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Piping Tierod Design Made Simple

Most piping designers recognize the


need to provide tierods around pipe
joints. What are design requirements?
Here they are-simplified
Warren E. Doyle, Guided Missiles Range Div.,
Pan American World Airways, Inc., Mercury, Nev.
TmRoos ARE USED to restrain the anchor force pro-
duced by the particular group of pipe-joints which tend
to pull apart when subjected to internal pressure.
Figures 1, 2, and 3 show typical installations of tierods
around such joints. The structural failures shown in Fig-
ures 4 and 5 graphically demonstrate the consequence of
having an inadequate anchor system around an expansion
joint. (These joints failed under test pressure, whereas,
they should have been able to withstand up to times
this pressure without failing.)
The technology governing the need for tierods, and
their design is quite fundamental, yet, the absence of tie-
rods where they should be used, is one of the most fre-
quent hazards in existing piping systems. The object of
this article is to show the conditions where tierods are
required to make a piping system safe, and provide the
tools to simplify the design of tierods and other anchor
systems.
can be other conditions add to the longi-
tudmal (anchor) force produced by mternal pressure, but
the force resulting from these conditions is relatively small,
and usually disregarded in the design of tierods; e.g., the
longitudinal component of the centrifugal force caused by
a change-in-direction of a pipe flowing water at 50,000
gpm in a 30-inch pipe, is equal to the longitudinal force
produced by an internal pressure of only 6 psi. It is un-
likely that the sum of this pressure and the operating
pressure, would ever exceed the design conditions of a
piping system. A condition where tierods in a long-vertical
run-of-pipe support a dead load, should be examined for
the effect of the dead load on the design conditions of
the tierods.
The longitudinal force in a pipe joint, caused by in-
ternal pressure is,
where A = effective area of the pipe joint, and
p = pressure in the pipe.
( 1)
The effective area of a sleeve coupling, or bell and
spigot-type joint is considered to be the area of a circle
having a diameter equal to the outside diameter of the
pipe. The effective area of convoluted expansion joints is
determined by pressure tests, which are made by the
manufacturer and published in his catalogs. The effective
areas given in Table 1 are representative of the product
of several manufacturers.
Design Procedure. L Determine the longitudinal force
in the pipe-joint from Equation ( 1) , using the effective
area.from Table 1 and the specified test pressure, or
times the working pressure of the pipe line, whichever is
greater. Add to this force, any other longitudinal force
in the joint, to obtain the Total Longitudinal Design
Force.
2. With this design force, enter Table 2 and select the
Fig. 1-Tierods around a slide-joint in
a pump discharge pipe.
Fig. 2-Expansion joint with factory in-
stalled tierods.
Fig. 3-Tierods around an expansion
joint in vacuum service.
96
-
P"''W
*MtFri*e+ *'
Fig. 4-0verstress failure in a gimbaled expansion joint.
number and size of tierods most suited to the operating
conditions. The joints which are required to have a hinge
action should have two tierods.
3. Enter Table 3 with the size of the tierod selected,
which determines the size of the tierod anchor required.
The required section modulus of the anchor, given in the
second column, has been determined using an allowable
fiber stress of 10,000 psi and a distance of 3Yz inches from
the rod to the pipe, which is adequate for all joints in
common use. The structural member size and shape given
in the third column is merely a suggestion, other struc-
tural members may be used provided their section modulus
is adequate.
Table 4 is provided to give data for the design of tierods
to suit conditions other than those given in Table 3.
Design Notes. Steel for tierods should be selected to
have an ultimate strength of 40,000 psi, or more.
Tierods should have national-course threads and at
least two nuts on each end.
Sufficient weld-metal should be used to develop the
full strength of the tierod anchor where it connects to
the pipe.
Where an expansion joint is used in a vacuum line, or
where any other compressive force is required to be
TABLE 1-Effectlve Areas ot'Plpe Joints
Nominal Pipe Size Slip-Joints
2.... .................... 4
3............... 9
4................................. 15
6.............................. 34
8...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
w................ .......... 00
12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
14.. .......... 154
16. . . . . 200
Ill. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 254
20....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
24 " " " 452
30 ............................ ! 702
I
Convoluted
Expansion
Jointa
1
13
20
29
51
97
135
180
231
289
353
424
583
871
I Areas representative of the product of several
, ...
Fig. 5--0verstress failure In a hinged expansion joint.
TABLE 2-Tierod Selection Data

Force, P
Lbs.
'NUMBER OF TIE RODS
2
500 ......... .
1.000 .. " ". ". Ys
'/I '/lo
Ys
1.500 ......... .
2.000 ..... " " .
2,500 ... " " " . u
"/I
Ys
3,000 ......... .
3.500" . " " .. .
4,000 ......... . Ys
4,500 ......... . %
5,000 ..... " .. . %
6,000 ......... . %
7,000 ... " .... . h
8,000 ......... . h
9.000 ... " " " . 1
w.ooo ....... .. . 1
12.000 ......... . IV.
16,000 ......... .
20,000 ......... . lYs
24.000 ..... " . " Hi
30,000 ......... . 1%
40,000 ......... . 2
50,000 ......... .
3
'/Is
Ys
Ys
'/lo


'/1
'/1
Ys
Ys
%
%
u
h
h
I
IV.


1%
4

'/I
Ys
Ys
'/I
'/I



'/I
Ys
Ys
%
%
%
h
1
1V.

1Ys

6
h
1
IV.

(1} The recommended choice of tie-rods is within the heavy lines.
(2} The size of tie- rods is based on a tensile strength of bolts given in Table 4.
TABLE 3-Tierod Anchor Selection Table
Rod Size In.
........................ .
'/lo ....................... .
y., . ...................... .
'/lo ....................... .
....................... .
/, ........................ .
v. ....................... ..
% ........................ .
311 ........................ .
!. ........................ .
IV. ....................... .

1% ... " ...... " .... " .... .
... " .... "" .. " " ... "
1)4 .......................
2 ......................... .
Required
Section Modulus
In (I)
.09
.15
.23
.32
.44
.56
.70
1.06
1.47
1.93
2.42
3.10
3.70
4.50
6.10
8.00
Structural
Member Size
& Shape (2)
2 :o: V. L
2 X >: 3/(. L
2 J4 L
:o: L
>: 2 x '/to.L
3 x2
3 >: 2 x '/lo L



4 X 2 X 4 X S/(
0
U
(1} Based on an allowable fiber stress of 10,000 psi.
(2} Other shapes may be used if their section modulus is adequate.
97
PIPING TIEROD DESIGN MADE SIMPLE
TABLE 4-Tierod Design Data
Tensile
Areas Strenllth
No. of Lbs. at
Threads Full Bolt Bottom of 10,000 psl
Bolt Dla. ln. Per ln. Sq. ln. Thds. Sq. ln.
K .............. 20 .049 .027 270
;t::::::::::: :::
18 .077 .045 450
16 .110 .068 680
!:?.::::::::::::
14 .150 .093 930
13 .196 .126 1.260
it:::::::::::::
12 .248 .162 1.620
11 .307 .202 2,0!?0
10 .442 .302
J,i .............. 9 .691 .419 4.190
1. .............. 8 .785 .551 5.510
1% ............. 7 .994 .693 6.930
lK ............. 7 1.227 .890 8.890
Hi ............. 6 1.485 1.054 10.540
............. 6 1.767 1.294 12.940
....
5 2.405 1.745 17.450
2 ............... 3.142 2.300 23.000
restrained, a pipe sleeve should be placed over each
tierod to span the distance between the anchors, with
the expansion joint in the free condition, as shown in
Figure 6.
The design details of tierods around an expansion joint
shall be such that the required function of the expan-
sion joint is not jeopardized. In certain cases it is
necessary to specify a particular gap between the tierod
anchor and the tierod stop. See Figure 7 for typical
tierod design detail.
Design of Other Anchor Systems. Figure 6 shows
the design features of gimbaled, and hinged anchor sys-
tems around expansion joints. These anchors are par-
ticularly suitable where a hinge action is required, while
at the same time the joint is subjected to forces tending
to produce lateral displacement in the joint. While the
gimbaled joint has four pin connections, each pin is sub-
jected to one-half the total force, just as in the hinged
joint. The required cross-sectional area of one pin,
A= 2P
3f
where P = total longitudinal design
joint, and
(2)
force in the expansion
f = allowable shear stress.
Where the force is appreciable, the pin connection
About the author
WARREN E. DOYLE is a facility engineer
at the Nuclear Rocket Development Sta-
tion near Mercury, Nev. His company is
Pan American World Airways, support
service contractor for the station. Mr.
Doyle has studied at the University of
Minnesota and Indiana University. He
has held positions as project engineer
with Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.,
associated with Daniel, Mann, Johnson
and Mendenhall, Architects and Engi-
neers, as a mechanical design group leader, and as resident
engineer with Aetron Div. Aerojet-General Corp. He is a
registered professional engineer, a member of th National
Society of Professional Engineers, and the American In-
stitute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
98
.L
'-f"

(A) HINGED EXPANSION -.JOINT
(B) GIMBALE.D EXPANSION-..JOINT
Fig. 6-Gimbaled and hinged expansion joint detail.
CD TIEROD
TIEROD
ANCHOR
@ PIPE LINE
@)
Fig. 7-Typical tierod design detail.
should be designed to place the pin in double shear, as
shown in Figure 6. The structural failures shown in Fig-
ures 4 and 5 undoubtedly would not have occurred if the
pins had been in double shear.
The maximum stress in the gimbal ring occurs at the pin
connections, where the bending moment,
Pl
M=a
(3)
where P = total longitudinal design force in the expansion
joint, and
l = outside diameter of the gimbal ring.
This equation takes into consideration the fact that the
ring is not an ideal beam, and is intended to give a con-
servative design.
The tension bar at the pin connection should be de-
signed to be stronger than the pin.
The holes for the pins should be drilled and reamed to
a Class 3 (medium) fit. ##