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Shashank Agarwal 10003016 Group 7 TH 29 October 2012

Experiment 6.1 Centrifugal Pump

Aim: To obtain characteristic curves of given centrifugal pump at constant speed. Experimental Setup:
1. A variable speed centrifugal pump to obtain characteristic curves at various speeds. 2. Valves on discharge and supply sides of the pump to adjust corresponding pressures at desired levels. 3. Mercury manometer to measure discharge and supply pressures. 4. Energy meter to measure power consumed by the pump. 5. Calibrated tank to measure the flow rate of water. 6. Water reservoir to supply water to the pump. 7. Tachometer to measure the speed (R.P.M.) of the pump. 8. Stop watch

Procedure:
1. Fill the water reservoir to about 90% of its capacity. 2. Open the valves on the suction and delivery sides of the pump fully and switch on the pump. By making use of speed regulator adjust the speed (R.P.M.) of the pump within 50 of the desired speed. 3. Remove air bubbles, if any, from suction and delivery pressure taping lines and connect them to the respective manometers. 4. Note down the suction and delivery manometer readings. 5. Close the valve at the bottom of the calibrated tank and note down the time required for water to rise between two marks. Open the valve at the bottom of the tank as soon as water reaches the top mark. 6. Note down the energy meter reading. 7. Close the valve on the delivery side of the pump to increase the delivery pressure of the pump to the desired level and repeat steps (4), (5), and (6) for different delivery pressure till you reach maximum delivery pressure (shut off pressure).

Experimental Setup:

Observations:

Given Data: Density of water at ambient conditions, p = 1000kg/m 3 Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.81m/s2 Volume of calibrated tank, V = 0.1*.11=.011m3 = 11 litres Constant speed around which experiment is based = 2800 RPM

Observation Table:
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 time to fill given volume (s) 152.5 135.4 170.2 158.1 193.2 305.6 R1 (mm of hg) 86.00 84.50 85.00 84.20 84.40 80.00 R2 (mm of hg) 90.5 90.0 90.5 92.0 94.3 96.9 Power (W) 35 34 31 36 29 31

Calculations:
Formulae: Mass Flow Rate, Volumetric Flow Rate, Total head, Fluid Horse Power, Brake Horse Power, Efficiency, Where: f m t Rm m Q H F.H.P. B.H.P. = V*/t kg/sec = V*60/t L/min = Rm*[(m f)/ f] = m*H*9.804 = (kW2) - (kW1) = (F.H.P/B.H.P) *100

= Density of Fluid i.e. water = Density of mercury = Time measured to fill the tank = Difference in Manometer Reading

= R2-R1

Calculations Table:
SN
1 2 3 4 5 6

Mass Flowrate m (kg/s)

0.72 0.81 0.65 0.70 0.57 0.36

Volumetric Flowrate, Q (L/min)

4.33 4.87 3.88 4.17 3.42 2.16

Total Head H (m)

0.58 0.73 0.73 1.02 1.30 2.21

Fluid Horse Power (W)

4.13 5.76 4.63 6.99 7.26 7.80

Brake Horse Power = P-FHP (W)

30.87 28.24 26.37 29.01 21.74 23.20

Efficiency (%)
13.38% 20.41% 17.54% 24.09% 33.42% 33.62%

Sample Calculations:

For 1st reading Sample calculations for the highlighted readings are as follows: Mass Flow Rate, m = (1110-31000)/152.5 = 0.720 kg/s Volumetric Flow Rate, Q Total head, H Fluid Horse Power, F.H.P. Brake Horse Power, B.H.P. Efficiency, = (1160)/152.5 = 4.33 L/min = (90.5 - 86) (13.6 1.0) 10-29.8 = 0.54 m = 0.720.549.804 = 4.13 W = 35.00 4.13 = 30.87 W = (4.13/30.87) 100 = 13.38 % Total Head (H) vs. Volumetric Flowrate (Q)
2.50 2.00 H (m) 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 1 2 3 Q (L/min) 4 5 6

Efficiency ( ) vs. Volumetric Flowrate (Q)

40.00% 35.00% Efficiency (%) 30.00% 25.00%

20.00%
15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%

1.5

2.5

3.5 Q (L/min)

4.5

5.5

Results and Inferences:

1. The graph of the Volumetric Discharge versus the Total Head is a straight line. 2. The Pump efficiency is found to be increasing with increasing Volumetric Discharge and then decreases with further increase in discharge and the part of the graph of which we have obtained result corresponds to right of it. 3. The efficiency was found to be in range of 12% to 33% for given range of flows. 4. Total head is found to be increasing with decrease in the Volumetric/Mass Flow Rate because it is able to provide more thrust to the fluid. 5. The power consumed (FHP) is greater for higher discharges rates. The reason being higher pressure generation occurs in latter case is more thus more power consumption is happening. 6. The RPM of motor is continuously varying and its exact measurement also cant be taken by Tachometer (as it itself causes an error because of contact torque) hence an error is generated while noting down the value. The solution can be the use of an optical tachometer. 7. Other error source can be parallax error in reading the water or mercury level in the tubes and tank.