Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Supercritical Boilers

C.Jayadevan
BHEL -Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Emerging Market Requirements
High Reliability & Availability
Highest economically achievable plant
efficiency and heat rate
Suitable for differing modes of operation
Suitable for different quality of fuel
Ability to operate under adverse grid conditions /
fluctuations
Minimum emission of Pollutants
Lowest life cycle cost
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Thermal Power Generation
Higher cycle efficiency for :
- Conservation of fuel resources
- Reduction of Atmospheric Pollutants - SO
X
& NO
X
- Reduction in CO
2
emission (linked to global
warming)
- Better economy in power generation where fuel
costs are high and pollution control requirements
are stringent
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Cycle Efficiency
Higher efficiency can be realised with
E Higher live steam parameters
E Adoption of double reheat cycle
E Reduction in condenser absolute pressure
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Increase of Cycle Efficiency due to
Steam Parameters
1 75
24 1
30 0
538/539
538/566
566 /566
580/600
600/620
6 . 7 7
5 . 7 9
3 .7 4
5 . 7 4
4 .8 1
2 . 7 6
4 .2 6
3 .4 4
1 . 4 7
3 .3 7
2 . 6 4
0 . 7 5
2 .4 2
1 . 7 8
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

o
f

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

[
%
Pressur e [b ar]
HP/ RH ou tl et temp eratu re [Deg . C ]
I n c re a se o f C ycl e E ff ic i e nc y d u e to S t eam P a r am e te r s
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
500 MW Steam Generator
Coal Consumption and Emissions
Subcritical
Unit
Supercritical
Unit
Coal Saving t/year Base 68800
CO
2
Reduction t/year Base 88270
SO
2
Reduction t/year Base 385
Basis:
Cycle Efficiency

%

Base

+1.0
No. of operating
hrs.
Hrs./year 8000 8000


Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Cycles
+ Initially adopted in the late fifties and sixties
+ Higher Steam temperature employed on some units
+ Unit sizes also witnessed an increasing trend
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Operating Experience
The first generation supercritical units
) Experienced increased forced outages
) Witnessed reduced plant reliability and
availability
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Increased outages were
caused by
+ Inadequate experience while
extrapolating to the new designs and
the increased unit sizes.
+ Inadequate knowledge of high
temperature materials.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Reversal of steam pressures to subcritical
range
Lowering of steam temperatures to 540
Deg. C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
The increased outages led to :
Current Trends in Steam
Parameters
- 1980s : Pressure increased from 175-180
bar to 225 bar; temp mostly
around 540 Deg. C
- 1990 : Pressures raised to 285 bar; temp
raised to 565-580-600 Deg. C
- 300 bar & 620 Deg. C not unusual today
- 255 bar 568/568 Deg. C commonly used presently
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
PC Firing - Pressure,Temperature
Trends
Denmark 1991 25 540 / 540
1997 29 580 / 580 / 580
Germany 1995 28.5 545 / 560
1999 27 580 / 600
Japan 1991 24.6 538 / 566
1995 24.6 566 / 593
2000 24.6 593 / 593
Country Year Pr (MPa) Temp C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Max Thermal Efficiency - 43% (1997) 45% (2000)
Implications of higher steam
parameters on boiler design
E Boiler type
E Materials
E Reliability and Availability
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Types of boilers
^ Drum type
^ Once-through type
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Drum type boiler
Steam generation takes place in furnace
water walls
Fixed evaporation end point - the drum
Steam -water separation takes place in the
drum
Separated water mixed with incoming feed
water
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once Through Boiler
Once -through flow through all sections of
boiler (Economiser, Water walls & Superheater)
Feed pump provides the driving head
Suitable for sub critical & super critical
pressures
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Furnace Arrangement
V
E
R
T
I
C
A
L

T
Y
P
E
S
P
I
R
A
L

T
Y
P
E
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
Advantages:
Better suited for sliding pressure operation
Steam temperature can be maintained over wider load
range under sliding pressure
Quick response to load changes
Shorter start up time
Higher tolerance to varying coal quality
Suitable for sub critical & super critical pressures
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
Requirements :
Stringent water quality
Sophisticated control system
Low load circulation system
Special design to support the spiral furnace
wall weight
High pressure drop in pressure parts
Higher design pressure for components from
feed pump to separator
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Advanced Cycles
Effect on Boiler Components
Evaporator (Furnace) walls
Superheaters
Thickwalled boiler components
Steam piping
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Furnace walls
Increased operating pressure increases
the medium temperatures.
Increased regenerative feed heating
increases the fluid temp entering.
Larger furnaces required for NO
X
reduction, increase SH steam
temperature at furnace wall outlet.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Superheaters
Tube metal temperatures in final sections
increase with outlet steam temperature.
Susceptibility for high temperature
corrosion.
Susceptibility to steam side oxidation
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Thick walled components
Higher pressure & temperature lead to increased
thickness of :
-Shells of separator, start-up system
components, SHO header..
-Main steam piping.
Higher thickness results in larger temperature
gradients across walls.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Requirements of Materials for
Supercritical cycles
Strength to resist rupture at design condition
Fatigue strength to withstand cycling stresses
Ability to resist stress concentrations
Resistance to oxidation,corrosion and erosion
Ability to withstand damaging metallurgical changes
Ease of fabrication
Good physical properties to minimise thermal stresses
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Low Alloy steels
- Can meet live steam temperatures of 540 Deg. C
- Reduced creep strength at higher temperatures
calls for high thickness
- Poor resistance to oxidation at high temperatures
- Good workability & high thermal conductivity
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Austenitic steels
Superior high temp. strength
High Steam side oxidation
High temperature corrosion
Susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking
Expensive
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
New Materials
Optimised to achieve :
Greater long-term rupture strength
Improved resistance to high temperature
corrosion
Lower oxide film growth
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T91/P91
Bridged the gap between Low alloy ferritic steels
and Austenitic steels
Higher Creep strength compared to the earlier
ferritic steels
Lower thickness resulting from the higher creep
strength advantageous in meeting transient
temperature changes
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T92/P92
Development on T91/P91
Creep rupture strength higher than T91/P91
(20 to 30% higher at 600 Deg C)
Will facilitate raising steam temperature by
20 deg C over T91/P91 capability
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T23/T24
Higher Creep Rupture Strength
compared to T22
Potential candidate for use in
evaporator walls
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Steam temperature range for Materials

MATERIAL LIVE STEAM TEMPERATURE
X20CrMo V12-1 < 565 Deg.C (< 545 Deg.C for SH)
X3CrNiMoN17-13
Esshete 1250
565 Deg.C 580 Deg.C

TP 347 H FG, SUPER 304 H 580 Deg.C - 600 Deg.C
HR 3C (25 Cr 20 Ni Nb N)
AC 66 (27 Cr 30 Ni Nb Ce)
NF 709 (20 Cr 25 Ni Mo Nb Ti)
Incoclad 671/ Incoloy 800 HT
600 Deg.C - 620 Deg.C

Compound Tubes
Coextruded Tubes
Alloy 617 (NiCr 23 Co 12 Mo)
620 Deg.C 720 Deg.C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Considerations involved in selection of
the steam parameters
Life cycle costing
Requirements of pollution minimisation
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Parameters to be decided
on a case to case basis