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Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1
Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1
Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1
Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1
Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1

Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS)

Advanced Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Dr. William C. Maurer TP00-09 1
Dr. William C. Maurer
Dr. William C. Maurer
DEA-139 Phase I DEA Sponsor: Marathon Duration: 2 Years Start Date: End Date: May 1,

DEA-139 Phase I

DEA Sponsor: Marathon Duration: 2 Years Start Date: End Date: May 1, 2000 April 30,
DEA Sponsor:
Marathon
Duration:
2 Years
Start Date:
End Date:
May 1, 2000
April 30, 2002
Participation Fee:
$25,000/$35,000

Typical Occurrences of WellboreInstability in Shales soft, swelling shale brittle-plastic shale brittle shale naturally fractured shale strong rock

Instability in Shales

soft, swelling shale brittle-plastic shale brittle shale naturally fractured shale strong rock unit
soft, swelling shale
brittle-plastic shale
brittle shale
naturally fractured shale
strong rock unit
Wellbore Stability Problems  High Torque and Drag  Bridging and Fill  Stuck Pipe

Wellbore Stability Problems

High Torque and Drag Bridging and Fill

Stuck Pipe

Directional Control Problem

Slow Penetration Rates

High Mud Costs

Cementing Failures and High Cost

Difficulty in Running and Interpreting Logs

Effect of Borehole Pressures TP00-09 7

Effect of Borehole Pressures

Effect of Borehole Pressures TP00-09 7
Effect of Mud Support Pressure on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max

Effect of Mud Support Pressure

on Rock Yielding

s min

High Support Pressure

Pressure on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure

s max

on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s
P W
P W
on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s
on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s
on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s

Low Support Pressure

s max

on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s
P W
P W
on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s
on Rock Yielding s min High Support Pressure s max P W Low Support Pressure s

s min

Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10

Rock Failure Mechanisms

Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10
Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10
Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10
Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10

BRITTLE

Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10
Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10
Rock Failure Mechanisms BRITTLE PLASTIC TP00-09 10

PLASTIC

Rock Yielding around Wellbores Laboratory Tests Rawlings et al, 1993 TP00-09 Isotropic Stresses Anisotropic Stresses

Rock Yielding around Wellbores Laboratory Tests

Rock Yielding around Wellbores Laboratory Tests Rawlings et al, 1993 TP00-09 Isotropic Stresses Anisotropic Stresses 11

Rawlings et al, 1993

Rock Yielding around Wellbores Laboratory Tests Rawlings et al, 1993 TP00-09 Isotropic Stresses Anisotropic Stresses 11

TP00-09

Isotropic Stresses

Anisotropic Stresses

11

Change In Near-Wellbore Stresses Caused by Drilling Before Drilling In-situ stress state s V (overburden)

Change In Near-Wellbore Stresses

Caused by Drilling

Before Drilling In-situ stress state

s V (overburden) s Hmax s Hmin
s V (overburden)
s Hmax
s Hmin

After Drilling Lower stress within wellbore

P w (hydrostatic) s Hmax s Hmin
P w (hydrostatic)
s
Hmax
s Hmin
P o s Hmin Stress Concentration around an Open Wellbore s q s s z

P o

P o s Hmin Stress Concentration around an Open Wellbore s q s s z s

s Hmin

Stress Concentration around an Open Wellbore

s q s s z s r s r q s z s r P
s
q
s
s z
s r
s
r
q
s z
s r
P w
s Hmax
Strength vs Stress Identifying the Onset of Rock Yielding s q ´ s r ´

Strength vs Stress

Identifying the Onset of Rock Yielding

s q ´ s r ´ Min Max Stress Stable Stress State Stress s s
s
q ´
s
r ´
Min
Max
Stress
Stable
Stress State
Stress
s
s
r ´
q ´
Shear Stress

Effective Compressive Stress

s q ´ s r ´ Unstable Stress State s s r ´ q ´
s
q ´
s
r ´
Unstable
Stress State
s
s
r ´
q ´
Shear Stress

Effective Compressive Stress

Effect of Pore Fluid Saturation s o = s z S O L I D

Effect of Pore Fluid Saturation

s o =s z

Effect of Pore Fluid Saturation s o = s z S O L I D R
Effect of Pore Fluid Saturation s o = s z S O L I D R

SOLID ROCK

s o =s z +p f

s o = s z S O L I D R O C K s o

P f = Fluid Pressure

s o = s z S O L I D R O C K s o

POROUS ROCK

Effect of Near-Wellbore Pore Pressure Change on Effective Stresses Yield No Yield P o increase

Effect of Near-Wellbore Pore Pressure Change on Effective Stresses

Yield No Yield P o increase s r ´ s Effective Compressive Stress s s
Yield
No Yield
P o increase
s r ´
s
Effective Compressive Stress
s
s q ´
´
r ´
q
Shear Stress
TP00-09 19
TP00-09 19
MEI Wellbore Stability Model: (mechanical model, does not include chemical effects)
MEI Wellbore Stability Model:
(mechanical model, does not include chemical effects)
Linear elastic model (BP) Linear elastic model (Halliburton) Elastoplastic Model (Exxon) Pressure
Linear elastic model (BP)
Linear elastic model
(Halliburton)
Elastoplastic Model (Exxon)
Pressure Dependent Young’s
Modulus Model(Elf)
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson
Mathematical Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 

Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)

Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 

Dr. Fersheed Mody Jay Simpson Dr. Manohar Lal Dr. Ching Yew

(Baroid) (OGS) (Amoco) (Un. Texas)

Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Stress State on Deviated Wellbore
Stress State on Deviated Wellbore
Stress State on Deviated Wellbore

s 1

Stress State on Deviated Wellbore s 1 s 3 t z q s z a s

s 3

Stress State on Deviated Wellbore s 1 s 3 t z q s z a s
Stress State on Deviated Wellbore s 1 s 3 t z q s z a s
t z q s z a s r b tqz q sq
t z q
s z
a
s r
b
tqz
q
sq

s 2

Stress State on Deviated Wellbore s 1 s 3 t z q s z a s
TP00-09 23
(BP) Linear Elastic Model TP00-09 24
(BP) Linear Elastic Model
(BP)
Linear Elastic Model
TP00-09 25
(Halliburton) Linear Elastic Model TP00-09 26
(Halliburton) Linear Elastic Model
(Halliburton)
Linear Elastic Model
TP00-09 27
(Exxon) Elastoplastic Model TP00-09 28
(Exxon) Elastoplastic Model
(Exxon)
Elastoplastic Model
TP00-09 30
TP00-09 31
(Elf) Pressure Dependent Young’s Modulus TP00-09 33
(Elf) Pressure Dependent Young’s Modulus
(Elf)
Pressure Dependent
Young’s Modulus
TP00-09 34
Shale Borehole Stability Tests Darley, 1969 DISTILLED WATER DIESEL TP00-09 35
Shale Borehole Stability Tests Darley, 1969 DISTILLED WATER DIESEL TP00-09 35

Shale Borehole Stability Tests

Shale Borehole Stability Tests Darley, 1969 DISTILLED WATER DIESEL TP00-09 35

Darley, 1969

Shale Borehole Stability Tests Darley, 1969 DISTILLED WATER DIESEL TP00-09 35

DISTILLED WATER

Shale Borehole Stability Tests Darley, 1969 DISTILLED WATER DIESEL TP00-09 35

DIESEL

Montmorillonite Swelling Pressure Powers, 1967 80,000 5000 4000 60,000 3000 40,000 2000 20,000 1000 0

Montmorillonite Swelling Pressure

Powers, 1967

80,000 5000 4000 60,000 3000 40,000 2000 20,000 1000 0 0 4th 3rd 2nd 1st
80,000
5000
4000
60,000
3000
40,000
2000
20,000
1000
0
0
4th
3rd
2nd
1st
SWELLING PRESSURE, psi
kg/cm 2

LAYERS OF CRYSTALLINE WATER

Shale Water Adsorption Chenevert, 1970 5 4 3 2 DESORPTION 1 ADSORPTION 0 0.10 0.20

Shale Water Adsorption

Chenevert, 1970

5 4 3 2 DESORPTION 1 ADSORPTION 0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
5
4
3
2
DESORPTION
1
ADSORPTION
0
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
WEIGHT % WATER

WATER ACTIVITY - a W

Shale Swelling Tests Chenevert, 1970 0.4 0.3 Activity of Internal Phase 1.00 0.2 0.91 0.88

Shale Swelling Tests

Chenevert, 1970

0.4 0.3 Activity of Internal Phase 1.00 0.2 0.91 0.88 0.1 0.84 0.75 0 0.25
0.4
0.3
Activity of Internal Phase
1.00
0.2
0.91
0.88
0.1
0.84
0.75
0
0.25
-0.1
.01
0.1
1.0
10
LINEAR SWELLING - %

TIME - HOURS

Effect of K+Ions on Shale Swelling TP00-09 Baroid, 1975 Cs+ K+ Na+ - Ca ++

Effect of K+Ions on Shale Swelling

TP00-09

Baroid, 1975 Cs+ K+ Na+ - Ca ++ - - - - - - -
Baroid, 1975
Cs+
K+
Na+
-
Ca ++
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K+
K+
Na+
Ca++
Na+
-
-
-
Rb+
-
-
-
-
10A°
Cs+
K+
Mg++
Na+
Na+
Na+
Li+
Li+

39

North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Ionic

North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen

Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid

Drilling Fluid:

Ionic Water-Base

(CaCl 2 Brine) Activity = 0.78

TP00-09

Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Ionic Water-Base (CaCl 2 Brine) Activity =

41

North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Oil-Base

North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen

Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid

Drilling Fluid:

Oil-Base Emulsion (Oil with CaCl 2 Brine) Activity = 0.78

at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Oil-Base Emulsion (Oil with CaCl 2 Brine) Activity
North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen Exposed at Zero DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Non-Ionic

North Sea Speeton Shale Specimen

Exposed at Zero DP to

Drilling Fluid

Drilling Fluid:

Non-Ionic Water-Base

(Methyl Glucoside in

Fresh Water) Activity = 0.78

TP00-09

DP to Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid: Non-Ionic Water-Base ( Methyl Glucoside in Fresh Water) Activity =

43

Principle Mechanisms Driving Flow of Water and Solute Into/Out of Shales Force Hydraulic Gradient (P

Principle Mechanisms Driving Flow of Water and Solute Into/Out of Shales

Force Hydraulic Gradient (P w  P o ) Chemical Potential Gradient (A mud 
Force
Hydraulic Gradient (P w  P o )
Chemical Potential
Gradient (A mud  A shale )
Flow
Fluid
Hydraulic
Diffusion
(Darcy´s Law)
Chemical
P
H
H
2 O
2 O
(water)
t
Osmosis
3
t
2
t
1
H
H
2 O
2 O
r
H 2 O
H 2 O
+
Solute
Advection
+
+
-
Diffusion
(Fick´s Law)
(ions)
H 2 O
H 2 O
-
H
2 O
-
H
+
2 O
-
H
2 O

TP00-09

Other Driving Forces: Electrical Potential Gradient Temperature Gradient

44

Osmotic Flow of Water through Ideal Semi-Permeable Membrane Ideal Semipermeable Membrane - permeable to water

Osmotic Flow of Water through Ideal Semi-Permeable Membrane

Ideal Semipermeable Membrane - permeable to water - impermeable to dissolved molecules or ions
Ideal Semipermeable Membrane
- permeable to water
- impermeable to dissolved
molecules or ions
to water - impermeable to dissolved molecules or ions Water flow direction High concentration of dissolved

Water flow direction

High concentration of dissolved molecules or ions ( = Low A w )

Low concentration of dissolved molecules or ions ( = High A w )

TP00-09 49
TP00-09 49
Limitations of Existing Models
Limitations of Existing Models
Limitations of Existing Models
Very complex Input data not available Limited field verification Cannot field calibrate
Very complex
Input data not available
Limited field verification
Cannot field calibrate
not available Limited field verification Cannot field calibrate  Do not handle shale hydration TP00-09 50

Do not handle shale hydration

Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson
Mathematical Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 

Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)

Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 
Mathematical Algorithms  Dr Martin Chenervert (Un. Texas)  Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson 

Dr. Fersheed Mody Jay Simpson Dr. Manohar Lal Dr. Ching Yew

(Baroid) (OGS) (Amoco) (Un. Texas)

Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Dr. Fersheed Mody  Jay Simpson  Dr. Manohar Lal  Dr. Ching Yew (Baroid) (OGS)
Mechanical/Chemical Property Input TP00-09 52

Mechanical/Chemical Property Input

Mechanical/Chemical Property Input TP00-09 52
Help Information as Clicking Question Mark 53 TP00-09

Help Information as Clicking Question Mark

53
53

TP00-09

Pore Pressure Input/Predict TP00-09 54

Pore Pressure Input/Predict

Pore Pressure Input/Predict TP00-09 54
Pore Pressure Prediction via Interval Transit Time Log Data TP00-09 55

Pore Pressure Prediction

via Interval Transit Time Log Data

Pore Pressure Prediction via Interval Transit Time Log Data TP00-09 55
In-Situ Stresses Input/Predict TP00-09 56

In-Situ Stresses Input/Predict

In-Situ Stresses Input/Predict TP00-09 56
TP00-09 Correlation to Determine Horizontal Stresses 57

TP00-09

Correlation to Determine

Horizontal Stresses

TP00-09 Correlation to Determine Horizontal Stresses 57

57

Output Windows TP00-09 58

Output Windows

Output Windows TP00-09 58
Safe Mud Weight vs Well Inclination TP00-09 59

Safe Mud Weight vs Well Inclination

Safe Mud Weight vs Well Inclination TP00-09 59
Safe Mud Weight Distribution by Azimuth TP00-09 61

Safe Mud Weight Distribution by Azimuth

Safe Mud Weight Distribution by Azimuth TP00-09 61
Near-Wellbore Stresses Distribution TP00-09 62

Near-Wellbore Stresses Distribution

Near-Wellbore Stresses Distribution TP00-09 62
Mohr Diagram TP00-09 63

Mohr Diagram

Mohr Diagram TP00-09 63

TP00-09

63

Wellbore Stress Distribution TP00-09 64

Wellbore Stress Distribution

Wellbore Stress Distribution TP00-09 64
Propagation of Swelling Pressure TP00-09 65

Propagation of Swelling Pressure

Propagation of Swelling Pressure TP00-09 65
Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Too large inclination TP00-09 68

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Too large inclination
Too large inclination
Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Decrease inclination TP00-09 69

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Decrease inclination
Decrease inclination
Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Too high mud weight TP00-09 70

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Too high mud weight
Too high mud weight
Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Decrease mud weight TP00-09 71

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Decrease mud weight
Decrease mud weight
Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Not enough salinity TP00-09 72

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Not enough salinity
Not enough salinity

TP00-09

72

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Increase salinity TP00-09 73

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Increase salinity
Increase salinity

TP00-09

73

Wellbore Stability Design (through Mud Weight-Salinity diagram) Too low mud weight TP00-09 74

Wellbore Stability Design

(through Mud Weight-Salinity diagram)

Too low mud weight
Too low mud weight

TP00-09

74

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Increase mud weight TP00-09 75

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Increase mud weight
Increase mud weight

TP00-09

75

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Not enough salinity TP00-09 76

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Not enough salinity
Not enough salinity

TP00-09

76

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Increase salinity TP00-09 77

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Increase salinity
Increase salinity

TP00-09

77

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) Low Value Membrane Efficiency TP00-09 78

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

Low Value Membrane Efficiency
Low Value Membrane Efficiency

TP00-09

78

Wellbore Stability Design (continued) High Value Membrane Efficiency TP00-09 79

Wellbore Stability Design (continued)

High Value Membrane Efficiency
High Value Membrane Efficiency

TP00-09

79

Field Calibration TP00-09 80

Field Calibration

Field Calibration TP00-09 80

TP00-09

80

Field Calibration (continued) 81 TP00-09

Field Calibration (continued)

Field Calibration (continued) 81 TP00-09

81

TP00-09

Project Tasks  Distribute Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB)  Develop Enhanced Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS)  Add
Project Tasks
Project Tasks
Project Tasks  Distribute Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB)  Develop Enhanced Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS)  Add time

Distribute Wellbore Stability Model (WELLSTAB) Develop Enhanced Model (WELLSTAB-PLUS) Add time dependent feature to model Hold workshops Conduct field verification tests Write technical reports

feature to model  Hold workshops  Conduct field verification tests  Write technical reports TP00-09
feature to model  Hold workshops  Conduct field verification tests  Write technical reports TP00-09
feature to model  Hold workshops  Conduct field verification tests  Write technical reports TP00-09
feature to model  Hold workshops  Conduct field verification tests  Write technical reports TP00-09

TP00-09

86

Field Verification Goals Determine model accuracy Improve mathematical algorithms Field calibrate model
Field Verification Goals
Field Verification Goals
Determine model accuracy Improve mathematical algorithms Field calibrate model Make models more
Determine model accuracy
Improve mathematical
algorithms
Field calibrate model
Make models more user-friendly
Convert wellbore stability from
an art into a science

TP00-09

87

TP00-09 89
TP00-09 89

TP00-09

89

TP00-09 90

TP00-09

90