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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July August (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 80-87 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
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EFFECT OF ORIENTATION AND APPLIED LOAD ON ABRASIVE WEAR PROPERTY OF ALUMUNIUM ALLOY AL6061
Mohd Shadab Khan1, Dr. Zahir Hasan2
1

Jr. Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Integral University, Kursi Raod, Lucknow - 226026, U.P. India 2 Professor & Principal, Jahagirabad Institute of Technology, Jahangirabad, Barabanki 225203, U.P. India

ABSTRACT Wear is a continuous process in which material is degraded with every cycle. Scientists are busy in improving the wear resistance. Approximately 75% failure in components or machine parts is due to wear. The present paper investigates experimentally the effect of orientation and normal load on Aluminium alloy and calculating weight loss due to wear. To do so, a multi-orientational pin-on-disc apparatus was designed and fabricated. Experiments were carried out under normal load 05-20 N, speed 2000 rpm. Results show that the with increasing load weight loss increases at all angular positions. The loss in weight is maximum at zero degree (horizontal position) and minimum at ninety degree (vertical position) for a particular load. Maximum wear occur when the test specimen is held at 0o angle minimum wear occur when the specimen is held at 90o angle for given applied load The circumferential distance travel is constant for all positions and for all load but still mass loss varies. Keywords: Abrasive Wear, Alumunium, Grinding Disc, Mass Loss, Orientation. 1. INTRODUCTION Wear is a continuous process in which material is degraded at every cycle. Kloss et al. emphasized the various tools such as wear measuring equipments, mathematical modeling, tribo meters and simulations are used for measuring wear resistance and wear rate over many decades. It was observed by several authors [1-11] that the variation of friction and wear rate depends on interfacial conditions such as normal load, geometry, relative surface motion, sliding speed, surface roughness of the rubbing surfaces, type of material, system rigidity, temperature, stick slip, relative humidity, lubrication and vibration. Among these factors sliding speed and normal load are the two major factors whose play significant role for the variation of friction and wear rate. As reviewed by
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME Becker, et al.[12] , the three important wear mechanisms mentioned over the years are: corrosion, abrasion, and adhesion. Researchers are also suggested some parameters hardness, fatigue or tensile strength producing effect in wear rate. Hardness does give any indication of the wear resistance of a material; however studies have demonstrated that the addition of certain alloying elements increases the wear resistance but not the hardness. Al 6061 is widely used in numerous engineering applications including transport and construction where, superior mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness are essentially required. Typical mechanical properties for Al 6061 are presented in Table 4.1. The objective of this work is to design a new type of pin on disc setup which can check wear rate or loss of weight of the selected specimen at different orientation and at different loads. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS In order to carry out the experimental work the following procedure is adopted. (i) Design of setup (ii) Materials Selection (iii) Wear Behavior

2.1 Design of setup In view of the objective a set-up was needed to be designed which can calculate wear rate at different angular positions (0o, 30o ,45o ,60o ,90o )of work piece. The designed setup is shown in the fig.2.1
5 3 4 8 7 11 6

90o
9

60o
4

30o
10

0o

Fig.2.1. Design of setup The set up has following different parts (1) Controller (2)D.C. Motor (3) Flange Coupling(4)Bearing(5)Main Frame (6)Frame(Angular)(7)Acrylic Sheet(8)Grinding Wheel (9)Specimen(10)Screw Jack(11)Load Cell Selection of Material For the present investigation Al-alloy 6061 type Aluminium alloy has been selected. Table 2.1 shows the Chemical Composition of the Al6061 alloy 2.2

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

Elements Wt %

Cu 0.15-0.40

Mn 0.15

Mg 0.8-1.2

Si 0.4-0.8

Fe 0.7

Cr 0.04-0.35

Ti 0.15

Zn 0.25

Density 2.7 g/cm3

MOE 70-80 GPa

PR 0.33

Table 2.1- Properties of Al6061 2.2.1 Specimen Preparation The specimen for wear studies was cut from the Al alloy plate. The specimen cross section used was 1 cm x 1cm with a thickness of 4.5 cm. The top and bottom specimen surfaces were made planer by polishing against emery papers of appropriate grits. For the preparation of the surface to be used for wear studies, the final grit size of the emery paper was the same as the one to be used for the wear studies. 2.3 Wear characterization The following method was adopted for wear characterization 2.3.1 Selection of Applied Load and the Position of the Specimen The following loads were selected for present objective (i) 5 N (ii) 10 N (iii) 15 N (iv) 20 N For each load the position of the specimen was kept at 0o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o respectively. 2.3.2 Selection of Grinding Wheel The type of grinding wheel used for certain application, greatly influence the quality of the surface produced. Therefore, for different types of materials, different types of abrasive wheels can be used. Thus for Aluminium the grade of grinding disc taken is C46-K6V. 2.3.3 Speed of Grinding Wheel The speed of grinding disc is kept at constant value of 2000 rpm 2.3.4 Test Procedure Before the test the weight of the test specimen was taken accurately using an electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.001 g. The maximum weighing capacity of the electronic balance was 320 g. After a travel time of 05 minutes against the grinding disc, the sample was taken out carefully so that the debriss were removed from the valleys of the specimen and exact wear materials can be measured. Once again weight was taken carefully using the above balance and the difference in weight was noted. This was continued for five times with same specimen and same position. After that next specimen was taken for next test condition i.e. 30o angle and 5 N applied load and so on. The tests were conducted for five different orientations namely 0o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o. Thus a total of 25 reading is taken for one particular load. This is continued for load of 10N, 15N, 20N respectively. The cumulative effect of weight loss was taken for calculating the wear mass. 3. RESULTS The effect of load on the specimen is shown in fig. 3.1 to 3.5 at various angular positions namely 00 , 300 , 450 ,600 and 900 respectively. The mass loss of the materials is presented for loads 5N, 10N, 15N, 20N. The effect of orientation on the specimen is shown in fig. 3.6 to 3.9. Grade of grinding disc taken is C46-K6V for Alumunium material.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME 3.1 Effect of Load at Different Orientations From graph 3.1 it is observed that the wear mass increases from 0.801 gm to 1.012 gm as the applied load on the specimen increases from 5N to 20N when orientation of the specimen is 0o. From graph 3.2 it is observed that the curve follows the same pattern as in graph 3.1.The wear mass increases from 0.753 gm to 0.926 gm as the applied load on the specimen increases from 5N to 20N when orientation of the specimen is 30o From graph 3.3 it is observed that the wear mass increases from 0.710 gm to 0.905 gm as the applied load on the specimen increases from 5N to 20N when orientation of the specimen is 45o. From graph 3.4 it is observed that the wear mass increases from 0.629 gm to 0.882 gm as the applied load on the specimen increases from 5N to 20N when orientation of the specimen is 60o. From graph 3.5 it is observed that the wear mass increases from 0.376 gm to 0.630 gm as the applied load on the specimen increases from 5N to 20N when orientation of the specimen is 90o.[13]
1.200 1.000 Mass Loss(gm) 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 5N 10N 15N Applied Load(N) 20N 0.801 Mass Loss(gm) 0.917 0.940 1.012

1.000 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 5N

0.851 0.753

0.889 0.926

10N

15N

20N

Applied Load(N)

Fig 3. 1 - Effect of load at 00 orientation

Fig 3.2 - Effect of load at 30o orientation

1.000 Mass Loss(gm) Mass Loss(gm) 0.800 0.710 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 5N 10N 15N 20N 0.820 0.856 0.905

1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 5N 10N 15N 20N Aplied Load (N) 0.629 0.882 0.740 0.781

Applied Load(N)

Fig 3.3 - Effect of load at 450 orientation

Fig 3.4 - Effect of load at 600 orientation

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

0.7 0.6 Mass loss (gm) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0.439 0.376 0.605 0.63

Applied Load(N)

Fig 3.5 - Effect of load at 900 orientation 3.2 Effect of Orientation at Different Load The following observations were made: From graph 3.6 it is observed that as the orientation of the specimen changes from 0o to 90o, the wear mass decreases from 0.801gm to 0.376 gm when applied load is 5N. From graph 3.7 it is observed that the wear mass follows the same pattern as in graph 3.6.The wear mass decreases from 0.917gm to 0.439gm as the orientation changes from 0o to 90o when applied load is 10N. Similarly from graph 3.8 and 3.9 it is observed that the wear mass decreases from 0.940 gm to 0.605 gm and from 1.012gm to 0.630 gm respectively as the orientation of the specimen changes from 0o to 90o when applied loads are 15N and 20N respectively.

1.000 0.917 0.800 Wear(mg) 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 0 30 45 60 90 Orientation Angle (Degree) 0.439 0.851 0.820 0.740 Wear(mg)

0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 0

0.801

0.753

0.710 0.629

0.376

30 45 60 Orientation Angle(Degree)

90

Fig.3.6 - Effect of orientation angle at 5N

Fig 3.7 - Effect of orientation angle at 10N

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

1.000 0.800

0.940

1.20 0.889 0.856 0.781 0.605 Wear(mg) 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 1.01 0.93 0.91 0.88 0.63

Wear(mg)

0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 0

30 45 60 90 Orientation Angle (Degree)

30

45

60

90

Orientation Angle (Degree)

Fig 3.8 - Effect of Orientation angle at 15N

Fig 3.9 - Effect of orientation angle at 20N

4.0 DISCUSSION As the position changes from 0 degree to 90 degree, the forces applicable on the debri debriparticle changes, this changes the motion of debri-particle. Therefore a complete analysis of forces applicable done. The variation of wear mass shown in the above graph shows that as position changes from zero ro degree to 90 degree wear mass decreases due to the changes in orientation of forces. The fig. 4.1 shows orientation at o degree. It can be concluded that: At 0 Degree It can seen from the FBD that weight of debri-particle debri particle (mg) and centrifugal force (mrw2) add to each other. The debri do not trap in between specimen and abrasive disc disc. Due to addition of wt. of debri-particle and centrifugal force, the debri-particle debri of specimen falls. It becomes two body abrasions against general perception. The Alumunium alloy (Al6061) gets fresh abrasive surface, surface due to this wear resistance decreases.

Applied Load Debri-particle mg

Abrasive Disc

Fig 4.1 Specimen at 0o (Horizontal)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME At 90 Degree In this case the set-up up rotates to 90 degree. The load on the specimen adds to weight of debriparticle and centrifugal force (mrw2) and weight (mg) are perpendicular. to each other Since debri traps in between ween specimen and abrasive disc hence it becomes three body abrasions due to this Al6061 do not get fresh abrasive surface. This Change in nature of forces increases the wear resistance.

Abrasive Disc

Specimenn

Debri pParticle

Fig 4.2 Specimen at 90o(Vertical) 5.0 CONCLUSION On the basis of experimental work the following conclusion can be drawn: With increasing load wear (mass ( loss) increases at all angular positions this is in agreement with M. A. Chowdhury, M. K. Khalil, D. M. Nuruzzaman, M. L. Rahaman [14] (ii) The loss in mass is maximum at zero degree (horizontal position) position) for a particular load (iii) The loss in mass is minimum at ninety degree (vertical position) for a particular load. (iv) Maximum wear occur when the test specimen is held at 0o angle (v) Minimum wear occur when the specimen is held at 90o angle for given applied load (vi) The he circumferential distance travel is constant for all positions and for all load but still weight loss varies. REFERENCES [1] [2] J. F. Archard, Wear Theory and Mechanisms, Wear Control Handbook, M. B. Peterson and W.O. Winer, eds., ASME, , New York, NY, pp. 35-80, 35 (1980). D. Tabor, Frict ion and Wear Developments Over the Last 50 Years, Keynote Address, Proc. International Conf. Tribology Friction, Lubrication and Wear, 50 Years On On, London, Inst . Mech. Eng., pp. 157-172, 172, (1987). S. T. Oktay, N. P. Suh, Wear Debris Format ion and Agglomerat ion, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 114, pp. 379- 393, (1992). N. Saka, M. J. Liou, N. P. Suh, The role of Tribology in Elect rical Cotact Phenomena, Wear, Vol. 100, pp. 77-105, 105, (1984).
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME [5] N. P. Suh, H. C. Sin, On the Genesis of Frict ion and Its Effect on Wear, Solid Contact and Lubricat ion, H. S. Cheng and L. M. Keer, ed., ASME, New York, NY, AMD-Vol. 39pp. 167-183, (1980). V. Aronov, A. F. D'souza, S. Kalpakjian, I. Shareef, Experimental Investigation of the effect of System Rigidity on Wear and Frict ion-Induced Vibrat ions, ASME Journal of Lubrication Technology, Vol. 105, pp. 206-211, (1983). V. Aronov, A. F. D'souza, S. Kalpakjian, I. Shareef, Interact ions Among Frict ion, Wear, and System St iffness-Part 1: Effect of Normal Load and System St iffness, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 106, pp. 54-58, (1984). V. Aronov, A. F. D'souza, S. Kalpakjian, I. Shareef, Interact ions Among Frict ion, Wear, and System St iffness-Part 2: Vibrat ions Induced by Dry Frict ion, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 106, pp. 59-64, (1984). V. Aronov, A. F. D'souza, S. Kalpakjian, I. Shareef, Interact ions Among Frict ion, Wear, and System St iffness-Part 3: Wear Model, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 106, pp. 65-69 (1984). J. W. Lin, M. D. Bryant , Reduct ion in Wear rate of Carbon Samples Sliding Against Wavy Copper Surfaces, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 118, pp. 116-124 (1996). M. A. Chowdhury, M. K. Khalil, D. M. Nuruzzaman, M. L. Rahaman ,The Effect of Sliding Speed and Normal Load on Friction and Wear Property of Aluminum, International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01(2011). Becker, E. P. and Ludema, K. C. (1999), A Qualitative Empirical Model of Cylinder BoreWear, Wear, 225229, pp 387-404. M. A. Chowdhury, M. K. Khalil, D. M. Nuruzzaman, M. L. Rahaman ,The Effect of Sliding Speed and Normal Load on Friction and Wear Property of Aluminum, International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01(2011). M. A. Chowdhury, M. K. Khalil, D. M. Nuruzzaman, M. L. Rahaman ,The Effect of Sliding Speed and Normal Load on Friction and Wear Property of Aluminum, International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01(2011). P. Kurmi, S. Rathod and P. Jain, Abrasive Wear Behavior of 2014al-Tic in Situ Composite, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 229 - 240, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359. Sudarshan Rao K, Y S Varadarajan and N Rajendra C, Investigation of the Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Graphite Filled Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composite - A Taguchi Approach, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 101 - 108, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359. U. D. Gulhane, M.P.Bhagwat, M.S.Chavan, S.A.Dhatkar and S.U.Mayekar, Investigating the Effect of Machining Parameters on Surface Roughness of 6061 Aluminium Alloy in End Milling, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 134 - 140, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359.

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