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i ASSESSMENT ON THE LIVELIHOOD TRAINING PROGRAM OF MANGYAN KALAKBAY MISSION CENTER, INC.

(MKMCI) TO THE ALANGAN TRIBE: A BASIS FOR DEVELOPING EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA FOR TRAINING PROGRAM

A Masters Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Business University of Perpetual Help System-DALTA Las Pinas City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree Corporate Executive Master in Business Administration

Bernadette M. Ronquillo March 2013

ii APPROVAL SHEET

This Masters Thesis entitled, ASSESSMENT ON THE LIVELIHOOD TRAINING PROGRAM OF MANGYAN KALAKBAY MISSION CENTER, INC. (MKMCI) TO THE ALANGAN TRIBE: A BASIS FOR DEVELOPING EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA FOR TRAINING PROGRAM prepared and submitted by Ms. BERNADETTE M. RONQUILLO in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Corporate Executives Masters in Business Administration, has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval for Final Oral Examination.

CYNTHIA A. ZARATE, DBA Adviser

ORAL EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of _____________________.

ATTY. IRINEO F. MARTINEZ JR., PhD Member

NELSON A. SILVA, DBA Member

DOMINADOR M. NARAG,PhD Chairman

Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Business Administration.

ATTY. IRINEO F. MARTINEZ JR., PhD Dean

iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to give glory and honor to the Father, the Almighty God, the source of strength, the fountain of wisdom and love, the creator of opportunities and human aspects to make all these things successful. She will be forever grateful to the following people who contribute their significant parts in the realization of this self effacing piece of work: A million thanks to Uncle Gert Vriend for the everlasting guidance and support have become the source of her inspiration, strength and have a piece of success. Deepest sincere gratitude is accorded to her adviser, Dr. Cynthia A. Zarate, who motivated her to pursue her masteral degree and who provided the encouragement to go on despite of difficulties. Her valuable inputs and insights contributed greatly to the realization of this work; Likewise, the researcher would like a sincere recognition to the Chairman of the thesis review panel, Dr. Dominador M. Narag and members of the thesis review panel, Atty. Ireneo F. Martinez Jr. PhD, and Dr. Nelson A. Silva, who shared their persistence, encouragement, substantial recommendations and expertise in the improvement of this research study;

iv Further, the researcher would like to give express her heartfelt appreciation to the editor of this research study, Dr. Francis Rivas, who carefully and patiently edit this study and some valuable suggestions in the presentation of data; To the Board Member of the Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc., Mr. Armando H. Dayrit Jr., who entertained the researcher and allowed her to conduct the study in their respective Alangan Mangyan beneficiaries who are willingly responded to the interview, they deserve a million thanks for without their support and participation, this research work would not be a piece of success. Equivalent gratitude is also expressed by the researcher to her ceMBA friends and classmates, who showed their moral support, love and valuable insights which motivated her well. Of course, the deepest appreciation is due to the researchers family, love ones whose support, everlasting love and presence have become the source of his inspiration, strength and hard work.

B.M.R

v ABSTRACT This study sought to develop effectiveness criteria for the training program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. (MKMCI). Here, the descriptive-evaluative research design in gathering qualitative data was employed. The main instrument was an open-ended questionnaire

based on the profile & evaluation of the Alangan tribes on the livelihood training program of MKMCI anchored on the Kirkpatrick model. The respondents were Alangan Mangyans of Sitio Katarata, Dulangan 3, Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro which underwent said program. The following are recommended: there should be a strong & continuous drive on the part of MKMCI management to motivate participants to implement what they learned from the training program; there should be close monitoring of participants performance when th ey go back to their communities; there should be a review of the evaluation tool used by the management & participants; there should be more trainings, seminars, & conferences that focus on the livelihood training program which can generate more income to the participants; there should be a review of the Training Design & involvement of end-users in designing the training program; & a study must be had on the proposed criteria/qualifications for effective trainers. Keywords: Mangyans, MKMCI, effectiveness criteria, training programs

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE TITLE PAGE APPROVAL SHEET ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES i ii iii v vi ix x

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitations Definition of Terms 1 3 9 10 12 13 15 16

vii CHAPTER 2 PAGE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Foreign Related Literature Local Related Literature Foreign Related Studies Local Related Studies Synthesis 3 METHODOLOGY Research Design Population and Sampling Respondents of the Study Research Instrument Data Gathering Procedures Statistical Treatment of Data 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Findings Conclusions Recommendations 79 81 82 83 68 64 65 65 66 66 67 18 21 39 50 62

viii REFERENCES APPENDIX A B Letter Request to Conduct the Survey Proposed Effectiveness Criteria for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI C D Proposed Criteria/Qualifications of an Effective Trainer Proposed Curriculum for Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI E F G H I Interview Guide Questionnaire for the Alangan Tribe Interview Results (Group 1 Representative) Interview Results (Group 2 Representative) Interview Results (Group 3 Representative) Certification of Editing 92 93 97 102 107 112 113 87 90 86 85

CURRICULUM VITAE

ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 2 Training Program and Services of MKMCI Percentage Distribution of Participants According to Age 3 Percentage Distribution of Participants According to Gender 4 Percentage Distribution of Participants According to Educational Attainment 5 Effect of the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI for the Alangan Tribe 6 Effectiveness Criteria for Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI 76 70 69 69 68 PAGE 8

x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Research Paradigm of the Study PAGE 12

xi Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction The Livelihood Training Program is a way to prompt people to make a difference in the competitive world of work using their skills. Mr. Benson Lao believes that when there are more people who have income, there will be lesser social issues like crimes and drug addiction; more children can go to school and more families can survive."This will trigger a lot of social impact," Lao said (Brondia, 2011). Livelihood Training Programs enhance and develop skills which create more opportunity to generate income and employment that may serve a good living condition and stable life. Some of these training programs are administered to ethnic groups by different business institutions, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), government

agencies, and missionaries. The Philippine archipelago is comprised of 7,107 islands at low tide, wherein different ethnic groups are scattered therein. Each ethnic group has a distinct culture and dialects. Several of such groups can be considered as "tribal groups" and live in geographically isolated areas which makes logistics the main problem for local governments when the

xii former are desirous of access to basic social services. Indeed, years of social stigma is another factor that contributes to this problem. Mangyan is one of the most popular ethnic groups in Philippines which are geographically isolated in Mindoro province. Like any other uncivilized group, Mangyans have varied difficulties when they face the outside world or the so- called modern civilization. Truly, the road to progress and development is a long and narrow road for the Mangyans. Nevertheless, given the opportunity and proper training, Mangyans would be able to cope with their problems in their struggle against oppressive citizens who try to grab their ancestral lands and, most of all, make them accept the wonders of education and civilization; thus, the same teaches them what they are, what they have, and can do, thereby also preserving the cultural heritage of their forefathers. The Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. (MKMCI) is one of the Non-Government Organizations (NGO) that provides assistance to the tribes in Baco, Oriental Mindoro via a livelihood training and literacy program. MKMCI has been providing livelihood training programs to the Mangyan since 2011. However, there is no concrete criterion on its effectiveness to the lives of Mangyans. Hence, from an assessment, the researcher will hopefully develop training program effectiveness criteria for MKMCI.

xiii It is for this reason that the researcher came up with the idea of conducting a study on the effectiveness of the livelihood training program of MKMCI to the Alangan tribes.

Background of the Study Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc. is founded in Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro Philippines. They has been conducting livelihood training program among the Mangyans, who desire to earn for their daily living and who have decided to settle in barangays in lowlands. They are the informal settlers of Sitio Rebo in Barangay Bangkatan, Sitio Lagonlong in Barangay Water, Sitio Katarata in Barangay Dulangan 3, Sitio Balikat in Barangay Mayabig, and Sitio Dalasaan in Barangay Dulangan 2.Originally, these sitios were inhabited by two to three families only, but, in the long run, other families were encouraged to settle until such a time that it became a village in the five barangays. As the years went by, problems regarding these informal

settlers arose vis-a-vis the social, economic, and physical aspects of their lives. During the celebration of Paskuhang Tribong Pilipino, the attention of a foreigner, Clifford Shane Winchcombe, who was then invited to be one of the sponsors of the celebration, was caught. Casual

xiv interviews with the Katutubos aroused interest in him as to how said visitor can help them in a simple way to improve their daily way of living. Winchcombe then convened a group and shared the idea of having a mission to help the Mangyans. MangyanKalakbay Mission was then

conceived with the purpose of helping the deprived Mangyans for they are just informal settlers of the five Barangays. Most of them rely on planting rice, vegetables, and hunting wild animals to support their everyday living. A male at age 16 can become a family man if he can build his own house. A house made up of coconut leaves, bamboo trees for its pillars and sacks with a common room serving as dining, bedroom, and kitchen are in vogue. They have no toilet or safe drinking water. The fire in the center of the house serves as their mosquito net to drive mosquitoes away while asleep and as a heater during the cold nights. Due to the lack of good food supplies and their culture of being dirty, their children are often malnourished and susceptible to communicable diseases. Almost all their children do not attend school so they are unable to even write their name. Thus, there is a high level of illiteracy. This situation has prevailed for many years so much so that the previous Baco Mangyan Kalakbay Foundation was conceived with their mission to help this deprived people since November 2, 1998. After a thorough deliberation on how they could help

xv this special group of Mangyans, they decided on proceeding with the plan of registering the agency with the Securities and Exchange Commission for formal recognition and it was able to secure its Certificate of Incorporation as Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc of Baco, Oriental Mindoro Philippines on November 2, 2010. Presented hereunder are MMKCIs vision, mission, goals, and objectives; thus:

MKMCI VISION/ MISSION/ AND GOALS/ OBJECTIVES VISION To gradually improve the living conditions of the deprived Mangyans so they can actively participate as normal citizens of their municipality and of our country MISSION Extend love and care to the Mangyans by providing the much needed assistance in social, economic and moral aspects and to be their partner in realizing the importance of being educated, living in a clean, safe, healthy and sanitary environment as a means to attain family selfsufficiency.

xvi GOALS/ OBJECTIVES (as stated in its Articles of Incorporation) 1. Love God and to share the love of God to the Mangyan communities and similar indigenous groups. 2. Facilitate holistic community development among the Mangyan communities, by raising their socio- economic well-being, livelihood opportunities, health and sanitation, and literacy standard thereby enhancing them to become a self- sufficient and self- reliant community. 3. Enhance the moral values, inculcate human dignity and be recognized as a community of self- striving, law- abiding and Godfearing people through regular study of the word of God. 4. Monitor, coordinate, and cooperate with the national and local government agencies as well as non-government organization in the delivery of basic services and assistance affecting the interest of beneficiaries. 5. Make representation when necessary and encourage participation in the government planning and decision making processes affecting the Mangyan interests.

xvii Training Program and Services of MKMCI The mission is realized, among others, by liaising with other non government agencies to facilitate seminars and training workshops that help Mangyans improve their socio-economic conditions, especially those concerning rice, fruit, and vegetables production. Organic production through the Farmers Field School was had in 2012; verily, the Mangyans who till the farm in the Mangyan Reservation in Dulangan, Baco Oriental Mindoro practice what they learned in the Farmers Field School. Leadership Training for youth is also a focal point of its Mission. In coordination with other non-government agencies, some youngsters are selected to attend said seminars in to move away from the culture of being shyness. Literacy for school-aged children is another priority of the Mission. There are informal schools in four Sitios where children are taught how to read and write. They are also guided in proper health practices such as the proper way to take a bath, keeping hands and fingers nails clean trough proper hand washing, proper eating manners, and keeping the classrooms pick and span. Good manners and right conduct are also given attention to by MKMCI programs. Children who are shy by nature are taught how to greet visitors; how to act in programs and gatherings; and how to be a social mixer.

xviii Table 1 MKMCI Training Programs and Services.

Education
Scholarship Program Formal Education Non-Formal Education Construction of School Building

Leadership Formation
Team Building Leadership training Values Formation

Advocacy
Rights of Women and Children Ancestral Domain

Transformational Development Adopt a Community Lagonlong, Rebo, Balikat, Katarata Economic Aspect
Livelihood Training Farmers Field School Integrated Farming Bio-System (IFBS) Organic Fertilizer Production Cropping Pattern Vegetables Production

Christian Growth
Bible Study Discipleship Christian Values Church Planting

Health Aspect
Construction of Communal Toilet Medical and Assistance Nutrition Related Programs
a) Home and Community Garden b) Maternal and Child Care c) Supplemental Feeding

d) Health and
Sanitation

xix Table 1 above makes manifest the multifarious programs and services, accordingly classified in relation to areas/concerns sought to be addressed being to achieve the vision and mission of MKMCI.

Statement of the Problem The study aimed to develop effectiveness criteria for the training program of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center, Inc. (MKMCI). More specifically, this study answered the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the Alangan Tribe in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Educational Attainment?

2. What is the effect of the Livelihood Training Program of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center, Inc.to the Alangan tribe in terms of: 2.1 Reaction of the Participants; 2.2 Learning Level; 2.3 Behavioral Analysis; 2.4 Results of the Training; 2.4 1 Personality Development; and

xx 2.4. 2 Family Income?

3. What Effectiveness Criteria can be developed for the livelihood training program of MKMCI?

Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework was anchored on Kirkpatricks Training Evaluation Theory. The Kirkpatrick model (1959) follows the goal-based evaluation approach and is based on four simple questions that translate into four levels of evaluation. These four levels are widely-known as reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Level 1 Reaction refers to what extent the participants find the training useful, challenging, well-structured, organized, among others. Reaction Evaluation deals with how the delegates felt in relationto the training or training experience. Level 2 Learning describes to what extent participants improved knowledge and skills and changed attitudes as a result of the training. Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge before and after. Level 3 Behavior identifies to what extent the participants changed theirbehaviorin the workplace as a result of the training.

xxi Behavior evaluation is the extent of applied learning vis-a-vis on-the-job implementation. Level 4 Results is the measurable organizational benefits that resulted from the training in terms of productivity, efficiency, and sales revenue, to name a few. Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee. This theory is the most well-known and used model for measuring the effectiveness of training programs. Developed by Professor Donald Kirkpatrick in the late 1950s, it has since been adapted and modified by a number of writers; nevertheless, its basic structures have withstood the test of time. This model was updated by Professor Donald Kirkpatrick in his latest 1994 edition, incorporating current and relevant revisions to his 1959 work. The Kirkpatrick 1994 model is now considered industry standard.

xxii Conceptual Framework Process Output

Input
Evaluation of the Alangan tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI Based on the Kirkpatrick Model in terms of: a. Reaction of the participants b. Learning level c. Behavior Analysis d. Results of the training

Focus group Interviews

Using an open- ended questionnaire guide

Effectiveness Criteria for Training Program

FEEDBACK Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the Study. Based on the foregoing theory, the paradigm of the study is illustrated in Figure 1 above.

The Paradigm crafted for this study is based on the InputProcess- Output Model (IPO). The Input is the Evaluation of the Alangan Tribe on the Liveliood Training Program of MKMCI based on the Kirkpatrick model; in terms of: Reactions of the Alangan Tribes to the training or learning experience; Learning Evaluation, which measures the

xxiii increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning; Behavior Analysis, which evaluates the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behaviour; and Results of the Training which assess the effectiveness of the program. The Process involves conducting a focus group interview to the Alangan Tribe using an open-ended questionnaires guide; to be sure, the same has a translation, a tagalong version which they can easily understand and are comfortable with in answering. The Output sought to be realized is the development of effectiveness criteria for a training program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. From an assessment to be had, the researcher will develop training program effectiveness criteria which shall then be subjected to review and approval by MKMCI to further enhance their current programs.

Significance of the Study The present study will be beneficial for the following: The National Commission on Indigenous People. This work shall impress upon them the far-reaching effects and importance of livelihood programs to Mangyans and thus serve as further inducement

xxiv to remain steadfast to their mandate of taking care of the long-felt needs of indigenous peoples in general. The Low-Income Upland Communities Project. This work shall afford relevant and updated materials in achieving efficiency of the project. The Policy and Planning Development Office. This study shall assist them in crafting appropriate livelihood programs for Mangyans and thus become an effective partner of the nation in recognizing indigenous peoples rights. The Local Government. This study will make accessible

pertinent information on how support can be extended to livelihood training programs of MKMCI. The Mangyan Tribe. They will make them aware, realize, and

assess the effects of present livelihood training programs to their lives which will pave the way for opportunities to good living conditions. The Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. (MKMCI). The result of the study will provide them training program effectiveness criteria which they will use as a guide instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of their current programs and enhance the same if needed.

xxv Support Agencies and Institutions. This work shall provide

them information on how to conduct their livelihood programs within their jurisdiction. Future Researchers. For those who will be willing to conduct a study of the same nature, they can use this work as ready reference.

Scope and Delimitations This study deals with the assessment on the effects of the livelihood program of MangyanKalakbay Mission, Inc. to the Alangan Tribe and aims to develop effectiveness criteria for training program of MKMCI. It only covers the Alangan Tribe living in Sitio Katarata,

Barangay Dulangan 3, Municipality of Baco,Oriental Mindoro, where the researcher immersed herself and participated in the conduct of MKMCI missionary work. This study will only cover the assessment of Alangan Mangyans on the livelihood training program of MKMCI given to them. It will not cover the aspects of the Alangan Tribe such as their culture and other aspects of their ancestral heritage. The evaluation on the effectiveness of the livelihood program only covers recent years, that is, 2011-2012, for the reason that the livelihood

xxvi training programs of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center, Inc. started on March 2011.

Definition of Terms For purposes of understanding the key terms being used in the study, the terms listed here are defined according to how they are used in the study. This will ease the understanding of the problem and will avoid ambiguous meanings for terms that can be otherwise be interpreted in different ways. Terms defined here are arranged in alphabetical order; thus: Alangan Tribe.This describes the Mangyan tribe, one of the beneficiaries of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center, Inc. located in the municipalities of Baco, Oriental Mindoro. Behavior Analysis.This descries the extent of the trainees change their behavior back in their work place or community as a result of training. Effectiveness Criteria. This refers an instrument guide to assess or evaluate the effectiveness of the training program.

Learning Level.This refers to the participants increase in knowledge and skills and change in attitudes as a result of training.

Livelihood.This refers to capabilities, assets, and activities required in maintaining living standards and quality of lifeincluding cash incomes and consumption. Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc. (MKMCI). This refers to a group of humanitarian mission which provides assistance to the tribe in Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro, via literacy program and livelihood training program. Mangyan Tribe.This is the general name for all indigenous tribes who live in the province of Mindoro. Reaction participants find of the the Respondents.This useful, describes how the

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training

challenging,

well-structured

organized, among others. Results of the Training. This refers to the effectiveness of the training programs conducted. Training Program. This is a way to prompt people to make a difference in the competitive world of work using their skills.

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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The researcher has come up with a review of related literature and studies that have a significant relationship to the present study.

Foreign Related Literature Plan International Organization (2013), an international entity that is desirous of helping Mangyans be equipped with livelihood skills detail their journey below:

Mountainous terrain

Spread thinly in remote mountainous terrain, the majority of the 7 different Mangyan tribes can only be accessed on foot. It is often a tough trek up the mountains through dense woods. There is no road, electricity, or water. I often set off early in the morning with my survival kit and reach the communities by late afternoon, says Rene of Plan . But unpredictable, violent downpours are common.

xxix Mudslides often block the trails after heavy rains, and the only way to reach the communities is by crossing the river on foot, says Mario of Plan.

Since 2005, Plan has been running various development programs for the Mangyan -- primarily focused on education, alternative learning systems and livelihood training. Currently Plan works with 51 communities in Occidental Mindoro which is home to nearly 25,000 Mangyan people.

The reclusive Mangyan are among the poorest and most marginalised people in the Philippines, physically and socially lost from the mainstream. A Mangyan family earns on average just US$0.34 per day. Nine out of 10 Mangyan people have poor access to safe drinking water and 60% of Mangyan children are malnourished. Literacy is low and it is common for both boys and girls to be married by the age of 10.

Sustainable income

It is down to relentless efforts of frontline community development workers like Mario and Rene that Mangyan communities are beginning to build bridges with the rest of the world. Mangyans are untrusting of anyone outside their communities and it takes months to establish

xxx contact and build trust -- but Plans work is beginning to make a difference.

So far, 178 Mangyan communities have achieved sustainable food and income. By early 2014, Plan hopes to have established 13 community-based farm enterprises covering 73 communities and benefiting at least 16,000 Mangyan people.

Honey processing Before, we used to get only 150 pesos for 5 whole kilos of unprocessed forest honey from the market middlemen. Now, we process our own honey, sell it directly in the market and earn 70 pesos for only 300 grams, says Roberto from Pambuhan village where Plan has started a food processing center. Robertos joy is understandable. But what keeps workers like

Mario and Rene going? Nothing is more rewarding to me than seeing Mangyan children go to school or communities become self sufficient in food and income, says Mario. Each community is like an extended family to me and I feel a part of them (https://plan-international.org, retrieved on February 20, 2013).

xxxi Although there is no universally accepted definition of the term indigenous peoples, it is the practice of the United Nations to use the term to include groups that are referred to in different ways in different countries, such as ethnic minorities in China, tribal people in India, and hill people in Bangladesh. The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues estimates that these groups constitute five percent of the world population (or 370 million) and 15 percent of the global poor (Bage, 2013).

Local Related Literature Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines refer to a group of people or homogenous societies identified by self-ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed, and utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social, and cultural inroads of colonization, non-indigenous religions and cultures, become historically differentiated from the majority of the Filipinos. ICCs/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are

regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations

which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures, or the establishment of present state boundaries, who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains. (Sec.3 [h] R.A. 8371)

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To protect the interest of the foregoing, the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) has been tasked to protect and promote the interest and well-being of the ICCs/IPs with due regard to their beliefs, customs, traditions, and institutions. Its official website

(www.ncip.gov.ph) provides the following information which, upon a reading thereof, impresses upon one the felt need for providing livelihood programs for the Mangyans aside from explicitly providing the legal mandate therefor; thus:

Mandate

The NCIP shall protect and promote the interest and well-being of the ICCs/IPs with due regard to their beliefs, customs, traditions and institutions.

Vision

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As enabling partner and lead advocate, the NCIP envisions genuinely empowered Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) whose rights and multi-dimensional well-being are fully recognized, respected and promoted towards the attainment of national unity and development.

Mission

The NCIP is the primary government agency that formulates and implements policies, plans and programs for the recognition, promotion and protection of the rights and well-being of IPs with due regard to their ancestral domains and lands, self-governance and empowerment, social justice and human rights, and cultural integrity.

Functions

To serve as the primary government agency through which ICCs/IPs can seek government assistance and as the medium, through which such assistance may be extended;

To review and assess the conditions of ICCs/IPs including existing laws and policies pertinent thereto and to propose relevant laws and policies to address their role in national development;

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To formulate and implement policies, plans, programs and projects for the economic, social and cultural development of the ICCs/IPs and to monitor the implementation thereof;

To request and engage the services and support of experts from other agencies of government or employ private experts and consultants as may be required in the pursuit of its objectives;

Subject to existing laws, to enter into contracts, agreements, or arrangement, with government or private agencies or entities as may be necessary to attain the objectives of this Act, and subject to the approval of the President, to obtain loans from government lending institutions and other lending institutions to finance its programs;

To negotiate for funds and to accept grants, donations, gifts and/or properties in whatever form and from whatever source, local and international, subject to the approval of the President of the Philippines, for the benefit of ICCs/IPs and administer the same in accordance with

the terms thereof; or in the absence of any condition, in such manner consistent with the interest of ICCs/IPs as well as existing laws;

xxx v

To coordinate development programs and projects for the advancement of the ICCs/IPs and to oversee the proper implementation thereof;

To convene periodic conventions or assemblies of IPs to review, assess as well as propose policies or plans;

To advise the President of the Philippines on all matters relating to the ICCs/IPs and to submit within sixty (60) days after the close of each calendar year, a report of its operations and achievements;

To submit to Congress appropriate legislative proposals intended to carry out the policies under this Act;

To prepare and submit the appropriate budget to the Office of the President;

To issue appropriate certification as a pre-condition to the grant of permit, lease, grant, or any other similar authority for the disposition, utilization, management and appropriation by any private individual, corporate entity or any government agency, corporation or subdivision

thereof on any part or portion of the ancestral domain taking into consideration the consensus approval of the ICCs/IPs concerned;

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To decide all appeals from the decisions and acts of all the various offices within the Commission;

To promulgate the necessary rules and regulations for the implementation of this Act;

To exercise such other powers and functions as may be directed by the President of the Republic of the Philippines; and

To represent the Philippines ICCs/IPs in all international conferences and conventions dealing with indigenous peoples and other related concerns. The NCIPs Constitutional mandate is found in Section 22, Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, reiterated in Section 2, Chapter 1 of Republic Act 8371, otherwise known as "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997"; it declares that the State recognizes and promotes the rights of the indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development.

The

NCIP

has

been

classified

as

Other

Executive

xxx vii

Office/independent agency under the Office of the President (Chapter VII, Section 40, Republic Act 8371, Indigenous Peoples Rights Act). (www.ncip.gov.ph, retrieved on March 9, 2013)

Loqal.ph/business-and-finance (retrieved on March 9, 2013) recently reported that an agriculture training program is expected to benefit children of indigenous Mangyans and out-of-school youth in Oriental Mindoro. The Mangyoung Entrepinoys Organic Farming sa Mindoro is spearheaded by the Salesian Sisters of St. Bosco, who have been operating the Mary Help of Christians School (Mindoro) Inc. in Barangay Parang, Calapan City. The project has trained an average of 50 to 60 students per year since 2002. The Department of Agriculture (DA) has allotted P4.27

million for the program. The fund will be used to continue the integrated formal and informal education program on organic farming and sustainable agriculture technologies for youth in the farm area. Aside from hands-on farming chores such as growing rice, vegetables, cassava, and fruit trees, the students likewise learn

entrepreneurial skills and undergo on-the-job training in private and DA techno-demonstration farms. The school has an existing tie-up with local government units in Mindoro, which sponsor half of the P20,000 tuition fee per student. The other half is shouldered by private individuals and groups as benefactors. About 40 percent of out-of-school youth in Calapan City and Puerto Galera aged between 13- and 23-years-old usually work as helpers, vendors, porters, fishermen, or entertainers. Others are idle or help in household, farming, or fishing chores, said school director Phoebe Lacse. Lacse said under their one-year program, graduates are required to share and transfer their acquired knowledge and skills in agriculture and other enterprises to family members and others in their community. The experience of concerned entities truly can pave the way for an efficient and fruitful sharing of knowledge, including livelihood programs for Indigenous Peoples. Thus, the local government of

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Zamboanga del Norte (www.zanorte.gov.ph, retrieved on march 9, 2013). For the past years, the Indigenous Peoples of Zamboanga del NorteSubanen and Kalibugan tribes, remained the forgotten brethren in farflung areas of this province.

Being of Subano descent and had a big heart for the lowly, Governor Rolando E. Yebes initiated the creation of the Provincial Indigenous Peoples Coordinating Unit (PIPCU) headed by Cristina L. Andus. The aim was to assess, evaluate, and implement the IPs

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livelihood insofar as the provincial governments programs for them were concerned.

Thus, there were livelihood enhancement seminars that were concluded by the PIPCU in all municipalities in Districts I, II and III of the province for the IPs, with the special participations of the Provincial Veterinary Office (PROVET) for animal dispersal and aqua culture; Technology and Livelihood Development Center (TLDC) for skills training in soap making and charcoal utilization; National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) for the IPs Rights and Privileges; and the Office of the Provincial Agriculture (OPA) for Agricultural Technology. These offices were in-charge of advocacy and knowledge of the knowhows of the projects.

The seminars are a joint-effort of the Local Government Unit (LGU) and the Provincial Government of Zamboanga del Norte. The significant objective is to lessen the poverty level of the IP populace by

xl augmenting their incomes through government programs enforced by the office of the Governor.

Long after the livelihood enhancement seminars, the PIPCU personnel went over from barangay to barangay in the three (3) districts of the province to assess and evaluate the outcome of the seminars they attended. They found out that some fruit-bearing trees were planted and prominently backyard gardening were cultivated in the IPs communities.

To date, the provincial government has released to the IPs through its implementing agency, the PIPCU, semi-macro economic undertaking on Hi-green, fish culture (Tilapia and Hito) and poultry to few well-organized IP groups and a wide variety of small scale projects for dispersal including some fish nets to the IPs province-wide.

Virola (2008) found that Mangyan hand-made products empower women. It was noted that the Kapulungan para sa Lupaing Ninuno (KPLN), a province-wide federation of all the seven Mangyan tribes working on their rights and livelihood programs, has been exerting efforts to preserve the Mangyan culture, generate income, and empower the Mangyan women. One such initiative is the production and promotion of new Mangyan handicraft product lines for export which the KPLN formally

xli launched on March 13 at the Girl Scouts of the Philippines hall in Calapan. The project is dubbed as Produktong Likhang Kamay (PLK). Hanunuo Mangyan Gerry Tupaz, handicrafts coordinator, says the products were made from indigenous materials like nito, rattan, bikal, buri, cogon, talahib, hipgid, gurimot, hinggiw, uyason, hagnaya, lucmoy, banban, and indigenous vines. The product line includes tote bags, sling bags, tapered bags, cosmetic kits, tissue holders, napkin rings, utensil boxes, place mats with and without pockets, doorknob hangers, and pillow cases. Last year, some of the products were introduced during the Crafts and Coffee event held at Bel Air in Makati, Partnerships Forum during the Indigenous Peoples Day and Social Development Week at Glorietta. Enulie Kadlos of Mansalay town, a leader of the Hanunuo Mangyan, says they are happy that women are being given attention through the PLK project. We are happy to be earning while learning many things. But we will also keep and practice what we learned from our ancestors, said leader maintains in Filipino. Kadlos completes a bag in four days,

making her earn a minimum of P20 per day. It is a supplement to what we get from farming, Kadlos added.

xlii Erlina Sudayi, a Hanunuo from Bulalacao, the southernmost town of Oriental Mindoro, says they were grateful for the capital that was given to them. The participants in the PLK project are grouped together, with eight to 20 members each group, based on their residence. According to records, the household income of members covered by the project rose from 75 percent in 2006 to 113 percent in 2007. The household needs covered by the project also increased from 30 percent in 2006 to 46 percent in 2007. The PLK project started in July 2006 although it was formally launched only recently. It was among the Mangyan Partner Producer Groups composed of three groups from the Hanunuo tribe, one from the Buhid tribe and one from the Alangan Mangyan tribe. All of them have formulated their community visions. Common among them is meeting their family needs and financial sustainability. The Hanunuo womens groups have been into ramit cloth weaving using the back strap weaving system, mostly focused on women skirts. The Buhid women engage in weaving and handicraft-making using beads, buri, and nito. These are hits among foreigners. The Alangan women want to be known for their cogon place mats, bags and bamboo rocking chairs. Their respective communities are

xliii motivated to plant to produce and sell the raw materials for PLK products. The non-government organization Non-Timber Forest ProductsTask Force/Custom-Made Crafts Center (NTFP-TF/CMCC) advises the KPLN on product development. They have gone through more than 50 percent of the processes in production and marketing and we envision them to be like Natripal (in Palawan) which already has its own product shop, said Rex dela Pea, a coach from NTFP-TF. Moreover, Dela Pea says, they want the Mangyans to enjoy fair trade -- meaning their community, production, and products are treated and compensated enough. Among the challenges the KPLN is addressing are quality control of the products and on-time delivery, which Mangyans are not used to. The Mangyan federation also conducts basic training on bookkeeping, pricing, marketing, handicraft production technology and planning, participatory business planning, sample makers, training, entrepreneurial courses, and, finally, warehouse and inventory management.

To be sure, KPLNs project is being financed with grant from the internationally-recognized World Conservation Union (WCU).

Approaching their third year, KPLN has opened assistance on a project proposal amounting to P639,000 to expand its program. The KPLN

xliv seeks assistance in terms of trainings, networking funding, promotion, production, product development, and transportation of products. Kumar (2013) reported that, in Pambuhan, young tribesmen proudly display their arms like scars of war. Blue, black, red, and some still healing they are covered in multitude of stings from unforgiving honeybees that thrive in the tropical rainforests of Philippines Occidental Mindoro. It is no mean feat by all accounts to survive the onslaught of venomous avengers on wings. So bigger the conquered hive, taller is the social standing among fiercely competitive peers. Ruthless they may be, but honeybees have existed in accord with indigenous Mangyan tribes for centuries and form an integral part of their livelihood in the highlands. They are cared for as much as they are vanquished for the unique blend of golden honey they produce. However, for days of painstaking efforts in the forest and risks to their lives, Mangyan earn next to nothing when they sell their honey to middlemen from the lowlands. The best price they can hope to achieve is 150 pesos or under 4 US dollars for 5 liters of raw honey. The same is then sold by traders in local markets 8 times dearer. This exploitative trade practice has existed for generations and Mangyan have had little recourse. Scattered in small communities over

xlv a vast geographical area, the seven tribes of Mangyan are not only physically and socially isolated from rest of the Filipino population, but are also among the poorest and most marginalized. A Mangyan family earns on average just $0.34 a day. Nine out of ten Mangyan have poor access to safe drinking water and majority are illiterate. Historically nomadic and forest gatherers, the tribes often

struggle to feed themselves, particularly during rainy season which lasts four months. It is such a routine part of their life that they refer to it as hungry period like any other season of the year. The consequen ces are obvious as 60% of Mangyan children are malnourished and infant mortality rates are so high that a child is considered fortunate to reach the age of 10. However, things are beginning to change, albeit slowly with initiatives on the ground. Global child rights organization Plan

International is engaged in child-centered community development for Mangyan since 2005. Through an EU (European Union)-funded

livelihood project, the organization is aiming to reduce hunger and poverty among Mangyan communities in Mindoro Island and improve the health and nutrition of 17,000 people, including over 3,000 children. As part of its livelihood training program, the organization in 2010 established a honey processing center for Mangyan in Pambuhan where

xlvi community members are trained to process honey using modern methods and sell it directly to the local markets. We want Mangyan communities to engage in sustainable livelihood activities. Our goal is to enable the communities to take over the enterprise and run it themselves, says Rachelle Nuestro, a Plan official, in-charge of the project. From pressing honeycombs with bare hands to processing honey wearing a hygiene cap, it has been nothing short of a culture shock for the Mangyan. Not just that, for majority who have never been to school, Mangyan are coming to grips with basics of value chain, fair-pricing, market strategy and business planning. It is challenging but we make it as simple as possible in their dialect and context, says Nuestro. Mangyan can see the immediate gains. Now, we process our own honey, sell it direct in the market and earn 70 pesos for 300-gram jars, says 32-year-old Roberto, a father-of-three. This is a huge difference to about 10 pesos paid by local middlemen for the same. Not just processing, we are also training them harvesting honey in a sustainable way and preserving it using better techniques to avoid contamination, says Manuel Uy, enterprise development officer for the project. In peak harvesting season up to 12 Mangyan people work full

xlvii time in the honey-processing center. During busy periods we produce 600 liters of processed honey in a month, says 19-year-old Alvin. With the great success of the honey processing center, Mangyan must now graduate to processing local fruits. Mangoes grow in such abundance here that Mangyan do not know what to do with them. Training Mangyan to pickle the fruit is our next goal, says Uy. Such

words meet the nods of community members. For a change, the mood is euphoric in Pambuhan. Riding on the crest of their honeycomb success, the hard-stung Mangyan are now daring to get into some pickle.

Measuring Training Evaluation Effectiveness While surveys have long been used to measure the effectiveness of training evaluation (Mille, 2010), these may not really provide a proper accounting or validation of the training. For training evaluation to be effective, it is important to satisfy the following considerations such as the extent of which the training needs and objectives are achieved, the extent of which the participants' objectives are met, what the participants have learned from the training, and whether the participants have made a commitment to implement what they have learned from the training once they get back to work. Once they return to work, it is also

important to determine the level of success in implementing action plans, the extent of which they were supported by their managers, the extent of which the action has achieved an effective training ROI for the company in terms of goal satisfaction or financial assessment. Many companies usually fail to implement these training evaluation processes, especially in instances where the trainers and HR department do not have enough time or resources to do. Training

xlvii i

evaluation must fit according to the resources available as well as the environment which can substantially differ from an organization to the next. Of course, good and proper methodical evaluation yields good and reliable data. A lack of evaluation performed, on the other hand, would also produce very little results regarding training's effectiveness. There are two major factors that should be resolved when it comes to training evaluation. These include the person responsible for the training evaluation and validation processes and the available resources needed for the said processes. time, money, and people. The training evaluation is traditionally left to, but not limited to, the trainer. It can also be the responsibility of senior management, line These resources include

management, the training manager, and the trainee, each of which has distinct responsibilities. Moreover, participants in the training program

xlix also play an important role in the validation and evaluation process as well. This is because evaluation and new skills and knowledge would not be possible without their comments. Training evaluation will also depend on various available resources as well as culture support. The more tools and the wider the approach used, the more effective and valuable the evaluation will become. However, one needs to set realistic goals. Largely expensive and critical training programs more often justify more scrutiny and evaluation than small, simple and non-critical ones. Evaluation requires more precise details when there is huge investment and so much expectation. Training managers, in particular, should make clear

expectations on validation and measurement with senior management before conducting new training programs in to establish the right evaluation process.

Foreign Related Studies In a study conducted by EXPRO (2013), a nationwide, integrated educational program which combines literacy training with livelihood, health, and entrepreneurial skills training, adults and out-of-school children are provided with the opportunity to learn and receive training in non-formal education centers. The project was developed through a

l cooperation between the Ethiopian Government (Ministry of Education), Regional Education Bureaus (REBs), TVET commissions and the DVV country office. The involvement of several partners in the formulation and development of the project enabled it to reflect and capture the fundamental needs of both the nation and the individual beneficiaries within the communities. The project has evolved over the years in

response to the practical demands and needs of the beneficiaries as well as the lessons that have emerged as the project was implemented. Moreover, strategies and methods are constantly being refined as new developments emerge. The project aims to establish model Community Skills Training Centres (CSTCs) in geographically and socio-economically diverse environments to provide systematic skills training to educationally disadvantaged people. The model CSTCs are intended to develop into:

officially recognized providers of effective training; centers of information and innovative practice; and local centers for further training and experience-sharing for planners of adult and non-formal education (ANFE) or vocational training programs, administrators, coordinators and trainers of other CSTCs, thereby expanding the program to other areas in the respective regions.

li The programs principal aim is to alleviate poverty and thus to actively contribute towards the achievement of the Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs). Background and Context Ethiopia is the most populous state in the Horn of Africa and one of the worlds poorest countries with a real per capita GDP of US$ 90. About 87% of its population live in rural areas and are dependent on agriculture; more than 56% live in absolute poverty; and 70% of the adult population are functionally illiterate and unskilled. One in every two

adults cannot read or write and the situation is worse still in the rural areas and for young and adult women. Furthermore, children and youth living in rural areas have little access to education or skills training programs, and the overall quality of education in rural areas is generally low due to poverty and limited investment and resources. In addition, the drop-out rate for children and youth leaving the education system after the primary school level is very high and many school leavers fail to acquire adequate literacy or vocational/livelihood skills. The Government of Ethiopia considers the education sector to play a crucial role in driving development and transformation as well as reducing poverty and empowering citizens. As a result, the Government has prioritized the development and provision of access to primary

lii education to children under 15 years and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to out-of-school youth and adults who have completed grade 10 and above. Furthermore, the Government

also offers literacy courses and basic skills training in CSTCs to people who left school prior to grade 10 or who have received no education at all. Over the past decade, however, the Government has provided only marginal support in the field of Adult and Non-formal Education (ANFE). It was not until recently -- notably, after the Dakar Forum on Education for All (EFA) and the formulation of the new Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) -- that non-formal education gained stronger political support and began to be viewed as an alternative route to basic education. At the same time, livelihood-oriented adult non-formal

education initiatives and activities carried out by NGOs and communitybased organizations have been recognized for their role in promoting development and alleviating poverty. Nonetheless, only a small number of NGO-initiated adult education programs are operating at the community level and most, particularly those in the remote rural areas, are neither effective nor sustainable. Furthermore, most of these programs continue to prioritize and provide literacy education and skills training without addressing the

liii need for an integrated functional literacy or livelihood training programs that encompasses critical areas of adult education such as civic, cultural, or environmental education, or the broad field of continuing education. Not do they (adequately) equip learners to establish a livelihood or carry out economic activities after they have completed a course of training (such as open businesses or carry out income-generating

activities/projects [IGA/Ps]).

In general, these ANFE programs are

constrained by a severe lack of resources and qualified personnel. It is in this context that DVV International which has been assisting the basic skills training program of the Ministry of Education and some regional education bureaus since it started working in Ethiopia in 1995 initiated the EXPRO program. Its main aim is to provide nonformal vocational training to specific target groups, such as youth, especially school drop-outs who have no access to the formal vocational training system as an alternative route to a vocational qualification. In 2002, DVV International undertook a comprehensive study on skills and literacy training for better livelihoods in Africa on behalf of the World Bank in order to assess the effectiveness of education and training programs for the poor. One of the general findings was that programs that concentrated on livelihood activities appear to be more successful than programs that focused exclusively on literacy education. Hence,

liv the current program aims to promote adult literacy using a livelihood approach which simultaneously promotes social empowerment, income generation, community development, and vocational training

(www.unseco.org, retrieved on February 22, 2013) Before embarking on much work with indigenous peoples, it is appropriate to be reminded of the pitfalls that stakeholders have met. Indeed, as per Sarou (2009), interventions bring a series of changes and adjustments to indigenous peoples, thus creating an environment of great difficulty. Thus, Bage (2013) found that, in recent years, the

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has intensified its efforts to reach out to indigenous peoples, tribal people, and ethnic minorities by better understanding the complexity and diversity of rural poverty and by striving to expand the capabilities of these peoples both collectively and as individuals.

A few lessons can be learned from the experience of IFAD and other groups. The first lesson concerns the importance of participatory approaches to the design and implementation of inclusive development policies and programs. A key tool to better deal with complexity and diversity is a strongly participatory approach to designing and implementing programs that are responsive to local problems and to the

lv goals and visions of indigenous peoples and members of ethnic minorities.

The second lesson is that there are promising, reasonably welltested approaches to work with ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples to help them overcome poverty, including the following:

1. Increasing incomes by diversifying livelihoods and opportunities. Many ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples live in areas with difficult climates, poor soils, and high levels of vulnerability to natural disasters. Livelihood diversification is thus key to enhance the economic capabilities of both groups and individuals. This entails crop diversification and intensification, research into and adaptation of productivity-enhancing technologies, microfinance, the provision of support to microenterprises, and the development of alternative opportunities for income generation from natural resources, such as eco-tourism and the processing of medicinal and food products. Experience shows that such interventions

have great potential but may face problems of sustainability. These can be mitigated by building on local practices, values, and commitments; on sound gender analysis and the mobilization of

lvi both women and men; and on the identification of activities with both cultural value and market potential.

2. Strengthening both group and individual natural resource entitlements. Weak resource entitlements are often a major factor in rural poverty. In addition, the distribution of resources plays a key role in local livelihood strategies and in cultural and social practices. Loss of land in particular may not only limit livelihood opportunities but also lead to the disintegration of the social fabric and to the entrenchment of social marginalization. Some programs have boosted the capabilities of marginalized groups by facilitating the recognition or protection of indigenous entitlements to natural resources, for instance via

demarcation and titling of ancestral lands, forests, and water sources; supporting gender-equal distribution of entitlements; and advocacy. Such initiatives often entail new forms of natural resource management and new balances between individual and collective entitlements, which raise new challenges and opportunities for development requiring innovation.

3. Strengthening local and traditional governance institutions. Several donor-funded initiatives aim to strengthen and reform traditional governance institutions, particularly in relation to natural resource and conflict management. Strengthening these institutions constitutes both a

lvii challenge and an opportunity for development, because it may affect the balance between group and individual goals, practices, and visions in ways that development enablers must be better prepared to address.

4. Respecting the principle of free prior and informed consent. This principle is enshrined in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and should guide development interventions with ethnic minorities and indigenous and tribal peoples. Respecting this principle means both addressing the causes of rural poverty among indigenous peoples and nurturing their capabilities in decision-making.

The third lesson is that the application of programmatic and technical solutions developed in other contexts is often not an optimal response to the challenges facing indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, and other marginalized groups. Solutions are required that are

appropriate to these groups. These can be found through the following means:

1. Engaging indigenous and tribal peoples and ethnic minorities in shaping their futures. Development with identity is an important principle for development enablers working with these groups. This principle affirms

lviii that cultural distinctiveness, which includes specific values and perspectives on development, is part of indigenous developmental capabilities; hence it needs to be targeted with initiatives to enhance social and cultural capital and to improve communication and information about indigenous cultures. IFAD-funded programs include initiatives to address cultural marginalization and loss of social capital and to involve indigenous communities in the design of programs to ensure adaptation of solutions to local conditions, cultural and social ownership, and gender equality.

2. Building on local and indigenous knowledge systems. Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities are often stewards of biodiversity and holders of unique knowledge linked to local cultures and identities, which has two main implications for development policies and programs. First, technological packages to improve livelihoods should evolve out of adaptive research and development in order to build on local knowledge systems in the face of new environmental challenges linked to climate change and to enhance local capabilities.

Second, certain forms of local and indigenous knowledge (for example, about medicinal plants or underutilized plant species) need to be supported to be integrated into fair, sustainable value chains that may

lix boost local capabilities and strengthen local cultures while also contributing to the mitigation of climate change and biodiversity.

The fourth lesson is that we need to innovate to find new and better solutions to emerging challenges rather than only to long-standing ones. A case in point is climate change. Although poor people, including ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, are among the least responsible for the problem, they are among those most vulnerable to it. However, they can also be part of the solution due to their knowledge of how to manage their environments in a sustainable manner. This will require finding ways to help these marginalized groups to continue to manage their lands and to store carbon on them. In this regard, IFAD is discussing with the International Food Policy Research Institute, in the context of their strategic partnership, how to help poor rural people to benefit economically from storing carbon on their lands in the interest of all humanity.

lx Local Related Studies In a study on IPRA (Indigenous Peoples Rights Act)

implementation by Vidal and Feranil (2003, cited in www.ipra.com, retrieved on March 9, 2013), the salient points of the same, or Republic Act No. 8371, in its Social Justice and Human Rights (Rule V, OP-NCIP 1998) provisions reminds one that: The provision recognizes the fundamental rights, protection and privileges enjoyed by the rest of the citizenry. It is the NCIPs responsibility to ensure that fundamental human rights and freedom are guaranteed to all members of the indigenous peoples as already accorded to every member of society. These rights include, but are not limited to, the right to life, development, and civil liberties; political rights; freedom of association; nondiscrimination; equal protection; and right to peace and social justice. The law also guarantees

indigenous peoples rights to basic social services. The IPs have the right to employment, vocational training, housing, sanitation, health, social security, infrastructure, transportation and communication (ADB, 2002). In

addition, the IPRA also provides for the rights of women to

lxi fully participate in community and nation building; and for the children and youth to have access to indigenous education, technical training, and the use of IP dialect or language as the medium of instruction.

Orbeta (2002, cited in www.ipra.com, retrieved on March 9, 2013) conducted a study on training programs for the indigenous people in Oriental Mindoro anchored on identifying their needs by going through the different assistance offered them and found the following: Some Non Government Institutions Helping the Mangyans There are at least two non-government organizations (NGOs) that help improve the lives of Mangyans. Until the early 1980s, the Peace Corps Volunteer Program founded by US President John F. Kennedy was actively working with the Mangyans. The objectives of the program were based on the Mangyans perceived needs; namely: (1) acquisition of lands obtained through lease permit, (2) promotion of cultural pride and strengthening of self -confidence, (3) increased food production, (4) finding a source income, (5) better health and nutrition through increased food production, and (6) development of leadership and assistance in organizing the community.

lxii The Peace Corps volunteers acted as facilitators in the program. They concentrated on the sixth perceived need to be able to attain the other five needs. The Baco Mangyan Kalakbay Foundation Inc. is another NGO that gives assistance to the Alangan Tribe via a literacy program and livelihood training program in Baco, Oriental Mindoro.

Government Efforts Help the Mangyans There are at least three recorded government agencies that were established to help Mangyans: the Low Income Upland Communities Project (LIUCP), the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), and the Policy and Planning Development Office (PPDO). The Low-Income Upland Communities Project (LIUCP),

implemented in the island of Mindoro, is one of the governments initiatives to help in the socio-economic upliftment of the upland communities (Mangyan) and to obtain their cooperation in the rehabilitation and sustainable management of the critical watersheds they inhabit. By enabling upland communities to care for their own

particular environment, enhancing their participation in conservation and development, assisting environmental actions of upland communities, and providing them the necessary information, skills, and technologies,

lxiii the watersheds of Mindoro would be able to meet the water needs of the islands people sustainability into the future. The LIUCP in partnership with the local government organizations, came up with the following areas of concern: (1) resource depletion; (2) environmental degradation; (3) inequitable distribution and allocation of lands and natural resources; (4) poverty in the uplands; (5) continuous influx of migrants; and (6) tenurial problems in the public domain. In the beginning, the upland communities were suspicious of the sincerity and honesty of the LIUCP because of previous unpleasant experiences with similar government projects. However, they gradually cooperated and became desirous of the sustaining project benefits. The Office for Southern Cultural Communities (OSCC) from 1986 -1997, which evolved from the Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Minorities (OMACM) from 1975-1984, was replaced by the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) with the approval of the Indigenous Rights Act of 1997. The NCIP has a field office in Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro. It has created different offices to respond to the needs of the Mangyans; thus: 1. The Ancestral Domains Office which is responsible for the identification of ancestral lands/domains;

lxiv 2. The Policy, Planning, and Research Office which is responsible for the formulation of appropriate policies and programs for indigenous peoples; 3. The Education, Culture, and Health Office, which is responsible for the effective implementation of the educational, cultural, and related rights of indigenous peoples as provided for in the Act; 4. The office on Socio-Economic services and special concerns which serves as the office through which pertinent government agencies implement various basic socio-economic services, policies, plans, and programs affecting indigenous peoples; 5. The Office of Empowerment and Human Rights that ensures indigenous socio-political, cultural, and economic rights are respected and recognized; 6. The Administrative Office which provides the NCIP with economic and effective services pertaining to personnel, finance, records, equipment, security, supplies, and related services; it also administrative the Ancestral Domains funds; and 7. The Legal Affairs Office which advises the NCIP on all matters concerning indigenous peoples and provides them with legal assistance in litigation involving community interest.

lxv The local government of Oriental Mindoro, through its Policy and Planning Development Office (PPDO) based in Calapan City, augments, finances, and helps in the development of the Mangyans through its programs. Like other agencies helping indigenous peoples, they also

concentrate on (1) livelihood programs; (2) literacy programs; (3) health and sanitation programs; and (4) ancestral domain programs by legal assistance.

Church Organizations that Help the Mangyans There are around 10 church organizations that were established to help the Mangyans; they are briefly described below. The Mangyan Integrated Deveopment Program (MIDP) is a service arm of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP), a Protestant Church which came to Oriental Mindoro in the 1950s. Their mission of evangelizing the Mangyans branched out to other programs: (1) livelihood projects; (2) health and hospitalization projects; (3) providing farm implements to Mangyan farmers; (4) the practice of alternative medicine with the use of indigenous herbal medicines; and (5) literacy program. This entity is present in Naujan and Baco by working with the Alangan Mangyans. They are also present in Occidental

Mindoro. Their projects are funded by the UCCP through foreign grants.

lxvi The Protestant Missionaries of the Overseas Missionary

Fellowship (OMF) has made important contributions for the development of the Mangyans. They are present in almost all areas where the

Mangyans are found. Like other church groups, they began their work through their evangelization programs. These missionaries received

training in the different Mangyan dialects before being sent to the different Mangyan areas. Hence, they became proficient in their work with the Mangyans. They follow the Buddy System Approach. A

missionary concentrates on just one Mangyan and the Mangyan will concentrate on another person. This is a good process for instruction or education is carried out even when the missionaries are transferred to another settlement. The umbrella organization of the OMF is the

Mangyan Tribal Church Association (MTCA) which is located in Calapan City. The Mount Tabor Formation (MTFC), established in 1964, still caters to all Magyan tribes in Oriental Mindoro. The objectives of this center are: (1) to have more Mangyan professionals; (2) to help the Mangyans attain a good Catholic education; (3) to provide a decent home for Mangyan students; (4) to prepare Mangyans to be responsible parents; and (5) to equip Mangyans to become future leaders in their respective communities.

lxvii Almost all of the above objectives have been attained to a satisfactory level. One indicator is that there are some Mangyan

teachers now. Another indicator is that the directress of the center is a Mangyan. Still another indicator of progress is that there are two Mangyan seminarians in the vicariate of Calapan. The local church launched social development and apostolate work among the Mangyan, later known as the Mangyan Mission. The Mangyan Mission assisted the tribal communities in affirming their cultural identity while helping them adapt into the modern world. Currently, it implements various programs and services such as education, community capability building, livelihood, evangelization, land tenure, and institution building. It is duly registered with the Securities

and Exchange Commission (SEC) as the Mangyan Mission Foundation, Inc. In support of community enterprise initiatives like (TCAD), the Mangyan Mission has continued to provide marketing services to the Mangyan by establishing a centralized marketing outlet for Mangyan products in Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro. Local buyers and buyers outside of Mindoro patronize the outlet for ready-made items and other make specific orders.

The Mangyan products are traditionally produced by the Hanunuo, Iraya, and Alangan tribes, using various raw materials and designed in different shapes and colors. The Hanunuo make buri bags, beaded bracelet, necklaces, key chains, woven cloth, and bamboo items. The Alangan make rattan baskets, walis tambo (brooms), and

lxvii i

nito products, while Iraya produce nito-based crafts in combination with other vines. Another invaluable organization is the Mangyan Center (MC) which was established by the Congregation of the Siervas de San Jose in 1981. It now caters to three fast-growing Mangyan settlements: Their

Panaytayan, Bait, and Kilapnit in Mansalay, Oriental Mindoro.

programs include: (1) Mangyan mission center housing for some Mangyan students; (2) income generating projects and the marketing of their own products; and (3) community assistance program which encourages Mangyans of all ages to help their fellow Mangyans in the different settlements regarding informal education and community organization. The Kapulungan Para sa Lupang Ninuno (KPLN) is a project initiated by the Mangyan but is now supported by other organizations. This is composed of leaders from the different Mangyan tribes in Oriental Mindoro who fight for their rights to ancestral domains.

lxix Likewise, the women religious counterpart of the SVD community, the Missionary Sister of the Holy Spirit (SSpS), also established the Tugdaan Center for Human Environment Development, Inc.; it offers an alternative high school program recognized by the Department of Education. The Center provides education for four tribes: Alangan, Programs and projects are geared

Hanunuo, Iraya, and Tadyawan.

toward the integral and sustainable development of the Mangyans with great respect for their culture and traditions. There are other Mangyan mission centers operated by the Catholic Church such as the Northern Mindoro Mangyan Mission in Baco, Mangyan Center in Mansalay, the Mangyan Mission Secretarial, and Batangan Mission in Roxas and Bongabong with the same programs as the other centers.

Principles and Techniques in Training The best-planned training programs will be effective if the trainers are highly qualified. A well-qualified trainer is one who has the mastery of the tech -information and details of a particular job; truly, such individual knows how to train a person (Zulueta and De Lara, 2002, www.thesisabstracts.com, retrieved on March 8, 2013).

lxx Hereunder are certain principles of learning, developed by psychologists, governing training and techniques recommended for training programs: 1. Have a timetable. How much skill does one expect the trainee to have and how soon? This gives the trainer a series of objectives to accomplish. 2. Break down the job. List the important steps; job description and analysis are necessary preliminary to training. The working Important

sequence of operations should be properly listed.

points such as performing an operation, addressing quality requirements, adopting safety and health precautions, and such other factors that require careful judgement on the part of the operator should likewise be listed. 3. Have everything ready. Have the right equipment and other

supplies on hand so that there will be no delay when actual training begins. 4. Have the work place properly arranged just as the worker will be expected to keep it. Having these principles of learning, the trainer is now ready to begin the actual training process. This is then divided into four steps under the Job Instructor Training (JIT) program; thus:

lxxi 1. Prepare the worker. Put the worker at ease. Find out what the person already knows about the job by explaining its relationship to the jobs and to the companys products. Place the trainee in the correct working conditions. 2. Present the operation. Tell, demonstrate, illustrate, and question carefully and patiently. Stress the important points as listed in the breakdown sheet. Instruct clearly and completely, taking up one point at a time. 3. Try out performance. Test the trainee through performance of the job. Show the trainee what has been learned. Continue until the trainee knows how to do the job. 4. Follow-up. Have the trainee work independently; extend

assistance if questions arise. The trainee should be evaluated frequently and must be encouraged to ask further questions and to look for key points during learning. As the trainee acquires

skill and understanding, taper off the extra coaching and finally terminate the follow-up. Doubtless, the foregoing learning principles can be summed up in this manner: If the worker has not learned, the teacher has not taught.

lxxii The Training and Development Process A systematic arrangement of the components of a training and development program includes: (1) analysis of training needs, (2) formulation of a training design, (3) materials development, (4) venue, food, participants, and resource speakers, (5) training proper, (6) monitoring and evaluation, and (7) documentation. Training and development are ultimately premised on the genuine interest of management in helping people in the organization to become productive members of society.

Synthesis The foregoing review makes manifest the phenomenon that there are different entities such as Non-Governmental Organizations,

government instrumentalities, private individuals, and missionaries that provide livelihood training programs which create more opportunities to generate income, employment, and improve the living conditions of the Mangyans. Indeed, by providing training programs, it is important to

measure its effectiveness, to serve a good return, and not to waste time or money. Hence, this Chinese proverb is apropos: If you give a man a fish you feed him for a day. If you teach a man to fish you feed him for a lifetime." To be sure, it is better to teach someone how to do something

instead of merely doing the same for them.

Administering before a set

lxxii i

of people training programs is good, but it is better to assess its effectiveness. The literatures and studies consulted are all related to the present study; likewise underscored above are legal mandates of educating Indigenous Peoples such as the Mangyans as fleshed out in the IPRA Law; nevertheless, as may be gleaned from the foregoing, the present pursuit of livelihood education transcends legal proscriptions. Still, this

study is different from the aforementioned works for the former will delve on the assessment of livelihood training programs. In any case, said

literature and studies enlightened this researcher in the formulation of training program effectiveness criteria.

However, this proponent realized how scarce directly-related local literature and studies are on the present study being conducted.

Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology to be used in the study. It deals with the methods to be utilizedin this research including the Research Design, Participants/Respondents of the Study, Research Instrument, Data Gathering Procedures and Statistical Treatment.

lxxi v

Research Design This study aims to develop effectiveness criteria for training program of MKMCI through the evaluation of Alangan Tribes based on the Kirkpatrick model. The research design can be best described from different perspectives; thus: As to the purpose of the study, the research used the DescriptiveEvaluative Research Design for Qualitative Data. The research appraises the impact of the livelihood training program to the lives of members of theAlangan tribe to assess its effectiveness. In terms of problem identification, the study is considered Formal, that is, to assess the impact of MKMCI livelihood training programs to the Alangan Tribe life. This undertaking can also be described as an Ex -Post Facto Research Design since the research has no control over the

lxxv variables. The researcher shall only account for what has happened or what is happening at the moment.

Population and Sampling The participants of the present study are the Alangan tribes members who have undergone livelihood training programs of the MangyanKalakbay Mission CenterInc (MKMCI). The researcher used the Purposive Sampling Technique since the desired criterion of the researcher is to ascertain the effectiveness of the livelihood training programs of MKMCI for Alangan Tribe. The participants who are interviewed are taken from the three groups where in each group is composed of five persons. Therefore, there are three participants interviewed as a representative of each group.

Respondents of the Study The participants of the present study are the Alangan tribes members who have undergone livelihood training programs of the MangyanKalakbay Mission CenterInc (MKMCI).

Research Instrument The researcher used an open-ended questionnaire guide anchored on the training evaluation theory developed by Professor Donald L. Kirkpatrick. The researcher based the framework on said

lxxv i

model through the following variables: Reaction, Learning, Behavior, and Results. The researcher prepared an open -ended questionnaires guide in the English and Tagalog language for the purpose of addressing participants understanding.

Data Gathering Procedures The researcher conducted the study in Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. in Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro. The researcher asked the permission of the president of MKMCI. Upon approval, the researcher shall request one of the volunteer teachers of MKMCI, to be accompanied by this researcher, in facilitating group interviews. Thereafter, the researcher set an appointment considering the availability of the respondents. Upon approval, the researcher will conduct a group interview and use a voice recorder instrument.

The researcher analyzed the findings and formulate conclusions and recommendations.

lxxv ii

Statistical Treatment The researcher used the formula for the total percentage of participants and explains as follow: Percentage (%) = f / n x 100 Where in: Percentage (%) = the frequency divided by the total number of participants and then multiplied by 100. Frequency (f) = the actual tabulated scores of the participants n = number of the participants

Chapter 4

lxxv iii

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This

chapter

contains

the

presentation,

analysis,

and

interpretation of data gathered for this study. The presentation of data is arranged according to the sequence of questions raised.

The following tables present the profile of the Alangan tribe who underwent livelihood training programs of the Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc (MKMCI). The participants who were interviewed

were taken from the three groups of five members each. Therefore, there were three participants interviewed who served as representative for each group.

Table 2 Age of the Participants Age 15 25 26 35 36 45 46 Above Total Frequency 1 10 2 2 15 Percentage 6.67 66.7 13.3 13.3 100%

Table 2 presents all the three participants who were interviewed and whose ages are from 26-35; here, it comprises 66.7% of the population.

Table 3 Gender of the Participants Gender Male Female Total Frequency 6 9 15 Percentage 40 60 100%

lxxi x

Table 3 tells from nine respondents, or 60%, two participants who were interviewed are female, while the other one who was interviewed is male, or 40%.

Table 4 Educational Attainment of the Participants Attainment Illeterate Literate Total Frequency 9 6 15 Percentage 60 40 100%

Here, it can be readily seen that six, or 40% of the participants who were interviewed, are literate. It only means that not all Alangan tribes are illiterate because before the Mangyan Kalakbay Mission came to their community there were already Christian missionaries that assisted them through literacy programs; thus, six 6 of the literate participants are capable of being representatives of the tribe.

lxxx Table 5 Effect of the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI for the Alangan Tribe.
Evaluation of Alangan Tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI based on Kirkpatrick Model A. Reaction of the Participants 1. When did you start to attend on the livelihood training program of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center Inc? (Kailan po kayo nagsimulang dumalo sa programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI?) 2. What kind of livelihood training program of MKMCI did you attend? Did you attending regularly? (Ano po programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI ang inyong nadaluhan? Patuloy po ba kayo dumadalo sa programang ito?) Summary of the Translation on the Evaluation of Alangan Tribe for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI

The participants start to attend the livelihood training program of MKMCI last March 2011. (Noon po March 2011 kame nagsimula dumalo ng programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI). The participants attend to the animal racing, planting of vegetables and palay, and making composepit. Also they are attending in every seminar or training that MKMCI conducted. (Dinaluhan po namen training nila ay tungkol sa paghahayupan, pagtatanim ng mga gulay, palay, at paggawa po ng pataba sa mga halaman.Opo lage po kame nakakadalo sa mga programang binibigay nila para samin.) The participants enjoyed the training because they learned something and more especially because of the food and they also consider this program relevant to their lives because this program helps them to meet their daily food consumption. (Opo masaya dahil po may natutunan kame at kompleto sa masasarap na pagkain kaya po masasabi namen sulit ang oras namen.) The participants consider the training program relevant to their lives because they learned something that will help them to meet their daily food consumption. (Opo ugmang-ugma ang programang ito sa buhay namen dahil marami po kame natutunan na nakakatulong upang magkaroon po kame ng pagkain arawaraw.)

3. Did you enjoy the training and was it a good use of your time? (Nasiyahan po ba kayo sa programang inyong dinaluhan at masasabi ninyo po ban na sulit ang oras na nilaan ninyo para sa programang ito?)

4. Did you consider the training program relevant to your life? (Masasabi ninyo po ba na ang programang ito ay ugma o pakipakinabang sa inyong buhay?

Evaluation of Alangan Tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI based on Kirkpatrick Model B. Learning Level 1. Did you learn what were intended to be taught and experienced what to be intended to experience? (Nauunawaan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo malaman at nararanasan ninyo po ba ang dapat nyo maranasan sa programang ito?)

Summary of the Translation on the Evaluation of Alangan Tribe for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI

lxxx i

The participants learn what were intended to be taught such as pruning of vegetables. The trainors explained clearly and gave examples to be more understandable, also they gave an actual or hands-on training in the garden. (Opo naiintindihan namen dahil pinapaliwanag naman po nila ng mabuti at nagbibigay rin po sila ng aktwal upang mas maunawaan namen. Hindi nga po namen sukat akalain na ang sitaw pop ala ay pinuputulan rin o yung sinasabi po nila pruning. Akala po namin mamatay at saying naman po dahil baka magbunga pa yun, mas maganda pop ala magbunga kapag napruning.) The participants understand the importance of this training on their lives because it is useful on their daily lives. (Opo nauunawaan po naming namin na mahalaga ang programang ito sa buhay naming dahil po natutu kame at nagagamit naming ito sa pang-araw-araw naming pamumuhay.

2. Did you understand the importance of the training program in your life? (Nauunawaan nyo po ba ang kahalagahan ng programang ito sa inyong buhay?)

C. Behavior Analysis 1. Did you put your learning into effect when you returned to your community? Were you able to share this learning to other co tribes? (Isinasagawa ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan pagbalik ninyo sa inyong komunidad? Naibabahagi ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan sa inyong mga katribo? The participants put their learnings when they returned to their community and they able to share what they learned to other co tribes. (Opo sinasagawa namin nagtatanim po kame sa aming sarili lupa at nakapagtatrabaho na po kame sa palayanan ng mga katagalugan. Itinuturo po namen sa iba naming mga kamag-anak ang aming natutunan at hinihikayat po namin sila gawin ang itinuro sa amin.) The participants are aware to the changes in their behavior, knowledge and skills through this trainingprogram because they do what they cant do before like pruning. (Opo alam po namin my nabago dahil po nadagdagan ang aming kaalaman kaya po nagagawa namin ang dati hindi naming ginagawa tulad po ng pagpruning.)

2. Were you aware that there are changes in your behaviour, knowledge and skills level after the training program? (Napupuna ninyo po ba na may pagbabago sa inyong paggawa at kaalaman pagkatapos ninyo dumalo sa programang ito?)

Evaluation of Alangan Tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI based on Kirkpatrick Model D. Results of the Training 1. What are the sources of living they have before the training program? Is their daily income enough for their daily expenses? (Anu po ang pinagkukunan ng kita ninyo bago dumating ang programang ito? Sapat po ba ang kita na ito sa pang-araw-araw na pangangailangan ninyo?) 2. Did the livelihood training program generate any income? If yes, is this meet the basic family needs? If no, why not? (Kumikita o nakakatulong na po ba ang programang ito upang kayo ay kumita? Kung oo, sapat ba ito sa pangunahing pangangailangan ng buong pamilya. Kung hindi, bakit?)

Summary of the Translation on the Evaluation of Alangan Tribe for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI

lxxx ii

Generating income is hard for the participants before the training because they hard to find even their daily food consumption. (Bago dumating ang programang ito, mahirap po talaga para sa amin ang kumita ng pera dahil kahit po pagkain namin ay nahihirapan rin kame magkaroon.) Currently the training program did not generate enough income yet because it is only enough on their daily needs. Climate change and their culture are sometimes the barriers, also lack of tools, supplies and management monitoring to the implementation of the training. (Sa ngaun po talaga hindi pa kami kumikita dahil ang naaani namin ay sapat lang po sa aming pamilya at iba namin kamag-anak na umaasa po sa amin, minsan nga po nagkukulang pa dahil sa panahon. Ang amin po tinataniman ay madalas bundok po talaga kaya madali masira ang mga pananim kapag umuulan ng sobra. Konti lang po ang binhi binigay sa amin, kaya kahit po tinuruan nila kame kung panu magkabinhi hindi pa rin po sumapat dahil po sa panahon nauulanan at naiinitan po kaya nabubulok. Hindi naman po kame nabibisita dito dahil nga po malayo, kaya kame po mga leader pinapaabot namen ito sa president po ng MKMCI. The more important to the participant is to provide daily food consumption than to generate income. (Hindi pa po talaga kami kumikita sa pamamagitan ng programang ito kumita man po kames a pagtatrabaho sa lupain ng mg katagalugan ay sapat lang po minsan nga po kulang pa para sa aming makakain sa araw-araw. Mas mahalaga po sa amin sa ngayon ang magkaron ng pagkain kaysa kumita, dahil parang kumita na rin naman po kami, sa halip na bibili kami ng pagkain meron na kami napagkukunan.)

3. Where did you invest the money you got through the training program? (Saan ninyo po ginagamit ang perang kinikita ninyo sa pamamagitan ng programang ito?

Evaluation of Alangan Tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI based on Kirkpatrick Model D. Results of the Training 4. To what extent had the training program improved the living conditions of the participants? (Hangang saan po napabuti ng programang pangkabuhayan naito ang inyong pamumuhay?)

Summary of the Translation on the Evaluation of Alangan Tribe for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI

lxxx iii

Some of the participants now are work to the landlord farmers in lowland, so they now have food for daily consumption and through this program their children eat well so they prevent to get sick. (Nakakapagtrabaho nap o kame ng maayos sa lupain ng mga katagalugan na sinusuporta po namin kapag wala kame maani sa aming mga tinanim. Sa pamamagitan po ng programang ito nakakain na po ng maayos ang aming mga anak kaya naiiwasan na po sila magkasakit at nakakapag-aral nap o sila.) The participants enhanced their knowledge and skills, they are able to share their learnings to other people and they can now communicate well to the other people in the locality. They also appreciate the goodness of education, so they send their children to school with the help of MKMCI. (Sa pamamagitan nga po ng programang ito ay marami kame natutunan, lumawak po ang aming kaalaman kaya po nakakapagtrabaho na kame ng maayos sa lupain ng mga katagalugan dahil hindi na rin poh kame masyadong nahihiya makipasalamuha sa kanila, kung anu po kaya nila gawin ay kaya rin namin matutunan. Hindi na rin po kame ubos biyaya, inisip nap o naming na may bukas pa, dati po kasi ubos biyaya kame kapag may pagkain kakainin na lahat hindi nap o nagtitira para sa sunod na araw. Pinapapasok na po namin ang aming mga anak sa paaralan sa tulong na rin po ng MKMCI upang makapagtrabaho sila ng maayos.)

5. Did the livelihood training program develop your personality? (Masasabi ninyo po ban a sa pamamagitan ng programang ito ay nabago ang inyong personalidad? Kung oo, sa paanu paraan at kung hindi bakit?)

__________________________________________________________

Table 5 presents the summary of translation on the evaluation of Alangan Tribe for the livelihood training program of MKMCI based on the Kirkpatrick model. Based on the reactions of the participants, the livelihood training program of MKMCI is effective; it was thus believed that the training provided education on planting, raising animals, regular attendance, and their relevance on their lives, among others. Based on the learning level, the trainer gave examples and actual or hands-on training in the garden; hence, the participants learned what were intended to be taught and experienced. The participants also

lxxx iv

understood the importance of this training program on their lives due to its usefulness. As per behavior analysis, the participants can apply what they have learned when they return to their community and thus be able to share the same to their fellow tribesmen. The participants are also

aware of the changes in their behavior, knowledge, and skills gained because they can now do what they cannot do before. Looking at the results of the training, the participants can now communicate well to other people in the locality and work for landlordfarmers in lowlands; consequently, they now have food for daily

consumption. However, the planting programs did not generate enough income yet because it is only enough for their daily consumption. Overall, the livelihood training program, based on the reactions of the participants, it was deemed that learning level and behavior analysis was effective and relevant to the participants for they appreciated the importance of such training program to their lives, their knowledge and skills were improved, and they can now share all of these to their relatives and co -tribesmen. Nevertheless, considering the results of the training program in terms of participants income, the training program is not yet effective since the same is only enough for their daily consumption.

lxxx v

Considering the results of the interview, the researcher came up with Effectiveness Criteria for the livelihood training program of MKMCI presented in the table below:

Table 6 Effectiveness Criteria for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI


Goals Criteria Description Examples of Evaluation Tools
Happy sheets feedback forms Verbal reaction which can be noted and analysed Post training survey or questionnaires

lxxx vi

A.Reaction of the Participants To assess the participants satisfaction To know if the participants find the training useful, challenging, wellstructured and organized 1. Appropriateness of the Training techniques used 2.Extent of participants of the Trainees 3.Interactive of Exchange of Information between Facilitator/Trainor and participants; among participants Training was likable, enjoyable and consider as relevant to the participants Training included active participation by the participants Learning was facilitated through peer exchange Flow of learning was appropriate Training was participants focused Training encouraged participants to assume active responsibility for learning Training increase the knowledge and skills of the participants Typically assessments or test before and after the training Interview or observation can be used

B.Learning Level To be responsive to the participants learning, enhancing skills and change on their attitudes as a result of the training 1.Extent of the Participants Learning 2.Extent of Responsibility of Participants to training 3.Degree of Acquisition of knowledge and skills

Goals
C.Behavior Analysis To evaluate the participants change on their behavior back in the workplace and if they sustained the learnings they learned

Criteria

Description

Examples of Evaluation Tools


Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change and sustainability of change Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgement of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements.

lxxx vii

1.Display of Productive behavior 2.Extent of Transfer of Training to others 3.Actual Demonstration of the Training 4.Sustainability of knowledge and skilled gained from Training

Training was culturally and ethnically meaningful Training modelled productive behavior and effective life skills The relevant skills and knowledge used when back on the community. The participants will able to transfer their learning to other people The participants notice the change in their performance when back in their roles The participants sustained the change on their behavior and level of knowledge

Goals
D.Results of the Training To assess the effectiveness of the training program conducted To measure the benefits resulted to the participants

Criteria

Description

Examples of Evaluation Tools


Identify which and how the participants relate input and influence Observation or interview to the results of training Visit the place of the participants before and after the training

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1.Extent of Trainings addressing of Participants personal needs 2.Income Generated through knowledge and skills gained from Training 3.Extent of Participants applications of knowledge and skills in actual setting 4.Ability of knowledge and skills gained to be useful in providing for daily consumption 5.Extent of Financial Literacy of the participants 6.Extent of selfsustenance on basic needs

Training inspired and motivated the participants to apply the learnings Training acknowledged individual and group achievements Training addressed the needs of Families First participants Training helps to improve the personality of the participants Training provide an income to the participants

__________________________________________________________

Chapter 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of findings of the study. The conclusions and recommendations presented were drawn from the said findings.

lxxx ix

Summary of Findings The study assessed the livelihood training program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. (MKMCI) for the Alangan tribes. It sought to develop effective criteria for the training program based on the evaluation of the Alangan tribe on the livelihood training program of MKMCI anchored on the Kirkpatrick Four-level evaluation training model. Specifically, the study answered the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the Alangan Tribe in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Educational Attainment?

2. What is the effect of the Livelihood Training Program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center, Inc. to the Alangan tribe in terms of: 2.1 Reaction of the Participants;

xc 2.2 Learning Level; 2.3 Behavioral Analysis; 2.4 Results of the Training; 2.4 1 Personality Development; and 2.4. 2 Family Income?

3. What Effectiveness Criteria can be developed for the livelihood training program of MKMCI?

The descriptive-evaluative research design in gathering qualitative data was employed. The main instrument is an open-ended

questionnaire guide based on the profile and evaluation of the Alangan tribes on the livelihood training program of MKMCI anchored on the Kirkpatrick model. The participants of the study were Alangan tribes people of Sitio Dulangan 3, Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro which underwent the livelihood training program of MKMCI. The participants who were

interviewed were taken from three groups of five members each. Therefore, there are three participants interviewed as a representative of each group.

xci Findings As far as the profile of Alangan tribe covering the period of the study, all the three participants who were interviewed are 26-35 years old from the 10 respondents, or 66.7%. From nine respondents, or 60%, two participants who were interviewed are female, while the other one who was interviewed is male, or 40%. All of the three participants who were interviewed are literate. It only means that not all Alangan tribes are illiterate because before the Mangyan Kalakbay Mission came to their community there were already Christian missionaries who assisted them through literacy programs; hence, six or 40% of the participants, are literate that are capable of being representatives of the tribe. The livelihood training program, based on the reactions of the participants, on learning level and behavior analysis, was found to be effective and relevant to the participants since they appreciated the importance of this training program to their lives, their knowledge and skills were improved, and they can now share all of these to their relatives and co-tribesmen. However, based on the results of the

training program in terms of the participants income, the training

xcii program is not yet effective for said income is only enough to cover their daily consumption.

Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The reaction of the participants is positive. They enjoyed the

training; also, they considered this training program relevant to their lives as it is useful for their daily living. 2. The learning level of the participants was enhanced based on the examples and actual or hands-on training provided by MKMCI. They also understood the importance of this training program to their lives. 3. The participants are aware of the changes in their behavior through the knowledge and skills gained from the training. 4. The actual, real-life application of the training was used for providing their daily needs but the same was seen to be not sustainable in generating income for emergencies/contingencies and to save for and establish a small business. 5. The effective criteria for the training program can be proposed to review, approve, and eventually implement, and, ultimately,

xciii improve the effectiveness of the training program of MKMCI for the participants.

Recommendations Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are suggested: 1. There should be a strong and continuous drive on the part of the management of MKMCI to motivate the participants to implement what they learned out of the training program. 2. There should be close monitoring of participants performance when they go back to their communities. This is to check the effectiveness of their training program to them. 3. Strict implementation on the part of the management to implement learnings from the training program to improve the performance of the participants and to not waste the time, effort, and money invested by all concerned. 4. There should be a review of the evaluation tool or instrument used by the management and participants. An effectiveness criteria

for livelihood training program attached in Appendix B is strongly recommended for usage. Indeed, it will serve as a guide

xciv instrument in evaluating or assessing the effectiveness of the training program conducted. 5. There should be more trainings, seminars, and conferences that focus on the livelihood training program which can generate more income to the participants. This is one way to make them actively participate in activities. 6. Trainings, seminars, and workshops regarding financial literacy is highly recommended to educate the respondents regarding management of income. 7. There should be a review of the Training Design and involvement of end-users in designing the training program. 8. Study the proposed criteria/qualifications for effective trainers attached in Appendix C aside from the proposed curriculum for livelihood training program attached in Appendix D.

xcv REFERENCES

Brondial, L. (2011) Defining for Livelihood Training Program Students. http://www.tzuchi.org.ph/newsite

Kumar, D. https://plan-international.org

Mille, S. (2010). Measuring Training Evaluation Effectiveness.


http://EzineArticles.com/1075085

www.businessballs.com www.loqal.ph/business-and-finance www.thesisabstracts.com www.ncip.com www.nsscdl.blogspot.com


www.ipra.com

www.thesisabstracts.com www.unesco.com www.zanorte.gov.ph Vidal, A & Feranil, S. (2003). www.ipvidalferanil Virola (2008). http://business.inquirer.net

xcvi APPENDIX A Letter of Request

March 02, 2013 Atty. Irineo F. Martinez, Jr., MBA,PhD Dean of Graduate School University of Perpetual Help-System Dalta

Dear Sir: I am currently writing my thesis entitled Assessment on the Livelihood Training Program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc. th the Alangan Tribe: A basis for Developing Effectiveness Criteria for Training Program and part of the paper is the gathering of data and selection of respondents. In this regard, I would like to be allowed to get my possible respondents from Barangay Dulangan 3, Municipality of Baco, Oriental Mindoro. The result of data gathering procedures will substantiate the findings of the study at hand. Thank you very much for your assistance in the success of this endeavor.

Very truly yours, Bernadette M. Ronquillo CeMBA Candidate

Approved by:

Atty. Irineo F. Martinez, Jr., MBA, PhD

Dean of Graduate School APPENDIX B Proposed Effectiveness Criteria for the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI
Goals Criteria Description Examples of Evaluation Tools Happy sheets feedback forms Verbal reaction which can be noted and analysed Post training survey or questionnaires

xcvi i

A.Reaction of the Participants To assess the participants satisfaction To know if the participants find the training useful, challenging, wellstructured and organized 4. Appropriateness of the Training techniques used 5.Extent of participants of the Trainees 6.Interactive of Exchange of Information between Facilitator/Trainor and participants; among participants Training was likable, enjoyable and consider as relevant to the participants Training included active participation by the participants Learning was facilitated through peer exchange Flow of learning was appropriate Training was participants focused Training encouraged participants to assume active responsibility for learning Training increase the knowledge and skills of the participants Typically assessments or test before and after the training Interview or observation can be used

B.Learning Level To be responsive to the participants learning, enhancing skills and change on their attitudes as a result of the training 4.Extent of the Participants Learning 5.Extent of Responsibility of Participants to training 6.Degree of Acquisition of knowledge and skills

xcvi ii

Goals C.Behavior Analysis To evaluate the participants change on their behavior back in the workplace and if they sustained the learnings they learned

Criteria

Description

Examples of Evaluation Tools Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change and sustainability of change Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgement of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements.

5.Display of Productive behavior 6.Extent of Transfer of Training to others 7.Actual Demonstration of the Training 8.Sustainability of knowledge and skilled gained from Training

Training was culturally and ethnically meaningful Training modelled productive behavior and effective life skills The relevant skills and knowledge used when back on the community. The participants will able to transfer their learning to other people The participants notice the change in their performance when back in their roles The participants sustained the change on their behavior and level of knowledge

xcix

Goals D.Results of the Training To assess the effectiveness of the training program conducted To measure the benefits resulted to the participants

Criteria

Description

Examples of Evaluation Tools Identify which and how the participants relate input and influence Observation or interview to the results of training Visit the place of the participants before and after the training

E.Extent of Trainings addressing of Participants personal needs F.Income Generated through knowledge and skills gained from Training G.Extent of Participants applications of knowledge and skills in actual setting H.Ability of knowledge and skills gained to be useful in providing for daily consumption I.Extent of Financial Literacy of the participants J.Extent of selfsustenance on basic needs

Training inspired and motivated the participants to apply the learnings Training acknowledged individual and group achievements Training addressed the needs of Families First participants Training helps to improve the personality of the participants Training provide an income to the participants

c APPENDIX C Proposed Criteria/Qualifications of an Effective Trainer


Criteria for Trainers 1.Exhibits Professionalism Description Considers training as an opportunity to develop the skills of others Serves as a Role Model Demonstrates Mature Behavior Exhibits Confidence Enthused about Training Understands that actions often speak louder than words. Sets Objectives Clearly Explains Concepts Demonstrates Tasks and Procedures Creates a Supportive Learning Environment Listens Actively and Sensitively Has the composure to lead and control a group without being overbearing. Exhibits Rapport Friendly and Congenial towards Everyone Encourages Questions and Discussion Skilled at Conflict Resolution Realizes that time is a valuable resource for everyone Can Balance Multiple Responsibilities Manages Time Effectively Develops Detailed Plans in Advance Prepares for Alternatives or Mishaps Exhibits behavior that supports the transfer of knowledge to others Patient Flexible Empathizes with Others Nurturing Creative Committed Team Player

2.Has Good Communication Skills

3.Can Relate to the Group -

4.Is well Organized

5.Has Positive Personality Traits

Proposed Criteria/Qualifications of an Effective Trainer


Qualifications for Trainers Know their subject matter. Take the time to get to know their audience. Are nonjudgmental They respect differences of opinion and life choices. Description They have researched their topic and are well informed; learners perceive them as credible. They demonstrate respect for, and listen to, the learners. They call learners by name, if possible. They validate everyones experiences and their right to their own perspective. They know that key learning can take place when people express different viewpoints and bring their own

ci
perspectives into the adult learning classroom.

Qualifications for Trainers


Are culturally sensitive.

Description
They are aware that their cultural background shapes their views and beliefs, just as the perspectives of learners are shaped by their own culture and life experiences. They recognize their own biases and act in a professional manner when their hot buttons are pushed. They encourage all learners to share their experiences and contribute to the group-learning process in their unique ways. They use humor, contrasts, metaphors and suspense. They keep their listeners interested and challenge their thinking. They vary their pitch, speaking rate, and volume. They avoid speaking in monotones. Their body posture, gestures, and facial expressions are natural and meaningful, reinforcing their subject matter. They present one idea at a time and show relationships between ideas. They summarize when necessary. They use examples, charts, and visual and audio aids to illustrate subject matter. They are comfortable with conflict resolution and know how to facilitate an inclusive course or workshop, where everyones participation is encouraged. They read and interpret learners responsesverbal and nonverbaland adapt training plans to meet their needs. They are in charge without being overly controlling.

Are self-aware. Are inclusive.

Are lively, enthusiastic and original. Use a variety of vocal qualities Use body language effectively. Make their remarks clear and easy to remember. Illustrate their points. Understand group dynamics and are comfortable managing groups. Are flexible.

Are open to new ideas and perspectives.

Are compassionate.

Are receptive to feedback.

Continuously work to improve their teaching and training.

They are aware that they do not know all the answers. They recognize that as well as offering their audience new knowledge or perspectives; they can also learn from course participants. They understand that the topics addressed during training may have an emotional impact on learners. They are empathetic and understanding about learners emotional reactions. They encourage co-trainers and learners to give them feedback, both informally and through formal evaluation. When they receive negative feedback about their performance, they critically analyze this feedback instead of becoming defensive. Even the most experienced trainers can improve their training skills. Effective trainers seek out opportunities to learn new skills and use negative feedback as an opportunity to improve.

cii

APPENDIX D Proposed Curriculum for Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI


Module Title Learning Outcomes Nominal Duration 2 days

Module 1: Reaction of the Participants Receiving and responding to workplace communication Working with others Follow routine spoken messages Perform workplace duties following written notice Develop effective workplace relationship. Contribute to work group activities.

2 days

Module 2: Learning Level Demonstrating work Apply work values/ethics values Deal with ethical problems Maintain integrity of conduct in the workplace Practicing Maintain work areas, tools and equipment housekeeping Follow standard work processes and procedures procedures Module 3: Behavior Analysis Applying safety Apply appropriate safety measures while measures in farm working in farm operations Safe keep/dispose tools, materials and outfit Using farm tools and Select and use farm tools equipment Select and operate farm equipment Perform preventive maintenance Performing estimation Perform estimation and basic calculation Perform basic workplace calculations Applying basic first aid Assess the situation Apply basic first aid techniques Communicate details of the incident Module 4: Results of the Training Supporting: Prepare materials, tools and equipment a. horticultural crop Undertake work as directed work Handle materials and equipment b. nursery work Clean up on completion of work c. agronomic crop work d. irrigation work

3 days

3 days

1 day

1 day

3 days 2 days

7 days

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APPENDIX E Interview Guide Questionnaire for the Alangan Tribe Evaluation on the Livelihood Training Program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc

Name: Part I A. Gender: ______________ B. Age: ________________ C. Educational Attainment: ____________________

Part II A. Reaction of the participants 1. When did you start to attend on the livelihood training program of MangyanKalakbay Mission Center Inc? (Kailan po kayo nagsimulang dumalo sa programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI?)

2. What kind of livelihood training program of MKMCI did you attend? Did you attending regularly?

civ (Ano po programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI ang inyong nadaluhan? Patuloy po ba kayo dumadalo sa programang ito?) 3. Did you enjoy the training and was it a good use of your time? (Nasiyahan po ba kayo sa programang inyong dinaluhan at masasabi ninyo po ban na sulit ang oras na nilaan ninyo para sa programang ito?)

4. Did you consider the training program relevant to your life? (Masasabi ninyo po ba na ang programang ito ay ugma o pakipakinabang sa inyong buhay?

B. Learning Level 5. Did you learn what were intended to be taught and experienced what to be intended to experience? (Nauunawaan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo malaman at nararanasan ninyo po ba ang dapat nyo maranasan sa programang ito?)

cv 6. Did you understand the importance of the training program in your life? (Nauunawaan nyo po ba ang kahalagahan ng programang ito sa inyong buhay? C. Behavior Analysis 7. Did you put your learning into effect when you returned to your community? other co tribes? (Isinasagawa ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan pagbalik ninyo sa inyong komunidad? Naibabahagi ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan sa inyong mga katribo?) Were you able to share this learning to

8. Were you aware that there are changes in your behaviour, knowledge and skills level after the training program? (Napupuna ninyo po ba na may pagbabago sa inyong paggawa at kaalaman pagkatapos ninyo dumalo sa

programang ito?)

D. Results of the Training

cvi 9. What are the sources of living they have before the training program? Is their daily income enough for their daily expenses? (Anu po ang pinagkukunan ng kita ninyo bago dumating ang programang ito? Sapat po ba ang kita na ito sa pang-arawaraw na pangangailangan ninyo?) 10. Did the livelihood training program generate any income? If yes, is this meet the basic family needs? If no, why not? (Kumikita o nakakatulong na po ba ang programang ito upang kayo ay kumita? Kung oo, sapat ba ito sa pangunahing pangangailangan ng buong pamilya. Kung hindi, bakit?)

11. Where did you invest the money you got through the training program? (Saan ninyo po ginagamit ang perang kinikita ninyo sa pamamagitan ng programang ito?)

12. To what extent had the training program improved the living conditions of the participants? (Hangang saan po napabuti ng programang pangkabuhayan naito ang inyong pamumuhay?)

13. Did the livelihood training program develop your personality?

cvii (Masasabi ninyo po ban a sa pamamagitan ng programang ito ay nabago ang inyong personalidad? Kung oo, sa paanu paraan at kung hindi bakit?)

APPENDIX F Interview Results on Evaluation of Alangan tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI Name: Maria Mintaras (Group 1 Representative)

Part I A. Kasarian: Babae B. Edad: 32 yrs. old C. Educational Attainment: Literate

Part II A. Reaction of the participants Tanong 1: Kailan po kayo nagsimula pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI? Sagot: Noon po March 2011 kame nagsimula dumalo ng programang pangkabuhayan ng Mangyan Kalakbay. dumalo sa programang

cviii Tanong 2: Ano po programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI ang inyong nadaluhan? Patuloy po ba kayo dumadalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Dinaluhan po namen yung programa nila tungkol sa paghahayupan at pagtatanim ng mga gulay tulad ng sitaw, petchay, okra ampalaya at talong. Sa paghahayupan po, itinuro nila sa amin yung mga tama lugar kung saan magpapastol ng mga hayop at yung po paghanap ng matabang lupa at pagpapanatili po nito. Tanong 3: Nasiyahan po ba kayo sa programang inyong dinaluhan at masasabi po ba ninyo na sulit ang oras na nilaan ninyo para sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo masaya kame mga nakadalo ng programang iyon dahil nga po marami pagkain tapos meron pa po meryenda. Marami po kame natutunan at binigyan po nila kame ng pamasahe pauwi kaya sulit po oras naming nilaan para sa programang ito.

Tanong 4: Masasabi ninyo po ba na ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito ay ugma o paki-pakinabang sa inyong buhay? Sagot: Opo malaking tulong poh ang programang ito sa buhay namin. Marami po kame natutunan sa pagtatanim na mapagkukunan po namin ng aming makakain sa araw araw kaya hindi na po kme madalas magutom.

B. Learning Level Tanong 5:

cix Naunawaan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo malaman at naranasan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo maranasan sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo naiintindihan namin pinapaliwanag naman po nila mabuti at pinapagawa nila sa amin ng aktwal, may garden po doon. Hindi nga po namin sukat akalain na ang sitaw po pala ay pinuputulan (pruning) rin po, iniisip namin na kapag pinutulan ay mamatay at sayang naman dahil baka mamunga pa. Sabi nila hindi daw ganun un dahil lalago at gaganda daw pa daw un. Madali po namin maintindihan dahil nga po pinapakita nila at pinapagawa sa amin kung paano gawin. Tanong 6: Naintindihan ninyo po ba ang kahalagahan ng programang ito sa inyong buhay? Sagot: Opo nauunawaan namin na mahalaga ang programang ito sa buhay namin dahil nga po natutu kami ng tamang pagtatanim para mas marami anihin.

C. Behavior Analysis Tanong 7: Isinasagawa ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan pagbalik ninyo sa inyong komonidad? Naibabahagi ninyo po gah ang inyong natutunan sa inyong mga katribo? Sagot: Opo sinasagawa namin. May sitawan po ang aking byenan sabi ko nga po sa kanya, Nang subukan ninyo gawin yung sabi doon sa dinaluhan ko seminar maganda daw kapag pinuputulan (pruning) rin ang sitaw, mas maganda mamunga. Tapos yun namunga nga ng maganda at marami, kaya ginagawa na namin at ng iba naming kamag anak ang natutunan namin sa programang yun.

cx Tanong 8: Napupuna ninyo po ba na may pagbabago sa inyong paggawa at kaalaman pagkatapos ng inyong pagdalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo my nabago po talaga, dahil nga po meron kami natutunan kaya po nagagawa na naming ang dati hindi naming ginagawa, tulad nga po ng pag pruning sa mga halaman at kung panu malalaman at mapanatili mataba ang lupa, saka po paggawa ng mga pataba para sa halaman.

D. Results of Training Tanong 9: Anu ano po ang pinagkukunan ng kita ninyo bago dumating ang programang ito? Sapat po ba ang kita na ito sa pang araw araw na pangangailangan ninyo? Sagot: Bago pa man po dumating ang programang ito ng MKMCI ay mahirap nap o para sa amin ang kumita ng pera dahil kahit pagkain po naming sa araw araw ay nahihirapang kami magkaroon.

Tanong 10: Lumikha o nakatulong po gah ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito upang kayo ay kumita? Kung oo, magkano? Kung hindi, bakit? Sagot: Sa ngayon hindi pa talaga kami nakita. Ayos lang sa amin hindi kami kumita basta may makain lamang kami ayos na yun. Ang binhi binibigay nila konti kaya hindi sapat para meron kami maipagbili sa mga katagalugan. Hindi naman po nila kame nabibisita dito dahil malayo nga po at tiwala po sila sa amin sa aming mga leader ng tribo, kaya kame na lamang po nagpapaabot sa president ng MKMCI.

cxi

Tanong 11: Saan ninyo po ginagamit ang perang kinita ninyo sa pamamagitan ng programang ito? Sagot: Wala pa po kami kinikita sa pamamagitan ng programa nila pero sa pamamagitan po nito ay para na kami kumita, dahil nga po sa halip na bumili kami ng mga gulay ay meron na po kami mapagkukunan.

Tanong 12: Hangang saan po napabuti ng programang pangkabuhayan na ito ang inyong pamumuhay? Sagot: Malaki po talaga ang naitulong sa amin ng programang ito, dahil nga po marami kame natutunan sa pagtatanim at magbinhi ng iba pang mga gulay. Dahil po dito may nakakain na po ng tama ang aming mga anak at naiiwasan na po sila magkasakit.

Tanong 13: Masasabi ninyo po ba na sa pamamagitan ng programang ito ay nabago ang inyong personalidad? Kung oo, sa anong paraan at kung hindi bakit? Sagot: Opo dahil nga po sa pamamagitan ng programang ito marami kami natutunan. Natutu po kami kung panu magbahagi na kaalaman sa aming mga katribo at natutu po kame makipagsalimuha sa mga katagalugan. Nagkaroon po kame ng tiwala sa aming sarili.

cxii

APPENDIX G Interview Results on Evaluation of Alangan tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI

Name: Jonathan Lintawagin (Group 2 Representative)

Part I A. Kasarian: Lalaki B. Edad: 30 yrs. old C. Educational Attainment: Literate

Part II A. Reaction of the participants Tanong 1: Kailan po kayo nagsimula pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI? Sagot: Medyo matagal na po, dalawa po yung nadaluhan ko, family planning po at livelihood training yun po integrated bio system tungkol po sa pagtatanim ng mga gulay at palay. dumalo sa programang

cxiii Tanong 2: Ano po programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI ang inyong nadaluhan? Patuloy pa gah kayo dumadalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Dinaluhan nga po namin yung integrated bio-system nila yung po pagtatanim at kung papaano gumawa ng pataba para sa mga halaman sa pamamagitan ng pagtutuyo ng mga dahon at dumi ng mga hayop. Tinuruan rin po nila kame nga tamang pagtatanim at pag aalaga ng palay upang makapagtrabaho po kami sa lupain o palayanan ng mga katagalugan. Tanong 3: Nasiyahan po ba kayo sa programang inyong dinaluhan at masasabipo po ba ninyo na sulit ang oras na nilaan ninyo para sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo masaya po, kompleto po sa masasarap na pagkain meron pa meryenda. Sulit po ang oras na nilaan namin dahil po marami kami natutunan at nabusog pa.

Tanong 4: Masasabi ninyo po ba na ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito ay ugma o paki-pakinabang sa inyong buhay? Sagot: Opo ugma sa buhay namin ang programang ito dahil po nadagdagan at lumawak pa po ang kaalaman namin sa pagtatanim na nakakatulong upang magkaroon kame ng makakain sa araw araw.

B. Learning Level

Tanong 5:

cxiv Naunawaan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo malaman at naranasan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo maranasan sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo pinapaliwanag naman po nila mabuti, tinatagalog po nila kapag nagsasalita po sila ng English. Nagbibigay rin po sila ng aktwal para mas maintindihan namin may garden po doon, tinuruan po nila kame pumili ng maganda lupa na mainam mapagtaniman.

Tanong 6: Naintindihan ninyo po ba ang kahalagahan ng programang ito sa inyong buhay? Sagot: Opo alam namin na mahalaga sa buhay namin ang programang ito, dahil nga po marami kame natutunan na makakatulong sa pang araw araw naming pamumuhay.

C. Behavior Analysis Tanong 7: Isinasagawa ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan pagbalik ninyo sa inyong komonidad? Naibabahagi ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan sa inyong mga katribo? Sagot: Opo ginagawa namin sa aming sarili lupa, nagtanim po kami para meron po kame makain. Dati po hindi ako nakikisalamuha sa iba ko katribo pero pagkatapos ko po dumalo sa programang iyon ay natutu po ako magbahagi ng aking kaalaman at napapaliwanag ko rin po.

Tanong 8:

cxv Napupuna ninyo po ba na may pagbabago sa inyong paggawa at kaalaman pagkatapos ng inyong pagdalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo meron nabago, mas lumawak po ang aming kaalaman sa pagtatanim kaya po mas marami na ang aming nagiging ani at nagging mas pursigido kame magtrabaho.

D. Results of Training Tanong 9: Anu ano po ang pinagkukunan ng kita ninyo bago dumating ang programang ito? Sapat po ba sa pang araw araw ang kita na ito sa pang araw araw na pangangailangan ninyo? Sagot: Wala po, mahirap po para sa amin kumita ng pera bago dumating ang programang ito, kahit nga po pagkain naming sa pang-araw-araw ay hirap rin kami magkaroon. Noong dumating ang MKMCI natutu po kame magtrabaho sa lupain ng mga katagalugan na ginagamit naming pampalit ng bigas.

Tanong 10: Lumikha o nakatulong po ba ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito upang kayo ay kumita? Kung oo, magkano? Kung hindi, bakit? Sagot: Sa ngayon po kumikita kami sa pagtatrabaho sa palayan ng mga katagalugan. Pero sa pagtatanim po ng mga gulay ay hindi pa dahil sapat lang po ito sa aming pagkain minsan nga po kulang pa. Kulang po ang binhi nila binibigay dahil nabubulok po ang binhi naming ginagawa.

cxvi Nauulanan po tapos naiinitan kaya po nabubulok tapos hindi na naman po nila kami binigyan ulit ng binhi.

Tanong 11: Saan ninyo po ginagamit ang perang kinita ninyo sa pamamagitan ng programang ito? Sagot: Sapat at minsan kulang pa sa pagkain namin ang kinikita namin. Ayos lamang sa amin ang hindi kumita mahalaga makakain kame ng maayos. Para na rin po kami kumita sa pagtatanim dahil sa halip na bibili kame ng mga gulay ay meron na kami napagkukunan. Tanong 12: Hangang saan po napabuti ng programang pangkabuhayan na ito ang inyong pamumuhay? Sagot: Dahil po sa programang ito ay natutu kme ng tamang pagtatanim para makapag-ani ng maayos. Hindi na kami bumibili ng mga gulay dahil meron na kami mapagkukunan. Nakakapagtrabaho na po kami ng maayos sa palayanan ng mga katagalugan na sinusuporta naming kapag wala kami maani sa aming tinanim.

Tanong 13: Masasabi ninyo po ba na sa pamamagitan ng programang ito ay nabago ang inyong personalidad? Kung oo, sa anong paraan at kung hindi bakit? Sagot: Opo dahil nga marami kame natutunan at napalawak po ng programang ito ang aming kaalaman. Natutu po kame magbahagi ng aming kaalaman sa aming kapwa at hindi na kame nahihiya makipaghalubilo sa mga tagalog, ang kaya nila gawin ay kaya rin naming gawin. Hindi na rin po kame ubos biyaya, dahil iniisip na po namen ang para sa bukas, na may mga susunod pa araw. Dati po ubos biyaya

kami na kapag may pagkain inuubos o kinakain naming lahat hindi nap o kami nagtitira sa mga susunod na araw.

cxvi i

APPENDIX I Interview Results on Evaluation of Alangan tribe on the Livelihood Training Program of MKMCI Name: Veronica Macapinta (Group 3 Representative)

Part I E. Kasarian: Babae F. Edad: 34 yrs. old G. Educational Attainment: Literate/Second Year High School

Part II A. Reaction of the participants Tanong 1: Kailan po kayo nagsimula pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI? Sagot: Nagsimula po kame dumalo sa programang pangkabuhayan ng Mangyan Kalakbay noon po Marso 2011. dumalo sa programang

cxvi ii Tanong 2: Ano po programang pangkabuhayan ng MKMCI ang inyong nadaluhan? Patuloy pa ba kayo dumadalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Tungkol po sa pagtatanim ng mga gulay petchay, ampalya, okra at sitaw. Paglalagay ng pataba sa mga pananim, tulad po ng mga damo at dumi ng hayop. Hindi pa po ulit nauulit ang programang ito pero lage po kami nakakadalo sa mga programa nila.

Tanong 3: Nasiyahan po ba kayo sa programang inyong dinaluhan at masasabipo po ba ninyo na sulit ang oras na nilaan ninyo para sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo masaya po, maraming masarap na pagkain meron pa po meryenda. Nakakatuwa po ang tagapagsalita nagpapatawa po at nagbibigay ng halimbawa para mas maintindihan naming. Marami po kami natutunan kaya sulit po pagdalo namin.

Tanong 4: Masasabi ninyo po ba na ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito ay ugma o paki-pakinabang sa iyong buhay? Sagot: Opo ugmang ugma ang programang ito sa buhay namin, dahil ito na po ginagawa naming at dahil po ditto may napagkukunan na kami ng makakain sa araw araw.

cxix B. Learning Level Tanong 5: Naunawaan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo malaman at naranasan ninyo po ba ang dapat ninyo maranasan sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo naiintindihan naming kung anu ang pinapaliwang ng tagapagsalita dahil nagbibigay po sila ng mga halimbawa at aktwal po nila pinapagawa sa amin, meron po garden doon.

Tanong 6: Naintindihan ninyo po ba ang kahalagahan ng programang ito sa inyong buhay?

Sagot: Opo alam naming mahalaga ito sa buhay namin, dahil ito po makakatulong sa amin upang meron kame makain at makapagtrabaho sa ibang lupain.

C. Behavior Analysis Tanong 7: Isinasagawa ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan pagbalik ninyo sa inyong komonidad? Naibabahagi ninyo po ba ang inyong natutunan sa inyong mga katribo?

Sagot: Opo sinasagawa namin, naituturo at naibabahagi rin namin sa iba naming katribo. Hinihikayat namin sila gawin ang natutunan naming sa programang ito.

cxx Tanong 8: Napupuna ninyo po gah na may pagbabago sa inyong paggawa at kaalaman pagkatapos ng inyong pagdalo sa programang ito? Sagot: Opo alam naming meron pagbabago naganap sa amin. Marami po kami nalaman at naisagawa po naming ito sa sarili naming lupa.

D. Results of Training Tanong 9: Anu ano po ang pinagkukunan ng kita ninyo bago dumating ang programang ito? Sapat po ba ang kita na ito para sa pang-araw-araw na pangangailangan ninyo? Sagot: Hindi na po sa kumita dahil mahirap po sa amin kumita ng pera at saka nga po pang araw araw naming pagkain hirap rin kame magkaroon bago dumating ang programang ito ng MKMCI.

Tanong 10: Lumikha o nakatulong po ba ang programang pangkabuhayan na ito upang kayo ay kumita? Kung oo, magkano? Kung hindi, bakit? Sagot: Hindi po kame kumikita pero nakakatipid po kami, halimbawa po meron na kami naaani sa halip po na bibili kame ay hindi na po dahil meron na po kame mapagkukunan. Sapat lamang po sa amin ang naaani naming wala po labis para maipagbili namin.

cxxi Tanong 11: Saan ninyo po ginagamit ang perang kinita ninyo sa pamamagitan ng programang ito?

Sagot: Hindi pa po kame kumikita dahil kahit po palage kami nagtatanim hindi pa rin po sapat dahil ang pinagtataniman po namin ay bundok talaga na kapag umulan po ei nasisira kaya wala po talaga kami kinikita. Sa pagkain lamang po napupunta yung tulong ng programang ito pampalit ng bigas.

Tanong 12: Hangang saan po napabuti ng programang pangkabuhayan na ito ang inyong pamumuhay? Sagot: Malaki po natulong sa amin ng programang ito dahil nga po may napagkukunan po kame ng pagkain hindi na kame bumibili. Hindi na po kme madalas magutom kaya naiiwasan po magkasakit ang aming mga anak.

Tanong 13: Masasabi ninyo po ba na sa pamamagitan ng programang ito ay nabago ang inyong personalidad? Kung oo, sa anong paraan at kung hindi bakit? Sagot: Opo dahil po marami kami natutunan sa programang ito at natutu po kame magbahagi ng aming natutunan sa mga kamag anak namin. Pinapapasok nap o naming an gaming mga anak sa paaralan sa tulong na rin po ng MKMCI upang magkaroon po sila ng maayos na trabaho balang araw.

APPENDIX F Certification of Editing

cxxi i

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Thesis entitled, Assessment on the Livelihood Training Program of Mangyan Kalakbay Mission Center Inc. (MKMCI) to the Alangan Tribe: A Basis of Developing Effectiveness Criteria for Training Program of Ms. Bernadette M. Ronquillo was edited / read by the undersigned.

FRANCISCO A. RIVAS, LLB Editor / Reader

Noted:

ATTY. IRINEO F. MARTINEZ JR., PhD Dean, Graduate School

CURRICULUM VITAE

cxxi ii

Name Address

: :

Bernadette M. Ronquillo Blk. 8 Lot.8 Marigold St., Bon Air Homes Subd., Molino III, Bacoor, Cavite August 03, 1987 Female MayabigBaco, Oriental Mindoro Single Roman Catholic

Date of Birth Gender Place of Birth Civil Status Religion

: : : : :

Educational Background

Post Graduate

Corporate Executive Masters in Business Administration University of Perpetual Help System DALTA Las Pias City 2013

cxxi v Tertiary : Bachelor of Science in Commerce Major in Management Divine Word College of Calapan Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro 2008 Baco Catholic School Baco, Oriental Mindoro 2004 Felix V. Aceveda Memorial School MayabigBaco, Oriental Mindoro 2000

Secondary

Elementary

WORK EXPERIENCES Accounting Personnel School Cashier Immaculate Heart of Mary College St. Dominic Savio St., Better Living Subd.,Paraaque City April 08, 2010-November 30, 2011

Telephone Operator Immaculate Heart of Mary College St. Dominic Savio St., Better Living Subd.,Paraaque City June 03, 2009-April 07, 2010 Accounting Personnel General Clerk SM South Mall Supermarket Las Pias City November 06, 2008 March 30, 2009

cxx v