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Title : Forensic Photography Learning Aids Required: Overhead Projector, Laptop/Desk top, white board marker, white board

eraser, SLR Camera. Participant Equipment Required: SLR Camera, 35mm Film (Colored), Tickler, ballpen, measuring tape/angular scale, coupon bond. Training Reference Used: Criminal Investigation Manual, Crime Laboratory Manual, PNP POP 2010, PPSC Forensic Book and other lecture notes. Introduction The criminalist and investigator could not rely on their memories in which photograph would serve as a sort of artificial memory for them. Remembering all the things they had examined or investigated would be impossible after several years before the case is presented in court. They need and preserved the things they had examined and investigated for future references and court presentation. Photography can be used for identification, record, preservation and substitution of evidence of a crime. It can discover things which could not be seen by the naked eye as photography extends mans visual limitation take for instance an obliterated writings, written words under super imposed ink which on the same in color to the eye could be separated and shown singly by infrared photography. Object hidden in boxes and other container may be detected and identified by X-ray photography. The writing chemically erased can be restored by ultra-violet photography. Photography is one of the fastest mean of preserving the physical appearance of an object or evidence such injuries sustain by victim or suspect which may change as time goes by. It also help the Judges and lawyers to easily appreciate how the crime look like without going to the crime scene which may have different view as compared to the time the incident happened. It help illustrate how an object look like without having going to explain by eye witnesses on how it look like as to the color, shape, extend of damage, size etc. Training Goal To provide the participants working knowledge on how to document/ preserve the crimes scene through photography, the basic operation of the SLR camera, the different techniques on how to take photograph on the different types of crime scene and the preparation of photographic evidence for court presentation. Training Objective: At the end of the course the participants will be able to: Define the different terms use in this lesson. Know the importance and uses photography in crime investigation. Have a basic knowledge on the different processes involved in photography. Know the basic operation of a camera or the Single Lens Reflect Camera (SLR) and its accessories such as flash, lenses and others 5. Know the proper procedure on how to take photograph of a crime scene and all physical evidence. 1. 2. 3. 4.

6. Know how to take photograph of various crime scene under any circumstances. 7. Know how to photograph a suspect and crime victim for identification. 1 Definition of Terms

Photography Is derived from the Greek words, photos- which means light and graphy which means to draw. It is defined as a science or an art of process of producing images of objects by the action of light on sensitized surface with the aid of an image-forming device known as camera and its accessories and the chemical process involved therein. Forensic is derived from the word forum- which means place for legal debate. Forensic Photography deals with the study of notion of photography, its application to law enforcement work and the preparation of photographs for court presentation. Photograph is the mechanical result of photography. To produce a photograph, light is needed aside from sensitized materials (film and paper). Camera a light tight box; with a lens to form an image; with a shutter and diaphragm to control the entry of the image; a means of holding a film to record the image/ and a viewer or viewfinder to show the photographer what the image is. Lens a medium or system which converges or diverges light passing thru it to form images. Film - a cellulose tape embedded with sensitized solution capable of recording images thru light. Infra-red photography is the art or process of photographing or recording unseen objects by the naked eye by means of infra-red light. Ultra-violet photography is the art or process of photographing unseen objects by the naked eye with the use of ultra-violet rays and filters. The main purpose of photographing ultra-violet photography is to provide information about an object or materials, which cannot be obtained by ordinary photo methods. Macro Photography is photographing of object at greater that 1:1 ratio up to nine (9) times magnification. It is the making of enlarge copies of prints such as photographs of tampered serial number of firearms, engine number and chassis number of motor vehicle and the like. Micro photography is the art or process of photographing minutes objects and magnified by means of the microscope and enlarge from 10 times up. Mug-shot is the process of taking photographs of the suspect/s in full length, half body, right and left side views, and two quarter views. To unidentified cadavers, include marks on the victims body especially tattoo/scar for identification. Angle of view the amount of area visible when looking through a lens. Angle of view is determined by the focal length of the lens. The angle of view for a standard 50 mm lens is approximately 47 degrees; for a 28 mm wide angle lens, it is 75 degrees; for a 135 mm telephoto lens, it is 18 degrees. Depth of Field the distance between the nearest and the farthest objects in apparent sharp focus when the lens is focused at a given point.

Aperture/ f-stop a lens opening. The hole or opening in a camera lens through which light passes to expose the film. The size of aperture is either fixed or adjustable. Perturb size is marked in f-stops. ASA stands for American Standard Association. An early organization or group that determines the numerical ratings for film speed. A number which represents a films sensitivity to light. At present, the organization which rates film speed is the ISO (International Standard Organization). DIN a numerical rating used to describe the emulsion speed or light sensitivity of German made films. Deutche Industries Norm (DIN). Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) Camera a type of camera that allows the photographer to see through the cameras lens when viewing through the viewfinder. Normal Focal Length A lens which has a focal length approximately equal to but not more than twice the length of the diagonal of the negative material. Angle of view exceeds 75 degrees but not less than 45 degrees. Wide Angle Lens A lens which has a focal length less than the diagonal of its material. Angle of view exceeds 75 degrees. Long or Telephoto Lens A lens which has a focal length equal to more than twice the diagonal of the negative material. Angle of view less than 45 degrees. Zoom Lens Lenses which allow the user to continuously vary the focal length without changing the focus. 2. Elements of Photography a. Object - The subject of the picture and can be anything under the sun. b. Light - May be from many different sources, principally daylight, but there are many sources of artificial light which can be used. c. Camera - See definition d. Sensitized Materials - Its either be film and paper. In the film type camera it is always film, now on digital, its electronic memory. e. Chemical Process - The chemical involved to process a film now on digital, can be printed directly on photo paper or ordinary paper. 3. Importance of Crime Scene Photography a. Permanent Record A permanent record of the crime scene is considered indispensable to a successful presentation of the case in court. A crime scene that is altered through careless and haste can never be restored to its exact original condition. b. Significance of certain aspects of the crime scene In the initial stages of an investigation, the significance of certain aspects of the crime scene may not be evident, although later they may vitally affect the issues in the case. c. Reconstruction of the crime scene A study of photograph can also assist the trained investigator in reconstructing the crime scene and developing conclusions about how the crime occurred. In addition, the photographs will make the job of the prosecutor much easier when a case is presented in a court room. When necessary, photographs can be coordinated with crime scene sketches or drawings that made to scale.

4.

Basic Requirement of a Photograph Admitted as Evidence in Court

No matter how extensive the photographic efforts are at the crime scene, photographs must stand the test of legal admissibility. The general standards used to review the credibility of the photographers are: (See Figure 1) a. Accurate representations of the crime scene or the object it purports to reproduce. b. Free of distortion c. Material and relevant to the point in issue. d. Unbiased. Written report on the proper chain of custody of photographic evidence. The chain of custody of the photographs must be maintained. The film should be removed from the camera and taken directly to processing unless some secure facility is available for overnight storage. If this does not occur, the judge or jury may disregard this most important evidence under the theory that the film may have been tampered with (Take statement of person who processed the film if different person process it indicating that it was processed in normal procedure). e. A written record that indicates a detail information about the photographs such as the case number, locations address, date, time, incident, name of victim, name of investigator, name of photographer, camera used, type of film used, objects photographed, weather condition and etc. 5 Uses of Photography in Crime Investigation a. Identification of the subject We produce pictorial record of everything regarding the crime to include the nearby surroundings. It is always better to take too many photographs than too few then select the best. It is useful in personal identification as well as in the identification of missing person, identification of stolen and lost properties . A mug shot photography is taken on suspect for identification that shows the following angle: 1. Frontal whole body, from head to foot with height scale behind. (could be with case number and name included) 2. Frontal half body, head to elbow. 3. Half body right side, head to elbow. 4. Half body left side, head to elbow. 5. Left Quarter view (half body-head to elbow) 6. Right Quarter view (half body-head to elbow) Note: The PNP Crime Laboratory is doing Composite Criminal Illustration by free hand and by the computerized method. This can be made possible when a witness to a crime have personally seen the suspects face. An accurate and detail description of the suspect by a witness can help bring the actual facial description of the suspect through the composite criminal illustration which would help in identifying the suspect. Free Hand Computer Generated

b. Preservation of evidence Preserve from necessary handling which might cause the evidence to deteriorate or otherwise become altered. c. Description of the Crime Scene It proves statements. In some instances, investigators are compelled to reconstruct or describe in court the details of the crime scene they have investigated several months ago but with the bulk of cases they have handled perhaps they may not exactly recall. With the aid of photographs, investigators will not find hard time to describe things in details. It provides a second look and often reveals detail that is not apparent during the physical examination. It records all things that an investigator may fail to notice. d. Substitution to original documents/evidence A photograph can be made as a representative of any evidence or documents. It helps the expert witness in illustrating their findings. It is also used to reproduce and copy documents. e. Record In court proceedings, judges, fiscals, and defense lawyers have generally never visited the scene of the crime. Photographs greatly facilitate them in interpreting the scene. It assists the court in understanding the case. It records all things that an investigator may fail to notice. 6 Procedure in Photographing the Crime Scene

The goal is to record useful information in a series of photographs which will enable the viewer to understand where and how the crime was committed. The term crime scene not only refers to the immediate area where the crime took place, but also to adjacent areas where important acts took place immediately before or after the crime was committed. Taking photograph of a crime scene starts from general to specific, however, in some circumstances photograph of some important evidence or item is taken immediately when such object need to be move or may change in appearance or disappear as time pass. To enable the viewer of the photographs gain a clear concept of its position with reference to other objects at the scene, the following procedure be observed: a. General View or Long-range General view or long range photographs of the overall scene fundamentally are taken to portray the areas as if a person viewing the scene is seeing it from the standing position. To obtain this result, the photographer takes the photograph with the camera at eye level. b. Medium View or Mid-range Medium view or mid-range photographs are taken in a manner which portrays the scene from approximately ten to twenty feet of distance from the subject matter. In order that the viewer be permitted to associate the crime scene with separate areas of the scene photographed, these areas should contain sufficient details to permit the viewer this association. c. Close-up View/ Range Close-up range photographs are normally taken approximately five feet or less from the subject matter. The attention of close-up photography is directed to object which could be effectively seen in the long-range and mid-range photographs.

Take necessary extreme close-up shot on the subject to show the extent of damage, objects that is small in size such as fingerprints, shoe print, tool marks, fibers, hair, injury, blood splatter, documents, tools, etc. Always take a second photograph with a scale to show the actual size of the object and the camera must always be parallel to the film plane (use tripod and a measuring scale/device to be more accurate ). 7 Sequential Photographs of the Crime Scene

Each crime scene has individual features that should be photographed. Keep in mind the nature of the offense and try to show those features that establish the elements of the offense. Photographs should be taken of: a. Views of the exterior of the building/ vehicle in relation to other buildings/ vehicles, roads/ streets, etc. b. Point of entry and exit outside and inside. The point of entry an exit should be shown in such a manner that the marks of force will be shown clearly. A scale should also be visible but never place a suspect tool into the tool mark because it may alter the evidence. c. Interiors of the crime scene/ room. When photographing the interior of a crime scene or a room, use a 35mm camera lens instead of wide angle lens. A wide angle lens creates distortion, especially when close-up photographs are taken. Take photograph from all corners to cover-up all sides of the room (overlapping), if possible a top view photograph of the floor. d. Condition (s) of the crime scene. It shows how thing or objects found at the scene and the general result of the incident. e. f. g. h. i. Articles left at the scene. Area from which valuable articles were removed. Trace evidence, such as hairs, fibers and cigarette butts. Tool marks and impressions of shoes or tire tracks. Fingerprints as well as articles on which these prints may be found.

Helpful Hints in taking photograph of a crime scene Signs of activity prior to the occurrence, such as the telephone receiver off the hook or wires cut, playing cards orderly stacked or scattered, TV and lights turned on, food in cooking stages, coffee cups, drinking glasses or liquor bottles, time watch and clock stopped should be recorded on film. In general, articles apparently in use immediately prior to the commission of the crime or which appear to have been disturbed from their customary position should be photographed. In suspected rape cases, the purpose of the photography is to record information or signs of any struggle at the scene where the attack occurred, or indications of the victims effort to resist attack; such as bruises, black and blue marks, torn clothing, etc. Bite marks should be photographed using oblique lighting, with and without a measuring device at the crime scene and also the morgue. In a rape-homicide investigation, infrared photography of the body may detect latent bite marks since hemorrhaging can occur in tissue under the skin. The location of foreign hairs and fibers, biological fluids and stains should be obtained and if the victim is a minor,. Secure a written permission from the parent or

guardian. It is recommended that the victims physician be present when such photographs are made. Blood spatter on walls should be photographed with the lens parallel to the stain so that directionally, the direction of the blood flowed can be determined. In sexual exploitation of childrens case, every room in a suspects residence should be photographed even if no physical evidence (such as photographs or video tapes) are found during a crime scene search. Chances are the suspect has concealed this materials at another location. Rarely will these photographs be discarded since they represent a trophy or remembrance of the conquest. When these photographs are recovered, they may be compared with the crime scene photos to prove they were taken in the suspects dwelling. Occasionally, a suspect will place his own camera on a tripod and using a cable release or self timer, will photograph himself with his victim. Usually, he will compose the photographs so his face is not seen. However, if the photograph is sharp enough, the suspect may still be identified through physical characteristics such as scars, marks, wrinkles, etc. In death due to asphyxia as a result of a hanging, doubt sometimes exist as to whether the occurrence is murder, suicide, or an accident. Photograph the original position of the body to help in determining the manner of death. Overall view of the body and rope should be taken at torso and foot level. Show the height of the body above ground; a murderer usually tries to raise the body completely, while the suicide victim frequently never gets his feet off the ground and is sometimes found in a sitting position or half-prone position. Photographs should be made to show the relative position of any object, such as a chair or a stool, which appears to have been kicked from under the feet of the deceased. Subject for close-up shots are the knots, its size, type and location on the neck; depth and location of the grooves in the neck; black-and-white marks around the edge of the groove (here, color film is especially helpful); signs of violence about the neck, suggesting prior strangulation; protrusions of the tongue, binding of the hands and feet, etc. In drowning case, the body is usually the sole object of interest. But did the deceased actually die of drowning or was he thrown into the water after death from some other cause. The photographic operation should be directed towards those facts which will help to resolve this question. Color film is exceptionally useful here since many of the significant clues may be matters of discoloration. Photograph the whole body, body from the position of standing observer and from the ground level. The latter view will show any distinction of the body. Close-up should include any foam about the mouth; wounds, peculiar markings, bruises, or unusual discoloration; articles such as seaweed, grasped in the hand; and any rope or wire bindings. Many of these views can be made at the morgue before autopsy. 8 Parts and Function of a Camera

There are hundred of different types of camera, though many are similar, none of them work exactly the same way even the same brand. Learning the basic function of a camera is more complete with the Single-Lens-Reflect (SLR) Camera which represents the different function or operation of a camera. a. Basic Parts of the Camera

1. Viewfinder The viewfinder enables a photographer to see the subject. There are basically two types of camera viewfinders. The first type will allow you to look

through the lens of the camera while the other will enable you to view at a plane parallel to the camera lens. 2. Focusing Mechanism SLR and DSLR cameras have another mechanism called the focusing mechanism, which is normally you can focus well using the viewfinder itself but SLR has focusing meters. 3. Shutter The camera shutter is a device that enables light to enter through the lens for small period of time to enhance the exposure of photographic film. There are different types of shutters used in modern day cameras like leaf shutter, diaphragm shutters, focal plane shutter, projector shutter and central shutters. 4. Lens This is considered to be the most important part of the camera. It is a far more important than the glossy dials and other advanced features that are part and parcel of modern day digital cameras. A basic camera lens comprises of multiple elements that will help you to add a creative element to your photography. The multiple elements in a camera lens help in directing light to the camera sensors so that it can get high clarity of the object being shot. The main aim of the lens and its multiple elements is to reduce any kind of aberrations. 5. Body The body of the camera helps in limiting the amount of light that exposes the sensitive film that is why it is being called light tight box. b. Types of Sensitize Materials

1. Films are mostly in SLR and point and shoot cameras. There are different types of films available in color or black and white. Color films include slow films (25-64 ISO), medium films (100-200 ISO), fast films (400-1000 ISO) and ultrafast films (1600-3200 ISO). 2. Sensitize Paper It can be a black and white or colored. It can have different texture such glossy, semi glossy and others.

Steps to follow to obtain good photographs a. When inserting a roll of film in the camera, you must always set your ASA dial according to the film speed as stated on the film cartridge. This adjusts your built-in light meter to the film's light sensitivity. Commercially available Films ASA 50, 100, 200, 400 b. For crime or accident scenes outdoor during day time, the shutter speed on the camera should be set at 1/125 sec. This is usually a good starting point for the shutter speed in outdoor bright daylight. Your shutter speed could change from a slower speed to a faster one depending on the light intensity and ASA of the film used at the time the photograph is taken. Shutter Speed B, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 Number 1 stands for a whole second and the others are fraction of a second. The shutter speed of 125 is capable of stopping the movement of the subject. Note: Use a shutter speed faster than 1/30 of a second for all hand held photographs. The camera must be supported with tripod, etc. for shutter speeds of 1/30 of a second or slower. A body move and camera shake when pressing the shutter release button may register in the photographs.

c. The lens opening or f-stop. The size of the lens opening in your camera is the other factor that determines the amount of light that reaches the film. The indicator on the camera for the degree of light passing through the camera lens is called the f number. The smaller the f number the bigger the opening and vice versa. Much like fast films and slow films, there are fast and slow lenses. A fast lens, for instance, is one that transmits more light. The user should be cautious, however, since fast lenses do not produce the sharpest images. The aperture affects the depth of field on the image, the higher the number, the smaller the lens opening, the smaller the lens opening, the greater depth of field. Standard F-stop of cameras f/1.4, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22

f/1.4

f/5.6

f/22

d. Adjust your light meter needle as seen in the viewfinder by turning the aperture ring located on the barrel of the lens until the needle is properly lined up. When the needle is properly lined up, this tells the photographer that the light entering the camera will produce a properly exposed photograph (Some camera uses light that brink as red, orange and green). Yellow + 3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 Less Green Average Red Much

e. Your final step in available light photography is to compose your shot and focus. You must control your breath before pressing the shutter release button. Split Method Out of focus Microprism Ground Screen

Object

Sharp focus

10.

Lighting Techniques a. Electronic flash (Note: Disregard the light meter in the camera when using electronic flash) b. Flash off camera c. Bounce flash d. Bounce off a white or light colored surface e. Manual flash: Add the distance up and down for the flash-to-subject distance then figure in the absorbance loss (one to three f/stops) f. Automatic flash with sensor facing the subject; use a range for two times or more times the actual flash-to-subject distance. g. Multiple flash h. Available light i. Painting with light

Your flash is so important that deserves special consideration. It serves as your artificial light. It must be with you at all times. With experience, you may be able to learn how to use the flash to duplicate almost any type of natural lighting. Even without experience, the flash can help improve crime scene photography a great deal. You normally need front lighting and the flash mounted on the camera will

provide it automatically. The problem is the shadow produced by the flash and possible reflected light from shinny subject that may affect the photograph. Steps to Follow to Obtain Properly Exposed Film in Artificial Light (i.e. Flash) Photography. 1. Your flash unit, now being your main light source, must be adjusted to the proper ASA setting according to the speed of the film being used-for the same reasons you adjusted the camera light meter to the film speed being used (Follow the manual). 2. Flash adjustment will be in accordance to the distance and lens opening you wanted to use for your shots. Some digital camera flash has automatic setting base on the setting made on the camera. 3. When choosing a setting you must keep in mind both the distance requirement and the desired DEPTH OF FIELD (DOF). 4. When using the MANUAL MODE, always ensure your Aperture setting corresponds with the distance indicated on your flash scale. Also, check the Thyristor Sensor to ensure that you have set it "M" position. NOTE: When using a flash as the light source, adjustment must be done to both the camera and the flash unit in order to obtain a properly exposed photograph. 11 Summary

Forensic Photography is a very broad topic but this module only includes those topics that are useful to field investigator and is helpful in the investigation of crimes. In this topic, we learn the different definition of terms use in this lesson, the uses and importance of photography in crime investigation. The different procedures and techniques on how to take photograph of a crime scene and physical evidence, the effect of light on the photograph as well as the use of artificial light to help obtain good photograph in various condition. The requirement for the admissibility of the photographic evidence in court, the forms or documents required to ensure authenticity of the photographs taken from a crime scene. The students will be able to operate the SLR camera and know the different processes involve to produce a good photograph. The students are required to have a hands-on practice on how to operate the camera (SLR). Will be given a scenario and make the practical exercises applying the different methods and techniques in taking photographs of a room and critiques follows after showing the results. Test questioned of 5 to 10 will be given to measure the level of knowledge gained by the students.

Republic of the Philippines Department of the Interior and Local Government National Police Commission PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ____________________________ _____________________ Date SOCO/CASE REPORT NR: ______________ SCENE OF CRIME EXAMINATION WORKSHEET SPECIMEN ENTRIES-PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN
FRAME NR SHUTTER SPEED

APERTURE

SUBJECT

LIGHTING

REMARKS

USE EXTRA SHEET FORM IF NECESSARY


CAMERA USED: LENS USED: DEVELOPING TIME: FIX TIME: PRINT PAPER: COMMENTS FILM TYPE: FLASH UNIT: DEVELOPED BY: LACATION: DATE & TIME:

PHOTOGRAPHER: INCIDENT: OFFICER ON CASE: REQUESTING PARTY: PLACE OF INIDENT:

TIME BESTARTED: TIME ENDED: WHEATHER CONDITION: LIGHTNING CONDITION: DISPOSITION:

Prepared by: Photographer

Certified Correct by: SOCO Team Leader

Noted by: