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Chapter Chapter 24 24

Machining processes that produce various shapes: Milling, Broaching, Sawing, and Filing; Gear Manufacturing

Various Various Shaped Shaped Parts Parts

Figure 24.1 Typical parts and shapes that can be produced with the machining processes described in this chapter.

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Milling Milling Characteristics Characteristics


Milling machine tools Wide variety of rotating cutters to produce chips (slab, face, end milling) z Tool may be vertical or horizontal z Produces flats, slots, angles, pockets, radii, and many other geometries
z z

Video Video

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Milling Milling Machines Machines

CNC CNC Milling Milling Machine Machine

Figure 24.15 Schematic illustration of (a) a horizontal-spindle column-andknee type milling machine and (b) vertical-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine. Source: After G. Boothroyd. R. Jerz
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Figure 24.17 A computer numerical-control (CNC) vertical-spindle milling machine. This machine is one of the most versatile machine tools. The original verticalspindle milling machine iused in job shops is still referred to as a Bridgeport, after its manufacturer in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Source: Courtesy of Bridgeport Machines Dibision, Textron Inc.

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Slab, Slab, Face, Face, and and End End Milling Milling
z z

Face Face Milling Milling


Produces flat surfaces quickly Can produce stepped surfaces

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Face-Milling Face-Milling Cutter Cutter

Face-milling Face-milling Cutter Cutter (inserts) (inserts)

Figure 24.7 Terminology for a face-milling cutter. R. Jerz


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Figure 24.5 A face-milling cutter with indexable inserts. Source: Courtesy of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

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Face-Milling Face-Milling Operation Operation

Cutter Cutter Position Position in in Face Face Milling Milling

Figure 24.4 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius. R. Jerz
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Figure 24.9 (a) Relative position of the cutter and insert as it first engages the workpiece in face milling. (b) Insert positions towards the end of cut. (c) Examples of exit angles of insert, showing desirable (positive or negative angle) and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all figures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to the page and rotates clockwise. R. Jerz
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Slab Slab Milling Milling


z

Slab Slab Milling Milling


Produces flat surfaces, contoured, or shaped surfaces (grooves, gears, etc.)

Figure 24.3 (a) Schematic illustration of conventional milling and climb milling. (b) labmilling operation showing depth-of-cut, d; feed per tooth, f; chip depth-of-cut, tc; and workpiece speed, v. (c) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance, lc, to reach full depth-of-cut. R. Jerz
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Slab Slab Milling Milling Cutters Cutters

Slab Slab Milling Milling Process Process Settings Settings

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End End Milling Milling Cutters Cutters


Produces a wide variety of shapes z Produces slots, angles, pockets, radii, and many other geometries
z

End End Milling Milling Geometries Geometries

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End End Milling Milling Cutters Cutters

End End Milling Milling Process Process Settings Settings

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Milling Milling Equations Equations

Equations, Equations, 1 1

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Equations, Equations, 2 2

Equations, Equations, 3 3

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Equations, Equations, 4 4

Equations, Equations, 5 5

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Equations, Equations, 6 6

Equations, Equations, 7 7

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Equations, Equations, 8 8

Milling Milling Machined Machined Surface Surface

Figure 24.13 Machined surface features in face milling. See also Fig. 24.6. R. Jerz
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Insert Insert Shape Shape and and Feed Feed Marks Marks

Milling Milling Machine Machine Settings Settings

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Example Example 24.1 24.1 (from (from textbook) textbook)


z

Cost Cost Elements Elements


Machine tool z Setup time z Load/unload time z Cutting time z Tool costs z Direct labor cost z Overhead

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Safety Safety Factors Factors


Rotating tool z Hot and sharp chips z Eye and skin irritation from cutting fluids
z

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