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METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

PARTIAL DISCHARGE: Partial discharges are small electrical sparks that occur within the insulation of medium and high voltage electrical assets. Each discrete partial discharge is the result of an electrical breakdown of an air pocket within the insulation these discharges erode insulation and eventually result in insulation failure. The TEV sensor is a small-size; magnetic radio-frequency capacitive coupling antenna which can detect the high frequency PD pulses emanating from 'local discharges' within switchgear, bushings and other earthed metal-clad equipment. It can be either magnetically attached or bolted to the outer surface of metal-clad switchgear, typically next to cable boxes or terminations, allowing non-intrusive PD detection. This aerial sensor has a wideband frequency response to detect local partial discharge pulses in the range of 1 MHz to 50 MHz. When local PD occurs within plant, high frequency RF energy is emitted from the PD site. When the PD is within metal-clad switchgear or cable boxes the RF radiation will be induced onto the inner metal surfaces of the switchgear housing, this energy will emerge onto the outer of the metal-clad housing where there are gaps, such as at joints, seams, gaskets and vents. These generally oscillatory signals are known as transient earth voltages (TEV) and are a good indicator for the purpose of non-intrusive PD detection in switchgear etc. Detection of these pulses (with widths of a few tens of nanoseconds) can also be used for localisation of the PD site using time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of signals when 2 or more TEV sensors are used in conjunction.

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

PD Testing Work Procedures: General Safety Precautions: Before using the PD Long shot Partial Discharge Test Unit, Sensors and Accessories in the substation or switchyard it is important for the user to read and understand the following general safety information. The equipment user should obey the plant customer safety rules at all times. The following safety rules which are particular to the PD Long shot equipment should be applied in addition to the existing safety rules, which are required by the customer. General safety rules for the use of the PD Long shot are as follows: Avoid working alone. Only accredited, competent personnel with appropriate Health and Safety Training should use the equipment. Do not use the equipment if it is damaged, or its safety is impaired in any way. Inspect and test all ground leads and signal cables for continuity. The User should have read and understood the PD Long shot User Manual before commencing testing. Always select the appropriate sensor and sensor connection for the application. The PD sensors supplied with equipment have been designed for use only on the earthed, outer surfaces of metal-clad equipment and the earth/neutral connections of cables/switchgear. WARNING - Under no circumstances should the PD long shot unit or PD sensors be connected to the high voltage terminals of HV Plant under test. It is advisable to test the equipment and instruments immediately before and after performing site tests to ensure that the site results have been correctly recorded. The User should wear sensible clothing when in the substation.

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

Access to the Substation The Test Engineer shall only enter the customer's switchyard or substation after they have received permission from an Authorized Person appointed by the customer in charge. If in doubt on any mater the Plant customer's High Voltage Safety rules should be consulted by the Test Engineer(s) who will carry out the testing. Visual Inspection of Substation On entry to the test area, a visual inspection of the area should be carried out by the Test Engineer(s). This should enable the operator to locate a power source for the Test Equipment, to identify any potential hazards in the area and to assess both the type of equipment to be tested and the method of doing so i.e. Switchgear using TEV probes or Cables using HFCT sensors. Only when this visual inspection has been completed can the equipment be set-up for testing. Principle of operation

On-Line PD Testing - Equipment Set-Up Before the commencement of any testing it is important to ensure that the test equipment, sensors, connectors and extension leads to be used are in good condition, BNC leads should be matched for length.

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

TEV Sensor Attachment to Metal-clad Switchgear / Plant The metal housing must NOT be double skinned and there must be vents/openings in metal enclosure for electromagnetic signals to emerge on outer surfaces of switchgear housing

TEV sensors should be attached approximately 1 metre apart on the outer surface of switchgear, as close to any openings or case joints as possible. Specification of PD TEV Sensor

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

Specification of HVPD TEV Sensor -3 dB response Droop Time Typical Risetime Response Sensor Head Dimensions Conductor Material Insulator - Material Equivalent Capacitance Recommended Load Impedance Output Connector Weight Mounting 1 MHz 50 MHz 0.4 ms (5%) Better than 5 ns 60 x 50 x 25 mm Brass HDPE (Red Finish) 150pF 50 Ohms BNC Female 0.12kg Permanent Magnets

Partial Discharge Measurement on Transformer - Dry Type (Cast Resin):

Partial discharges generally come in the form of individual impulses that can be detected as electrical impulses in an external circuit connected to the transformer during an induced voltage test. The measurement circuit for partial discharges connected across the terminals of the transformer Under test, Comprises:

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT CONDITION MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS

Coupling capacitors C in series with detector impedances Zm, to enable uncoupling of both the high voltage of the transformer under test and the high frequency partial discharges. A detector to amplify the partial discharge impulses and to show the value of the largest discharges magnitude.