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HKCEE

1982

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.1

5 c) The diagrams below show the light rays are focused when two boys are looking at their own wrist watches. A belongs to a boy with normal eyesight and B to the other boy with defective eyesight.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Name the defect found in B. Draw a diagram to illustrate how the vision of B may be corrected. What changes occur in the eyes when the boys focus on a distant clock?

(1 mark) (2 marks) (3 marks)

State and explain what happens to the pupil of the eye when a person steps out of a dark room into bright daylight. (3 marks) (1 mark)

(v)

State one advantage of the relax action in (iv).

Marking scheme: 5c) (i) (ii) long sightendness/ ling-sight/hypermetropia ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 correct shape of lens used (convex) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 correct light path (focused on retina) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

ciliary muscles relax ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 suspensory ligament stretched/ increases in tension-----------------------------------------------------------------1 lens becomes flatten/ less convex/ less converging-------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv)

iris/ circular muscle (NOT radial muscles) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 contract----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 pupil constricts-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(v)

protect retina/ eye from over stimulation/ bright light ------------------------------------------------------------------1

Markers report: 5c) (ii) In most cases the diagrammatic illustrations were poor. The light rays, in particular, were not properly drawn. Some candidates even put the converging lens inside the eyeball. (iii) Candidates were often confused with the functions of ciliary muscles and suspensory ligaments (iv) It is the circular muscle and not the radial muscle of the iris which contracts to bring about the contraiction of the pupil. Some candidates confused the two muscles while others confused the word contract and constrct.
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HKCEE
1985

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.2

5 (a) A young lady, with one of her eye covered, is using her uncovered normal eye to observe, at random nd one at a time, the following objects within a period of eight seconds: (W) a stationary objects nearby (X) a stationary objects far away (Y) an objects approaching her (Z) an object moving away from her The change in the curvature of the lens of the uncovered eye during these wigh seconds is shown in the sketch below:

(i)

Using the letters (W), (X), (Y) and (Z), indicate which object is being observed during the following periods: Periods 0 2 seconds 2 4 seconds 4 6 seconds 6 8 seconds Object is being observed (4 marks)

(ii)

What is the state of the suspensory ligaments of the uncovered eye (1) (2) for observing object (W)? for observing object (X)? (1 mark) (1 mark)

(iii)

Which structure, other than the suspensory ligament in the eye, is responsible for changing the curvature of the lens? (1 mark)

(iv)

Draw a simple diagram to show the path of the light rays when the eye was watching object (X). (2 marks)

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HKCEE
(contd [85/5a]) Marking scheme: 5 (a) (i) Periods 0 2 seconds 2 4 seconds 4 6 seconds 6 8 seconds (ii)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.3

Object is being observed X Y Z W ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(1) W slackened/ relaxed state ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 (2) X stretched/ tensed state (not contract) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iii) ciliary body/ ciliary muscles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 (iv)

Markers report: 5(a) (ii) (2) The suspensory ligament cn only undergo change in tension, but many candidates wrongly regarded it as undergoing contraction. (iv) Some candidate did not draw parallel lines for the rays coming from a distant object; others did not put the focal point on the retina.

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HKCEE
1988 4

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.4

(a) The diagram below shows a section of a human eye:

(i)

If a person is watching a nearby object which is moving away from him, what change will occur in the shape of structure A? (3 marks)

(ii)

State the change in the size of B when the person walks out from a dark room into bright daylight. What us the significance of this change? (2 marks)

(iii)

Describe how the eye and the nervous system work together to bring about the reflex in (ii). (4 marks)

(iv)

How may a small object be seen by the person when its image falls on spot (1) X? (2) Y? Briefly explain your answer. (4 marks)

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HKCEE
(contd [88/4a]) Marking scheme: 4. (a) (i)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.5

the lens will become thinner / flatter / less convex -------------------------------------------------------1 ciliary muscle relaxes -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 the tension in the suspensory ligament is increased thus pulling the lens thinner --------------1

(ii)

the size of 5 deceases ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 to reduce the amount of light entering the eye / to prevent the eye from over-stimulation by light---------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

light stimulates the light-sensitive cells in the retina to produce nervous impulses -------------1 which are conducted by sensory nerve fibres / optic nerve -------------------------------------------1 to the brain / CNS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 the nervous impulses transmitted to the iris through motor nerve fibres causing the contraction of the (circular) muscles of the iris -------------------------------------------1

(iv) (1) ` (2)

when the image falls on X, the object can be seen ----------------------------------------------1 clearly because X contains a large number of cones light sensitive cells ------------------1 when the image falls on Y, the object cannot be seen -------------------------------------------1 because no light-sensitive cells are present at Y -------------------------------------------------1 Do not accept no image formed on Y

Total: 13 marks Markers report: Q.4 (a) The good performance on this part revealed that most candidates had a good understanding of the functioning of the eye. The relatively poor performance on part (iii) suggests, however, that the candidates were rather weak in the basic concepts of reflex action. Many of them could not point out precisely that the receptors involved in the pupil reflex are the light-sensitive cells in effectors are the muscles of the iris. For part (iv), some candidates wrongly called the light-sensitive cells in the retina as optic cells.

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HKCEE
1990 5. (b)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.6

In an experiment to study the sensitivity of different parts of the skin to touch, student X used a felt pen to mark out an area on a certain part of the skin of student Y as shown in the diagram above. While student Y was blindfolded, student X used a pin to touch gently every mark on the test region. Student Y would say "yes" if he felt the touch. The percentage of positive responses (that is, when student Y could feel the touch) was recorded. The experiment was then repeated on different regions of the skin and the results are summarised as below : Region of skin back of hand palm of hand fingertip forearm (i) (ii) ? (iii) Percentage of positive responses 50 85 100 75 (1 mark)

Which of the tested regions was most sensitive to touch ?

Why was student Y unable to feel the touch of the pin on some occasions during the experiment (1 mark) Describe the nervous pathway that enables student Y to feel the touch and to speak out. (4 marks)

(iv) At one point during the experiment, student X carelessly applied a strong force on the pin and student Y. withdrew his hand immediately. (1) (2) (3) Name this type of response. characteristic ? State ANOTHER characteristic of this type of response. (1 mark) (1 mark) (1 mark)

This type of response usually occurs very rapidly. What is the significance of this

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
(contd [90/5b]) Marking scheme: 5. (b) (i) (ii)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.7

fingertip -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 because the pin (stimulus) is not applied directly onto a touch receptor / nerve ending ------1 (or other reasonable answers)

(iii)

touch receptor stimulated --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 nerve impulses pass along the sensory neurone --------------------------------------------------------1 and via the relay neurone / assoication neurone / intermediate nueorne to the brain where the sensation of touch is produced -------------------------------------------------1 and then nerve impulses sent from the brain via the motor neurone to the muscles responsible for speech -------------------------------------------------1 (N.B. accept flowchart)

(iv) (1) (2) (3)

* reflex --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 avoid danger immediately / provide immediate protection -------------------------------------1 inborn / learning not required stereotype / fixed response ) ) Total : 9 Marks

involuntary / not controlled by will ) any ONE ---------------------------------------------------1

Markers report: 5. (b) (iii) While this part was well attempted, some candidates did not present a complete nervous pathway to indicate the coordinating role of the brain in sensation and in voluntary action.

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HKCEE
1992 3 (b)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.8

(i) A man came out of the cinema as shown in the diagram on the opposite page. Describe how his eyes would adapt to the bright daylight. Explain why this would be necessary. (4 marks)

(ii) After looking at his watch, the man tried to locate the bus stop at the end of the street. Describe and explain the changes that occurred in his eyes. (3 marks)

(iii) The man had an eye defect in which he was unable to see clearly the number painted on the sign post of the bus stop. Draw a simple diagram to show the path of the light rays when his eye was focusing on the number on the sign post. (2 marks)

(iv) The man tried to shield his eyes from the strong sunlight by putting his hand above his forehead as shown in the diagram. Is this action reflex or voluntary ? (1 mark)

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HKCEE
(contd [92/3b]) Marking scheme: 3. (b) (i)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.9

the iris muscle (circular muscle) contracts -----------------------------------------------------------------1 to reduce the size of the pupil ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 to prevent too much light entering the eyeballs ----------------------------------------------------------1 to over stimulate / damage the retina -----------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

the ciliary muscle relaxed --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 increasing the tension on the suspensory ligaments ---------------------------------------------------1 the lens became less convex ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 to enable it to focus on a far away object.

(iii)

-------------------------------------------2 N.B. No lens, no mark No arrows, deduct 1 mark Light rays not reaching retina, deduct 1 mark (iv) voluntary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Total : 10 marks

Markers report: 3. (b) (i) Some candidates confused the terms "iris" and "pupil". They failed to realize that the pupil is an aperture or opening at the centre of the iris which is a circular muscular sheet at the front of the eye ball. Also quite a few candidates confused the terms: "eye muscles", "ciliary muscles" and "iris muscles" in their descriptions. (ii) Many candidates did not realize that in the eye, the relaxation of the ciliary muscles would lead to an increase in tension of the suspensory ligament. As a result the suspensory ligament would become tightened or taut but it would not contract on its own. (iii) Some candidates did not complete the ray diagram fully whilst others forgot to put in the arrows to indicate the direction of the light rays all the way onto the retina.

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HKCEE
1994 1. (c) (ii)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.10

(1) A cloudy cornea can cause blindness. What treatment can be given to a man with such a cornea to restore his vision ? (1 mark)

(2)

Explain why only a small number of such patients can receive this treatment in Hong Kong. (2 marks)

Marking scheme: 1. (c) (ii) (1) (2) Cornea transplant -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 This treatment requires the donation of cornea form other people --------------------------1 Very few people are willing to do this after death -------------------------------------------------1 Total : 8 marks

Markers report: 1. (c) (i) This question asked for a concise account of the functioning of the semicircular canals in detecting body movements. However, most answers did not show a mastery of the concept involved and the description was often incomplete and incomprehensive. It should be noted that the endolymph inside the semicircular canal does not actually move backward. As the head moves forward, the endolymph lags behind due to inertia, i.e. it shows a backward movement relative to the head. Many candidates did not point out that the sensory hair cells in the semicircular canal are stimulated as a result of the relative movement of the endolymph. (ii) Most candidates answered correctly that very few people were willing to donate their cornea after death, so that only a small number of patients could receive this treatment in Hong Kong. This shows that candidates have a good social awareness of the problems regarding this treatment.

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HKCEE
1996 1. (c)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.11

A boy was standing by the roadside and saw a bus moving towards him. The photographs below show what he saw when the bus was 10m and 5m away from him respectively :

Bus at 10 m away

Bus at 5 m away
(i) (1) (2) What kind of eye defect did the boy probably have ? State two features of the eyeball that might have caused this eye defect. (2 marks) (ii) Draw a ray diagram to show the pathway of light entering the eye of the boy when he was looking at the bus 10m away from him. (iii) How could this eye defect be corrected ? (3 marks) (1 mark) (1 mark)

(iv) The boy had normal colour vision, but when it was getting dark, he found it difficult to distinguish the colour of the cars on the road. Explain this briefly. (2 marks)

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
(contd [96/1c]) Marking scheme: 1. (c) (i) (1) (2)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.12

short sight----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 The eyeball might be too long--------------------------------------------------------------------------1 The lens might be too thick------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

Large, accurate diagram with smooth lines and parallel incident rays (D)-------------------------1 Title ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/2 Presence of an arrow sign-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/2 Focus in front of retina----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/2 Light rays continue to retina---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/2

Path of light rays from the bus 10m away entering the boy's eye (iii) Wear a concave lens / have an operation to decrease the curvature of the cornea------------1

(iv) Cones, which are responsible for colour vision,----------------------------------------------------------1 cannot function properly in dim light-------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Total : 9 marks

Markers report: 1. (c) (i) (ii) Most candidates answered this part correctly. The ray diagrams showed a number of mistakes which are also found in some local textbooks. It is likely that some candidates might have memorised such errors from the textbooks without genuine understanding. Some of the common mistakes made by the candidates are illustrated in the following figures :

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1) (2) (3)

The two parallel light rays come from different points on the object. The light rays stop after converging in front of the retina. The incident rays from the distant object are diverging instead of being nearly parallel. The quality of drawing was rather poor; many drawings were too small, untidy and not in

proportion. Most candidates failed to give a title to their drawings. (iv) Some answers were quite concise and accurate. Many candidates, however, confused the functions of the rods and of the cones. For example, some stated that rods cannot detect colour but failed to mention the role of the cones. A small number of candidates wrongly related the phenomenon to night-blindness.

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HKCEE
1998 4. (a)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.13

The diagram below shows a boy, Bill, sitting for an examination in the school hall. Before the examination started, Bill took off his glasses and relaxed.

(i)

Bill looked at the clock on the wall. It was 9:00 a.m. Draw the image of the two hands of the clock formed on the retina of his eye. (1 mark) (4 marks)

(ii) (iii)

Describe how the image on the retina generates vision in the brain.

After looking at the clock, Bill turned to his watch to check the time. Describe the changes that occurred in his eyes when he tried to focus on his watch. (3 marks)

(iv) Though Bill could clearly see the clock, he could not see his watch clearly without putting on his glasses. Draw a ray diagram to show how his eye defect is corrected by his glasses. (3 marks)

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
(contd [98/4a]) Marking scheme: 4. (a) (i)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.14

.................................................................................................................................... 1 (ii) Light-sensitive cells on the retina were stimulated.................................................................1 Nerve impulses were set up................................................................................................... 1 and transmitted along the optic nerve....................................................................................1 to the cerebral cortex for interpretation into vision.................................................................1 Effective Communication (C)..............................................................................................1 (iii) Ciliary muscles would contract...............................................................................................1 Suspensory ligaments would slacken....................................................................................1 Lens would become more convex.......................................................................................... 1 (iv) Convex lens Lens of the eye Nearby object (diverging rays) Converging rays Arrow sign Image on retina Title ) ) ) ) )any 6.....................................................................3 ) )

Path of light rays from a nearby object after correction Total : 11 + 1 marks Markers report: Q4(a) (ii) Some candidates misinterpreted the question and described how the image was formed. Some had the misconception that it was the image that was carried to the brain by the nerve. A great number of the candidates did not mention the stimulation of the light-sensitive cells and the role of the cerebral cortex for interpretation of the nerve impulses. Many inaccurate terms were used by the candidates, such as receptors in the retina, eye nerve or optical nerve. (iii) This part was well answered. (iv) Most candidates drew the ray diagram correctly but the quality of the drawing was rater poor. Many drawings were too small and not in proportion. Many drew a distorted eyeball, or omitted arrow signs in the light rays. In addition, many did not give an appropriate title to their drawing. Some erroneously drew two parallel lines for the light rays from the nearby object. Some mistook the person to be shortsighted so they wrongly drew a concave lens in their diagram.

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HKCEE
2000 2 (b)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.15

An investigation was carried out to study the effect of light on the pupil of the eye. A person sat in a room in which the light intensity could be varied. The size of the pupil of the person was measured at different light intensities. The graph below shows the results of the investigation:

(i) (ii)

Referring to the graph, describe the effect of light intensity on the size of the pupil.

(2 marks)

Explain the significance of the change in pupil size in response to an increase in light intensity. (2 marks)

(iii)

The pupil response to light intensity is a reflex action coordinated by the brain. By means of a flowchart, show the nervous pathway involved. (Hint: This nervous pathway is similar to that of a spinal reflex arc.) (3 marks)

(iv)

People have different eye colours, such as brown , blue or green, but their pupils always appear to be black. Explain why the pupil always appears to be black. (2 marks)

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HKCEE
(contd [00/2b]) Marking scheme: 2. (b) (i)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.16

From 1 to 5 units of light intensity, the size of pupil decreases with increasing light intensity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 However, when the light intensity is above 5 units, The size of the pupil will remain unchanged with increasing light intensity -----------------------1

(ii)

This response helps to prevent excessive light entering the eye ------------------------------------1 so that the light-sensitive cells of the retina may not be damaged ----------------------------------1

(iii)

light-sensitive cells / photoreceptors association neurone in brain

sensory neurone / optic nerve motor neurone / nerve

iris muscle (1/2 marks for each term) -----------------------------------------------------------3 Deduct 1/2 mark if there is no arrow sign.

(iv) Because all the light entering the eye is absorbed by the retina and the choroid ---------------1 As a result no light is reflected out of the eye through the pupil -------------------------------------1 Total: 9 marks

Markers report: 2. (b) (i) Most candidates could describe the general relationship between the size of the pupi land light intensity. However, many failed to point out that at relatively high light intensity, the size of the pupil would remain unchanged with increasing light intensity. (ii) (iii) This part was well answered. Most candidates could draw a proper flowchart with arrows indicating the direction of transmission of nerve impulses. Some candidates, however, wrongly showed that the pupil reflex was coordinated by the spinal cord despite the question stating clearly that that this reflex is coordinated by the brain. They might have thought that all reflexes involved the spinal cord. (iv) This part was poorly answered. Although the question referred to an observation in everyday life, most candidates could not state precisely that the choroids and the retina absorb all the light entering the eye and consequently no light is reflected out of the eye thorough the pupil.

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
2001 2.

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.17

(a) The diagram below shows a section of the human eye:

(i) State one function of A. What feature of A contributes to this function? i ii iii

(1 mark)

(ii) A small object may form an image on spot B or C, and it will be perceived differently. What is the difference in vision? Why is there such a difference? (2 marks)

(iii) After reading her book, a student tries to look at some words written on the blackboard. What would be the change in structure D of her eye? Explain how this change is brought about. (3 marks)

(iv) The student finds that she cannot see the words on the blackboard clearly. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of light rays entering her eye under such a condition. (3 marks)

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
(contd [01/2a]) Marking scheme: 2. (a) (i) OR To as

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.18

To supply nutrients / oxygen to the eyeball -------------------------------------------------------as it is richly supplied with blood / capillaries ----------------------------------------------------any one set prevent it reflection of contains light within dark the eye pigments

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(ii) (iii)

1+ 1

The image formed on C can be seen, while that formed on B cannot be seen ------------------1 because there are light-sensitive cells at C, but none at B --------------------------------------------1 Structure D would become thinner / less convex --------------------------------------------------------1 this is caused by the relaxation of the ciliary muscle ---------------------------------------------------1 which leads to an increase in tension in the suspensory ligaments ---------------------------------1 and, in turn, stretches the lens Effective communication (C) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iv) Drawing(D): large, clear and accurate diagram ----------------------------------------------------------1 (accuracy includes outline of eyeball, lens of eye, straight lines for light rays) (L): Parallel rays from object (with arrow sigh), focus in front of retina, rays extended to retina -----------------------------------------------------------------------------3* 1/2 Title(T) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/2

Total:10+1 marks

Markers report: 2. (a) (i) (ii) This part was well answered. Some candidates wrongly identified C as the yellow spot and stated that it contained many cones. Some also confused image formation with image perception and they stated that no image was formed at spot B. Some candidates used inaccurate terms to explain the difference in vision, such as spot C contained sensory cells or sensitive cells instead of rods or lightsensitive cells. (iii) The performance on this part was generally good, and many answers were well written. Some errors, however, occurred consistently among the weaker candidates, such as suspensory ligaments contract and cilia muscle relaxes. (iv) Some candidates made large and clear drawings which showed accurately the outline of the eyeball, the lens of the eye and the path of the rays. Again, many drawings did not have a proper title.
This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
2003 3

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.19

(a) The diagram below shows a section of the human eye:

(i)

Structure A has no blood capillaries. (1) Why is the feature important to the formation of a clear image? (1 mark) (1 mark)

(2) From where does structure A obtain nutrients? (ii) (1) (2) (3) When a person steps out from a dark room into broad daylight, B becomes constricted. Explain the importance of this response. State the type of response illustrated by the constriction of B.

(2 marks) (1 mark)

The person also puts on his sunglasses. With regard to the nature of the response, state two ways in which this action is different from the constriction of B. (2 marks)

(iii)

In recent years, dark-coloured sunglasses are in fashion, but some of these sunglasses cannot cut off ultra-violet light. Suggest why wearing such sunglasses under bright sunlight would be more damaging to the eye than not wearing any sunglasses. (3 marks)

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HKCEE
(contd [03/3a]) Marking scheme: 3. (a) (i)

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.20

(1) To allow the transmission of light to the retina without obstruction....1 (2) aqueous humour / choroids ..1

(ii) (1) (2) (3)

It helps to reduce the amount of light entering the eyes..1 so as to prevent over-stimulation / damage of the light-sensitive cells..1 reflex action 1

Constriction of B cerebrum is not involved always evokes the same response inborn usually faster ANY TWO (ii) 1,1

Putting on sunglasses cerebrum is involved

stereotyped response i.e. same stimulus Variable responses to the same stimulus Learned action usually slower

Dark-coloured sunglasses reduce the light intensity entering the eye.1 So the pupil will not constrict / constrict to a smaller extent in bright sunlight..1 As a result, more UV light can enter the eye and cause damage.1 Effective communication (C)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Total:10+1 marks

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
2007

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.21

7. (a) The diagram below shows a section of a human eye :

(i) (1) Name structure A. (1 mark) .......................................................................................................................................................... (2) Structure A becomes weak in an old man. Explain how this will affect his eyesight when he looks at a nearby object. (4 marks) .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... (ii) Suggest one possible change of the lens which will also weaken the eyesight. (1 mark) .......................................................................................................................................................... (iii) With reference to the function of layer C, explain why the falling off of layer B from layer C may cause blindness. (4 marks) .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... Total : 10 marks

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.

HKCEE
(contd [07/7a]) Marking scheme:

Sense Organ (1982 2008)_

P.22

7.

(a) (i)

(1 ) (2 )

* ciliary muscles

When the man is looking at a near object, the weakened ciliary muscle contract with less force and the tension of the suspensory ligament remains high Hence, the lens is not thick enough and fails to converge light to form a clear image on the retina Effective Communication (C) (ii) (iii ) The lens becomes less elastic / cloudy Layer B contains light sensitive cells cannot obtain nutrients/ oxygen from layer C As a result, light sensitive cells die Light falling on layer B cannot be detected / no nerve impulse can be produced Therefore the vision is impaired

1 1 1 1 (1) 1 1 1+ 1 1

Total: 10+1
Markers report::

Q.7 (a) The performance was good in general. (i) (1 ) (2 ) Most candidates could identify structure A correctly but misspelt the word ciliary. A few candidates took it as the suspensory ligament. Some candidates just recited the focusing mechanism of looking at a nearby object by a normal person as the answer. They failed to address the question by deducing the consequences of the weakening of structure A. Some failed to give the precise description of the formation of image; they simply stated that the image could not focused.

(ii) (iii )

Well answered. Many candidates only mentioned that layer C can absorb light to reduce reflection of light inside the eyeball and missed out the function of providing nutrients and oxygen to layer B. Some wrongly stated that image cannot be formed instead of not being detected by the retina while some though that the image will be formed on layer C after the detachment of layer B.

This material was reproduced under the terms of a license granted by THE HONG KONG REPROGRAPHIC RIGHTS LICENSING SOCIETY LIMITED. No further copying permitted.