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Cmo escribir una carta o e mail en ingls?

5 claves Ms temprano que tarde te vers frente a la necesidad de escribir una carta o e-mail en ingls, y para aquello debes tomar en cuenta lo siguiente. La comunicacin escrita es tan importante como lo es la oral, y por sobre todo muy necesaria para diferentes situaciones, tales como reservar una habitacin en un hotel extranjero o para saludar a un amigo o conocido de habla inglesa. Te aseguro que ms temprano que tarde te vers frente a la necesidad de escribir una carta o email en ingls, y para aquello debes tomar en cuenta lo siguiente:

Imagen: Francisco Olea 1. La fecha: Usualmente se coloca en la parte superior derecha y puedes hacerlo de diferentes maneras (Por ejemplo, 03 de Septiembre 2012): - 3rd September 2012 - September 3rd, 2012 - 3rd September 2012 - 03/09/12 (ingls britnico) - 09/03/12 (ingls americano)

2. El saludo y la despedida: Se escribe antes de redactar el cuerpo de la carta o email, indica a quin va dirigida, y existen diversas opciones: - Dear Sir (formal, dirigido a un hombre) - Dear Madam (formal, dirigido a una mujer) - Dear Mr. Johnson (formal, dirigido a un hombre, indicando el apellido) - Dear Mrs. Johnson (formal, dirigido a una mujer, indicando el apellido) - Dear Sirs (formal, dirigido a una entidad) - Dear John (informal, se coloca el nombre de pila) Para cerrar la carta puedes escribir: - Yours faithfully / truly (formal) - Yours sincerely (formal, si utilizaste el apellido de la persona) - Yours (informal) 3. El cuerpo: Asegrate de que en el primer prrafo de tu carta, resaltes el objetivo de la misma. Los dems prrafos deben explicar de forma ms detallada lo que quieres comunicar. El ltimo prrafo es el de cierre y la idea es que especifique lo que se quiere obtener, y si lo que buscas es una respuesta a alguna inquietud, puedes concluir tu carta utilizando la siguiente frase: I look forward to hearing from you soon. 4. Trata de escribir toda tu carta de forma clara y sencilla: Si es una carta informal puedes usar un lenguaje ms relajado y cotidiano e incluso las contracciones: isnt, arent, etc. estn permitidas. Ahora bien, si te diriges a una empresa o a una entidad donde se requiera formalidad es preferible crear ms distancia con el lenguaje y por ejemplo, no usar contracciones. 5. El remitente y destinatario: En los comunicados de tenor ms informal est permitido saludar y despedirte de forma ms relajada, pero en los casos ms formales es de esperar que escribas la direccin desde donde se enva la carta en la parte superior derecha y el nombre y lugar a la cual va dirigida la misma Cmo escribir un carta o email informal. Writing First Certificate

Este post es parte de una serie dedicada al ejercicio del "writing" del FCE. Aqu tienes los posts anteriores sobre este mismo ejercicio:

Sistema para aprobar el writing del FCE Cmo escribir una historia (story) Cmo escribir una crtica (review) Cmo escribir un ensayo (essay) Cmo escribir un informe (report) Cmo escribir un artculo (article) Cmo escribir una carta o email semi-formal (semiformal letter or email)

En qu consiste este ejercicio (Writing: informal email or letter) Cuntos tipos de cartas/emails hay? Hay, al menos, cuatro tipos de cartas/emails: 1) Cartas/emails formales (a organizaciones, instituciones, empresas) 2) Cartas/emails semiformales (a organizaciones, instituciones, empresas) 3) Cartas/emails informales (a amigos, o parientes) 4) Cartas formales de solicitud de trabajo (a empresas) Qu es importante respecto a las cartas/emails? Lo ms importante es demostrar que conoces los diferentes tipos de registros, segn el tipo de

carta o email que tengas que escribir. Qu quieres decir diferentes registros? Igual que no hablas igual a un amigo, que un desconocido; cuando escribes, escribes manera a un amigo, que a un jefe, por ejemplo. En espaol, es exactamente igual. Por ejemplo: a un amigo le puedes decir: "Hola Juan Qu tal?" (Hi John, How are you doing? ) y a un desconocido le dirs "Estimado Sr. Barro" (Dear Mr Barro). Ms sobre registros aqu al comienzo del post. Cules son las caractersticas tpicas de un email o carta informal?

Contracciones: Ejemplo: It isn't what you think it's what you do. Frases cortas: Ejemplo: I'm busy with a project. Expresiones coloquiales: Ejemplo: How are you doing? en lugar de How do you do? Phrasal verbs: Ejemplo: When are you going to come over? en lugar de "When are you going to visit me? Connectors: As, but... Exclamaciones: Good luck!

Aqu tienes un ejemplo de instrucciones para redactar un email/carta informal Nota: El tipo de carta o email informal que te harn escribir, ir dirigido a amigos (generalemente de otro pas) y generalmente (aunque no siempre) versar sobre recomendaciones sobre visitas, excursiones, comidas, restaurantes, etc. Write letter/email to a friend You have received an email from a pen friend inviting you for a visit in autumn. Write an email to your pen friend accepting the invitation, asking what clothes and presents you should bring, and suggesting something you would like to do. Write your email. Do not write any addresses.

Nmero de palabras: 120 a 150 palabras si te toca en la primera parte y hasta 180 si el ejercicio est en la segunda parte del writing. No importa si sobrepasas un poco este nmero (pero solo un

poco).

Tiempo: En total son 80 minutos para todo el writing. Como consiste en dos partes, recomiendo 40 minutos para cada parte, aunque puede que la segunda parte te cueste un poco ms. En ese caso, piensa en dedicarle ms tiempo a la segunda parte que a la primera. Puntuacin: Todo el writing (Part 1 & 2 equivalen al 20% del examen). Qu debe contener una buen email o carta informal FCE Es importante que la carta o email:

Conteste a la cuestin planteada en las instrucciones. Tenga una estructura clara y bien organizada (es importante dividir en prrafos las ideas y que las oraciones tengan la estructura: Sujeto + verbo + objeto). Utilizar correctamente los registros informales. No utilizar, por ejemplo, "Yours faithfully, or sincerely". Hay que inventar los nombres de los receptores de la carta o email si no estn en las instrucciones No hay que repetir las palabras de las instrucciones Hay que inventar detalles que hagan la carta interesante (Ejemplo: I heard that you passed your driving exam. Congratulations!) Si se espera una contestacin, hay que ponerla en una lnea separada. Nota: No es necesario poner direcciones.

Cmo redactar una carta o email informal- How to write an informal email or letter

Distribucin de tiempos recomendada: 1. Leer instrucciones: 1 minutos 2. Preparar esquema: 2 minutos 3. Pensar el vocabulario y estructuras: 5 minutos 4. Redactar borrador: 7 minutos 5. Redactar texto definitivo: 20 minutos

6. Revisar y corregir texto definitivo: 5 minutos Total = 40 minutos

1. Lee bien las instrucciones Para redactar una buen emai/carta, lo primero que debes hacer es leer bien las instrucciones. Ejemplo de cmo leer bien las instrucciones del ejercicio propuesto ms arriba: Ya que dice "Write letter/email to a friend" sabemos rpidamente que es una escrito informal. En concreto, nos piden: 1) Aceptar la invitacin de nuestro amigo por correspondencia (pen friend) 2) Preguntarle qu ropa y regalos debemos llevar y 3) Sugerirle algo que quieras hacer con l/ella. Ten cuenta que "pen friend" puede ser masculino y femenino y que tendremos que inventarnos varios detalles que no aparecen en las instrucciones, como el nombre de nuestro amigo/a, el lugar adnde vamos y quizs la duracin de la estancia.

2. Prepara un esquema utilizando frases tiles Redacta un esquema (podrs escribirlo en el cuadernillo que te den), teniendo en cuenta las instrucciones de arriba, y utilizando algunas de las siguientes frases tiles.

Greetings/Saludos informales

Dear (name), Hello (name), Hi (name)

Beginning the informal email/letter


Thank you very much for your email/letter/ Muchas gracias por tu email/carta It's nice to hear from you/ Me alegra saber de ti. How are you doing?/ Qu tal vas?

It's been such a long time since (we last saw each other)/ Ha pasado tanto tiempo desde que nos vimos por ltima vez.

Introducing the topic/ Introduccin del tema

Do you remember the last time (we saw each other)? Te acuerdas de la ltima vez (que nos vimos)? I was thinking it would be great if we could (meet, see each other)/ Estaba pensando que sera genial si pudiramos (encontrarnos/vernos). I'm thrilled to tell you that I have (finished my exams, studies)/ Me emociona contarte que he acabado mis exmenes, estudios.

Ending the email/letter/ Acabar el email/ carta


I hope to see you soon/ Espero verte pronto Please, drop me a line as soon as you can/ Por favor, escrbeme en cuanto puedas. Once again thank you/ Una vez ms gracias. Give my regards to (your family, wife, husband, boyfriend, etc.)/ Dale recuerdos a tu familia, mujer, marido, novio, etc. Please, let me know your thoughts about (my plan, our trip) Por favor, dime lo que piensas sobre (mi plan, nuestro viaje) I'm looking forward to seeing you again/ Espero verte nuevamente.

Saying good-bye/Despedirse

All the best Best wishes Lots of love

Aqu tienes un ejemplo de esquema : (1) Greeting Dear Inge, (2)Thanking Thank you very much for your email and invitation. (3) Accepting invitation

Of course I want to go visit you in October! (4) Introducing a topic I want to know a couple of things before I make my suitcase. (5) Another topic I'd also like to know what I could bring for your parents and you. (6) Ending the email I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. All the best,

Nota: Este esquema te servir para guiarte y no olvidar cmo debes contestar a la pregunta. 3. Prepara el vocabulario que utilizars Con el esquema conseguimos tener organizada la informacin y asegurarnos de que estamos contestando la pregunta. Pero, tenemos que pensar en la forma de completarlo con el vocabulario y las estructuras adecuadas. Para ello te sugiero que visualices las instrucciones de la carta. Por ejemplo, me imagino que tengo un "pen friend" que vive en la Selva Negra (Black Forest) en Alemania (Germany) y que me invita en otoo (como dicen las instrucciones de la carta).

Ir de excursion: go hiking Ir en coche por: to drive along Cmo es el tiempo?: What is the weather like? Hace fro?: Is it cold? Hace calor?: Is it hot? Llueve mucho?: Does it rain a lot? Rutas tursticas: scenic routes Cascadas: waterfalls

*******

Regalos que puedes llevar: presents you can take with you

Vino: wine Via; vineyard Comida tpica: typical food aceite de olive: olive oil Jamn: ham

Aqu tienes informacin sobre "The Black Forest in Germany" que te servir para aprender vocabulario y te dar ideas para hacer preguntas a tu "pen friend". ************ Nota: Por supuesto que durante el examen no contars con diccionarios, ni otros medios para buscar vocabulario. Pero la idea es que practiques escribiendo con los ejemplos de esta serie de posts dedicados al writing para incrementar tu vocabulario y manejo de las estructuras en ingls. Puedes utilizar Linguee para buscar ms oraciones. Google translator Este diccionario, llamado Free Dictionary, te permite ver frases en espaol e ingls en la seccin de "translations" (tienes que bajar con el cursos para encontrarla). 4. Redacta un borrador Con estas ideas en mente redactamos el borrador. Lo mejor es que lo escribas en ingls directamente, pero si te resulta difcil, prueba primero en espaol. (Podrs escribirlo en el cuadernillo que te darn).

Dear Inge, Thank you very much for your email and invitation. Of course I want to go visit you in October! It will be a great pleasure since I have never been to Germany before.... I want to know a couple of things before I make my suitcase. What kind of clothes should I bring? ..... I'd also like to know what I could bring for your parents and you. Do you like Spanish food? Any

preferences?... I've read a lot about the Black Forest so I'm prepared to go hiking like you suggested. I would also love to visit the German Clock Museum in Furtwagen and see the Triberg Waterfalls. I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. All the best, Patricia

5. Redacta tu email o carta informal Aqu tienes el ejemplo de email informal con el anterior borrador.

(1) Dear Inge, (2) Thank you very much for your email and invitation. (3) Of course I want to go visit you in October! It will be a great pleasure since I have never been to Germany before and I've heard that the Black Forest is a wonderful place to visit in autumn. (4) I want to know a couple of things before I make my suitcase. What kind of clothes should I bring? I know that is autumn but I don't know if it rains a lot or if it's very cold. I'd appreciate any suggestions. (5) I'd also like to know what I could bring for your parents and you. Do you like Spanish food? Any preferences? What about some wine? You know that I have a cousin from La Rioja (a wine producing region in Spain) who has a small vineyard that produces wonderful wine. (6) I've read a lot about the Black Forest so I'm prepared to go hiking like you suggested. I would also love to visit the German Clock Museum in Furtwagen and see the Triberg Waterfalls. And, of course, if we have a chance to borrow your mother's car we could go drive along scenic routes. (7) Once again thank you so much for your invitation. (8) I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. (9) All the best,

Patricia Cuidado con el nmero de palabras, ni te excedas ni te quedes demasiado corto. En este caso, me he excedido algo, pero se puede ver que todas los prrafos tienen un fin claro. Anlisis del email o carta informal (1) "Dear Inge", Me he inventado un nombre alemn. Tambin podra haber puesto "Hello Inge," o "Hi Inge". (2) "Thank you very much... "Lo primero que hago es agradecerle la invitacin (3) "Of course I want to visit you in October!" Acepto la invitacin de una manera informal e indico mi emocin poniendo una signo exclamatorio. (4) " I want to know a couple of things before I make my suitcase". He optado una manera muy informal para introducir la pregunta sobre qu ropa debo llevar. (5) "I'd also like to know..." En un prrafo separado pregunto sobre los regalos que puedo llevar. (6) "I've read a lot about the Black Forest." Menciono primero lo que mi "pen friend" ha supuestamente sugerido que haremos y luego hago un par de sugerencias ms. (7) "Once again thank you so much for your invitation." Reitero mi agradecimiento por la invitacin. (8) I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Con esta frase hecha le indico que espero una contestacin. (9) All the best. La despedida.

6. Revisa tu email Este paso es MUY importante. Una revisin de lo que acabas de escribir puede evitar muchos errores. Adems, procura escribir limpio y claro, evitando los tachones.

7. Lee cartas y emails informales para inspirarte La mejor manera de aprender a escribir artculos es leyendo cartas e emails. Aqu tienes algunos ejemplos de cartas y emails del FCE. Ejemplo 1

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Writing Paper: Part 2 Task type: Letter Question You have received the following letter from your English-speaking friend. .............Thanks for inviting me to stay with you when I visit your country next month. I'm not sure how to get to your apartment from the airport. Could you write back giving me some basic instructions? What would be the best method of transport for me? I'd prefer one that isn't too expensive! Just one other thing - what will the weather be like when I get there? (Just so I'll know what clothes to pack!) .........

Write your letter of reply to your friend (around 120-180 words).

Name: AYSEN School: WALTHAM FOREST COLLEGE Hie {1} Jenny, I got your letter this morning and I am looking forward to have {2} you here soon. About your questions how to get from the airport to our apartment, well it won't be difficult. {3} When you arrive in Stockholm, take the bus to "KISTA" to the end station. I will call to the airport to get your estimated arrive {4} time and will vait there at the end station for you, ok? {5} About weather {6} well it is quite nice weather here to be {7} September but you should never trust the swedish weather{***} it can turn wery quickly so take{8} with you warm clothes. And finally the money problem {9}.Try to not think about it{***} you will not spend money here when you are visiting me. You will be my quest {10} remember that! As i said before i am looking forward to see{***} you. {***} {11}

Feedback This is a nice, friendly letter, Aysen, which would give some information to answer your friend's questions. For the makeover I have concentrated on the following points: 1. Spelling and punctuation. Remember to check your spelling very carefully during the exam and to make sure that you are writing proper sentences. 2. Vocabulary and expression. I have suggested some alternatives for you to consider. Good luck for the exam! Fiona 15.10.00

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Other Answers

Karina Filipovsxis, International House Belgrano, Buenos Aries, Argentina

Dear Claudia, I'm looking forward to your arrival. I've been missing you a lot since the last time we saw in France. I've been thinking a lot about our time that we are going to share. I know this is going to be your first time in Argentina, so I'll give some usefull information there are a few ways to get from the airport to my flat. One of them is by bus and it is the cheapest but I wouldn't recommend it because it will take you a long time and also is very uncomfortable. If I were you, I would take a remis, here is a number that you can call from the airport 4786 3291. Be careful! don't take an airport remis beacuse they always want to take advantage of people. Now we are in spring so why don't you bring soft clothes However you must bring a raincoat beacause it has been raingin a lot. If you want to ask me more information or need some advice you can send me a mail or give me a ring. See you in a few weeks. With love, Kari

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Other Answers

Pilar Brogodin, International House Belgrano, Buenos Aries, Argentina

Dear Maria, You shouldn't have thanked me for inviting you to stay with me, it was so obvious I was going to do that. There are lots of ways to get to my appartment form the airport: The cheaper one is the bus, but the only problem you will have is that it takes too much time to get here (more or less two hours). If you want to arrive faster you should take a taxi, but it is really expensive and it is not the safest way! I think that the best way is to take a private bus. It is a special bus which not too expensive and takes you to the city fast. If you take that I'll go and bring you home (the bus station is in the center) I have some advices for the weather:now it's rainy but last day it was sunny, it might sound strange but it's true. I recommend you waterprof clothes and spring ones, like jackets, shorts, tshirts, two or maybe three sweters. I think you will fine with it. Hope to see you soon lots of love Pilar

Ejemplo 2 Writing Paper: Part 2 Task type: Informal letter Question you have received the following letter from your English penfriend. I'm really pleased you're planning to come to England to study. Let me know what type of course you're interested in and I'll ring some colleges for details. The more information you can give me the better! Write your letter of reply to your penfriend (around 120-180 words).

Name: Yanina School: Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini Dear July, Hi! Thanks for your letter, and sorry for not replying sooner. You see, I've been planning this for a long time and I came {1} to a conclusion: I want to take up singing classes in London! What's cool is that I don't want to join a common class, but a group of people that expresses itself through the music and lets its spirit free while singing. I'm really excited about this, and I'd love to have your opinion about it. It'd be fantastic if you could search for the appropriate singing classes in the city for me. {2} Just check the prices well and give me the schedule of each place.{3} I guess the best place to stay is in a house with a host family, but if you've got a better idea, let me know. I think I'll stay for two months, the problem is that I'm not sure if I can afford all the spends {4}! That's one of the things of {5} London that get on my nerves: everything is SO expensive! Ok, I've got to go now, so... see you soon! With love, Yan

Feedback Your letter has enough information (about the course, location, etc) for your friend to be able to help you. The informal register (which you achieve through the use of contracted forms, such as 'It'd', exclamation marks and a nice, chatty style) is just right for this type of letter. Your control of language is generally very good, with only a couple of minor errors. Good work! Best of luck for the FCE exam. Fiona Joseph 29.11.00

Ejemplo 3

Writing Paper: Part 2 Task type: Informal letter Question You have received the following letter from your English-speaking friend. ...We're doing a project this month at school on eating habits and customs around the world. Will you be able to help me by telling me what the traditional meals are in your country, what people typically eat and at what time of day? Thanks very much! Love Alison Write a letter to your friend giving her the information she needs (around 120-180 words).

Name: Magda Partyka School: The Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland Dear Alison I was very happy to hear from you. I will be glad to help you with your project, and I hope that I can give you some details you could use. {1} Mostly the Polish people have breakfast before 7 am - some slices of bread and butter, cheese, tomato, or cucumber and ham. They drink cofee with milk or tea. We usually {2} don't eat until we return home after work - i.e. about 4 pm. Then we eat {***} {3}main meal of the day which usually consists of: {4} soup for the first course and {***} {5}piece of meat, potatoes and salad for the second. {***} {6}Sometimes we have some sweets for dessert. Between 7 and 8 pm most Polish families have their supper{***} {7} which resebles {8} breakfast but it is more heavy{9} (which isn't very healthy). Good luck with your project! {10} Love Magda

Feedback This is a very informative answer, Magda. You give your friend a good picture of the eating habits of Polish people (menu, times, etc). The letter is nicely organised and I like the way you achieve a friendly tone at the beginning and end - just right for an informal letter. The (few) language errors are not serious ones and your grammatical control is very good, particularly in your appropriate use of the present simple tense for describing (eating) habits. Well done and I hope you pass your FCE! Best wishes Fiona Joseph 20.3.01

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8. Practica escribiendo ms cartas y emails informales Aqu tienes un ejemplo de ejercicios para practicar. You are visiting your sister, who is living and studying English in London. You have a friend who is planning to come to London to study English too and wants to know what it's like. Write a letter to your friend, describing the place where your sister lives and the language school where she studies English. Describe your impressions and give some details about the other students and teachers at the English academy. Do not write any addresses.

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