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MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO.

4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


INTRODUCTION
Portland cement, being the most important of all necessary materials in modern engineering construction, is the basic binding material in concrete. It is defined as the product obtained by pulverizing clinker which consists of argillaceous and calcareous materials. Such raw materials are mixed in exact proportions and burnt to incipient fusion. The burnt product, called the clinker, is mixed with 2.5% to 5% of gypsum and pulverized to form Portland Cement. Like all cements, Portland Cement possess one property called hydraulicity which is ability to set and harden under water. The argillaceous raw materials include clay, shale, slate and blast-furnace slag. These contribute silica and alumina to the clinker. The calcareous materials include limestone, chalk, marl marine shells; and these contribute lime and magnesia to the clinker. Gypsum is added to regulate the setting time of the cement. Five major components are known to be present in Portland Cement after calcination. These are tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, tetracalcium aluminoferite, and magnesia. These compounds are normally present in the clinker in the form of extremely fine interlocking crystals. Magnesia seems to exist uncombined in Portland Cement. It is nearly inert but if present inexcessive amount it might cause unsoundness due to extremely slow hydration. Magnesia content should not exceed 5%. The initial set and much of the early strength of the cement is due to the tricalcium silicate. The tricalcium silicate content and tricalcium aluminate indicate the strength attained by the cement up to 28 days. Dicalcium silicate, which hydrate slowly, is greatly responsible for the subsequent increase in strength in the final hardening of the cement which may be prolonged over many months. There are five types of Portland Cement and are as follows: Type I - For general use when the special properties of the other types are not required. Type II - For concrete construction exposed to moderate sulfate action or where moderate heat of hydration is required. Type III - For high-early strength Type IV - For low-heat of hydration Type V - For high-sulfate resistance

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE I CEMENT IN GOVERNMENT SPECIFICATIONS PHYSICAL TESTS SPECIFICATIONS

FINENESS: Specific Surface, sq.cm/gm Residue on #200 Sieve. % % Fineness 1600 min. 10 max. 90 min.

TIME OF SETTING: GILMORE TEST a. Initial Set, minutes b. Final Set, hours 60 min. 10 max

SOUNDNESS: Autoclave Expansion, % Pat Test 0.50 max No Sign of Volume Change

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, MORTAR CUBE, psi 1 day in moist air, 2 days in water 1 day in moist air, 6 days in water 1 day in moist air, 27 days in water 1,200 min. 2,100 min. 3,500 min.

Lost on Ignition, % Insoluble Residue, % Sulfur Trioxide, % Magnesium oxide, % Sodium and Potassium Oxide, %

3.00 max. 0.75 max 3.00 max 5.00 max. 0.50 max

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB EXERCISE NO. : 4 A TITLE: FINENESS OF CEMENT TEST OBJECTIVE: To determine the fineness of Portland Cement by using the No. 200 sieve. APPARATUS:
No. 200 sieve, with pan and cover Balance and set of weights Sieve brush Scoop

PROCEDURE:
1. Place a 50-gram sample of cement on the No. 200 sieve with pan attached. 2. Start sieving and continue until the residue looks clean. This will take about 5 minutes. 3. Place cover on sieve and remove pan. Tap gently the sides of sieve to dislodge dust adhering to the sieve and brush the underside of the sieve. 4. Continue sieving until no more than 0.05 gram passes through in one minute of continuous sieving. 5. Brush thoroughly both sides of sieve. Get the weight of residue by weighing the sieve with residue (cement retained) on it.

CALCULATION:
% Residue = W2 x 100 W1 Where: W2 = weight of residue W1 = weight of original sample = 50 grams And, % Fineness = 100% - % Residue

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________
DATA SHEET: a. Weight of # 200 Sieve + Residue, gm b. Weight of # 200 Sieve, gm c. Weight of Residue, W2, gm (a) - (b) d. Weight of Original Sample, W1, gm e. % Residue f. % Fineness

NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

SPECIFICATION FOR % FINENESS FOR TYPE I PORTLAND CEMENT = 90% TEST RESULT FOR % FINENESS = _____________ Therefore, CEMENT ___________ MEETS REQUIREMENT ___________ DOES NOT MEET REQUIREMENT

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB. EXERCISE NO. : 4 B TITLE: SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific gravity of Portland Cement APPARATUS:
Le Chatelier Flask Water-free kerosene Constant Temperature Bath Balance and Weights Funnel Scoop

PROCEDURE:
1. Fill the Le Chatelier flask with water-free kerosene to a point on the stem between the zero and 1 ml. - mark. 2. Immerse the flask in a constant temperature water bath maintained at room temperature for a sufficient time interval before making any reading. 3. Take initial reading. 4. Put the 64-gm. cement sample into the flask. 5. Stopper the flask and roll in an inclined position until no air bubbles rise to the surface. 6. Immerse in temperature bath and then take final reading.

CALCULATION:
Gs = Wc Rf - Ri Where: Gs = Wc = Rf = Ri = specific gravity of cement weight of cement in grams final reading in ml. initial reading in ml.

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________ NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

DATA SHEET:

1 2

Weight of Sample, gm, Wc Le ChatelierFlask Reading, ml a. Initial Reading, Ri b. Final Reading, Rf

Specific Gravity

GOVERNMENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF TYPE I CEMENT Gs = 3.10 3.15 TEST RESULT: _________________ Therefore, ____________ CEMENT MEETS REQUIREMENT ____________ CEMENT DOES NOT MEET REQUIREMENTS

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB. EXERCISE NO. : 4 C TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT OBJECT: To determine the amount of water required to reduce Portland Cement to a certain
state of plasticity called Normal Consistency, by means of the Vicat Apparatus.

APPARATUS:
Vicat Needle Graduated Cylinder Balance Glass plate Trowel Mixing tray

PROCEDURE:
1. Make 500-gm. of cement sample into a mound and form a crater in the center. 2. Pour a measured quantity of water into the crater. Within 30 sec. turn the outer edge into the center with a trowel. Allow another seconds for the absorption of water. 3. Mix the material with gloved hands for 1-1/2 minutes in a continous kneading, mixing and squeezing operation. 4. Form the paste into a ball and toss it from one hand to the other 6 times, the hand being kept 6 in. apart. 5. Press the ball in the larger end of the conical ring of the Vicat needle, filling the ring completely with the paste. Remove excess paste with palm of hand. 6. Place the conical ring with its larger end resting on the glass plate. Remove excess paste at smaller end with one stroke of the trowel. 7. Center the mold under rod of Vicat apparatus, with end of plunger in contact with surface of paste. 8. Determine the penetration 30 seconds after release of plunger. The paste is of normal consistency if the penetration is 10 mm. 9. Repeat procedure with different amounts of water until normal consistency is obtained. Use fresh cement for each trial.

CALCULATION:
N. C. = V X 100% W Where: N. C. = normal consistency V = volume of water used in cc. W = weight of cement sample = 500 gm.

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________
DATA SHEET:

NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

TRIAL NO. Weight of Sample, gm Volume of Water Used, cc Penetration, mm N.C. %

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB. EXERCISE NO. : 4 D TITLE: TIME OF SETTING OF CEMENT OBJECT: To determine the time of initial and final set of cement with the use of the Gillmore
Needle

APPARATUS:
Gillmore Needle Graduated Cylinder Balance and set of weights Glass plate Trowel Mixing tray

PROCEDURE:
1. Prepare a cement paste of normal consistency (Test 4 - C). 2. Make a pat about 3 in. in diameter, 1/2 in thick at the center with a flat top and tapering to a thin edge on a glass plate. 3. Store the pat in a moist closet with a temperature of 230 C and test at intervals. 4. Determine the time of setting by applying the needles lightly on the surface of the pat. The cement shall be considered to have acquired its initial set when the pat will bear the 1/4 lb. needle without appreciable indentation. The final set is when the pat will bear the 1-lb. needle without appreciable indentation.

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________
DATA SHEET:

NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

CLOCK TIME a. Time Started b. Initial Set c. Final Set

TIME OF SETTING Initial Set, min., (b) - (a) Final Set, hrs., (c) - (a)

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB. EXERCISE NO. : 4 E
TITLE: SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT OBJECTIVE: To determine the soundness of cement over boiling water. SAMPLE: Cement pat used in Time of Setting Test APPARATUS: Steam bath Glass plate Graduated cylinder PROCEDURE: 1. The pat of the cement paste of normal consistency as in the time of setting test is prepared. The pat used in the time of setting test may be used instead. 2. Store pat in moist closet for 24 hours of 230 C and 90% relative humidity. 3. Expose the pat placed on glass plate to an atmosphere of saturated steam by placing it 1 in. above boiling water for 5 hours. 4. One hour after removal from the steam bath, the pat shall be examined for unsoundness which is manifested by volume change causing distortion, cracking, checking or disintegration.

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________
DATA SHEET: OBSERVATIONS: ( ( ( ( ( ) Cracking ) Checking ) Disintegration ) Distortion ) No sign of volume change

NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4 TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


LAB. EXERCISE NO. : 4 F TITLE: COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT OBJECT: To determine the compressive strength of cement mortar cubes. APPARATUS: Cube molds (3 - gang) Flow table Tamping rod PROCEDURE: 1. Prepare the mortar for the test which shall be 1 part of cement and 2.75 parts by weight of graded sand with enough water to give a flow of between 100 and 115. Mix in the following manner; Add cement to the water in the mixing bowl and mix for 30 sec. Add one-half of the san and mix for 30 sec. Add remainder of the sand and mix the mortar for 1-1/2 minutes. To determine flow, place mortar in the flow table mold in 2 layers, each layer being tamped with 20 times with the tamp. Level-off mortar flush with the surface of mold using the straight edge of the trowel. One minute after mixing, remove the mold and drop the flow table 25 times through a height of 1/2 inch in 15 sec. Flow is the resulting increase in diameter of the mortar, expressed as a percentage of the original diameter. Use varying amounts of water until the desired flow is obtained. 2. After the flow test, return the mortar with the right flow to the bowl and remix for 15 seconds. 3. Place a 1- inch layer of the mortar in all the cube molds. Tamp each layer 32 times in 4 rounds of 8 strokes each, each round at right angles to each other. Pressure shall be enough to ensure uniform filling. Complete the four rounds of tamping in one cube before going to the next. 4. Place the second layer of the mortar and tamp as before. Level-off the mortar flush with the top of mold with the use of a towel. 5. Keep all specimens in the molds in a moist closet from 20 to 24 hours. After 24 hours, remove specimens from molds and immerse in clean water until the time of test. 6. Wipe each cube to a surface-dry condition and test in compression to failure. 7. Report the average strength of the 3 cubes. Mixing pan Graduated cylinder Balance and weights

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07

MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY
LAB. EXERCISE NO. :________________ TITLE: ____________________________ DATE PERFORMED: ________________ DATE SUBMITTED: _________________
DATA SHEET:

NAME:_____________________ CLASS CODE:_______________ GROUP NO.: ________________ RATING: ___________________

TRIAL NO. Weight of Cement Sample, gm. Weight of Sand, gm. FLOW DETERMINATION a. Water Used, ml b. Initial Diameter, in. c. Final Diameter, in. d. Flow, %, [(c) - (b)]/ (b) x 100%

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH DETERMINATION a. b. Cross-sectional area, mm2 Total load in N for 3 1st Cube 2nd Cube 3rd Cube c. Compression Strenght, Mpa Age in Days 7 28

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Engr. E. G. Ronquillo MTM.3.07