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Multiple Condition Tests
One of the most basic functions in any spreadsheet is to return an answer based upon some condition. This becomes especially useful when counting or summing based upon that condition. One condition is useful, and is easily achieved using COUNTIF or SUMIF. These are incredibly useful and flexible functions, but limited as they are to single conditions, they can be lacking.
Multiple conditions, such as counting the number of items sold by part number AND by month, greatly extends the functionality of our solution. There are a number of ways that this can be achieved within Excel, but this paper is focusing on one particular function, the SUMPRODUCT function, which by creative use has evolved to a flexibility undreamt of by its originators in Microsoft. Because this usage has been driven outside of Microsoft, by realworld Excel users, you will not see it documented within Excel help, or in MSDN.
SUMPRODUCT is one of the most versatile functions provided in Excel. In its most basic form, SUMPRODUCT multiplies corresponding members in given arrays, and returns the sum of those products. This page discusses the classic use of SUMPRODUCT, how creativity and inbuilt flexibility has enabled it to evolve into a far more useful function, and explains some of the techniques being deployed.
This article comes in two parts. This first part discusses SUMPRODUCT, how it has evolved, how it works, whilst Part 2 provides a number of real world problems and the solutions,
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Standard Use of SUMPRODUCT Evolving Use of SUMPRODUCT Advantages of SUMPRODUCT SUMPRODUCT Explained Format of SUMPRODUCT Conditional Counting and Summing in VBA SUMPRODUCT and Excel 2007 Performance Considerations Notes References Acknowledgments
Examples
Standard Use of SUMPRODUCT
In it's classic form, SUMPRODUCT multiplies each value in one array by the corresponding value in another array, and returns the summed result. As an example, if cells A9:A11 contain the values 1,2,3 and B9:B11 contain 10,20,30, then
=SUMPRODUCT(A9:A11,B9:B11)
returns 140, or (1*10)+(2*20)+(3*30)=10+40+90=140.
This is a useful function, but nothing more than that. A further, more 'creative' use of SUMPRODUCT has evolved, and is still evolving, driven as far as I can see mainly by the regular contributors of the Microsoft Excel newsgroups. This has been a creative and productive process that has significantly increased the useability of SUMPRODUCT, but in a way that you will not find documented in Excel's Help.
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Evolving Use of SUMPRODUCT
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Within Excel, there are two very useful functions that support conditional counting and summing, namely COUNTIF and SUMIF. Very useful functions, but limited in that they can only evaluate
a single test range.
In certain instances, a very simple double conditional test between two values can be emulated by testing for the lower condition and subtracting anything that is beyond the upper condition.
For instance, the formula =COUNTIF(A1:A10,>=10) COUNTIF(A1:A10,>20)
calculates how many items in A1:A10 that fall between 10 and 20, by counting all items greater than 10, which also includes those items greater than 20, and then subtracting the count of those items in A1:A10 that are greater than 20. Whilst this emulates a double conditional test, it is very limited, it cannot work on different ranges, or more conditions.
Multiple conditions are so useful to test ranges (say between two dates), and double tests (one array = A and another = B), and whilst this can be managed using array functions
, this is somewhat unwieldy, and is an array formula. And there is a better way, using
SUMPRODUCT.
=SUM(IF(test_A,IF(test_B, etc.
Note that in this section, all formulae given are using the '*' (multiply) operator format, but this in itself is one of the biggest discussion points around the SUMPRODUCT function, one which is discussed below.
To understand how SUMPRODUCT can be used, first consider the following data.
A 
B 
C 
1 Make 
Month 
Price 
2 Ford 
June 
7,500 
3 Ford 
June 
8,300 
4 Ford 
May 
6,873 
5 Ford 
June 
11,200 
6 Renault 
June 
13,200 
7 Renault 
June 
14,999 
8 BMW 
June 
17,500 
9 BMW 
May 
23,500 
10 BMW 
June 
18,000 
Table 1. 
We can easily count the number of Fords with
=COUNTIF(A1:A10,"Ford")
which returns 4.
Similalrly, it is straightforward to get the value of Fords sold, using
=SUMIF(A1:A10,"Ford",C1:C10)
which gives 33,873.
But supposing that we want a count of how many Fords are sold in June, or the value of them? The number can be calculated with
=SUM(IF(A1:A10="Ford",IF(B1:B10="June",1,0),0))
which is an array formula so is committed with CtrlShiftEnter, not just Enter. Similarly, the value
is obtained with
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=SUM(IF(A1:A10="Ford",IF(B1:B10="June",C1:C10,0),0))
which is also an array formula.
But as this page is about SUMPRODUCT, you would expect that we could use that function in this case, and we can. The solution for the number of Fords sold in June using this function is
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")*(B1:B10="June"))
The value is obtained with
.
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")*(B1:B10="June")*(C1:C10))
The * is being used as the AND operator, the formula is saying, where A1:A10 = Ford AND B1:B10 = June, and where A1:A10 = Ford AND B1:B10= June, multiplied by C1:C10.
In my view, this formula more readily shows what the author's objective is, and of course, as it is not an array formula it is simply committed with Enter.
We can see that the * is equivalent to AND in the formula, how this works is explained later, but supposing we want an OR condition. As a further extension of its use, we use the '+' (plus) operator to count OR conditions, such as how many cars sold were either Fords or Renaults. The formula for this is
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")+(A1:A10="Renault"))
which returns the result 6 as expected ^{[}^{1}^{]} .
So far, so good, in that we have a versatile function that can do any number of conditional tests, and has an inbuilt flexibility that provides extensibility. Its power is augmented when combined
with other functions, such as can be found in the examples page ^{[}^{2}^{]} .
Advantages of SUMPRODUCT
Multiple conditional tests are a major advantage of the SUMPRODUCT function as descibed above, but it has two other considerable advantages. The first is that it can function with closed workbooks, and the second is that the handling of text values can be tailored to the requirement.
In the case of another workbook, the SUMIF function can be used to calculate a value, such as in
=SUMIF('[Nowfal Rates.xls]RATES'!$K$11:$K$13,"gt;1")
This is fine in itself, and the value remains if the other workbook is closed, but as soon as the sheet is recalculated, the formula returns #VALUE. Similarly, if the formula is entered with the other workbook already closed, a #VALUE is immediately returned.
SUMPRODUCT, however, overcomes this problem. The formula
=SUMPRODUCT(('[Nowfal Rates.xls]RATES'!$K$11:$K$13>1),('[Nowfal
Rates.xls]RATES'!$K$11:$K$13))
returns the same result, but it will still work when the other workbook is closed and the sheet is recalculated, and can be initially entered referencing the closed workbook, without a #VALUE error.
The second major advantage is being able to handle text in numeric columns differently. Consider the follwoing dataset, as shown in Table 2.
A 
B 

1 
Item 
Number 
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2 
x 
1 
3 
y 
2 
4 
x 
3 
Table 2. 
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If we are looking at rows 1:4. we can see that we have a text value in B1 In this case it is simply
a heading row, but the principle applies to a text value in any row.
Using SUMPRODUCT, we can either return an error, or ignore the text. This can be useful if we want to ignore errors, or if we want to trap the error (and presumably correct it later).
Errors will be returned if we use this version
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A4="x")*(B1:B4))
To ignore errors, use this amended version which us es the double unary operator (see SUMPRODUCT Explained below for details)
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A4="x"),(B1:B4))
And a third, most significant advantage, is that the conditional test range or the condition can be constructed in a huge number of ways to facilitate the requirement, such as
LEFT(A1:A10),
ISNUMBER(MATCH(A1:A10,{"apples","pears"},0),
ISNUMBER(MATCH(K2:K30,ROW(INDIRECT(TODAY()&":"&TODAY()+10)),0))
or
But how does it work?
SUMPRODUCT Explained
Understanding how SUMPRODUCT works helps to determine where to use it, how to can construct thus formula, and thus how it can be extended.
Table 3. below shows an example data set that we will use.
A 
B 
C 

9 
Ford 
B 
3 
10 
Vauxhall 
C 
4 
11 
Ford 
A 
2 
12 
Ford 
A 
1 
13 
Ford 
D 
4 
14 
Ford 
A 
3 
`5 
Ford 
A 
2 
16 
Renault 
A 
8 
17 
Ford 
A 
6 
18 
Ford 
A 
8 
19 
Ford 
A 
7 
20 
Ford 
A 
6 
Table 3. 
In this example, the problem is to find how many Fords with a category of "A" were sold. A9:A20 holds the make, B9:B20 has the category, and C9:C20 has the number sold. The formula to get this result is
=SUMPRODUCT((A9:A20="Ford")*(B9:B20="A")*(C9:C20))
.
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The first part of the formula
Ford. This returns an array of TRUE/FALSE, in this case it is {TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE}
(A9:A20="Ford")
checks the array of makes for a value of
Similarly, the categories are checked for the vale A with
returns an array of TRUE/FALSE, or {FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE}
(B9:B20="A")
. Again, this
And finally, the numbers are not checked but taken as is, that is (C9:C20) , which returns an array of numbers
{3,4,2,1,4,3,2,8,6,8,7,6}
So now we have three arrays, two of TRUE/FALSE values, one of numbers. This is showm in Table 4.
A 
B 
C 

9 TRUE 
* FALSE 
* 3 

10 FALSE 
* FALSE 
* 4 

11 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 2 

12 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 1 

13 TRUE 
* FALSE 
* 4 

14 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 3 

15 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 2 

16 FALSE 
* TRUE 
* 8 

17 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 6 

18 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 8 

19 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 7 

20 TRUE 
* TRUE 
* 6 

Table 4. 
And this is where it gets interesting.
SUMPRODUCT usually works on arrays of numbers, but we have arrays of TRUE/FALSE values as well as an array of numbers. By using the '*' (multiply) operator, we can get numeric values that can be summed. '*' has the effect of coercing these two arrays into a single array of 1/0 values. Multiplying TRUE by TRUE returns 1 (try it, enter =TRUE*TRUE in a cell and see the result), any other combination returns 0. Therefore, when both conditions are satisfied, we get a 1, whereas if any or both conditions are not satisfied, we get a 0. Multiplying the first array of TRUE/FALSE values by the second array of TRUE/FALSE values returns a composite array of 1/0 values, or
{0,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1}.
This subsequent array of 1/0 values is then multiplied by the array of numbers sold to give a further array, an array of numbers sold that satisfy the two test conditions. SUMPRODUCT then sums the members of this array to give the count.
Table 4. shows the values that the conditional tests break down to before being acted upon by the '*' operator.
Table 5. shows a virtual representation of those TRUE/FALSE values as their numerical equivalents of 1/0 and the individual multiplication results. From this, you should be able to see how SUMPRODUCT arrives at its result, namely 35.
A B 
C 

9 
* 
1 0 
* 
3 
0 
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10 
0 
* 0 
* 4 
0 

11 
1 
* 1 
* 2 
2 

12 
1 
* 1 
* 1 
1 

13 
1 
* 0 
* 4 
0 

14 
1 
* 1 
* 3 
3 

15 
1 
* 1 
* 2 
2 

16 
0 
* 1 
* 8 
0 

17 
1 
* 1 
* 6 
6 

18 
1 
* 1 
* 8 
8 

19 
1 
* 1 
* 7 
7 

20 
1 
* 1 
* 6 
6 

35 

Table 5. 
Table 6. shows you the same virtual representation of 1/0 numerical values without the numbers sold column, that is using SUMPRODUCT to count the number of rows satisfying the two conditions, or
=SUMPRODUCT((A9:A20=A1)*(B9:B20="A"))
A 
B 

9 1 
* 0 
= 0 

10 0 
* 0 
= 0 

11 1 
* 1 
= 1 

12 1 
* 1 
= 1 

13 1 
* 0 
= 0 

14 1 
* 1 
= 1 

15 1 
* 1 
= 1 

16 0 
* 1 
= 0 

17 1 
* 1 
= 1 

18 1 
* 1 
= 1 

19 1 
* 1 
= 1 

20 1 
* 1 
= 1 

8 

Table 6. 
If you have been able to follow this explanation all of the way through, it may have occurred to you that although we are using the SUMPRODUCT function, the '*' operators have resolved the multiple arrays into a single composite array, leaving SUMPRODUCT to simply sum the members of that composite array, that is, there is no product. This is perfectly correct, and perfectly valid, SUMPRODUCT can work on a single array (put 1,2,3 in cells A1,A2,A3, and insert =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A3) in a cell, it returns 6 correctly). In reality, we only need the '*' to coerce the arrays that are being tested for a particular condition, we do not need it for the array that is not subject to a conditional test. So we could also use
, which does use the product aspect (see more on this in the next section).
=SUMPRODUCT((A9:A20="Ford")*(B9:B20="A"),(C9:C20))
When using the SUMPRODUCT function, all arrays must be the same size, as corresponding members of each array are multiplied by each other.
When using the SUMPRODUCT function, no array can be a whole column (A:A), the array
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must be for a range within a column (although the best part of a column could be defined with
A1:A65535 if so desired). Whole rows (1:1) are acceptable ^{[}^{3}^{]} .
In a SUMPRODUCT function, the arrays being evaluated cannot be a mix of column and row ranges, they must all be columns, or all rows. However, the row data can be transposed to present it to SUMPRODUCT as columnar  see the Using TRANSPOSE to test against values in a column not row example.
Format of SUMPRODUCT
In the examples presented so far, the format has been
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1)*(array2=condition2)*(array3))
As mentioned above, we could also use
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1)*(array2=condition2),(array3))
which works as the '*' operator is only required to coerce the conditional arrays that resolve to TRUE/FALSE into numeric values.
As it the use of a arithmetic operator that coreces the TRUE/FALSE values to 1/0, we could use many different operators and achieve the same result. Thus, it is also possible to coerce each of the conditional arrays individually by multiplying them by 1,
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1)*1,(array2=condition2)*1,(array3))
or
=SUMPRODUCT(1*(array1=condition1),1*(array2=condition2),(array3))
or by raising to the power of 1,
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1)^1,(array2=condition2)^1,(array3))
or by adding 0,
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1)+0,(array2=condition2)+0,(array3))
or
=SUMPRODUCT(0+(array1=condition1),0+(array2=condition2),(array3))
or even by using the N function,
=SUMPRODUCT(N(array1=condition1),N(array2=condition2),(array3))
These methods differ from the '*' operator in that they are applied to individual arrays, '*' operates on two arrays.
All of these methods work, when there is more than one conditional array, so it is really a matter of preference as to which to use. If there is a single conditional array, then the '*' operator cannot be used (there are not two to multiply), so one of the other above methods has to be used.
Yet another method is to use the double unary operator, , in this way
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1),(array2=condition2),(array3))
The double unary operator also coerces the indivual array(s), which then acts more akin to classic SUMPRODUCT.
There has been much discussion that one way is faster than another, or is more of a 'standard' than another, but in reality there will be few instances where one method will gain a noticeable performance advantage over another, and as for standards, this is all new territory, and will mainly be used by people who have never been involved in using these standards, and who care even less.
For me, I believe it is a matter of preference. Personally, I am being swayed to the double unary  notation, because it avoids a function call, it works in all situations (the '*' operator won't work on a single array), and I don't like the '1*', '*1', '^1', or '+0' variations. So my preference is for
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=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1),(array2=condition2),(array3))
which also has more similarity to classic
SUMPRODUCT
,
There is one other varitaion which has been promoted recently, which is the single unary operator, '', such as
=SUMPRODUCT((array1=condition1),(array2=condition2),(array3))
but I would not encourage this as it has no real merit that I can see, and has to be paired off, otherwise it will return a negative result.
So, to sum up Tests, like A=10 normally resolve to TRUE or FALSE, and any operator is only needed if you want to coerce an array of TRUE/FALSE values to 1/0 integers, such as
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101))
SUMPRODUCT arrays are normally separated by the comma. So, to preserve this format, if you have multiple conditions, you can use the  on both conditions like so
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101),(C5:C1953=7))
But, if you simply multiply two arrays of TRUE/FALSE, that implicitly resolves to 1/0 values that are then summed, you don;t need comma, so you could then use
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B193=101)*(C5:C193=7))
Any further, final, array of values can use the same operator, or could revert to comma. So your formula can be written as
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101),(C5:C1953=7),(D5:D1953))
or 

=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101)*(C5:C1953=7),(D5:D1953)) 

or 

=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101),(C5:C1953=7),(D5:D1953)) 

or 

=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101)*(C5:C1953=7)*(D5:D1953)) 

or 
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B1953=101),(C5:C1953=7)*(D5:D1953))
If the result is the product of two conditions being multiplied, it is fine to multiply them together as this will coerce the True/False values to 1/0 values to allow the summing
=SUMPRODUCT((condition1)*(condition2))
However, if there is only one condition, you can coerce to 1/0 with the double unary 
=SUMPRODUCT((condition1))
You could achieve this equally as well with
=SUMPRODUCT((1*(condition1)))
and equally the first could be represented as
=SUMPRODUCT((condition1),(condition2))
There is no situation that I know of whereby a solution using  could not be achieved somehow with a '*'. Conversely, if using the TRANSPOSE function within SUMPRODUCT, then the '*' has to be used.
So, as you can see there are a number of possibilities, and you make your own choice. I leave the final word to Harlan Grove, who once wrote this paragraph on why he prefers the double unary operator
as
I've written before, it's not the speed of double unary minuses I like, it's the fact that due
to Excel's operator precedence it's harder to screw up double unary minuses with typos than it is to screw up the alternatives ^1, *1, +0. Also, since I read left to right, I prefer my number type coercions on the left rather than the right of my Boolean expressions, and  looks nicer
than 1* or 0+. Wrapping Boolean expressions inside N() is another alternative, possibly clearer, but it eats a nested function call level, so I don't use it.
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Conditional Counting and Summing in VBA
All of the discussion so far has been about conditional formulae, that is directly within Excel worksheets. It is often necessary to count or sum conditionally some worksheet ranges within a VBA routine. In these instances, we could code a simple loop to go through all of the data and check if it matches the condition, summing the matching items as we go.
Excel VBA has a method that allows a call out from VBA routines to a builtin worksheet function, saving ourselves having to build that functionality, and greatly improving the power of our VBA code. Whilst there is an overhead to calling an Excel function from within VBA, any performance impact should be minimal if not overused, and the usefulness of this facility is clear. We can utilise this facility to achieve conditional counting and summing in VBA with little effort, but there are a few things to be aware of.
As an example, consider the data in Table 1. above. If we needed to know how many Fords were in the range A1:A10from within a VBA procedure, we could simply use the following code
This will load the mCount variable with the number of Fords, 4 in this instance.
Similalry, we can use SUMIF to calculate the value
This will load the mCount variable with the value of the Fords, 33873 in this instance. The natural next step is to assume that we can extend this technique to our multiple condition test formulae discussed above. If we are using COUNTIFS and SUMIFS in Excel 2007 (see SUMPRODUCT and Excel 2007) then this is correct. For example, we can count how many Fords were sold in June using
We get a result of 3 here in our mCount variable. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be extended to array formulae, or conditional testing SUMPRODUCT formulae.
For example, a simple formula to count how many Fords were sold in Feb might be
=SUMPRODUCT((A2:A10="Ford")*(B2:B10="Feb"))
(none, as it happens), and you might think that we could use the following VBA to get the same result
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This fails to compile, never mind getting the correct result. In this case, VBA is trying to make a simple call to the worksheet function, but when array and these type of SUMPRODUCT formulae are resolved in Excel each item is within the array is resolved and then passed to the main function for SUMming, AVERAGEing, or whatever is being actioned. As VBA doesnt evaluate the ranges, it is not passing correct information to the worksheet function, so we get
the error ^{[}^{4}^{]} .
There is a solution to this problem, and that is to evaluate the function call within VBA, using the VBA Evaluate method, which converts a Microsoft Excel name to an a value. The code here is
Although there is more effort required to ensure that the syntax of the function call is properly
constructed, and that strings tested against are properly formed with quotes around them ^{[}^{5}^{]} , it is still a useful technique to have, and provides the capability to use SUMPRODUCT (and by association, array formulae) within VBA.
SUMPRODUCT and Excel 2007
When Microsoft introduced Excel 2007, the main focus was on ease of use, and improved business analysis functionality. Unfortunately, the worksheet functions did not get much attention, but there were a few new functions. Two of the new functions, COUNTIFS and
SUMIFS, support multiple conditional tests. For instance, in our previous examples ,
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")*(B1:B10="June"))
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")*(B1:B10="June")*(C1:C10))
where we count those items where A1:A10 is = Ford AND B1:B10 = June, and where A1:A10 = Ford AND B1: B10 = June multiplied by C1:C10. In Excel 2007, COUNTIFS and SUMIFS can be used in place of SUMPRODUCT. The Excel 2007 formulae would be
=COUNTIFS(A1:A10,"Ford",B1:B10,"June")
=SUMIFS(C1:C10,A1:A10,"Ford",B1:B10,"June")
A further improvement is that in Excel 2007, SUMPRODUCT can address a whole column, which is a helpful change.
So, with Excel 2007 supporting multiple conditional tests, does this mean that the special use of SUMPRODUCT is now redundant, and that it is relegated to its original, simple array
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Whilst this may seem to be the case at first sight, a little thought shows that SUMPRODUCT retains its unique position in the Excel developers toolkit. Why? Because COUNTIFS and SUMIFS are still unable to calculate values in closed workbooks just as their predecessors could not; and the Excel 2007 functions are still not able to accommodate the complex extra functions that can be added to the conditional ranges in SUMPRODUCT.
Performance Considerations
Double Unary v * Operator
In most circumstances, either the '*' or  versions of SUMPRODUCT can be used, and both will function correctly. There are some exceptions to this. Consider a table of names and amounts in A1:B10, where row 1 is a text heading of 'Name' and 'Amount'. The formula
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Bob"),(B1:B10>0),B1:B10)
will correctly sum the positive values in column B where the value in column is 'Bob'. However, this formula
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Bob")*(B1:B10>0)*(B1:B10))
returns a #VALUE! Error. The reason for the error is due to the text in B1, multiplying a text value creates an error. To overcome it with the lat ter form, the ranges need to start beyond the
heading, in A2 and B2 ^{[}^{6}^{]} .
Similalrly, if one or more of the ranges within the formula is multicolumn, then the '*' operator again has to be used. Whilst this formula fails
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Bob"),(B1:C10>0),(B1:C10))
this formula works perfectly well
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Bob")*(B1:C10>0)*(B1:C10))
as indeed does this
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Bob")*(B1:C10>0),B1:C10)[7]
Using Transpose
If using the TRANSPOSE function within SUMPRODUCT, then the '*' operator has to be used.
Formula Efficiency
Most people will be familiar with the fact that array formulas can be very expensive, and if overused can significantly impair the recalculation of a worksheet/workbook.
Whilst SUMPRODUCT is not an array formula per se, it suffers from the same problem. Although SUMPRODUCT is often faster than an equivalent array formula, it is marginal. And like array formula, SUMPRODUCT is much slower than COUNTIF/SUMIF,thus it is better to use these if appropriate.
So, never use SUMPRODUCT in this situation
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")*(C1:C10))
Use the equivalent SUMIF
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=SUMIF(A1:A10,"Ford",C1:C10)
http://www.xldynamic.com/source/xld.SUMPRODUCT.html
Even two COUNTIF /SUMIF functions are quicker than one SUMPRODUCT, so this formula
=COUNTIF(A1:A10,>=10)COUNTIF(A1:A10,>20)
will be more efficient than this one,
=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10>=10)*(A1:A10<=20))
by a factor of roughly 20%.
Notes
[1] We can also use =SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10={"Ford","Renault"})) in this
instance as we have a single range being tested for two (or more) values, the  is to coerce the Booleans to numbers that can be counted  see later.
[2] Although array formulae are mentioned here, they are not explained. For a detailed discussion, see Chip Pearson's Array Formulas web page.
[3] Excel 2007 has now removed this constraint, SUMPRODUCT can now use whole columns, as can any array formulae  see SUMPRODUCT and Excel 2007
[4] Note that the simple form of SUMPRODUCT, =SUMPRODUCT(rng1,rng2) works
perfectly well in VBA as Application.WorksheetFunction.SUMPRODUCT(rng1,rng2), as VBA is conforming to the functions call criteria
[5] When embedding quotes within a string, the quotes have to be doubled up, otherwise the single quote is taken as the start or end of the string. This gets more complex if the quotes are just after or just before an opening/closing quote, as we then have three quotes, i.e. one to tell VBA that the next quotes is part of the string, one for the embedded quotes, and one to close the string
[6] The error is not caused because the text field is being summed, SUM happily ignores text, but rather because the value in column B is multiplied by the result of the conditional tests, it is multiplying text by a number that causes the #VALUE!
[7] As can be seen, this restriction applies to SUMPRODUCT formulae with multiple columns, whether the multiple columns are within a conditional range or a value range
References
As mentioned above, a detailed discussion on arrays and array formulae, by Microsoft Excel MVP Chip Pearson, can be found here.
Another realworld example of SUMPRODUCT is given in Processing Coloured Cells which, in conjunction with a custom UDF, shows how to count colour instances.
Felipe Gualberto has translated the majority of this page into Portuguese, at his ambienteoffice site.
This article also inspired misange to write a French article on SUMPRODUCT (or SOMMEPROD), which can be found on the excellent excelabo site, with a further page here.
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Acknowledgements
This method of describing how the SUMPRODUCT formula resolves is originally based upon a post in the Excel newgroups from Microsoft Excel MVP Ken Wright. It was Ken who initially explained SUMPRODUCT in this manner, which I found so clear and helpful.
This page was proofread by the late Frank Kabel, who offered many improvements and some advanced examples. Frank was one of the most prolific posters in the Excel newsgroups, and has probably offered more SUMPRODUCT solutions than the other posters together.
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xlDynamic.com 
Excel & VBA Tips 

General 
 Using Excel 
 Worksheet Formulae 
 
VBA Development 
 
Tools & Utilities 
 
Miscellaneous 

Main 
> 
Worksheet Formulae 
> SUMPRODUCT 
Multiple Condition Tests
One of the most basic functions in any spreadsheet is to return an answer based upon some condition. This becomes especially useful when counting or summing based upon that condition. One condition is useful, and is easily achieved using COUNTIF or SUMIF. These are incredibly useful and flexible functions, but limited as they are to single conditions, they can be lacking.
Multiple conditions, such as counting the number of items sold by part number AND by month, greatly extends the functionality of our solution. There are a number of ways that this can be achieved within Excel, but this paper is focusing on one particular function, the SUMPRODUCT function, which by creative use has evolved to a flexibility undreamt of by its originators in Microsoft. Because this usage has been driven outside of Microsoft, by realworld Excel users, you will not see it documented within Excel help, or in MSDN.
SUMPRODUCT is one of the most versatile functions provided in Excel. In its most basic form, SUMPRODUCT multiplies corresponding members in given arrays, and returns the sum of those products. This page discusses the classic use of SUMPRODUCT, how creativity and inbuilt flexibility has enabled it to evolve into a far more useful function, and explains some of the techniques being deployed.
This article comes in two parts. The first part discussed SUMPRODUCT, how it has evolved, how it works, whilst this part provides a number of real world problems and their solutions.
Examples
Matching against values in another range Dates for any international setting Using TRANSPOSE to test against values in a column not row Testing against multiple noncontiguous ranges Find instances of a string, ignoring leading or trailing spaces Count the number of unique values in a range Avoid doublecounting in multiple conditions Count items matching a list Count partial matching in a range Count beteween two dates, excluding holidays Sum visible cells
References
Acknowledgments
Examples
Buy me a beer
If this page, or this site, has been helpful, feel free to show your appreciation by buying me a beer.
Example 1: 
Count the number of items where the date, in A42:A407 is earlier than today, and J42:J407 is equal to a variable array of values 
Solution: 
The date test is handled with ($A$42:$A$407<TODAY()). The variable array of values is setup in a range, and this is used in conjunction with the MATCH a ISNUMBER functions. 
=SUMPRODUCT((ISNUMBER(MATCH(J42:J407,Fred,0)))*($A$42:$A$407<TODAY())) 

Example 2: 
To count the number of sales in 3 locations of service since a given time period. 
Solution: 
In it's basic elements, this is a simple test. If the date to be tested against is in a cell it would be a simple 
=SUMPRODUCT((C5:C309>$A$1))*(H5:H309="A")) 

But this formula shows a technique to use embedded date strings that works, as far as I am aware, in all international versions of Excel. 

=SUMPRODUCT((C5:C309>(("2004/05/31")))*(H5:H309="A")) 

Example 3: 
Instead of typing the multiple criteria into the formula, can I have them typed into cells, and just reference the cells? 
Solution: 
This seeemd a simple request to which a solution of 
=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B63=L1:N1)*(C5:C63)) 

was suggested. 

This failed because the requester wanted the criteria in a column, not a row, so this required the TRANSPOSE function to incorporate in SUMPRODUCT. This w result 

=SUMPRODUCT((B5:B63=TRANSPOSE(P46:P48))*(C5:C63)) 

which, because it uses the TRANSPOSE function, has to be entered as an array formula. 

Example 4: 
I originally had this, 
=SUMIF(J2:J196,J209,L2:L196) 

but I need to have these extra ranges aggregated. 

R2:R196,U2:U196,V2:V196,Z2:Z196 

Solution: 
This could easily be solved by having separate SUMPRODUCT functions for each of the separate test ranges, but with a bit of ingenuity, it can be resolved in one using the '+' operator. 
=SUMPRODUCT((J2:J196=J209),L2:L196+R2:R196+U2:U196+V2:V196+Z2:Z196) 

Example 5: 
Find the occurrences of a string, value of 'good', in a range A1:A100. Some of the cells could include leading and/or trailing spaces, or even HTML non breaking sp 
Solution: 
The basic count of the string is very simple. Allowing for leading and trailing spaces is also handled by including _{T}_{R}_{I}_{M} in the foirmula. However, _{T}_{R}_{I}_{M} doesn't han HTML nonbreaking spaces, these have to be extracted from the range being tested with the SUBSTITUTE function.good 
=SUMPRODUCT((TRIM(SUBSTITUTE(A1:A100,CHAR(160),""))="good")) 
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Example 6: 
Count the number of unique values in a range. 

Solution: 
The first version works if the whole range, A1:A20, is occupied 

=SUMPRODUCT(1/COUNTIF(A1:A20,A1:A20)) 

However, this returns #DIV/0 if any of the range is blank. This can be corrected with 

=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A20<>"")/COUNTIF(A1:A20,A1:A20&"")) 

And finally, to overcome a bug in the implicit intersection of COUNTIF/SUMIF 1st argument with that argument's parent worksheet's used range., which can also ret #DIV/0, we can use 

=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A20<>"")/(COUNTIF(A1:A20,A1:A20)+(A1:A20=""))) 

Example 7: 
Count the instances of either of two conditions being met in two different ranges.For this example, consider the range A1:A10 with countries, and B1:B10 with cont C1:C10 with a flag saying whether they are G7 countries or not. We want to count the number of countries that are in Europe, or are G7 countries. 

Solution: 
To count the number of countries that are eoither i n Europe, or G7 countries, we could use 

=SUMPRODUCT((B1:B10="Europe")+(C1:C10="Y")) 

The problem with this is that it will doublecount the countries tin Europe that are also G7 countries. This can be overcome with 

=SUMPRODUCT((B1:B10="Europe")+(C1:C10="Y"))SUMPRODUCT((B1:B10="Europe"),(C1:C10="Y")) 

which uses a SUMPRODUCT to calculate the number of countries that are both in Europe and G7 countries, and is then subtracted from the doublecounting form 

Example 8: 
Count the instances of more than one value in a given range. This example is counting how many Fords and Chryslers are in the range A1:A10. 

Solution: 
This can be solved by using OR as described in the prevuious example, but on a single range, that is 

=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10="Ford")+(A1:A10="Chrysler")) 

But in this in stance, as we are looking for two values in a single range, it is better to test against an array of values, or 

=SUMPRODUCT((A1:A10={"Ford","Chrysler"})) 

Example 9: 
Having a range of stock numbers, A1:A10, corresponding sites in B1:B10, and stock numbers in C1:C10, we need to count how many items of a particular part at a particular site. This would be a straightforward SUMPRODUCT normally, but in this case, the stock number contains a number of components, so the part id is embedded within this. SUMIF can use wildcards, but only for one test, but SUMPRODUCT doesn't support wildcards directly. 

Solution: 
To solve this problem, we can use the FIND function to test whetehr our part number if embebbed within the stock number. The ISNUMBER function is used to t whether it is found or not (avoiding the dreaded #VALUE error) 

=SUMPRODUCT((ISNUMBER(FIND("ATN",A1:A10))),(B1:B10="Birmingham"),(C1:C10)) 

FIND is case sensitive, if case sensitivity is not required, use SEARCH instead. 

=SUMPRODUCT((ISNUMBER(SEARCH("ATN",A1:A10))),(B1:B10="Birmingham"),(C1:C10)) 

Example 10: 
Count the number of a certain day between two dates, excluding any holidays that may fall on those days. 

Solution: 
SUMPRODUCT can be used to calculate the number of a particular day between two dates. For example, assuming that the two dates are in cells A1 and A2, th formula returns the number of Wednesdays bewteen those two dates. 

=SUMPRODUCT((WEEKDAY(ROW(INDIRECT(A1&":"&A2)))=4)) 

This solution utilises the fact that as Excel stores dates as serial numbers from 1st Jan 1900, the two dates can be used in an INDIRECT function to 'virtually' loa the dates into rows, which can then be tested using the WEEKDAYand the ROW function to determine whether any of those row dates are the day in question. T of course place a limit on the later date, which is 06Jun2079, as Excel is restricted to 65336 rows. 

The NETWORKDAYS function provides a facility to exclude holidays in the count. Again, we can achieve this with our function by adding a test against the holda Assuming that the holidays are in a named range, holidays, we would use 

=SUMPRODUCT((WEEKDAY(ROW(INDIRECT(A1&":"&A2)))=4),(COUNTIF(holidays,ROW(INDIRECT($A$1&":"&A2)))=0)) 

We could also simulate the 
NETWORKDAYS 
function to count the number of days between two dates, excluding Saturdays and Sundays amd holidays using 

=SUMPRODUCT((WEEKDAY(ROW(INDIRECT(A1&":"&A2)))<>1),((WEEKDAY(ROW(INDIRECT(A1&":"& 

A2)))<>7)),(COUNTIF(holidays,ROW(INDIRECT($A$1&":"&A2)))=0)) 

This might seem unnecessary, as we could more easily use the NETWORKDAYS function, but it does offer one small advantage over that function, it doesn't mat order the dates are in. It could also be used to exclude any 1,2, 3 or whatever days, not just the Saturdays and Sundays, by changing the weekday value. 

Example 
Sum only the visible cells that match a certain criteria. For instance, in a range A1:A100, sum all cells that have a value of "North" in B1:B100, where some rows are not v due to a Data Filter having been applied on the data. 

11: 

Solution: This solution takes advantage of the function which ignores nonvisible cells. 

The first part is a straightforward conditional test on range B1:B100 for a value of 'North, and the sum of the cells A1:A100 

($B$1:$B$100="North"),$A$1:$A$10 

The counting of the visible cells is more complicated. As mentioned above, it uses SUBTOTAL, together with ROW, INDEX and OFFSET functions, like so 

(SUBTOTAL(3,OFFSET(INDEX($A$1:$A$100,1,1),ROW($A$1:$A$100)ROW(INDEX($A$1:$A$100,1,1)),0))=1) 

The total formula then becomes 

=SUMPRODUCT((SUBTOTAL(3,OFFSET(INDEX($A$1:$A$100,1,1),ROW($A$1:$A$100)ROW(INDEX($A$1:$A$100,1,1)),0))=1),($B$1:$B$100="North"),$A$1:$A 
References
As mentioned above, a detailed discussion on arrays and array formulae, written by Microsoft Excel MVP Chip Pearson, can be found here.
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Another realworld example of SUMPRODUCT is given in Processing Coloured Cells which, in conjunction with a custom UDF, shows how to count colour instances.
Acknowledgements
This method of describing how the SUMPRODUCT formula resolves is originally based upon a post in the Excel newgroups from Microsoft Excel MVP Ken Wright. It was Ken who initially explained SUMPRODUCT in this manner, which I found so clear and helpful.
This page was proofread by the late Frank Kabel, who offered many improvements and some advanced examples. Frank was one of the most prolific posters in the Excel newsgroups, and has probably offered more SUMPRODUCT solutions than the other posters together.
Copyright © 20032006 xlDynamic.com Page last updated: 6th May 2005 Found an error, a bug or just want to comment on this page, please tell us
Copyright © 20032006 xlDynamic.com
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http://www.xldynamic.com/source/xld.RANK.html
xlDynamic.com 
Excel & VBA Tips 

General 
 Using Excel 
 Worksheet Formulae 
 
VBA Development 
 
Tools & Utilities 
 

Miscellaneous 

Main 
> 
Worksheet Formulae 
> 
RANK 
Ordinal and Cardinal listing
Ranking a column of values is commonly used in Excel spreadsheets. Surprisingly, people often don't know how to do it, or even that it can be done in Excel. In itself, it is very simple to produce an cardinal list of ranked values. In essence, it is a simple formula such as
=RANK(A1,$A$1:$A$100)
But better, it is relatively straightforward to extend it to show the rank as an ordinal list, i.e. with a suffix showing its order, such as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
This article came about from a discussion in the Excel newsgroups that I participated in, responding to just such a question. The original poster wanted to be able to rank a sequence of numbers, preferably with the suffix indicating the ordinality of the rank, but he was willing to forego the latter part. The original response gave the basic ranking formula, and hinted at providing ordinality. Over the course of the next few days we went through several iterations of formulae, finally arriving at a clean, tight, easy to follow formula. A nice example of cooperation in the newsgroups. Rather than just providing a canned solution, the problem was worked through and we all learnt. By the time we had finished, I am sure the original poster had left the thread, he already had the answer that he wanted, but that was almost immaterial.
To demonstrate ranking, both as a cardinal and as a n ordinal list, start with the column of values shown in column A of Figure 1.
NB.As a slight aside, the row striping that can be seen in the pictures below is achieved by using 'Conditional Formatting'.
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Figure 1.
First, to determine the Rank for those 21 items, this formula is input to cell B2
=RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)
and copied down each row. The result of this initial ranking is shown in column B of Figure 2.
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Figure 2.
To get an ordinal ranking takes a bit more work. As well as determining the cardinal rank, it is necessary to determine whether the ranking would get a suffix of 'st', 'nd', rd' or 'th'. This can be determined using the VLOOKUP function, with an inline array. Although the cardinal ranking can be any value between 1 and n, for the purposes of the suffix it can be broken down to 4 unique value sets
1, 21, 31, etc., which have a suffix of 'st' 2, 22, 32, etc., which have a suffix of 'nd' 3, 23, 33, etc., which have a suffix of 'rd' all others, which have a suffix of 'th'
All numbers, except 11, 12, 13 can be resolved to an index by using
MOD(rank_value, 10)
where in this instance 'rank_value' would be the result of the original ranking.
The anomalies of 11,12 and 13 can be managed with an IF function, forcing these numbers to eavaluate to a 0 index, like so
IF(OR(rank_value=11, rank_value=12, rank_value=13),0,MOD(rank_value,10))
The suffix can de derived with a VLOOKUP function, using an array of 5 index/value pairs
VLOOKUP(lookup_value,{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";3,"rd";4,"th"},2,TRUE)
Embedding the calculated index into the VLOOKUP function, we get
VLOOKUP(IF(OR(rank_value=11, rank_value=12,
rank_value=13),0,MOD(rank_value,10)),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";3,"rd";4,"th"},2,TRUE)
Even with the 'rank_value' included, this still only provides the ordinal suffix, so the ranking needs to precede it to give a full ordinal value. The final formula would then look like
=RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22) & VLOOKUP(IF(OR(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)=11,
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RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)=12,
RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)=13),0,MOD(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),10)),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";
3,"rd";4,"th"},2,TRUE)
This formula produces a ranked list as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Using the interim ranked values in column B this formula can be simplified by replacing multiple references to RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22) by B2 etc. This formula would then be
=B2&VLOOKUP(IF(OR(B2=11,B2=12,B2=13),0,MOD(B2,10)),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";
3,"rd";4,"th"},2,TRUE)
The results of this can be seen in Figure 4., column D.
Finally, we can tidy this formula up a little more by replacing the IF statement that calculates the index using boolean logic and another inline array (as we did in the VLOOKUP function)
AND(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)<>{11,12,13})*MOD(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),10)
The final, most simplistic, formula is
=RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)&VLOOKUP(AND(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)
<>{11,12,13})*MOD(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),10),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";3,"rd";
4,"th"},2,TRUE)
This is also shown in Figure 4., column E.
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Figure 4.
An alternative approach is now presented. Instead of using VLOOKUP we will use the CHOOSE function. This part of the formula 
IF(OR(VALUE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),2))={11,12,13}),"th"
tests for the 3 special cases of 11,12,13 and adds a suffix of 'th'. The failure action invokes the next part of the formula 
IF(OR(VALUE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)))=
{1,2,3}),CHOOSE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)),"st","nd","rd"),"th")
tests the cardinal rank value, and if the rightmost character is 1, 2, or 3 it then uses CHOOSE to select a suffix from the rightmost character of the ranked value, otherwise it assumes 'th' as the suffix.
Putting it all together, including the ranked value, we get 
=RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)&IF(OR(VALUE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),2))=
{11,12,13}),"th",IF(OR(VALUE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)))=
{1,2,3}),CHOOSE(RIGHT(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)),"st","nd","rd"),"th"))
Figure 5., column F, shows the results and the formula.
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Figure 5.
And then we come to the final formula. This again uses CHOOSE, but uses the MOD function as before, Boolean evaluation, and a clever use of MIN to get the index to input to a simple CHOOSE function.
This part of the formula 
MIN(4,MOD(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),10))+1
determines the index for the rank value, and by using the MIN function, we restrict it to a maximum value of 4.
To cater for the 3 special cases of 11,12,13 we use a simple Boolean evaluation 
AND(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)<>{11,12,13})
which evalates to FALSE for 11,12 or 13, TRUE for all others, and is then used in conjunction with the previous part to get an index for all cases.
Combined with the ranked value, and with a simple CHOOSE using the index derived above, we have the complete solution 
=RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)&CHOOSE(AND(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)
<>{11,12,13})*MIN(4,MOD(RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22),10))+1,"th","st","nd","rd","th")
The final figure, Figure 6., shows this formula in column G.
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Figure 6.
There you have it. A number of options have been worked through, until the final formula, which is a good example of how a problem can have many solutions using a variety of techniques.
The formulae that we we worked through, with a couple more variations, are shown below. All references to the ranked value (RANK(A2,$A$2:$A$22)) are shown using the intermediate column, "B", for clarity. The list is presented in my ascending order of preference.
1. =B2&IF(OR(VALUE(RIGHT(B2,2))={11,12,13}),"th",IF(OR(VALUE(B2)=
{1,2,3}),CHOOSE(RIGHT(B2),"st","nd","rd"),"th"))
2. =B2&VLOOKUP(IF(OR(B2=11,B2=12,B2=13),0,MOD(B2,10)),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";
3,"rd";4,"th"},2,TRUE)
3. =B2&VLOOKUP(AND(B2<>{11,12,13})*MOD(B2,10),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";3,"rd";
4,"th"},2,TRUE)
4. =B2&VLOOKUP(AND(B2<>{11,12,13})*MIN(4,MOD(B2,10)),{0,"th";1,"st";2,"nd";
3,"rd";4,"th"},2, TRUE)
5. =B2&VLOOKUP(AND(B2<>{11,12,13})*MIN(4,MOD(B2,10))+1,{1,"th";2,"st";
3,"nd";4,"rd";5,"th"},2,TRUE)
6. =B2&CHOOSE(AND(B2<>
{11,12,13})*MIN(4,MOD(B2,10))+1,"th","st","nd","rd","th")
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