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Presentation of term paper

By Kamlesh kumar Roll no.RM2009A06 Sub. code:-MEC 314 Regd. No:-11004437

Construction features and use of instruments for precision measurements

Introduction Precision measuring instrument Micrometer Height gauges Conclusion References

Measuring instruments: - A measuring instrument is simply a device for determining the value of some particular quantity or condition.

Generally the measuring instruments are classified as follows: 1) On the basis of function

a) Length measuring instruments

b) Angle measuring instruments c) Surface-roughness- measuring instruments

d) Geometrical-form-checking instruments
2) On the basis of accuracy a) Most accurate instrument

b) Moderate accurate instrument

c) Below Moderate accurate instrument

3) On the basis of precision a) Precision measuring instruments b) Non precision measuring instruments Precision measuring instruments includes :1) Vernier Calipers 2) Micrometers

a) Inside Micrometer Caliper b) Outside micrometer

c) Depth micrometer 3) Height Gauge

Accuracy:- Accuracy is the closeness of agreement between a test result and the accepted reference value. The accuracy of

measurements means conformity to the truth.

Precision:- It is a measure of the reproducibility of the

measurements, given a fixed value of a quantity or the degree of exactness for which an instrument is designed or intended to perform.

Difference between accuracy and precision

Sl. no. Accuracy Precision


It is the closeness with It is a measure of the the true value of the reproducibility of the quantity being measured. measurements.
Accuracy is necessary Precision is necessary but not but not sufficient a sufficient condition for condition for precision. accuracy.



Accuracy improved.


be Precision improved.




Single measurement is Multiple measurements are needed. needed.

Accuracy and precision

Precision measuring instrument Vernier caliper

A vernier caliper (or vernier) is a common tool used in laboratories and industries to accurately determine the fraction part of the least count division. The vernier is a convenient tool to use when

measuring the length of an object, the outer diameter (OD) of a

round or cylindrical object, the inner diameter (ID) of a pipe, and the depth of a hole.

Simple vernier caliper

Digital vernier caliper

Advantages of vernier caliper

A large range of sizes can be measured by one caliper. The wearing parts are the jaws and usually these are hardened. Therefore, provided that the jaws are undamaged the loss of

accuracy due to usage is low.

Limitation of vernier caliper Cannot measure very small measurements. The jaws are comparatively light and may spring out of

alignment if too much pressure is applied.

Micrometer Micrometers can make measurements that must be very precise. They are more reliable and more exact than calipers. Standard

micrometers can measure distance to the nearest one-thousandth of

an inch. Some micrometers have a vernier scale. These micrometers can measure distance to the nearest ten-thousandth of an inch. The

measurement is usually written as a decimal.

Standard micrometer

Digital micrometer

Different types of instruments

Parts of micrometer
The essential parts of the instruments shown in Figure , consist of (a) Frame (b) Anvil and spindle (c) Screwed spindle (d) Graduated sleeve or barrel

(e) Thimble (f) Ratchet or friction stop (g) Spindle clamp

Height Gauges This uses the same principle of vernier caliper and is

used especially for the measurement of height. It is equipped with a special base block, sliding jaw assembly and a removable clamp. The upper and lower
surfaces of the measuring jaws are parallel to the base, which make possible to measure both over and under surfaces.

Height Gauges

Digital Height Gauges

Conclusion As the competition in the market has increased, it has become

necessary for manufactures to produce the product having high accuracy and precision. To achieve this level of precision, the

special precision instruments must be used. These instruments include vernier caliper, micrometer, height gauges, which has been
already discussed. Working and construction of each instrument are different and used to measure the different variable. These

instrument have their own property and used according to the

requirement .if more accuracy is required we use micrometer instead of vernier caliper.

Metrology and Measurements by Anand K Bewoor and Vinay A Kulkarni, page 9 http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/Unit-5-62.pdf Metrology and Measurements by Anand K Bewoor and Vinay A

Kulkarni, page 392.

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/error/error.html http://www.webpal.org/SAFE/aaarecovery/5_simple_technology /Precision%20Measuring%20Instruments.pdf http://www.ou.ac.lk/eng/mech/images/stories/CourseResources/