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Table of content of printouts:

Introduction

Materials and Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites

Mechanics of a Lamina

Laminate Theory

Ply by Ply Failure Analysis

Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for RC Structures: Post Strengthening

Flexural Strengthening

Strengthening in Shear

Column Confinement

FRP Strengthening of Masonry

CFRP Strengthening of Aluminum Profiles

FRP Strengthening of Wooden Structures

Design of Flexural Post-Strengthening of RC: Swiss Code 166 and Other Codes/Guidelines

Design of FRP Profiles and all FRP Structures

An Introduction to FRP Reinforced Concrete

Monitoring and Testing of Civil Engineering Structures

Composite Manufacturing

Testing Methods

Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures:

post strengthening

Book Composite for Construction, L. C. Bank, Chapter 8

Book Composite for Constructi on, L. C. Bank, Chapter 8 Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12

Reasons for strengthening

Deterioration due to ageing

Crashing of vehicles into bridge components

Degradation such as corrosion of steel reinforcement

Poor initial design and/or construction

Lack of maintenance

Accidental events such as earthquakes

Increase in service loads

Change to the structural system

Large crack widths

Large deformations

Advantages of FRP as compared with steel

Low weight and therefore easier application

Unlimited availability in FRP sizes

Very flexible during installation

High strength (although this strength cannot be exploited in unstressed applications)

Good fatigue resistance

Immunity to corrosion

Life cycle cost can be competitive to steel

Disadvantages

Performance under elevated temperatures

Effect of UV radiation

Application of FRP and adhesives need qualified personnel

Adhesives are dangerous for people and environment

Material behaviour: linear elastic to failure

Strengthening materials are available mainly in following forms:

UD-Strips (thickness appr. 1 mm) made by pultrusion,

Flexible sheets or fabrics (in one or two directions) and sometimes pre- impregnated with resin.

6

4

2

 (GPa) CFRP GFRP AFRP Mild steel
 (GPa)
CFRP
GFRP
AFRP
Mild steel

0.02

0.04

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

FRP Strengthening may replace:

Steel plate strengthening,

Concrete cast in-place or shotcrete jackets around existing elements,

Steel jackets.

FRP-Strengthening Applications

Type

Application

Fibre Dir.

Schematic

Flexural Tension and/or side face of beam Along long. axis of beam Section
Flexural
Tension and/or
side face of
beam
Along long.
axis of beam
Section
Shear Side face of beam (u-wrap) Perpendicular to long. axis of beam Section
Shear
Side face of
beam (u-wrap)
Perpendicular
to long. axis
of beam
Section
Around Confinement Circumferential column Section
Around
Confinement
Circumferential
column
Section

Typical FRP applications as strengthening material:

Flexural strengthening of slab (strips, sheets),

Flexural strengthening of beam (strips, sheets, fabrics),

Shear strengthening of beam (angles, sheets, fabrics),

Shear strengthening and confinement of column (sheets, fabrics, shells),

Wrapping of concrete tank (sheets, fabrics),

Shear strengthening of beam-column joint (strips, sheets, fabrics).

FRP Materials

Wet lay-up
Wet lay-up
Installation Techniques
Installation Techniques

Used with flexible sheets Saturate sheets with epoxy adhesive Place on concrete surface

Epoxy Roller
Epoxy
Roller
with epoxy adhesive Place on concrete surface Epoxy Roller Resin acts as adhesive AND matrix Externally

Resin acts as adhesive AND matrix

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

FRP Materials

Installation Techniques
Installation Techniques

Pre-cured

Used with rigid, pre-cured strips

Apply adhesive to strip backing

Place on concrete surface

Not as flexible for variable structural shapes

surface Not as flexible for variable structural shapes Resin acts as adhesive Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre

Resin acts as adhesive

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Post Strengthening using Steel Strips

Post Strengthening using Steel Strips - Heavy - Corrosion - Requires scaffold - Requires many joints

- Heavy

- Corrosion

- Requires scaffold

- Requires many joints

Post Strengthening using CFRP Strips

Introduced by Prof. Urs Meier (EMPA Switzerland) in 80’s

Introduced by Prof. Urs Meier (EMPA Switzerland) in 80’s - Light weight - Corrosion resistant -

- Light weight

- Corrosion resistant

- No scaffold

- No joints

Light weight - Corrosion resistant - No scaffold - No joints Concrete Epoxy CFRP Strip (1
Light weight - Corrosion resistant - No scaffold - No joints Concrete Epoxy CFRP Strip (1

Concrete

Epoxy

CFRP Strip (1 mm)

CFRP strips CFRP Fibers: 65….72 vol% Strength: 2500….3300 MPa E-Modul: 150…300 GPa
CFRP
strips
CFRP Fibers:
65….72 vol%
Strength:
2500….3300 MPa
E-Modul:
150…300 GPa
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

CFRP Laminates (UD-Strips) for Post-Strengthening

CFRP Laminates (UD-Strips) for Post-Strengthening Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli

Ibach Bridge, Switzerland 1991

Ibach Bridge, Switzerland 1991 Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli

Ibach Beridge, Switzerland 1991

Ibach Beridge, Switzerland 1991 Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Ibach Beridge, Switzerland 1991 Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli

Flexural strengthening of RC structures

Flexural strengthening of RC structures Strengthening of a concrete deck using CFRP strips on the top

Strengthening of a concrete deck using CFRP strips on the top and underside of the deck

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Flexural strengthening using CFRP strips of concrete girders in a Cement manufacturing building in Poland

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Daily Job

Daily Job Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli

CFRP strips provided by Swiss companies

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
t / a
Shear strengthening of RC structures Shear strengthening of RC structures Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre
Shear strengthening of RC structures
Shear strengthening of RC structures
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli
Duttweiler bridge ramp, Zurich, Switzerland
Installation of prefabricated CFRP L-shaped plates (shear strengthening) over existing CFRP strips (flexural

Installation of prefabricated CFRP L-shaped plates (shear strengthening) over existing CFRP strips (flexural strengthening)

Shear Strenghtening of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using CFRP-Laminates

of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using CFRP-Laminates Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli
Placing of CFRP fabrics for shear strengthening of DK 81 bridge above railway to Laziska
Placing of CFRP fabrics for
shear strengthening of
DK 81 bridge above railway
to Laziska power plant in
Poland
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli
Third International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2006) December 13-15 2006, Miami,
Third International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2006)
December 13-15 2006, Miami, Florida, USA
FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH NEAR
SURFACE MOUNTED CFRP STRIPS
Renata Kotynia
Renata
Kotynia
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF LODZ, POLAND
December 15 th 2006

Ma ter ials Sci ence

& Technolog

y

OBJECTIVES INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF STRENGTHENING  f = 6÷7‰  f = ? EXTERNAL BONDING
OBJECTIVES
INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF STRENGTHENING
 f = 6÷7‰
 f = ?
EXTERNAL BONDING
NSMR CFRP BONDING
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli
Renata
Kotynia
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF LODZ, POLAND

Near Surface Mounting Reinforcement (NSMR)

Near Surface Mounting Reinforcement (NSMR) Flexural strengthening of a concrete deck in the region of negative
Near Surface Mounting Reinforcement (NSMR) Flexural strengthening of a concrete deck in the region of negative

Flexural strengthening of a concrete deck in the region of negative bending moment using Near Surface Mounting Reinforcement (NSMR) technique by cutting a slot in the concrete deck and placing the CFRP into the slots; industry plant, Stuttgart, Germany

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Seismic retrofitting

Seismic retrofitting Application of CFRP fabrics to concrete columns for seismic retrofitting of Reggio Emilia football
Seismic retrofitting Application of CFRP fabrics to concrete columns for seismic retrofitting of Reggio Emilia football

Application of CFRP fabrics to concrete columns for seismic retrofitting of Reggio Emilia football stadium, Italy

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Seismic retrofitting of column-beam joints of Aigaleo football stadium in Athens, Greece,
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Seismic retrofitting of column-beam joints of Aigaleo football
stadium in Athens, Greece, using CFRP fabrics with steel
anchorages
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Cooling Towers

Cooling Towers Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli

Main Reference:

Bulletin 14
Bulletin 14

ISIS Canada Guidelines and Educational Modules www.isiscanada.com

Swiss Pre-Code SIA 166 (2004)

Modules www.isiscanada.com Swiss Pre-Code SIA 166 (2004) Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud

1. List of existing documents/guidelines/standards

fib Bulletin 14 (2001).

Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures.

Technical report, International Federation for Structural Concrete.

ACI 440.2R-02 (2002). Guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures. American Concrete Institute.

JCSE (2001).

Recommendations for upgrading of concrete structures with use of

continuous fiber sheets.

Concrete Engineering Series 41, Japan Society of Civil

Engineers.

JBDPA (1999). Seismic retrofit design and construction guidelines for existing reinforced concrete buildings and steel encased reinforced concrete buildings using continuous fiber reinforced materials. Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association.

TR55 (2000). Design guidance for strengthening concrete structures using fibre composite materials. Technical Report No. 55 of the Concrete Society, UK.

TR57 (2003).

Strengthening concrete structures with fibre composite materials:

acceptance, inspection and monitoring.

Technical Report No. 57 of the Concrete

Society, UK.

ICE (2001). FRP composites – Life extension and strengthening of metallic structures. Design and practice guide of the Institution of Civil Engineers, UK.

ICBO (1997). Acceptance criteria for concrete and reinforced and unreinforced masonry strengthening using fiber-reinforced composite systems. International Conference of Building Officials Evaluation Service, Inc.

1

SIA E 166, SN 505 166. Swiss code for post-strengthening.

Basis of design and safety concept

Determination of the state of the (repaired) structure prior to strengthening:

- Field inspection

- Reviewing existing documents

- Structural analysis

Identification of deficiencies and a proper repair concept

Verification of Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

Verification of Serviceability Limit State (SLS)

Evaluation of Existing Structures

• Evaluation is important to (e.g. SIA 162/5 “Erhaltung von Betontragwerken”):

to (e.g. SIA 162/5 “Erhaltung von Betontragwerken”) : Determine concrete condition Identify the cause of the
to (e.g. SIA 162/5 “Erhaltung von Betontragwerken”) : Determine concrete condition Identify the cause of the
to (e.g. SIA 162/5 “Erhaltung von Betontragwerken”) : Determine concrete condition Identify the cause of the
to (e.g. SIA 162/5 “Erhaltung von Betontragwerken”) : Determine concrete condition Identify the cause of the

Determine concrete condition

Identify the cause of the deficiency Establish the current load capacity

Evaluate the feasibility of FRP strengthening

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Evaluation of Existing Structures

• Evaluation should include:

of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual
of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual
of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual
of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual
of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual
of Existing Structures • Evaluation should include: All past modifications Actual size of elements Actual

All past modifications

Actual size of elements Actual material properties

Location, size and cause of cracks, spalling

Location, extent of corrosion

Quantity, location of rebar

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Evaluation of Existing Structures

• One of the key aspects of strengthening:

the key aspects of s t r e n g t h e n i n

State of concrete substrate

• Concrete must transfer load from the elements to the FRPs through shear in the adhesive

• Surface modification required where surface flaws exist

Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

Basis of design and safety concept

Accidental situation such as loss of FRP due to impact, vandalism or fire:

assuming unstrengthened member with materials safety factors equal to 1.0 at ULS,

Special design considerations: impact resistance, fire resistance, cyclic loading, extra bond stresses due to the difference in thermal expansion coeff between FRP and concrete,

Basis of design and safety concept

Design should be such that brittle failure modes, such as shear and torsion are excluded.

It should be guaranteed that:

the internal steel is sufficiently yielding in ULS , so that the strengthened member will fail in a ductile manner, despite the brittle nature of concrete crushing, FRP rupture or bond failure.

Models for constituent materials and partial safety factors (fib report 2001)

SLS verification

For SLS verification, a linear response is considered for the constituent materials and partial safety factor of the materials:

M 1.0

In the case of FRP:

f

E

fk

f

Where E fk is the characteristic value of the secant modulus of elasticity.

ULS verification

a) Full composite action between concrete and FRP EBR

The design strength of the concrete:

.

f

cd

. f

ck

c

Where:

f ck : characteristic value of the compressive strength. α : reduce compressive strength under long term loading (=0.85).

γ c : partial safety factor (=1.5).

For the steel reinforcement, a bilinear stress-strain relationship is considered:

f yk

s

f yd

Where:

f yd : design yield strength. f yk : characteristic yield strength.

γ s : material safety factor (=1.15).

0.20% 0.35%
0.20%
0.35%

Design stress-strain curves of constitutive materials at ULS

The tensile stress-strain behavior of the FRP for ULS verification can be idealized by means of a linear response, defined as:

f

E .f

fu

f

fd

Where:

f fk

f

f fd

Where:

γ f : FRP material safety factor (=1.20 to 1.50).

E fu

f fk

fuk

and E fu is the modulus of elasticity at ultimate, based on the characteristic values of the FRP tensile strength and ultimate strain.

Repair with

FRP

reinforcement

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Resistance Factors
Resistance Factors

Material

Bridge

Building

Steel  S =0.90  S =0.85
Steel
 S =0.90
 S =0.85
Concrete  C =0.75  C =0.6
Concrete
 C =0.75
 C =0.6
Carbon  frp = 0.75 FRP Glass  frp = 0. 50
Carbon
 frp = 0.75
FRP
Glass
 frp = 0. 50
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics Fibre Composites, FS12 Masoud Motavalli
Externally Bonded FRP:Basics
Fibre Composites, FS12
Masoud Motavalli

ISIS EC Module 4

b) Bond failure Assuming proper application of the FRP and the use of suitable materials, the bond failure will normally occur in the concrete. In the ULS verification, reference will be made to the design tensile or shear strength of the concrete, by introducing a material safety factor:

In particular case, e.g. for high strength concrete, the shear strength of the adhesive can be lower than the shear strength of the concrete. In the ULS verification, reference will be made the design tensile or shear strength of the adhesive, by considering a material safety factor:

cb

a

1.5

1.5

Ductility requirements

Minimum FRP strain at ultimate:

for concrete types C35/45 or lower:

fu c

,

0.005

0

for concrete types higher than C35/45:

fu c

,

0.0075

0

Where:

ε fu,c : the FRP strain in the critical section at ultimate. ε 0 : initial strain prior to strengthening.

Minimum strain in steel reinforcement at ultimate:

for concrete types C35/45 or lower:

su c

,

0.0043

for concrete types higher than C35/45:

su c

,

0.0065

Where ε su,c is the steel strain in the critical section at ultimate.