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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

MEM230

Mechanics of Materials

Course Web Site: http://www.mem.drexel.edu/mom

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanics of Materials

Study the behavior of SOLID bodies under the actions of various types of loading

Other Commonly Used Names

Strength of Materials Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

S

Example: A Two-Bar Truss C Free-Body Diagram for Joint A S AC 600 mm 5
Example: A Two-Bar Truss
C
Free-Body Diagram for Joint A
S
AC
600 mm
5
A
3
A
S
AB
4
B
800 mm
P
P = 30 kN
3
F
=− −
S
4 S
=
0 ;
F
=
S
− = 0
P
Horiz
AB
5 AC
Verti
AC
5
5
=
P
=
50 kN (tension);
S
=−
4 S
=− 40 kN (compression)
AC
AB
5 AC
3

One question we never asked in STATICS:

Will the structure survive this load?

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

C 600 mm B 800 mm
C
600 mm
B 800 mm

A

S AC

S AB

P = 30 kN

θ
θ

P

F

x

F

y

=− −

=

S

S

AC

AB

sin

S

AC

θ

cos

P

=

θ

0

=

0

What if AB is made of steel and AC is made of paper?

Member AC may break long before load P reaches its intended value of 30 kN.

SNAP!
SNAP!

The structure fails due to the low “strength” of member AC.

P << 30 kN

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

C 600 mm B 800 mm
C
600 mm
B 800 mm

A

S AC

S AB

P = 30 kN

θ
θ

P

What if AB is made of steel and AC is made of “rubber band”? The excessive deformation in member AC will prevent the structure from performing properly

The structure fails due to the low “stiffness” of member AC.

∑ =− − F S S cos θ = 0 x AB AC ∑ F
∑ =− −
F
S
S
cos
θ =
0
x
AB
AC
∑ F
= S
sin
θ −
P
=
0
y
AC
S AC
S AB
θ′≠θ
θ′
P

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

C 600 mm B 800 mm
C
600 mm
B 800 mm

A

S AC

S AB

P = 30 kN

θ
θ

P

=− −

= S

F

x

AB

AC

sin

S

F

y

S

AC

θ

cos

P

=

θ =

0

0

What if AB is a very slender member, i.e., A AB << A AC

Member AB may buckle long before load P reaches its intended value of 30 kN.

The structure fails due to the problem of instability.

BUCKLED!kN. The structure fails due to the problem of instability. Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

Most of the real-world structures are statically indeterminate

C θ B θ P D
C
θ
B
θ
P
D

F.B.D. and Equilibrium Equations @ A

A

S AC S AB S AD P
S AC
S AB
S AD
P

F

x

F

y

=− −

=

S

S

AC

AB

sin

S

AC

θ

cos

S

AD

θ

sin

S

AD

θ

cos

=

P

θ

0

=

0

Three unknowns, two equations

A statically indeterminate structure can not be solved solely by

using the equilibrium conditions. Additional conditions pertaining

to the displacement of the structure and the relations between

forces and displacements are usually needed.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Why Mechanics of Materials?

Real world structures are mostly statically indeterminate and are typically designed for strength, stiffness, and stability considerations

Strength: The ability of the structures to carry or transmit loads. Stiffness: The ability of the structures to resist changes in shape.

Stability:

The ability of the structure to resist buckling under compressive loads.

None of these can be accomplished with what we have learned in Statics.

In MEM230, emphases will be placed on study the strength of the structures in terms of their load bearing capabilities

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Real World Structures

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M Real World Structures Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M Real World Structures Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M Real World Structures Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M Real World Structures Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Idealized Structures to be Studied in This Course

(Prismatic bars subjected to various types of loading)

Tension/

Tension/

Compression of a bar

Compression of a bar

Direct shear

Torsion of a shaft

Bending & shear of a beam

shear Torsion of a shaft Bending & shear of a beam Buckling of a column Chapter
shear Torsion of a shaft Bending & shear of a beam Buckling of a column Chapter

Bucklingshear Torsion of a shaft Bending & shear of a beam of a column Chapter 1

of a

columnof a shaft Bending & shear of a beam Buckling of a Chapter 1 Tension, Compression,

a shaft Bending & shear of a beam Buckling of a column Chapter 1 Tension, Compression,

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials MEM d d τ 0 P L L − d −
MEM230 Mechanics of Materials
MEM
d
d
τ
0
P
L L
d
d
γ
P
P
σ=
ε=
0
ε
′=
0
1a. Stress/Strain
A
L
d
L
0
0
0
What
0
L
do we
σ(τ)
1b. Constitutive relations
(Linearly elastic)
σ
ε
τ
E
E
=
ν
=−
G
=
G
=
ε
ε
γ
2
( ν)
1 +
E
(G )
ε(γ)
MEM230
study in
P
δ
PL
2. Axially loaded members
P
σ
=
ε
=
σ= ε δ=
E
A
L
AE
T
ρ
TL
T
τ
=
γ = ρθ τ = γ φ =
G
MEM330
3. Torsion
I
GI
P
P
4. Mechanics
Shear force and bending
moment diagrams
dV
dM
=−
q
= V
dx
dx
M
M V
V
5 and 6. Bending and shear
stresses in beams
My
VQ
σ=−
τ=
I
Ib
of
7. Analysis of stresses;
Mohr’s circles
pr
pr
σ =
σ =
1
2
t
2
t
8. Applications of plane stress
9. Deflections of beams
Materials
10. Statically indeterminate beams
11. Columns
Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear
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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

STATICS

r

F

2
2

r

F

3

r

F

4

If the body is in a state of equilibrium, then

r

F

r

= F

1

+

r

F

2

+

r

F

3

+

r

F

4

= 0

r

F

1

r

F

1

r

F

2

r = F 1 + r F 2 + r F 3 + r F 4
r = F 1 + r F 2 + r F 3 + r F 4
r = F 1 + r F 2 + r F 3 + r F 4

r

f

i

r

F

=

r

F

1

+

r

F

2

+

( L )

r

f

i

(

L

)

r

F

r

f

i

= 0

=

r

F

3

and any segment of the body must also

satisfy the equilibrium.

+

r

F

4

r

F

r F L r F R

r

F

L

r

F

R

=

=

f

=

r

F

1

+

r

F

2

+

r

F

L

= 0

r r F =− F L R
r
r
F
=−
F
L
R
r ( L ) i r ( R ) i
r (
L )
i
r (
R )
i

f

r

F

3

r

F

4

r

F

r

= F

3

+

r

F

4

+

r

F

R

= 0

2

r

f

i

() L

=−

r

f

i

( R )

F 4 + r F R = 0 2 r f i () L =− r

( R )

F R = 0 2 r f i () L =− r f i ( R
F R = 0 2 r f i () L =− r f i ( R

r

F

4

3

r

F

+

r (

f

i

R )

= 0

r

F

1

r

F

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanics of Materials: The Concept of Stress

r

F

2 r
2
r

r

F

3

r

F

1

r

F

4

F

2 External forces r F 1
2
External
forces
r
F
1

If the body is in a state of equilibrium, then

r

F

=

r

F

1

+

r

F

2

+

r

F

3

+

r

F

4

= 0

and any segment of the body must also

satisfy the equilibrium.

r

f

i

( L )

Internal forces r r () L ( R ) f =− f i i
Internal
forces
r
r
() L
( R )
f
=−
f
i
i
r F 3 r ( R ) f External i forces r F 4 r
r
F
3
r
( R )
f
External
i
forces
r
F
4
r
r
r
r (
R )
∑ F
=
F
+
F
+
∑ f
= 0
3
4
i
r r r r ( L ) ∑ F = F + F + ∑
r
r
r
r (
L )
∑ F
=
F
+
F
+
∑ f
= 0
1
2
i

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanics of Materials: The Concept of Stress

r

F

1

r

F

2 r (t ) Δ f r ( L ) f i r ( n
2
r
(t )
Δ f
r
( L )
f
i
r
( n )
ΔA
Δ f
r
Δ A: An infinitesimal
n
r
() n

surface element on

the internal surface

Δ f

r

Δ f

() t

r

f

Δ

Δ f: Total internal force

acting on Δ A

: Normal component of

r

Δ f

 

r

: Tangential component of

Δ f

Normal Stress :

 

=

lim

r

f

Δ

()

n

σ

 
 

A

Δ → 0

Δ

A

   

r

f

Δ

()

t

Shear Stress :

τ

=

lim

 
 

A

Δ → 0

Δ

A

 

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

How Many Different Ways Can you Break a Piece of Chalk?

Impact Tension Bending Twisting
Impact
Tension
Bending
Twisting

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Examples of Failure Mode

Tension

Compression

Ductile Brittle
Ductile
Brittle

These structures failed in different modes since they are experiencing different internal stresses

Torsion

they are experiencing different internal stresses Torsion Bending Shear Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 16

Bending

are experiencing different internal stresses Torsion Bending Shear Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 16 /

Shear

are experiencing different internal stresses Torsion Bending Shear Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 16 /

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Normal Stress in a Prismatic Bar in Tension

Free-body diagram of a segment of the bar.

Normal stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the cross section “mn.” This is
Normal stress is
assumed to be
uniformly distributed
over the cross
section “mn.” This is
a valid assumption so
long as the cross
section at each the
stress is calculated is
at a distance far
away from the two
ends of the bar.
P
∑ σ
dA
=
σ
dA
=
dA
=
P
A
A
A
A

Segment of the bar before loading.

Segment of the bar after loading.

Normal stresses in the bar

σ=

P

A

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Sign Convention for Normal Stresses

When the bar is being stretched by a force, the stresses are tensile and are said to be positive.

the stresses are tensile and are said to be positive. If the force is reversed in

If the force is reversed in direction, the bar will be compressed, the stresses are compressive and are said to be negative.

the stresses are compressive and are said to be negative. Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Units for Stresses

σ

P

= ⇒

A

Stress has units of force per unit area.

In USCS units:

In SI units:

Stresses =

Stresses =

Force

=

Pounds

Area

Square inch

Force

=

Newtons

Area

Square meter

= psi

= Pascals(Pa)

Conversion between psi and Pa:

psi × 6,890 Pa

Pa

×

(1.45 × 10

-4

)

Psi

The following units are often used for convenience :

1 MPa

1 ksi

=

10

6

Pa

=

3

10 psi

1GPa

=

10

9

Pa

1 Msi

=

6

10 psi

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Units for Stresses

Example: A bar of circular cross section with a diameter d = 2.0 in (50.8 mm) is subjected to a pair of forces P = 6,000 lb (26,688 N)

σ =

=

=

=

=

P P = P 2 A π d 4 6 , 000 lb = 1,
P
P
=
P
2
A
π
d 4
6 , 000 lb
=
1, 910 psi 1.91 ksi
=
π 2.0 in
2 4
26,688 N
6
=
13.16
×
10 Pa 13.16 MPa
=
π (
3
) 2
50.8 10 m
×
4
Pa
6
1,910 psi 6,890
×
=
13.16
×
10 Pa 13.16 MPa
=
psi

6

13.16 10 Pa 1.45 10

×

×

×

4

psi

Pa

= 1, 910 psi

P

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Limitations on the Assumption of Uniform Distribution of Normal Stresses

1. Non-centroidal force

2. Saint-Venant’s Effect

Stresses 1. Non-centroidal force 2. Saint-Venant’s Effect 3. Stress Concentration Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and
Stresses 1. Non-centroidal force 2. Saint-Venant’s Effect 3. Stress Concentration Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and

3. Stress Concentration

force 2. Saint-Venant’s Effect 3. Stress Concentration Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 21 / 54

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Line of Action of the Axial Forces for a Uniform Stress Distribution

The line of action of the axial forces for a uniform stress distribution must pass through the centroid.

uniform stress distribution must pass through the centroid. Let the line of action of force P

Let the line of action of force P be going through p 1 .

M

(

σ

x

)

(

P

x

)

=

P y

M

= y dA

σ

(

)

(

P

y

)

=−

P x

M

(

σ

y

)

= − x dA

σ

(

)

Moments due to P:

M

Moments due σ:

Moments due to P must be equal to moments due to σ

M

() P

= M

() σ

Py

=

σ ydA

x

x

M

() P

= M

() σ

Px

=

σ xdA

x

x

For uniformly distributed stresses, σ = P/A = constant

∫ ydA ∫ xdA The centroid of the y = x = A A cross
ydA
xdA
The centroid of the
y =
x =
A
A cross section is at p 1 .

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

The Concept of Normal Strains

of Materials M E M The Concept of Normal Strains Fig. 1-2 Prismatic bar in tension

Fig. 1-2 Prismatic bar in tension

=

Change in Length

=

(

L +

δ

)

L

=

δ

ε

Original Length

L

L

Sign Convention

Elongation (bar in tension) is positive Shortening (bar in compression) is negative

Units

Normal strain is the ratio of two lengths, hence is a dimensionless quantity, i.e., it has no units. In practice, the original length units are often attached to the strain, e.g., mm/mm, in/in, etc. Sometimes it is also expressed as a percent.

Example: If L = 2.0 m, δ = 1.4 mm

ε

=

=

δ

1.4 mm

=

= 0.0007 m m

L 2.0 m

700

×

10

6

m m

=

700μm m

=

0.07%

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Normal Stresses and Strains

Example 1-1

P =

d

1

L = 40 .0 in

δ = 0 .022 in

54 kips

=

3 .6 in

= 54 , 000 lb

d

2

=

5 .0 in

π

A =

σ

4

P

= =

A

2

(

d d = 9 .456 in

2

1

2

)

2

54 , 000 lb

9.456 in

2

= 5 ,710 psi

ε =

δ

0 . 022 in

=

L

40 in

=

550 10

×

6

in/in

psi ε = δ 0 . 022 in = L 40 in = 550 10 ×

d 1 =3.6 in d 2 =5.0 in

Cross section

− 6 in/in d 1 =3.6 in d 2 =5.0 in Cross section Fig. 1-5 Example

Fig. 1-5 Example 1-1. Hollow

aluminum post in compression.

How do we characterize the relationship between σ and ε?

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

How Do You Break

A Piece of Chalk

of Materials M E M How Do You Break A Piece of Chalk Brittle Materials A
Brittle Materials
Brittle Materials
M E M How Do You Break A Piece of Chalk Brittle Materials A Paper Clip

A Paper Clip

Do You Break A Piece of Chalk Brittle Materials A Paper Clip Ductile Materials Chapter 1
Do You Break A Piece of Chalk Brittle Materials A Paper Clip Ductile Materials Chapter 1
Ductile Materials
Ductile Materials
of Chalk Brittle Materials A Paper Clip Ductile Materials Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 25

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

The mechanical behaviors (or properties) of materials are characterized by the relationship between “stress” and “strain”.

the relationship between “ stress” and “ strain” . Stress Ultimate Failure × Stress Stiffness Strength
Stress Ultimate Failure × Stress Stiffness Strength Toughness Strain
Stress
Ultimate
Failure
×
Stress
Stiffness
Strength
Toughness
Strain

Ultimate

strain

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Material properties are usually characterized in terms of its stress- strain relations under loading conditions of simple tension, simple compression, simple shear, etc. The test methods and specimen dimensions must comply with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Standards Association (ASA), or National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) codes.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) codes. Typical stress-strain diagram for a structural steel in
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) codes. Typical stress-strain diagram for a structural steel in
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) codes. Typical stress-strain diagram for a structural steel in

Typical stress-strain diagram for a structural steel in tension.

Typical stress-strain diagram for an aluminum alloy.

Typical stress-strain diagram for a brittle material (e.g., glass).

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

A Note on the Stress-Strain Relations

P A A 0 δ L L 0
P
A
A
0
δ
L
L
0

Before

P

After

Initial cross-sectional area and length: A 0 , L 0

Instantaneous cross-sectional area and length: A, L

True Stress : σ =

P

A

Nonimal Stress :

σ=

P

 

A

0

True Strain :

ε

L

⎝ ⎜

= ln

L

0

⎠ ⎟

Nonimal Strain :

ε=

δ

L

0

In this course, the terms “stresses” and “strains” always imply nominal stresses and nominal strains, respectively, i.e., stresses and strains are determined based on the initial cross-sectional area and length.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

of Materials M E M Mechanical Properties of Materials True Stress-Strain Curve Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s
True Stress-Strain Curve Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus)
True Stress-Strain
Curve
Modulus of Elasticity
(Young’s Modulus)
Curve Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) Actual scale Fig. 1-10 Stress-strain diagram for a typical

Actual scale

Fig. 1-10 Stress-strain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension (not to scale).

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Definition of Yield Point

Mechanical Properties of Materials Definition of Yield Point Structural steel (with a clearly definable yield point)

Structural steel (with a clearly definable yield point)

Arbitrary yield stress determined by the (0.2%) offset method.

yield stress determined by the (0.2%) offset method. Aluminum alloy (without a clearly definable yield point)

Aluminum alloy (without a clearly definable yield point)

Aluminum alloy (without a clearly definable yield point) Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 30 /

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Ductile vs.

Elastic v.s.

Creep and

Brittle

Elastic-Plastic

Relaxation

Creep and Brittle Elastic-Plastic Relaxation Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4 Chapter 1 Tension,
Creep and Brittle Elastic-Plastic Relaxation Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4 Chapter 1 Tension,
Creep and Brittle Elastic-Plastic Relaxation Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4 Chapter 1 Tension,
Creep and Brittle Elastic-Plastic Relaxation Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4 Chapter 1 Tension,
Creep and Brittle Elastic-Plastic Relaxation Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4 Chapter 1 Tension,

Reading assignment: Sections 1.3 and 1.4

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus)

of Materials Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) The slope of the linearly elastic portion of the

The slope of the linearly elastic portion of the stress- strain curve is called modulus of elasticity, or Young’s Modulus, and is denoted as E.

σ= E ε
σ= E ε

This equation relates the longitudinal stresses and strains developed in simple tension or compression of a bar, is a very limited version of the so-called Hooke’s law. More extensive versions of the Hooke’s law will be discussed later.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

MEM

Mechanical Properties of Materials Poisson’s Ratio

Let L 0 and d 0 be the length and diameter of the bar before loading, and L and d the length and diameter of the bar after loading. The axial and lateral strains are given by, respectively,

ε=

L L

0

L

0

ε′=

d d

0

d

0

The Poisson’s ratio is defined as

 

lateral strain

ε

ν

=−

 

=−

 
 
 

axial strain

ε

NOTE: Poisson’s ratios are always positive as axial strains and lateral strains always have opposite signs. The values of Poisson’s ratio for commonly used materials range from 0.25 to 0.35.

ratio for commonly used materials range from 0.25 to 0.35. Fig. 1-22 Axial elongation and lateral

Fig. 1-22 Axial elongation and lateral contraction of a prismatic bar in tension: (a) bar before loading, and (b) bar after loading. (The deformations of the bar are highly exaggerated.)

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-3 A steel pipe in compression

P = 140 k P 140 k Stress σ =− =− 2 A 12.37 in
P = 140 k
P
140 k
Stress
σ =− =−
2
A
12.37 in
=− 11.32 ksi (Compressi on)
L
= 4 .0 ft
σ
− 11 . 32 ksi
d
= 4. 5 in
6
1
Strain
ε =
=
=−
377 .3 10
×
E
30,000 ksi
d
= 6 .0 in
2
(a)
Change in length of the pipe
E
= 30 , 000 ksi
(
6
)(4
δ εL
=
=−
377 . 3 10
×
.0 12
×
)
=− 0 . 018 in
ν
= 0 .30
(b)
The lateral strain
ε ′ = −νε = −
(
)(
6
)
6
0. 30
377 .3 10
×
=
113 . 2 10
×

Cross-sectional area:

A

=

=

π

4

π

4

(

(

d

2

2

6.0

2

d

2

1

)

4. 5

= 12. 37 in

2

2

)

(c) The increases in outer and inner diameters

Δ d = ε d (113 . 2 10

Δ d = ε d (113 . 2 10

=

6

)(6

. 0 in

)

= 0 . 000679 in

6

)(4

.5 in

)

= 0 . 000509 in

2

1

2

1

=

×

×

(d) Increase in wall thickness

Δ t = ′=

ε

t

(

113 . 2 × 10

6

)(

0 . 75

)

=

0 . 000085 in

=

d

Δ −Δ

2

d

1

2

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain; Bearing Stress

Example Bolted connection in which the bolt is loaded in double shear.

Flat Bar Bolt Clevis Top View Bearing Shear Stresses Forces
Flat Bar
Bolt
Clevis
Top View
Bearing
Shear
Stresses
Forces

Shear

Bearing

Stresses

Stresses

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Bearing and Shear Stresses

P/2 P/2 P P P/2 P/2 t Bar d Bolt
P/2
P/2
P P
P/2
P/2
t
Bar
d Bolt

d

A schematic of the actual bearing stress and shear stress distributions

Average bearing stress: = F A σ b b b ( 2 ) ( 2
Average bearing stress:
= F A
σ b
b
b
(
2 )
( 2 )
F
=
P
,
A
=
t
×
d
b
b
Bar
P
Bolt
(
2 )
σ
=
b
t
×
d
Bar
Bolt
( 1 )
( 3 )
( 1 )
( 3 )
F
= F
=
P
2
A
=
A
=
t
×
d
b
b
b
b
Clevis
P 2
( 1 )
( 3 )
σ
= σ
=
b
b
t
× d
Clevis
Bolt
Average shear stress:
τ
=
V A
aver
V
=
P
2
A
=
π d
2 4
Bolt
P 2
2 P
=
=
τ aver
2
2
π
d
4 π
d
Bolt
Bolt

Bolt

Bolt

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

τ 2 τ τ 3 1 τ 4 3-D 2-D
τ
2
τ
τ
3
1
τ
4
3-D
2-D

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes

τ 2 τ 3 τ 4
τ
2
τ
3
τ
4

Fig. 1-27 Small element of material subjected to shear stresses.

1. τ 1 = V/A

2. There must exist a τ 3 , equal in

τ 1 magnitude but opposite in direction to τ 1 , to satisfy the equilibrium in the y-

direction.

3. τ 1 and τ 3 form a couple, which must be balanced by another couple, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, formed by shear stresses acting on the top face (τ 2 ) and bottom face (τ 4 ). Furthermore, τ 2 and τ 4 must be equal and opposite to each other to satisfy equilibrium in the x-direction.

4. Moment due to τ 1 and τ 3 is (τ 1 bc) × a; moment due to τ 2 and τ 4 is (τ 2 ac) × b. Equating these two moments results in

τ 1 = τ 2 = τ 3 = τ 4 .

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes

•Shear stresses on opposite (and parallel) faces of an element are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. •Shear stresses on adjacent (and perpendicular) faces of an element are equal in magnitude and have directions such that both stresses point toward, or both point away from, the line of intersection of the faces.

point away from, the line of intersection of the faces. Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

Shear Strains Shear stresses do not elongate or shorten the element. Rather, they change the shape of the element by changing the angles between the side faces of the element.

Shear strain is defined as change of angle of side faces that are originally perpendicular to each other. For example, shear strain in (b) is γ since the angles at points q and s are reduced by γ while the angles at points p and r are increased by γ.)

γ while the angles at points p and r are increased by γ .) Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

Sign Conventions for Shear Stresses and Strains

Positive x-face

Positive y-face

Negative y-face
Negative y-face

Negative x-face

A shear stress is positive if it is acting on a positive face

and in the positive direction of one of the coordinate axes, or on a negative face and in the negative direction of one

of the coordinate axes. A shear stress is negative if it is

acting on a negative face and in the positive direction of

one of the coordinate axes, or on a positive face and in the negative direction of one of the coordinate axes.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Shear Stress and Strain

Sign Conventions for Shear Stresses and Strains

Negative x-face
Negative x-face

Positive y-face

Shear Stresses and Strains Negative x-face Positive y -face Positive x -face Negative y -face A

Positive x-face

Negative y-face

A shear strain in an element is positive when the angle between two positive faces (or two negative faces) is reduced, and is negative if the angle is increased.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Hooke’s Law in Shear

Shear stress-strain diagrams are similar in shape (but different in magnitude) to the stress-strain diagrams of tension test for the same materials.

G =

τ

γ

or

τ

= G

γ

For homogeneous and isotropic materials:

G

E

= 2 1

(+ν)

For most metals and many other engineering materials

0 . 25 ν 0 . 35

G 0 . 37 E ~ 0 . 4 E

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-4 A steel strut S serving as a brace for a boat hoist transmits a compressive force P to the deck of a pier

t Strut P/2 d Pin P/2 Pin t Gussets
t Strut
P/2
d Pin
P/2
Pin
t Gussets

F.B.D. for left-half of the pin

o P = 54 kN θ = 40 = 18 mm d = 12 mm
o
P =
54 kN
θ =
40
=
18
mm
d
=
12 mm
d Pin
bolt
=
12
mm
t
=
15 mm
t
=
8 mm
t strut
Gussets
Base
(a)
Bearing Stress Between Strut and Pin:
P 2
54 kN 2
σ
=
= 125 MPa
1 =
b
t
d
(
12 mm 18 mm
)(
)
Strut Pin

(b)

Bearing Stress Between Pin and Gussets

P 2 54 kN 2 σ = = 100 MPa 2 = b t d
P 2
54 kN 2
σ
=
= 100 MPa
2 =
b
t
d
(
15 mm 18 mm
)(
)
Gusset Pin
(c) Shear Stress in Pin:
P 2
54
kN 2
=
=
= 106 MPa
τ Pin
2
π
d
4 π
(
18
mm
)
2 4
Pin

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-4 A steel strut S serving as a brace for a boat hoist transmits a compressive force P to the deck of a pier

o P = 54 kN θ = 40 = 18 mm d = 12 mm
o
P =
54 kN
θ =
40
=
18
mm
d
=
12 mm
d Pin
bolt
=
12
mm
t
=
15 mm
t
=
8 mm
t strut
Gussets
Base
(d) Bearing Stress Between Bolts and
Base Plate:
o
P cos 40 4
=
P
σ b 3
t
d
Base
Bolt
o
40
d Bolt
=
= 108 MPa
o
P cos 40
(
8 mm 12 mm
)(
)
t
Base
(e) Shear Stress in Anchor Bolts:
o
)(
o
)
P
cos 40 4
(
54 kN cos 40
4
=
=
= 91 . 4 MPa
F.B.D. of the bolt
τ Bolt
2
π
d
4
π
(
2
12mm
)
4
Bolt

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-5. Punching a hole in a steel plate.

(a)

(b)

E M Example 1-5. Punching a hole in a steel plate. (a) (b) d Punch =

d Punch

= 0 .75 in

= 0 . 25 in

P = 28 , 000 lb

t Plate

Average Shear Stress in the Plate

P P τ = = = 47 , 500 psi aver A πd × t
P
P
τ
=
=
= 47 , 500 psi
aver
A
πd
× t
s
Punch
Plate
Average Compressive Stress in Punch
P
P 28 , 000 lb
σ
=
=
=
=
c
2
π
d
4 π
(
0 . 75 in
)
2 4
A Punch
Punch

63 , 400 psi

NOTE: This analysis is highly idealized as the impact effects that

occur when a punch is rammed through a plate is disregarded.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-6. Bearing pad in shear.

of Materials M E M Example 1-6. Bearing pad in shear. (a) Average Shear Stress in

(a)

Average Shear Stress in the Elastomer:

 

V

 

τ

aver

=

ab

(b)

Horizontal Displacement of the Plate, d::

d

γ =

τ

aver

G

e

=

V

abG

e

V

abG

e

= h tan γ = h tan

h

γ

=

hV

abG

e

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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EXAMPLE: The connection shown in the figure consists of five steel plates, each 2.5 mm thick, to be joined by a single bolt. Determine the required diameter of the bolt if the allowable bearing stress, σ b , is 180.0 MPa and the allowable shear stress, τ allow , is 45.0 MPa?

allowable shear stress, τ a l l o w , is 45.0 MPa? 1,800 N 3,000
allowable shear stress, τ a l l o w , is 45.0 MPa? 1,800 N 3,000

1,800 N

3,000 N

2,400 N

3,000 N

1,800 N

1,800 N

3,000 N

1,200 N

1,200 N

3,000 N

1,800 N

N 1,800 N 1,800 N 3,000 N 1,200 N 1,200 N 3,000 N 1,800 N 1,800

1,800 N

1,800 N

1,200 N

2,400 N

1,200 N

1,800 N

1,800 N

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Allowable bearing stress, σ b , is 180.0 MPa Allowable shear stress, τ allow , is 45.0 MPa?

shear stress, τ a l l o w , is 45.0 MPa? Maximum Bearing Stress: σ

Maximum Bearing Stress:

σ

b

=

d

bolt

P b

3 , 000 N

)

d

t

plate

×

d

bolt

3

m

bolt

=

(

2 .5 10

×

= 180 MPa

=

=

3 , 000 N

3

×

6

3 m bolt = ( 2 .5 10 × = 180 MPa = = 3 ,

180 10 N m

×

2

(

× 0 .00667 m 6.67 mm

=

2 .5 10 m

)

Maximum Shear Stress:

τ

V 1,800 N

=

=

A

bolt

π d

2 4

bolt

= 45 MPa

d

bolt

=

=

4

× 1,800 N

πτ

allow

=

4 1,800 N

×

π

×

×

45 10

6

0. 00714 m 7 .14 mm

=

1,800 N

3,000 N

1,200 N

1,200 N

3,000 N

1,800 N

m 7 .14 mm = 1,800 N 3,000 N 1,200 N 1,200 N 3,000 N 1,800

1,800 N

1,800 N

1,200 N

2,400 N

1,200 N

1,800 N

1,800 N

d bolt

= 7 . 14 mm

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Allowable Stresses and Allowable Loads

Strength: The ability of a structure to resist loads

Factor of safety n =

Actual strength

Required strength

Margin of safety = n 1

Allowable stresses =

⎪ ⎧ for ductile materials

Yield strength

Factor of safety Ultimate stress

for brittle materials

Factor of safety

For Axial Loads and Direct Shear

Allowable load = Allowable stress × Area

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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and Shear 50 / 54 MEM230 Mechanics of Materials M E M Example 1-7. Determine the

Example 1-7. Determine the allowable load P based on the following four considerations.

(a) The allowable tensile stress in the main

part of the hanger is 16,000 psi.

P =

1

σ

allow

A =

σ

allow

b t = 12 , 000 lb

1

(b) The allowable tensile stress in the

hanger at its cross section through the bolt hole is 11,000 psi.

P

2

=

σ

allow

A =

σ

allow

(

)

b d t = 11, 000 lb

2

(c)

The allowable bearing stress between the hanger and the bolt is 26,000 psi.

P

3

=

σ

b

A =

σ

b

dt = 13 , 000 lb

(d)

The allowable shear stress in the bolt is 6,500 psi.

 

P

4

=

τ

allow

A =

τ

allow

(2 2 × d π 4
(2
2
× d
π
4

) = 10 , 200 lb

 

P

3

> P > P > P P = P =

1

2

4

allow

4

10 , 200 lb

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

 

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Design for Axial Loads and Direct Shear

Analysis: Given the structure and loads, determine stresses and strains.

Design: Given the loads and allowable stresses, determine the properties of the structure.

Design for axial loads and direct shear entails finding the required area to carry the loads

Required area =

Load to b e transmitte d

Allowable stress

(i.e., Strength Considerat ion)

Other design considerations include

Stiffness: Designing the structure to resist changes in shape.

Stability: Designing the structure to resist buckling under compressive loads.

Optimization: Designing the best structure to meet a particular goal.

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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Example 1-8. Two-bar truss ABC supporting a sign of weight W.

1-8. Two-bar truss ABC supporting a sign of weight W . Determine the required cross-sectional area

Determine the required cross-sectional area of bar AB and the required diameter of the pin at support C

σ

allow

= 125 Mpa;

τ

allow

= 45 Mpa

the pin at support C σ allow = 125 Mpa; τ allow = 45 Mpa Free-body

Free-body diagram

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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R

From F.B.D. (a) ∑ M = 0 ⇒ R ( 2 . 0 m )
From F.B.D. (a)
∑ M
=
0
R
(
2 . 0 m
)
(
2 . 7 kN 0 .8 m
)(
)
(
2 . 7 kN 2 . 6 m
)(
)
=
0
C
AH
R
= 4 . 590 kN
AH
∑ = 0 ⇒
F
R
=
R
= 4 . 590 kN
horiz
CH
AH
From F.B.D. (b)
M
=
0
⇒−
R
(
3 . 0 m
)
+
(
2 . 7 kN 2 .2 m
)(
)
+
(
2 . 7 kN 0 .4 m
)(
)
=
0
B
CV
R
= 2 . 340 kN
CV
Back to F.B.D. (a)
F
= ⇒
0
R
+
R
2 . 7 kN 2. 7 kN 0
=
vert
AV
CV
R
= 3 . 060 kN
AV
2
2
2
2
=
R
+
R
=
5 . 516 kN;
R
=
(
R
)( )
+
R
=
5. 152 kN;
F
=
R
=
5 .156 kN
A
AH
AV
C
CH
CV
AB
A

Required area of bar AB:

Required diameter of pin at C:

A

pin

=

V

C

R

C

=

5 . 152 kN 2 45 MPa

(

2

τ

allow

2

τ

allow

)

=

5.516 kN F AB 2 = = = 44.1 mm A AB 125 MPa σ
5.516 kN
F AB
2
=
=
= 44.1 mm
A AB
125 MPa
σ allow
2
= 57. 2 mm ;
d
=
4
A
π=
8 . 54 mm
pin
pin

Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

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