MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
MEM230
Mechanics of Materials
Course Web Site: http://www.mem.drexel.edu/mom
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
1 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanics of Materials
Study the behavior of SOLID bodies under the actions of various types of loading
Other Commonly Used Names
Strength of Materials Mechanics of Deformable Bodies
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
2 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
S
One question we never asked in STATICS:
Will the structure survive this load?
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
3 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
A
^{S} AC
^{S} AB
P = 30 kN
P
∑
∑
F
x
F
y
=− −
=
S
S
AC
AB
sin
S
AC
θ
−
cos
P
=
θ
0
=
0
What if AB is made of steel and AC is made of paper?
Member AC may break long before load P reaches its intended value of 30 kN.
The structure fails due to the low “strength” of member AC.
P << 30 kN
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
4 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
A
^{S} AC
^{S} AB
P = 30 kN
P
What if AB is made of steel and AC is made of “rubber band”? The excessive deformation in member AC will prevent the structure from performing properly
The structure fails due to the low “stiffness” of member AC.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
5 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
A
^{S} AC
^{S} AB
P = 30 kN
P
∑ =− −
= S
F
x
AB
AC
sin
S
∑ F
y
S
AC
θ −
cos
P
=
θ =
0
0
What if AB is a very slender member, i.e., A _{A}_{B} << A _{A}_{C}
Member AB may buckle long before load P reaches its intended value of 30 kN.
The structure fails due to the problem of instability.
BUCKLED!
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
6 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
Most of the realworld structures are statically indeterminate
F.B.D. and Equilibrium Equations @ A
A
∑
∑
F
x
F
y
=− −
=
S
S
AC
AB
sin
S
AC
θ
−
cos
S
AD
θ
−
sin
S
AD
θ
−
cos
=
P
θ
0
=
0
Three unknowns, two equations
A statically indeterminate structure can not be solved solely by
using the equilibrium conditions. Additional conditions pertaining
to the displacement of the structure and the relations between
forces and displacements are usually needed.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
7 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Why Mechanics of Materials?
Real world structures are mostly statically indeterminate and are typically designed for strength, stiffness, and stability considerations
Strength: The ability of the structures to carry or transmit loads. Stiffness: The ability of the structures to resist changes in shape.
Stability:
The ability of the structure to resist buckling under compressive loads.
None of these can be accomplished with what we have learned in Statics.
In MEM230, emphases will be placed on study the strength of the structures in terms of their load bearing capabilities
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
8 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Real World Structures
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
9 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Idealized Structures to be Studied in This Course
(Prismatic bars subjected to various types of loading)
Tension/ 

Compression of a bar 

Direct shear 
Torsion of a shaft
Bending & shear of a beam
Buckling
of a
column
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
10 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
STATICS
r
F
r
F
3
r
F
4
If the body is in a state of equilibrium, then
r
_{∑} F
r
= F
1
+
r
F
2
+
r
F
3
+
r
F
4
= 0
r
F
1
r
F
1
r
F
2
r
f
i
∑
r
F
=
r
F
1
+
r
F
2
+
∑
( _{L} )
r
f
i
(
L
)
r
∑ F
r
f
i
= 0
=
r
F
3
and any segment of the body must also
satisfy the equilibrium.
+
r
F
4
r
F
r
F
L
r
F
R
=
=
∑ f
=
r
F
1
+
r
F
2
+
r
F
L
= 0
∑ f
r
F
3
r
F
4
r
∑ F
r
= F
3
+
r
F
4
+
r
F
R
= 0
2
r
f
i
() L
=−
r
f
i
( _{R} )
( _{R} )
r
F
4
3
r
F
+
r (
∑ f
i
R )
= 0
r
F
1
∑
r
F
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
12 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanics of Materials: The Concept of Stress
r
F
r
F
3
r
F
1
r
F
4
F
If the body is in a state of equilibrium, then
r
_{∑} F
=
r
F
1
+
r
F
2
+
r
F
3
+
r
F
4
= 0
and any segment of the body must also
satisfy the equilibrium.
r
f
i
( _{L} )
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
13 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanics of Materials: The Concept of Stress
r
F
1
r
F
surface element on
the internal surface
Δ f
r
Δ f
() t
r
f
Δ
Δ f: Total internal force
acting on Δ A
: Normal component of
r
Δ f
r 

: Tangential component of 
Δ f 
Normal Stress : 
= lim 
r f Δ 
() n 

σ 

A Δ → 0 
Δ A 

r f Δ 
() t 

Shear Stress : 
τ = lim 

A Δ → 0 
Δ A 
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
14 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
How Many Different Ways Can you Break a Piece of Chalk?
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
15 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Examples of Failure Mode
Tension
Compression
These structures failed in different modes since they are experiencing different internal stresses
Torsion
Bending
Shear
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
16 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Normal Stress in a Prismatic Bar in Tension
Freebody diagram of a segment of the bar.
Segment of the bar before loading.
Segment of the bar after loading.
Normal stresses in the bar
σ=
P
A
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
17 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Sign Convention for Normal Stresses
When the bar is being stretched by a force, the stresses are tensile and are said to be positive.
If the force is reversed in direction, the bar will be compressed, the stresses are compressive and are said to be negative.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
18 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Units for Stresses
σ
P
= ⇒
A
Stress has units of force per unit area.
In USCS units:
In SI units:
Stresses =
Stresses =
Force 
= 
Pounds 

Area 
Square inch 

Force 
= 
Newtons 

Area 
Square meter 
= psi
= Pascals(Pa)
Conversion between psi and Pa:
psi × 6,890 ⇒ Pa
_{P}_{a}
×
(1.45 × 10
4
)
⇒ Psi
The following units are often used for convenience :
1 MPa
1 ksi
=
10
6
Pa
=
3
10 psi
1GPa
=
10
9
Pa
1 Msi
=
6
10 psi
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
19 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Units for Stresses
Example: A bar of circular cross section with a diameter d = 2.0 in (50.8 mm) is subjected to a pair of forces P = 6,000 lb (26,688 N)
σ =
=
=
=
=
6
13.16 10 Pa 1.45 10
×
×
×
−
4
psi
Pa
= 1, 910 psi
P
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
20 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Limitations on the Assumption of Uniform Distribution of Normal Stresses
1. Noncentroidal force
2. SaintVenant’s Effect
3. Stress Concentration
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
21 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Line of Action of the Axial Forces for a Uniform Stress Distribution
The line of action of the axial forces for a uniform stress distribution must pass through the centroid.
Let the line of action of force P be going through p _{1} .
M
(
σ
x
)
(
P
x
)
=
P y
M
= y ⋅ dA
σ
∫
(
)
(
P
y
)
=−
P x
M
(
σ
y
)
= − x ⋅ dA
σ
∫
(
)
Moments due to P:
M
Moments due σ:
Moments due to P must be equal to moments due to σ
M 
() P 
= M 
() σ 
⇒ 
Py 
= 
∫ 
σ ydA 
x 
x 
M 
() P 
= M 
() σ 
⇒ 
Px 
= 
∫ 
σ xdA 
x 
x 
For uniformly distributed stresses, σ = P/A = constant
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
22 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
The Concept of Normal Strains
Fig. 12 Prismatic bar in tension
= 
Change in Length 
= 
( 
L + 
δ 
) 
− 
L 
= 
δ 
ε 
Original Length 
L 
L 
Sign Convention
Elongation (bar in tension) is positive Shortening (bar in compression) is negative
Units
Normal strain is the ratio of two lengths, hence is a dimensionless quantity, i.e., it has no units. In practice, the original length units are often attached to the strain, e.g., mm/mm, in/in, etc. Sometimes it is also expressed as a percent.
Example: If L = 2.0 m, _{δ} = 1.4 mm
ε
=
=
δ
1.4 mm
=
= 0.0007 m m
L 2.0 m
700
×
10
−
6
m m
=
700μm m
=
0.07%
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
23 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Normal Stresses and Strains
Example 11
P =
d
1
L = 40 .0 in
δ = 0 .022 in
54 kips
=
3 .6 in
= 54 , 000 lb
d
2
=
5 .0 in
π
A =
σ
4
P
= =
A
2
(
d − d = 9 .456 in
2
1
2
)
2
54 , 000 lb
9.456 in
2
= 5 ,710 psi
ε =
δ
0 . 022 in
=
L
40 in
=
550 10
×
−
6
in/in
d _{1} =3.6 in d _{2} =5.0 in
Cross section
Fig. 15 Example 11. Hollow
aluminum post in compression.
How do we characterize the relationship between σ and ε?
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
24 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
How Do You Break
A Piece of Chalk
A Paper Clip
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
25 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
The mechanical behaviors (or properties) of materials are characterized by the relationship between “stress” and “strain”.
Ultimate
strain
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
26 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Material properties are usually characterized in terms of its stress strain relations under loading conditions of simple tension, simple compression, simple shear, etc. The test methods and specimen dimensions must comply with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Standards Association (ASA), or National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) codes.
Typical stressstrain diagram for a structural steel in tension.
Typical stressstrain diagram for an aluminum alloy.
Typical stressstrain diagram for a brittle material (e.g., glass).
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
27 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
A Note on the StressStrain Relations
Before
P
After
Initial crosssectional area and length: A _{0} , L _{0}
Instantaneous crosssectional area and length: A, L
True Stress : σ = 
P 

A 

Nonimal Stress : 
σ= 
P 

A 
0 
True Strain :
ε
⎛ L ⎞
⎟
⎝ ⎜
= ln ⎜
L
0
⎠ ⎟
Nonimal Strain :
ε=
δ
L
0
In this course, the terms “stresses” and “strains” always imply nominal stresses and nominal strains, respectively, i.e., stresses and strains are determined based on the initial crosssectional area and length.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
28 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Actual scale
Fig. 110 Stressstrain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension (not to scale).
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
29 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Definition of Yield Point
Structural steel (with a clearly definable yield point)
Arbitrary yield stress determined by the (0.2%) offset method.
Aluminum alloy (without a clearly definable yield point)
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
30 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Ductile vs. 
Elastic v.s. 
Creep and 
Brittle 
ElasticPlastic 
Relaxation 
Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
31 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus)
The slope of the linearly elastic portion of the stress strain curve is called modulus of elasticity, or Young’s Modulus, and is denoted as E.
This equation relates the longitudinal stresses and strains developed in simple tension or compression of a bar, is a very limited version of the socalled Hooke’s law. More extensive versions of the Hooke’s law will be discussed later.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
32 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Mechanical Properties of Materials Poisson’s Ratio
Let L _{0} and d _{0} be the length and diameter of the bar before loading, and L and d the length and diameter of the bar after loading. The axial and lateral strains are given by, respectively,
ε=
L − L
0
L
0
ε′=
d − d
0
d
0
The Poisson’s ratio is defined as
lateral strain 
ε 
′ 

ν 
=− 
=− 

axial strain 
ε 
NOTE: Poisson’s ratios are always positive as axial strains and lateral strains always have opposite signs. The values of Poisson’s ratio for commonly used materials range from 0.25 to 0.35.
Fig. 122 Axial elongation and lateral contraction of a prismatic bar in tension: (a) bar before loading, and (b) bar after loading. (The deformations of the bar are highly exaggerated.)
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
33 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 13 A steel pipe in compression
Crosssectional area:
A
=
=
π
4
π
4
(
(
d
2
2
−
6.0
2
d
−
2
1
)
4. 5
= 12. 37 in
2
2
)
(c) The increases in outer and inner diameters
Δ d = ε d (113 . 2 10
Δ d = ε d (113 . 2 10
=
′
− 
6 
)(6 . 0 in 
) 
= 0 . 000679 in 
− 6 
)(4 .5 in 
) 
= 0 . 000509 in 
2
1
′
2
1
=
×
×
(d) Increase in wall thickness
Δ t = ′=
ε
t
(
113 . 2 × 10
−
6
)(
0 . 75
)
=
0 . 000085 in
=
d
Δ −Δ
2
d
1
2
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
34 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain; Bearing Stress
Example Bolted connection in which the bolt is loaded in double shear.
Shear 
Bearing 
Stresses 
Stresses 
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
35 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Bearing and Shear Stresses
d
A schematic of the actual bearing stress and shear stress distributions
Bolt
Bolt
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
36 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
37 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes
Fig. 127 Small element of material subjected to shear stresses.
1. τ _{1} = V/A
2. There must exist a _{τ} _{3} , equal in
τ 1 magnitude but opposite in direction to τ _{1} , to satisfy the equilibrium in the y
direction.
3. τ _{1} and τ _{3} form a couple, which must be balanced by another couple, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, formed by shear stresses acting on the top face (τ _{2} ) and bottom face (τ _{4} ). Furthermore, τ _{2} and τ _{4} must be equal and opposite to each other to satisfy equilibrium in the xdirection.
4. Moment due to τ _{1} and τ _{3} is (τ _{1} bc) × a; moment due to τ _{2} and τ _{4} is (τ _{2} ac) × b. Equating these two moments results in
τ _{1} = τ _{2} = τ _{3} = τ _{4} .
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
38 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes
•Shear stresses on opposite (and parallel) faces of an element are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. •Shear stresses on adjacent (and perpendicular) faces of an element are equal in magnitude and have directions such that both stresses point toward, or both point away from, the line of intersection of the faces.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
39 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Shear Strains Shear stresses do not elongate or shorten the element. Rather, they change the shape of the element by changing the angles between the side faces of the element.
Shear strain is defined as change of angle of side faces that are originally perpendicular to each other. For example, shear strain in (b) is γ since the angles at points q and s are reduced by γ while the angles at points p and r are increased by γ.)
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
40 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Sign Conventions for Shear Stresses and Strains
Positive xface
Positive yface
^{N}^{e}^{g}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{v}^{e} ^{x}^{}^{f}^{a}^{c}^{e}
A shear stress is positive if it is acting on a positive face
and in the positive direction of one of the coordinate axes, or on a negative face and in the negative direction of one
of the coordinate axes. A shear stress is negative if it is
acting on a negative face and in the positive direction of
one of the coordinate axes, or on a positive face and in the negative direction of one of the coordinate axes.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
41 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Shear Stress and Strain
Sign Conventions for Shear Stresses and Strains
Positive yface
Positive xface
Negative yface
A shear strain in an element is positive when the angle between two positive faces (or two negative faces) is reduced, and is negative if the angle is increased.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
42 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Hooke’s Law in Shear
Shear stressstrain diagrams are similar in shape (but different in magnitude) to the stressstrain diagrams of tension test for the same materials.
G =
τ
γ
or
τ
= G
γ
For homogeneous and isotropic materials:
G
E
^{=} 2 1
(+ν)
For most metals and many other engineering materials
0 . 25 ≤ ν ≤ 0 . 35
⇒
G ≈ 0 . 37 E ~ 0 . 4 E
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
43 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 14 A steel strut S serving as a brace for a boat hoist transmits a compressive force P to the deck of a pier
F.B.D. for lefthalf of the pin
(b)
Bearing Stress Between Pin and Gussets
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
44 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 14 A steel strut S serving as a brace for a boat hoist transmits a compressive force P to the deck of a pier
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
45 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 15. Punching a hole in a steel plate.
(a)
(b)
d Punch
= 0 .75 in
= 0 . 25 in
P = 28 , 000 lb
t Plate
Average Shear Stress in the Plate
63 , 400 psi
NOTE: This analysis is highly idealized as the impact effects that
occur when a punch is rammed through a plate is disregarded.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
46 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 16. Bearing pad in shear.
(a) 
Average Shear Stress in the Elastomer: 

V 

τ 
aver 
= 
ab 

(b) 
Horizontal Displacement of the Plate, d:: 
d
γ =
τ
aver
G
e
=
V
abG
e
⎛ V
⎝
abG
e
= h tan γ = h tan ⎜
⎜
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
≈
h
γ
=
hV
abG
e
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
47 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
EXAMPLE: The connection shown in the figure consists of five steel plates, each 2.5 mm thick, to be joined by a single bolt. Determine the required diameter of the bolt if the allowable bearing stress, σ _{b} , is 180.0 MPa and the allowable shear stress, τ _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} , is 45.0 MPa?
1,800 N
3,000 N
2,400 N
3,000 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
3,000 N
1,200 N
1,200 N
3,000 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
1,200 N
2,400 N
1,200 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
48 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Allowable bearing stress, σ _{b} , is 180.0 MPa Allowable shear stress, _{τ} _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} , is 45.0 MPa?
Maximum Bearing Stress:
σ
b
=
d
bolt
^{P} b
3 , 000 N
)
d
t
plate
×
d
bolt
−
3
m
bolt
=
(
2 .5 10
×
= 180 MPa
=
=
3 , 000 N
− 3
×
6
180 10 N m
×
2
(
× 0 .00667 m 6.67 mm
=
2 .5 10 m
)
Maximum Shear Stress:
τ
V 1,800 N
=
=
A
bolt
π d
2 4
bolt
= 45 MPa
d
bolt
^{=}
=
4
× 1,800 N
πτ
allow
=
4 1,800 N
×
π
×
×
45 10
6
0. 00714 m 7 .14 mm
=
1,800 N
3,000 N
1,200 N
1,200 N
3,000 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
1,200 N
2,400 N
1,200 N
1,800 N
1,800 N
d bolt
= 7 . 14 mm
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
49 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Allowable Stresses and Allowable Loads
Strength: The ability of a structure to resist loads
Factor of safety n =
Actual strength
Required strength
Margin of safety = n − 1
Allowable stresses =
⎪ ⎧ for ductile materials
⎪
Yield strength
Factor of safety ⎨ Ultimate stress
⎪ for brittle materials
⎪
⎩ Factor of safety
For Axial Loads and Direct Shear
Allowable load = Allowable stress × Area
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
50 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 17. Determine the allowable load P based on the following four considerations.
(a) The allowable tensile stress in the main
part of the hanger is 16,000 psi.
P =
1
σ
allow
A =
σ
allow
b t = 12 , 000 lb
1
(b) The allowable tensile stress in the
hanger at its cross section through the bolt hole is 11,000 psi.
P
2
=
σ
allow
A =
σ
allow
(
)
b − d t = 11, 000 lb
2
(c)
The allowable bearing stress between the hanger and the bolt is 26,000 psi.
P
3
=
σ
b
A =
σ
b
dt = 13 , 000 lb
(d)
The allowable shear stress in the bolt is 6,500 psi.
P 4 
= τ allow A = 
τ 
allow
(2
2
× d
π
4

) = 10 , 200 lb 

P 3 
> P > P > P ⇒ P = P = 1 2 4 allow 4 
10 , 200 lb 

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 
51 / 54 
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear
Analysis: Given the structure and loads, determine stresses and strains.
Design: Given the loads and allowable stresses, determine the properties of the structure.
Design for axial loads and direct shear entails finding the required area to carry the loads
Required area =
Load to b e transmitte d
Allowable stress
(i.e., Strength Considerat ion)
Other design considerations include
• Stiffness: Designing the structure to resist changes in shape.
• Stability: Designing the structure to resist buckling under compressive loads.
• Optimization: Designing the best structure to meet a particular goal.
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
52 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
Example 18. Twobar truss ABC supporting a sign of weight W.
Determine the required crosssectional area of bar AB and the required diameter of the pin at support C
σ
allow
= 125 Mpa;
τ
allow
= 45 Mpa
Freebody diagram
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
53 / 54
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
_{M}_{E}_{M}
R
Required area of bar AB:
Required diameter of pin at C:
A
pin
=
V
C
R
C
=
5 . 152 kN 2 45 MPa
(
2
τ
allow
2
τ
allow
)
=
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
54 / 54
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.