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Understanding Input Harmonics and Techniques to Mitigate Them

Mahesh M. Swamy Yaskawa Electric America

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Page. 1

Organization
Introduction Why VFDs Generate Harmonics? Harmonic Limit Calculations per IEEE 5191992 Harmonic Mitigation Techniques
Passive and Active Means

Questions and Conclusions


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Motivation
Harmonics cause unnecessary heat in equipment connected to harmonic source System rich in harmonics is generally associated with poor power factor and low efficiency

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Motivation - Continued
Harmonics can overload preexisting power factor correcting capacitors at plant facility and at utility distribution points Harmonics can initiate system resonance that can severely disrupt operation Hence, control of harmonic current is important and necessary
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Risk of Parallel Resonance


Parallel Resonance

XL

ih ih

Xc

Current measured at the capacitor,

Power Factor Capacitors Relieve Load Resonance occurs when: Xc = XL

showing 660Hz, (11th harmonic resonance)

Figure 5.2

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Introduction
Non-linear loads current does not follow applied voltage waveform

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Introduction (Contd.)
To estimate heating effect due to non-linear currents flowing through circuit breakers and transformers, linearization is needed Resolving non-linear waveform into sinusoidal components is Harmonic Analysis Ratio of harmonic content to fundamental is defined as harmonic distortion or THD
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Why VFDs Generate Harmonics?


DC link voltage

DC capacitor
Phase voltage

3-phase input

Rectifer input current

Pulsating current due to dc bus capacitor main source of nonlinearity in input current In weak ac systems, during diode conduction ac voltage is clamped to dc bus voltage source of non-linearity in input voltage
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Definition of THD
Ratio of the square root of the sum of squares of the rms value of harmonic component to the rms value of the fundamental component is defined as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) If the waveform under discussion is current, then the THD definition is called Current Harmonic Distortion. If the waveform under discussion is voltage, then the THD definition is called Voltage Harmonic Distortion
n=

THD I =
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I
n=2

2 n

n =

I1

THDV =

V
n =2

2 n

V1
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Sample Waveforms

THD = 1.2%

THD = 78.3%

Every Wave shape has Harmonic Distortion!

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Harmonic Limits Per IEEE 519-1992


Table 10.3: Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120 V through 69 kV) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) ISC/IL <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 11h<17 2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.0 17 h<23 1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 23h<35 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 35 h 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4 TDD 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above. * All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of actual Isc / IL ; where Isc is the maximum short circuit current at PCC and IL is the maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency) at PCC.

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Harmonic Limits Per IEEE 519-1992


Table 10.2 Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits
Special Applications * General System Dedicated System

Notch Depth THD (Voltage) Notch Area (AN2)


Note:

10% 3% 16,400

20% 5% 22,800

50% 10% 36,500

The value of AN for other than 480V systems should be multiplied by V/480. * Special applications include hospitals and airports. A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the converter load. In volt-microseconds at rated voltage and current.
Page. 12

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Definitions
PCC - Point of Common Coupling Point where harmonic measurement is to be made Typically, where the utility power comes into the business (commercial building or industrial factory) Also defined as the point where non-linear load meets the linear load within a plant most popular definition used by Consultants to enforce Drive Manufacturers to meet IEEE519 at VFD input TDD Total Demand Distortion Harmonic current distortion in percent of maximum demand load current. The maximum demand current interval could be either a 15-minute or a 30-minute interval.
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Definitions - Continued
ISC: Short-circuit current at PCC Defines the size of the customer from Utilitys view point helps to distinguish between a Seven-Eleven store from a Steel manufacturing plant IL: Maximum demand load current at fundamental frequency Need not be the rated load current.

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Characteristic Harmonics in Rectifiers

h = (k q) 1
h is harmonic order, k is any integer, q is number of pulses at the dc bus voltage in one period

For a six-pulse system, h will be: 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc. For a twelve-pulse system, h will be: 11th, 13th, 23rd, 25th, etc. Amplitude of harmonics is 1/h for a three-phase ac to dc rectifier with no dc bus capacitor Harmonics of order other than those given above are called noncharacteristics harmonics and are more common than not
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Application Example for Applying IEEE519


480V, 100hp VFD fed from a 1500-kVA transformer of 4% impedance Step 1: Identify PCC take default to be at VFD terminals Step 2: Determine ISC from end user. In its absence, use transformer kVA rating and percent impedance

I SC = I SC =

kVA 1000 3 VLL (% Z / 100) 1500 1000 = 45,105 3 480 0.04

Step 3: Determine IL from user. In its absence, use NEC Amps for rated horsepower condition. Here, use 124A Step 4: Determine ISC/IL. Look up Table 10.3 to determine limit - 15%
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Application Example for Applying IEEE519


ISC/IL for the present case is 364. From Table 10.3, TDD < 15% of Rated Fundamental Current or 18.6A in this example; Hence IEEE 519 compliance does not mean 5% TDD If maximum demand load current is only 45A due to load condition, and harmonic distortion is 35% at this operating point, spirit of IEEE 519-1992 is still met since 35% of 45A is 15.8A, which is less than the allowable 18.6A. Dont forget that voltage distortion limits are more important than current distortion limits due to the fact that voltage is common to all customers on the same grid, while current is local to a load
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Harmonic Mitigation Techniques

Active Techniques Passive Techniques Hybrid Techniques Combination of Active and Passive Techniques

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Active Mitigation Techniques


Active Front End Boost Converter Topology Inherently regenerative. Bulky, and expensive. Conducted EMI is of concern Non regenerative type: Inject Current from conducting phase to non-conducting phase using semiconductor switches Shunt type: Monitors load current and injects mirror image of load current so that harmonics cancel out.
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Passive Mitigation Techniques


AC Line Inductors (Reactors) DC Link Chokes or DC Bus Inductor Harmonic Filters Capacitor based Multi-pulse Schemes

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Passive Mitigation Techniques


AC Line Inductors (Reactors) Makes discontinuous current continuous Helps damp transient surges on line due to lightning and capacitor switching Small and inexpensive Causes voltage overlap and reduces dc bus voltage
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Passive Mitigation Techniques


AC Line Inductors (Reactors)
THD80%

THD40%
.

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Issues With AC Line Reactors


DC Bus Voltage Reduces Due to Overlap of Diode Conduction
VO = VO =

+( 2 / 3)
+( / 3)

2 V L L sin( t ) d ( t ) = 3 2 3 V L N cos( )

3 2 V L L cos( )

2 L I dc V LL 3

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Passive Mitigation Techniques


DC Link Chokes (DC Bus Inductor) Makes discontinuous current continuous Small and inexpensive Does NOT Cause overlap phenomenon and so does not reduces dc bus voltage Does not help damp transient surges on line due to lightning and capacitor switching
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Passive Mitigation Techniques


DC Link Choke (DC Bus Inductor)
THD80%

THD37%

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Waveform With DC Link Choke


No overlap of Diode Conduction
VO = VO = 3

+ ( 2 / 3)
+ ( / 3)

2 V L L sin( t ) d ( t ) = 3 2 3 VL N

3 2 V L L cos( )

i 3 V m = V m V 3 ph avg = V m t t 3 3 T /6 Vm = V m L cr = i I dc L cr
Ldc

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AC Line Reactor vs DC Link Choke


40.00 30.00

120 100 Input Current THD (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0


120
40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0

20.00 10.00 0 -10.00

x
40.00 30.00

DC reactor only (with LIN=47H) AC reactor only AC reactor with DC reactor of 2.75mH

THD=92.4% Ldc=0.47mH
-20.00 -30.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99

4.99

5.00

5.00 5.00

20.00 10.00 0 -10.00 -20.00 -30.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99

THD=82.9% Ldc=1.4mH

30.00 20.00 10.00

THD=58.5% Ldc=2.35mH

0
4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

-10.00

40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0 -10.00 -20.00 -30.00

-20.00 4.98 4.99 4.99


25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0 -5.00
30.00

4.99

4.99

4.99

5.00

5.00 5.00

THD=43.9% Lac=2.35mH

THD=92.5% Lac=0.47mH
4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00

5.00 5.00

-10.00 -15.00

20.00

-20.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

10.00

-10.00

-20.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

THD=59.6% Lac=1.4mH

30.00

20.00

10.00

THD=44% Lac=0.47mH

25.00 20.00 15.00

20.00

-10.00

10.00 5.00
4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

-20.00 -25.00

THD=37.3% Lac=1.4mH

15.00 10.00 5.00 0 -5.00

0 -5.00 -10.00 -15.00 -20.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

THD=33.8% Lac=2.35mH
-10.00 -15.00 4.98 4.99 4.99

4.99

4.99

4.99

5.00

5.00 5.00

0.5

1.5

2.5 Inductance (mH)

3.5

4
x

4.5

THD=92.5% Z=1%

DC reactor only (with ZSC=0.1%) AC reactor only AC reactor with DC reactor of 2.75mH

100 Input Current THD (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0


40.00 30.00

-10.00 -20.00 -30.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

30.00

20.00

20.00
10.00

THD=59.6% Z=3%

25.00 20.00

10.00 0 -10.00
0

15.00 10.00

-10.00

THD=43.9% Z=5%

25.00 20.00

THD=92.4% Z=1%
-20.00 -30.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99

5.00
-20.00 30.00

4.99

5.00

5.00 5.00

20.00

10.00

THD=50.6% Z=3%
4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

4.98

4.99

4.99

4.99

4.99

4.99

5.00

5.00 5.00

THD=37.7% Z=5%

10.00
-5.00 -10.00

0
-15.00 -20.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

-10.00

-10.00

-20.00 -25.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

-20.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

THD=44% Z=1%

25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00

20.00

-10.00

5.00 0

-20.00 -25.00 4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

THD=37.3% Z=3%
4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

15.00 10.00 5.00 0 -5.00

-5.00 -10.00 -15.00 -20.00

THD=33.8% Z=5%
4.98 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 5.00 5.00 5.00

-10.00 -15.00

AC equivalent Z (% Impedance)

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AC Line Reactor vs DC Link Choke


640 620 Avg. DC Bus Voltage (V) 600 580 560 540 520 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 Inductance (mH)

DC reactor only (with LIN=47H) AC reactor only

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Optimal Solution
AC Line Inductor Alone Not Optimal because of Voltage Drop DC Link Inductor Alone Does Not Provide Surge Protection Optimal Solution is a Combination of the two 1% AC Input Inductor + Standard DC Link Choke
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Harmonic Filters
Capacitor Based Harmonic Filters Series Filter tuned to offer high impedance to select frequencies Shunt Filter tuned to shunt select frequencies Hybrid Filters combination of above Large, bulky, expensive, and often ineffective
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Series Harmonic Filter


Series Filter Designed to handle rated load current More often found in single-phase applications to impede 3rd harmonic current

Lf Cf
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Shunt Harmonic Filter


Shunt Filter Designed to shunt select frequencies Draws fundamental frequency current resulting in leading VA operation Need multiple section to be effective Does not distinguish between intended load and other loads
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Lf

Cf

Modified Shunt Harmonic Filter


Shunt Filter with Series Impedance Add a series inductance to restrict import of harmonics MTEs and Mirus Internationals Filter Structure
5% AC Reactor 5% AC Reactor

U V W

IM

Lf Cf
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Hybrid (Broad Band) Harmonic Filter


Combination of shunt and series filter Series inductance and Shunt Capacitor over-voltage problem Autotransformer used to solve this
Lf

Bulky, expensive

Autotransformer

Capacitor switching needed


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Cf

Page. 34

Issues With Harmonic Filters


All capacitor based shunt type filters draw leading current and cause over-voltage Power Loss, and Higher Stresses on DC Bus Capacitors avoid using this Generally multiple sections needed Bulky and Expensive Can cause system resonance
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Risk of Parallel Resonance


Parallel Resonance

XL

ih ih

Xc

Current measured at the capacitor,

Power Factor Capacitors Relieve Load Resonance occurs when: Xc = XL

showing 660Hz, (11th harmonic resonance)

Figure 36.2

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Multi-pulse Harmonic Mitigation Technique


12-pulse Techniques Three-winding isolation transformer Hybrid 12-pulse Autotransformer based 12-pulse scheme

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Three Winding 12-pulse Scheme


3-winding isolation transformer
X1 X1 L1 X2 X2 L2 X3 L3 X3 Y1 H2 H3 Y1 L11 Y2 L21 Y3 L31 Y2 Y3 U V W

Ldc VDC

H1 H1 H2 H3

IM

Rated for full power operation bulky but ONLY option when input is medium voltage and drive is of low voltage rating
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Three Winding 12-pulse Waveforms

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Hybrid 12-pulse Scheme


Iin Ixfmr
H1 H2 H3 Optional input inductor, Lin
H2 H3 X3

Half power phase-shifting isolation transformer


H1 X1

X1 X2
X2 X3

L1 L2 L3

Ldc VDC

U V W

IM

ILM

L11 L21 L31

Matching Inductor (half-rated current)

Transformer rated for half power attractive option


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Hybrid 12-pulse Waveforms


Iin ILm Ixfmr

% Distortion

16 12 8 4 THD

With Lin With no Lin

THD= 6.7% with 5% input reactor; 8.8% with no input AC reactor.


13 17 19
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5 7 11 Harmonic Order

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Autotransformer 12-pulse Scheme


Inter-phase Transformer
zero-sequence blocking Transformer
L1 L2

3-ph ac supply
b b

L3

Common Core
L11 L21

Ci ted as pri or art i n U S patent# 4, 255, 784 B

C
L31

Inter-phase Transformer

Autotransformer configuration Needs IPT and ZSBT bulky and costly


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Autotransformer 12-pulse Scheme


R'

3-Ph AC supply
b' b

S' T'

VFD #1

U V W

Motor 1

a' B c'

a U V W

R S T

VFD #2

Motor 2

Autotransformer configuration If loads are isolated and fairly balanced, this is very attractive
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Page. 43

Four Winding 18-pulse Scheme


4-winding isolation transformer
X1 X1 X2 X3 -20 deg L1 L2 L3

X3 H1 H1 H2 H3 H3 H2 Y2 Y3

Y1 L11 X2 Y2 L21 Y1 Y3 L31 Z1 +20 deg Z3 Z2 Z1 L12 Z2 L22 Z3 L32

Ldc VDC

U V W

IM

Transformer is rated for full power operation - bulky and expensive Cost effective method if primary is MV Attenuates conducted EMI effectively
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Autotransformer 18-pulse Scheme


18-pulse autotransformer
H1 1 1 2 3 2 9 H1 H2 H3 Input inductor, Lin H3 6 5 7 4 8 3 4

I1
L1 L2 L3

Iin

I3
L11 L21

Ldc VDC

U V W

5 6 I5 L31

IM

H2

7 L12 8 L22 9 L32

Autotransformer configuration Patented by D. Paice only two US manufacturers licensed at present


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Autotransformer 18-pulse Scheme


Needs three diode bridges Yaskawa uses external diode bridges makes it expensive Needs 7% input reactor for achieving THD levels of 5% and below increases cost and space With no input reactor, THD observed is about 8.8%
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Autotransformer 18-pulse Waveform


I1 I3 I5 Iin

% Distortion

16 12 8 4 THD
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With Lin With no Lin

THD= 5.5% with 5% input reactor; 8.7% with no input AC reactor.


13 17 19
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5 7 11 Harmonic Order

Yaskawas own 18-pulse Scheme


Less Complicated Structure Low Cost because of standard configuration Needs only 1.5% input reactor to bring THD level to less than 5% With no input reactor, THD level observed to be 6.5%
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Page. 48

Hybrid 18-pulse Scheme by Yaskawa


2/3 rated phase-shifting isolation transformer

Input inductor, Lin


H1 H1 H2 H3 H2 H3

X3

X1 L1 X1 X2 L2 -20 deg X3 L3 X2 Y1 Y1 L11 Y2 L21 Y3 L31

Y2

+20 deg Y3

Ldc VDC

U V W

IM

L12 L22 L32 Matching Inductor (1/3-rated current)

Power rating of isolation transformer is 2/3 of rated output power Current through matching inductor is 1/3 of rated input current Patent Pending
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Page. 49

Hybrid 18-pulse Waveform


V LN Iin

% Distortion

16 12 8 4 THD

With Lin With no Lin

THD= 4.5% with 1.5% input reactor; 6.5% with no input AC reactor.
13 17 19
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5 7 11 Harmonic Order

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Power Factor and Harmonics


Two Definitions of Power Factor Exists Displacement Power Factor: Cosine of the angle between the fundamental voltage and fundamental current waveform For VFDs, this value is almost always unity (0.99)
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Power Factor and Harmonics


True Power Factor Ratio of True Power to Total Volt-Ampere kW Demanded by Load pf = kVA Total Volt-Ampere includes VA demanded by Harmonic Content in Waveform
kW kW kW pf = = = 2 2 kV I total kV I1 + I n kV I1 1 + THD 2 dpf pf = 1 + THD 2
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Power Factor and Harmonics


True Power Factor is poor:
THD80%

dpf pf = = 0.78 2 1 + 0.8

THD37%

dpf pf = = 0 . 937 1 + 0.37 2

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Conclusions

IEEE 519 does not mean THD < 5% Find out PCC, ISC, and IL, Apply the Spirit of IEEE 519 correctly

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Conclusions
Avoid capacitor based harmonic filter 12-pulse techniques can achieve low TDD at drive input
Hybrid 12-pulse is attractive, less bulky and cost-effective Isolation transformer based method is best when input is MV

Use 18-pulse only when Customer demands (Less than 5% TDD)


Hybrid 18-pulse is attractive Isolation transformer based method is best when input is MV

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