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cd command:

CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS and the Windows command line.

Examples cd\

Goes to the highest level, the root of the drive. cd..

Goes back one directory. For example, if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory, this would take you to C:\Windows> cd windows c:\windows> cd\windows\system32 c:\windows\system32>

cls command:

Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt.

color command:
0 = Black 8 = Gray 1 = Blue 9 = Light Blue 2 = Green A = Light Green 3 = Aqua B = Light Aqua 4 = Red C = Light Red 5 = Purple D = Light Purple 6 = Yellow E = Light Yellow 7 = White F = Bright White Color 0A

Creates a Black background with light bright green text, similar to many of the FTP, telnet, and old BBS console screens.

compact command:
Compact is a MS-DOS command used to compress, uncompress, and view compressed files. compact

Display all the files in the current directory and their compact status.

control command:
Control enables Microsoft Windows users to open the Control Panel and items within the Control Panel from the command prompt. Control desktop. Control color. Control folders. Control fonts. Control infrared. Control international. Control keyboard. Control mouse. Control netconnections. Control netware. Control panel. Control printers. Control schedtasks. Control telephony Control userpasswords. Control admintools

convert command:
Converts FAT volumes to NTFS.

convert d: /fs:ntfs
Convert the d: drive, which in this example is a FAT volume, to a NTFS volume. Note, if this volume is anything other than FAT, such as NTFS or RAW, this command will generate an error.

date command:
The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date.


Display the current date and prompt for a new one. If no date is entered, the current date will be kept.

del command:
Del is a command used to delete files from the computer.


del c:\windows\test.txt

format command:
Format is used to erase information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive. Format

format c: format c:/q(quick) format c:/s(slow)

Defrag command:
defrag c/d/e/f:

Defrag the main hard drive and correct any fragmented files. /F /U Insures that no empty space remains between files. Leaves empty space if any is found between files. Sorts files in specific sort <order>. N = Alphabetic name order. -N = Reverse alphabetic name order. E = In alphabetic file extension order. /S:order -E = Reverse alphabetic file extension order. D = In date order (earliest to latest). -D = Reverse date order (old to new). S = By file size (small to large) -S = By file size (large to small) /B Reboot computer after completing defrag. /Skiphigh Load defrag into conventional memory. /LCD Start defrag in LCD color mode. /BW Start defrag in black and white color mode. /G0 Disable mouse and character set. /A Start defrag in automatic mode. /H Move hidden files.

md command:
Made directory/ folder in any drive. md D: md Pakistan

rename command:
Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.

rename c:\chope hope

Rename the directory chope to hope. rename *.txt *.bak

Rename all text files to files with .bak extension.

rmdir command:
Removes an empty directory in MS-DOS. To delete directories with files or directories within them the user must use the deltree command, or if you are running Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP use the /S option. rmdir c:\full

If a directory contains files or folders when attempting to delete the directory you will receive "The directory is not empty." error message. If you want to delete directories that are full, use the deltree command or if you're using Windows 2000 or later use the below example with the /s switch. rmdir c:\test

Remove the test directory, if empty. rmdir c:\test /s

Windows 2000, Windows XP and later versions of Windows can use this option with a prompt to permanently delete the test directory and all subdirectories and files. Adding the /q switch would suppress the prompt. To delete directories with files or directories within them the user must use the rmdir.

logoff command:
The logoff command is an external command that allows a user to quickly logoff their computer from the command line or within a batch file.


Would immediately log off the profile currently logged into Windows.

shutdown command:
Enables a user to shutdown a Windows XP computer from the command line as well as perform additional features that are not available through Windows. shutdown -r -c "Rebooting for latest updates."

This would display a Windows System Shutdown window for 30 seconds, warning the user that the computer is going to shutdown and then restart the computer.

lock and unlock command:

Lock allows a user to lock a drive, enabling direct disk access for an application. Unlock allows a users to unlock a drive, disabling direct disk access for an application. lock c:

Lock the C: drive When typing the above command you will receive the below prompt. WARNING: The LOCK command enables direct access by programs that can CORRUPT file names and DESTROY disk data, resulting in the loss of files on your disk. Are you sure (Y/N)? unlock c:

Unlock the C: drive It is important to know that if errors occur indicating that a process, such as fdisk or a setup of a new program or operating system, cannot continue because the hard drive is locked, that using the unlock command will resolve this issue.

unformat command:
Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted.

unformat c:

Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted.

Fail, Pass Formula =IF(B2<=7,"fail","pass") in Excel Grade Formula =IF(B9>35,"A",IF(B9>32,"B", IF(B9>25,"C",IF(B9>15,"D","F"))))

scandisk command:
Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6.2 and is a software utility capable of checking the hard drive and floppy diskette drive for any disk errors.

scandisk c: /autofix

Scandisk the main hard drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors.

start command:
Enables a user to start a separate window in Windows from the Windows command line.

start c:\music\"my song.mp3"

If the file or folder has a space in it you must surround it with quotes. In the above example we're starting the MP3 song file "my song.mp3". Without the quotes surrounding the file name with a space you would get a windows cannot find the file error. start http://www.computerhope.com/

Open the Computer Hope web page from the command line.

fdisk command:
Fdisk is used to delete and create partitions on the hard drive in earlier versions of MS-DOS and Windows. Command used to rewrite the Master Boot Record. Additional information about fdisk FDISK /MBR /mbr. FDISK /CMBR Recreates the Master Boot Record on specified disk. Performs the same functions as <DISK> FDISK /MBR except can be used on other disk drives. FDISK 1/PRI:100 FDISK 1/EXT:500 FDISK 1/LOG:250 FDISK /Q FDISK /STATUS Creates a 100MB DOS partition on the hard drive. Creates a 500MB meg extended DOS partition on the hard drive. Creates a 250MB logical drives on the hard drive. Prevents fdisk from booting the system automatically after exiting fdisk. Shows you the current status of your hard drives.


Makes FDISK not check the disk integrity allowing the drives to be created faster.