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CHAPTER 1

Introduction and Related literature INTRODUCTION Technology might the on the prove in education in is most simply and

comfortably here defines as an array of tools that helpful advancing of student computers People of learning in the use and, one of this technology is the computer , with ever-expanding the learning presence process. education world, many wonder about the effects of it have computational devices for centuries, But only since relatively recent invention electronic computers have they truly become necessary to maximum academic achievement. Computer may equipped the learners to enhance their abilities and skills in exploring and gaining knowledge, and with the other related it may be support the learning technologies of every process

learners. But sometimes wrong usage of computer may affect the students academic performance like being addicted to computer games, instead of attending the class the students will absent because of computer games, aside from computer games some students are being involved of in cyber to crime. the In this are study the is it the a researchers effects will investigate what other

computer

students,

destructive technology for the learners or an aid for a good teaching strategy for the teachers. Computer can help to develop and educate or acquire knowledge in selecting, planning, processing, designing a simplest way of finding new ideas, concepts in discovering the unknown. It is useful

especially in finding information. However computer often connotes more than the ability to use several way specific applications such and as Microsoft word, Microsoft Internet Explorer other application

parts, processing and storing of a certain data. By the use of integrated technology and media resources, student is can integrate their skills in the process of learning. Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels to program and to advance problem solving it also refers to knowledge of the non- technical and lowtechnical aspects of the capabilities and limitations of computers and of the capabilities and limitations of computers and of the social, vocational and educational implications of computers. In this study theres a trend of computer literacy to the academic performance of the fourth year students of Surigao City National High School. In this study the researchers decided to study what are the effects of computer literacy in the academic performance of the fourth year students of Surigao City National High school, school year 20132014 here in Surigao city, before they graduate, the

researchers want to know what are the positive and negative effects of computer literacy in the fourth year students, and to diagnose what are the attitudes that computer literacy students had been learned.

RELATED LITERATURE and STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related

literature and studies, both local and foreign, which provides a background and a frame of reference upon which the conceptual framework and other entries of this study were formulated. Foreign Literature Veer (2005) pointed out that the progress of a country depends upon the quality of its teachers... training is essential for every teacher. Trained teachers can do much more than untrained teachers. Teachers need continuous program for the development in the field of education .Lee (2003) stated that there is a definite deficit in the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to use ICT as aneffective teaching-learning tool. Well-trained teachers using ICT are not available in sufficient quantity. This is partly because many teachers regard technology as a threat to their authority as the main source of knowledge. Some teachers ignored the use of computers because they thought that computer will replace them in their field in the

future. In addition, pupils are often superior to their teachers in computer skills, further undermining the traditional authority of teachers. Consequently,there is the need to break away from the conventional working culture of teachers as being solitary and rather to build multi-disciplinary specialists and teams of teachers, curriculum ICT technicians, who could provide the

range of skills necessary for the preparation of quality IT-based teaching materials. Jones (2003) underscores the viewpoint that computers have proven to be immensely useful tools for teachers and students, and they are now considered to be an essential component of primary and secondary education in the United States. In order to be able to teach with computers, teachers need to havemastered a basic level of computer literacy, and they need todevelop pedagogical techniques for curriculum.Baldauf human life. The (2009) rapid integrating computers into the indicated pace of that digital logical

technologies have had a profound impact on most aspects of technology development has given the currentgeneration one of the most fascinating eras in which to live.Nettlebeck (2005) also identified that there is no choice but torecognize that the new information and computer technologies undergird much of the social and educational context in which we now find ourselves. Abecede (2003) specified that todays need to be equipped not only with expertise and effective teaching world teachers subject-specific

methodologies, but with

the capacity to assist students to meet the demands of the

emerging

knowledge-base

society.

Teachers

therefore

require familiarity with new forms of

ICT and need to have

the ability to use that technologyto enhance the quality of teaching and learning.Jung (2002) stated that ICT have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example,institution like the Cyber Teacher Training Center (CTTC) inSouth Korea are taking advantage of the internet to provide better teacher professional development opportunities to in-service teachers. The government funded CTTC, established in1997, offers selfdirected, self-paced Web-based courses for primary and secondary Computering Reform and school the teachers. Information and Courses Society, Education. include Education Online

FutureSociety

tutorials are also offered, with some courses requiring occasional face-to-face meetings. According to Corbel (2004), computer literacy skills are taught because they: lay the foundations for developing a critical understanding of the Information Age;

Background of the Study There has been a trend towards the effects of computer literacy on the academic performance of the Fourth year Student of Surigao City National High school. The idea is to enable the present generation of the fourth year Student at the Secondary School level to develop is an the use of computer or technology. device that Computer electronic machine

accepts

data

as to

inputs produce stated

and the that

processes output

them or

electronically Essian

desired the

information with the aid of a set of instructions. (2008) traditional definition of literacy is the ability to read and write, listen and speak and enumerate. However to use and communicate in a diverse range of technologies. Literacy has also been expanded to include skills in computer, images basic numeric sound, still in and moving based their and graphical (1985) elements that digital use

communication. Oyedeji said people acquired knowledge to promote activities for academic performance or gains. Many writers have therefore written in favor of the effect of School (2005) computer Students defined literacy on possessed their by Secondary Robert academic as an

achievement of computer science in secondary schools. computer literacy essential program in schools from elementary to high school which teaches students how to use computer and navigate some computer programs. Emphasis has been laid on the following reasons: 1) To enable the present generation of school children at all level, appreciate the potentials of the computer. 2) To enable student to be able to use the computer in various work of life and later occupation.

3)

To enable students to develop the use of computer as teaching tool in all with subject the use areas of and to familiarize technology. students computer

4) 5)

To expose the students to the latest scientific knowledge and skills. To bring about a computer literacy in Surigao City National High School. Computer science, which is an aspect required of computer students. Computer can be used in our secondary schools to teach physics, chemistry is expected that with the appropriate use of computer in teaching and learning of computer science students should be able to computer and enhance their interest in studying computer science. It becomes necessary therefore, for the

researcher to investigate for the effect of computer literacy possessed by Fourth year school students of Surigao City National High School on their academic achievement. The need to improve on computer literacy in Fourth year Students on their academic achievement in Surigao City National High School should not be over emphasized. The primary purpose of computer science study is to equip the students with the current method of skill acquisition and inculcating in them attitudes towards computer science.

Olaitan (1984) stated that the following would be the 1) objectives To help of computer science study to on at the a secondary school levels: students adequate skill advance make living and progressively their

academic performance? 2) 3) 4) To enable student on how to acquire basic

knowledge in computer science? To enable student develop interest in computer science. To prepare students for further studies in computer science Teachers have to adopt strategies and means that

would help them achieve the desired objectives. It is against this background that necessitated the

researchers to carry out this study on the effect of computer literacy possessed by Fourth year students on their academic performance with a view to finding out the true picture of how things are in the said secondary school. Statement of the Problem This on their project aims at finding in the effect of City computer literacy possessed by Fourth Year students academic Performance Surigao National High school academic year 2013-2014.

Specifically, the purposes of the project work are to find out: The following research questions guided this study: 1) 2) 3) Is Is computer computer literacy literacy affecting affecting the the students students study habit? learning process? What are the students attitudes towards the use of computer system in teaching of computer science? Hypothesis: Problems 1 and 2 are hypothesis free. However,

problem 3 is hypothesized as: There is no significant difference between the attitudes towards the use of computer computer system of the on students on the effect of of

literacy

the

academic

performance

fourth year students. THEORITICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The effect of computer literacy to the academic performance of fourth year students of Surigao City National needs high School are Hence, the researchers by only the

those

that

commonly

encountered

students.

Profile of the student respondents in terms of: Age Gender Citizenship

The effects of computer literacy to the academic performance of fourth year students of Surigao City National high School. Positive effects Negative effects

Figure1. Schematic Diagram of the Study

Significance of the Study When the researchers carry out a research on how the effects of computer literacy on the academic performance of Fourth Year Students of Surigao City National High school, the researchers are balancing several sets of requirements.

Communitywill be

this to

study know

will the

be

useful of

to

the

community because every people uses computer and they thankful effects computer literacy in their daily activities. Parents-in this study the parents will be

informed about the students academic performance. Students- will be guided and help them implicate more knowledge about computer literacy. Researchers- In this study they could give them more knowledge to about computer literacy and its effect could be implicate to the learners. Teacher- in this study will give knowledge and idea about who computer will who literacy able to especially learn the for uses the of learners

computer as an application to the learning-process. Generally, great also the ideas want the researchers be used of want to the to carry contribute everybody of

that

will to also

along in terms of becoming computer literate. They to talk and some for importance computer in data processing, teaching and learning in classroom communication. Talking about this issue will motivate both the teachers and students that were not willing to learn computer to embrace it.

Therefore, in this research work the researchers meant to strategies the way forward to all the teachers and students and also the school to buy the idea of not been contended with the little knowledge they have, there by becoming more hungry for more knowledge especially computer knowledge to enable them cope with the world of information technology, also this will help in the improvement of computer science in our society. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The coverage of the study of is limited year to content of focused on the effect of computer literacy in the academic performance Fourth Students Surigao City National High School Surigao City. This Study were conducted at Surigao City National High School during the academic year 2013-2014.

Definition of Terms a) Computer: A computer is an electronic machine or device that accepts data as inputs and processes them electronically to produce the desired output or b) information with the the aid ability of to a set use of and instructions. Literacy: Involves communicate in a diverse range of technologies. While the traditional definition of technologies is the ability to read and communicate.

c)

Computer Literacy: Is the knowledge and skills required to use a computer as a problem-solving tool.

d)

Data

Processing:This

is

the

manipulation

of

computer does in data in other transform it into information. e) Information Technology: electronic equipment, The study or use of for especially computers

storing, analyzing and sending out information.