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Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463732625 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Asiaticus, Bedford, CWenger, Grayghost01, North Shoreman, Parkwells, Stevietheman, Tassedethe, Whocares81, 7 anonymous edits William Quantrill Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490270118 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, A Sniper, A Softer Answer, Abcde99nopqrstuvwxyz, Academic Challenger, Alansohn, Altenmann, Andrew Levine, Anon 64, Avalon, Bbsrock, Beetstra, Best O Fortuna, Bettymnz4, BigrTex, Bobdobbs1723, Brandon, Brianyoumans, BrownHairedGirl, BusterD, CClio333, Caliga10, Chominov, Civil Engineer III, Colin Kimbrell, ColorOfSuffering, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Dano'sullivan, Danthemankhan, Darkwind, DavidOaks, Descendall, Discospinster, Doedee, Dvyost, Elendil's Heir, Eniagrom, Favonian, Finlay McWalter, Fishflow, Fix Bayonets!, Freezing the mainstream, Frizolgirl, Gioto, Good Olfactory, Grafen, Grant boucher, Grazon, Hlj, Hmains, Hoodinski, Hutcher, Isababa7, Isaiahcambron, JackofOz, Jan eissfeldt, Japanese Searobin, Jeffrey O. 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Anderson Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490394976 Contributors: 172, A Sniper, ABF, Accedie, Acdixon, Americasroof, Andres, Andrew Gray, Antlion71, AntonioMartin, Ary29, Badbilltucker, Berean Hunter, Branddobbe, BruceR, Bushsmith1, BusterD, CWenger, CalJW, Californiacarlson, Camkendrick, Capt Jim, Carlw4514, Carom, Chuiresu, Clarityfiend, Cliometrician, CoJaBo, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Crablogger, Crisco 1492, Daniel32357, Dank, Danthemankhan, DavidOaks, Descendall, Dismas, Djaked, Ealdgyth, Ed Dadoo, Eeekster, Elendil's Heir, Epbr123, Ettrig, Excirial, Flauto Dolce, FloNight, Flux.books, Francvs, Fred26, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, Geoff B, Geopiet, Giraffedata, Good Olfactory, Grazon, Grenavitar, Hmains, Hoodinski, Hylandar, Ian Rose, J.delanoy, JamesPreservationTrust, Jay longley, Jbarta, Jd027, JimBobUSA, JimWae, Jmcharry, John of Reading, JohnCD, JustAGal, KConWiki, Katherine, Kbdank71, Ken Gallager, Khatru2, Kirschnus, Kozeltsov, Kumioko (renamed), Lfstevens, Lokifer, Lradrama, Lugnuts, Madhero88, Maengpong, Maniamin, Margacst, Marine 69-71, Mark Arsten, MathewTownsend, Mboverload, Merlinfour11, Millionsandbillions, Missanthrop, Monegasque, Mr.WikiaGuy, Mwgf79, Nibios, Noacesnone, North Shoreman, ONEder Boy, Oddibe, Otr500, Phatcat68, Philg88, Pinethicket, Popiloll, Psmiley, Quebec99, Quijote3000, Rjwilmsi, Rockenonboy, RogDel, Sandius, Scarian, SchreiberBike, Scorpioman7, Scott Mingus, Shinerunner, SimonD, Srajan01, Starseeker shkm, Stevietheman, Ted Wilkes, Tesscass, Texanamcgee, Timichal, Twisted86, Uncontroversial Obscurity, User2004, WereSpielChequers, Whateverlolawants, WikHead, WolfmanSF, Woohookitty, Yapool Seijin, Youngamerican, Zaui, 180 anonymous edits Cole Younger Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489395380 Contributors: A.tenharmsel, Active Banana, Adambondy, All Hallow's Wraith, Antandrus, Badbilltucker, Billy Hathorn, BrownHairedGirl, Btphelps, Calton, Catbar, Charleyshack, Chicheley, Chrisjackson, Classicfilms, ClovisPt, CowgirlSky, Dac04, DanMS, Danny, Danthemankhan, Darth Panda, Dee Fraser, Dimadick, Dr. Roland Timbers, Dspradau, Ehistory, Ericblazek, Excirial, Fdewaele, Firsfron, GirasoleDE, Got2becool4u, Grazon, Hmains, Hutcher, Imajjjjjhawk, Ipso-De-Facto, Ittyon, Jacek Kendysz, JamesPreservationTrust, JeremyA, Jgarbowicz, JimVC3, JustAGal, Ken Gallager, Khatru2, Kozeltsov, Lukabi, Maengpong, Martinbikes, Mberridge, Mcstoopid8, Moeron, Monegasque, NerdyScienceDude, Neutrality, Nitemare4, No Guru, Phatcat68, Pinethicket, Protostan, Quebec99, Quotes22, Revcat, Rjwilmsi, Rpab, Rsm99833, Rsparks4, Rutke421, Ryulong, SDC, Scewing, Scorpioman7, Starrymessenger, Stevietheman, Storm Rider, Subash.chandran007, Tempodivalse, The.dharma.bum, Thingg, Topbanana, Tttom, Tulsa90, Tylersweeney, Ulric1313, Waacstats, Waynequist, Wikievil666, Wknight94, Zaui, 135 anonymous edits Marcellus Jerome Clarke Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=476701575 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Aatomic1, Aspie aussie, BrownHairedGirl, Dimadick, Ewray04, Good Olfactory, GreatWhiteNortherner, Hmains, Koavf, Kumioko (renamed), Monegasque, Parkwells, RogDel, Soldan, Stevietheman, Tabletop, The wub, Tide rolls, Wildhartlivie, 7 anonymous edits John Mobberly Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=437868116 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Arbogastlw, Czolgolz, Fultoca06, Hmains, Jengod, Kumioko (renamed), R'n'B, Stefanomione, Stevietheman, Ulric1313, 9 anonymous edits John S. 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Gordon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=454297467 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Americasroof, Danthemankhan, Gaius Cornelius, Hmains, Infrogmation, Kumioko (renamed), Maengpong, Scott Mingus, Stevietheman, Tim PF, Txnomad, Uraniumdude217, 8 anonymous edits Champ Ferguson Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490260690 Contributors: AdmiresMPW, Ben Jos, Bms4880, CWenger, Chris the speller, Danthemankhan, Deanlaw, Dimadick, Djkimmons, DoxTxob, Evil Monkey, Good Olfactory, Hmains, Huon, Jim.henderson, Jllm06, Jrcrin001, Kumioko (renamed), Monegasque, Namangwari, Natty4bumpo, Orlady, Pinethicket, RedHillian, Rjwilmsi, Robfergusonjr, RogDel, Sectryan, Stevietheman, Sudoartiste, Tfine80, Tommy2010, Vkt183, Wildhartlivie, Wildyoda, Zawed, 57 anonymous edits Frank James Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490235765 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Abel29a, Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, AlexPlank, Alexandria, Americasroof, Amerindianarts, Amyb444, Badbilltucker, BeIsKr, Bento00, Berean Hunter, Billy Hathorn, Billyt, CPAScott, Chicheley, Chris Roy, Chrisjackson, Civil Engineer III, Clarityfiend, Cyrian, D6, Dabarkey, DanMS, Danthemankhan, David Levy, DavidOaks, Dcarlson12, Dcpi, Dgw, Discordanian, Discospinster, Dominicanpapi82, Drdisque, Edward321, Efepe, Epbr123, Esemono, Fvasconcellos, Gimboid13, Gnfnrf, Gnowor, Gogo Dodo, Grazon, Grsz11, Haruth, Hmains, Hu12, J.delanoy, JamesPreservationTrust, Joegoodfriend, Jonathunder, Jszigeti, JustAGal, Jwillbur, KConWiki, Kablammo, Khatru2, Kozeltsov, Kumioko (renamed), Lewvalton, MAURY, Maengpong, Mandarax, Maniamin, Marcus22, Mav, Mdnavman, MichaelJBuck, Mitzi129, Modernist, Monegasque, Muboshgu, Necrothesp, Nicke Lilltroll, Nitpyck, North Shoreman, Nosuchthing2, OMGIOTS, Omg12345678910, Palffy, Parkwells, Pascal666, Paulannis, PeterC, Phatcat68, Pinethicket, Praise2jesus4ever, Puffin, Qworty, Raccok, Rachel.howard, Racingstripes, Recognizance, RicHard-59, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), RiseAbove, Rjwilmsi, RobNS, Robogun, Samuelsenwd, Scientizzle, Scorpioman7, Scott Mingus, Shanmugamp7, Socialservice, Stemen, Stevietheman, SunCreator, SuohII, Systemsready, Tabularius, Tassedethe, Teancum, Ted Wilkes, The Dark, The wub, Theblako, Thingg, Trut-h-urts man, Ventur, WOSlinker, Walden69, Wetman, Whantid, Wik, Zafiroblue05, 233 anonymous edits Joseph C. Porter Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=488343223 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Boleyn, Chris the speller, Clarityfiend, Danthemankhan, DavidOaks, Douglas Jerrold, Epbr123, Hmains, Jazzharp, Jusdafax, Khatru2, Kranix, Kumioko (renamed), Lacledeforum, Monegasque, Nick Number, Pmanderson, Red Harvest, Rjwilmsi, Rockinglock, Scott Mingus, Stevietheman, The wub, Thebrokenbox, TrulyGroup, Twisted86, WereSpielChequers, 20 anonymous edits George M. Todd Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=408140851 Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers, Bunnyhop11, EGDJ, Ecjmartin, JamesAM, Kumioko (renamed), Red Harvest, Rockenonboy, Stefanomione, Stocktonruss, 2 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:MorganWashington.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MorganWashington.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Djembayz, Infrogmation, Kenmayer, Mortadelo2005, Mtsmallwood, Nyttend, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich Image:Quantrill.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quantrill.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Unk. Image:Bloody-bill-anderson.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bloody-bill-anderson.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown Image:ColeYounger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ColeYounger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Chrisjackson at en.wikipedia Image:Marcellus Jerome Clarke.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Marcellus_Jerome_Clarke.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Soldan Image:James Henry Lane.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Henry_Lane.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brady-Handy Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) Image:Mobberly1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mobberly1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arbogastlw, Magog the Ogre Image:John s mosby.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_s_mosby.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Creator unknown. Original uploader was Darwinek at en.wikipedia Image:ARJohnson.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ARJohnson.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was GhostPirate at en.wikipedia File:quantrill.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quantrill.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Duesentrieb, Himasaram, Simplicius, Walden69 File:CaptQuantrillGrave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CaptQuantrillGrave.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sf46 (talk) File:Higginsville, MO WCQ.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Higginsville,_MO_WCQ.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: KNexus File:Quantrill's Raiders reunion circa 1875.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quantrill's_Raiders_reunion_circa_1875.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: not known File:Bloody-bill-anderson.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bloody-bill-anderson.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown File:Second national flag of the Confederate States of America.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Second_national_flag_of_the_Confederate_States_of_America.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bender235, Emijrp, Fornax, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Infrogmation, Lokal Profil, Odder, Rocket000, Sceptic, Thetoothpick, Vantey, Yonatanh, 5 anonymous edits File:Quantrill.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quantrill.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Unk. File:Battle of Lawrence.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Battle_of_Lawrence.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Harper's weekly File:General Order No 11.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:General_Order_No_11.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Kelly File:William T. Anderson in sherman.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_T._Anderson_in_sherman.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Unknown (Life time: Unknown) File:Jesse and Frank James.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jesse_and_Frank_James.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, photographer not specified or unknown File:William T Anderson death.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_T_Anderson_death.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Robert B. Kice (Life time: Unknown) File:ColeMugshot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ColeMugshot.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Chrisjackson File:Cole Younger signature.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cole_Younger_signature.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cole Younger Created in vector format by Scewing Image:ColeYoungerGrave060706a.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ColeYoungerGrave060706a.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Scott Catron File:Mobberly1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mobberly1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arbogastlw, Magog the Ogre File:ColonelJohnSMosbyPortrait.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ColonelJohnSMosbyPortrait.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown File:John S Mosby signature.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_S_Mosby_signature.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: John S Mosby Created in vector format by Scewing File:John S. Mosby - Brady-Handy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_S._Mosby_-_Brady-Handy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Berean Hunter, BrokenSphere, Davepape, Erwin Lindemann, Scewing File:ColonelJohnSMosby.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ColonelJohnSMosby.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brady-Handy Collection File:JohnSMosby&men.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JohnSMosby&men.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Berean Hunter, Homo lupus, Scewing, 2 anonymous edits File:CaptainMountjoy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CaptainMountjoy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Harper & Bros. publishers File:Old mosby and russell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_mosby_and_russell.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Sevenofnine7o9 at en.wikipedia File:1212 12th Street, NW.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1212_12th_Street,_NW.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: AgnosticPreachersKid File:John S. Mosby inscription in Scranton, PA MG 1534.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_S._Mosby_inscription_in_Scranton,_PA_MG_1534.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Billy Hathorn (talk). 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License

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/