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Structural Engineering Handbook

Ed. Chen Wai-Fah

Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999

Col d-Formed Steel Structures

Wei -Wen Yu

Department of Civil Engineering,

University of Missouri-Rolla,

Rolla, MO

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Design Standards

7.3 Design Bases

AllowableStressDesign (ASD)

Limit StatesDesign or Load

and ResistanceFactor Design (LRFD)

7.4 Materialsand Mechanical Properties

Yield Point, TensileStrength, and Stress-Strain Relationship

Modulusof

Elasticity, Tangent Modulus, and Shear Modulus

Ductility

7.5 Element Strength

Maximum Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratios

Stiffened Ele-

mentsunder UniformCompression

StiffenedElementswith

StressGradient

Unstiffened Elementsunder UniformCom-

pression

UniformlyCompressedElementswithanEdgeStiff-

ener

Uniformly Compressed Elementswith Intermediate

Stiffeners

7.6 Member Design

Sectional Properties

Properties

Tension Members

Flexural Members

Concen-

tricallyLoadedCompressionMembers

CombinedAxial Load

and Bending

7.7 Connectionsand Joints

Welded Connections

Bolted Connections

Screw Connec-

tions

7.8 Structural Systemsand Assemblies

Metal Buildings

Shear Diaphragms

Residential Construction

Composite

Construction

7.9 DeningTerms

References

Further Reading

7.1 Introduction

Cold-formed steel membersasshown in Figure7.1arewidely used in buildingconstruction, bridge

construction, storageracks, highway products, drainagefacilities, grain bins, transmission towers,

car bodies, railway coaches, and varioustypesof equipment. Thesesectionsarecold-formed from

carbon or lowalloy steel sheet, strip, plate, or at bar in cold-rollingmachinesor by pressbrakeor

bending brakeoperations. Thethicknessesof such membersusually rangefrom 0.0149 in. (0.378

mm) toabout 1/4in. (6.35mm) even though steel platesand barsasthick as1in. (25.4mm) can be

cold-formed into structural shapes.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.1: Variousshapesof cold-formedsteel sections. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel

Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

Theuseof cold-formedsteel membersinbuildingconstructionbeganinthe1850sinboththeU.S.

and Great Britain. However, such steel memberswerenot widely used in buildingsin theU.S. until

the1940s. At thepresent time, cold-formed steel membersarewidelyused asconstruction materials

worldwide.

Comparedwith other materialssuch astimber andconcrete, cold-formedsteel memberscan offer

thefollowingadvantages: (1) lightness, (2) high strength and stiffness, (3) easeof prefabrication and

massproduction, (4) fast and easy erection and installation, and (5) economy in transportation and

handling, just to nameafew.

From thestructural design point of view, cold-formed steel memberscan beclassied into two

major types: (1) individual structural framing members (Figure 7.2) and (2) panels and decks

(Figure7.3).

In view of thefact that themajor function of theindividual framing members is to carry load,

structural strength and stiffness are the main considerations in design. The sections shown in

Figure7.2can beused asprimary framingmembersin buildingsup to four or vestoriesin height.

Intall multistorybuildings, themainframingistypicallyof heavyhot-rolledshapesandthesecondary

elementssuch aswall studs, joists, decks, or panelsmay beof cold-formed steel members. In this

case, theheavy hot-rolled steel shapesand thecold-formed steel sectionssupplement each other.

Thecold-formed steel sectionsshown in Figure7.3aregenerally used for roof decks, oor decks,

wall panels, andsidingmaterial in buildings. Steel decksnot onlyprovidestructural strengthtocarry

loads, but they also provideasurfaceon which ooring, roong, or concretell can beapplied as

shown in Figure7.4. They can also providespacefor electrical conduits. Thecellsof cellular panels

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.2: Cold-formed steel sectionsused for structural framing. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-

FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

FIGURE7.3: Decks, panels, andcorrugatedsheets. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,

John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

can also beused asductsfor heatingand air conditioning. For compositeslabs, steel decksareused

not only asformwork duringconstruction, but also asreinforcement of thecompositesystem after

theconcretehardens. In addition, load-carryingpanelsand decksnot only withstand loadsnormal

to their surface, but they can also act asshear diaphragmsto resist forcesin their own planesif they

areadequately interconnected to each other and to supportingmembers.

Duringrecent years, cold-formed steel sectionshavebeen widely used in residential construction

and pre-engineered metal buildingsfor industrial, commercial, and agricultural applications. Metal

building systems are also used for community facilities such as recreation buildings, schools, and

churches. For additional information on cold-formed steel structures, seeYu [ 49] , Rhodes[ 36] , and

Hancock [ 28] .

7.2 DesignStandards

DesignstandardsandrecommendationsarenowavailableinAustralia[ 39] , Austria[ 31] , Canada[ 19] ,

Czechoslovakia[ 21] , Finland [ 26] , France[ 20] , Germany [ 23] , India[ 30] , Japan [ 14] , TheNether-

lands[ 27] , NewZealand[ 40] , ThePeoplesRepublicof China[ 34] , TheRepublicof SouthAfrica[ 38] ,

Sweden [ 44] , Romania[ 37] , U.K. [ 17] , U.S. [ 7] , USSR[ 41] , andelsewhere. Since1975, theEuropean

Convention for Constructional Steelwork [ 24] hasprepared several documentsfor thedesign and

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.4: Cellular oor decks. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley &

Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

testingof cold-formedsheet steel usedinbuildings. In1989, Eurocode3provideddesigninformation

for cold-formed steel members.

Thischapter presentsdiscussionson thedesign of cold-formedsteel structural membersfor usein

buildings. It ismainlybasedonthecurrent AISI combinedspecication[ 7] for allowablestressdesign

(ASD) and load and resistancefactor design (LRFD). It should benoted that in addition to theAISI

specication, in theU.S., many tradeassociationsand professional organizationshaveissued special

designrequirementsfor usingcold-formedsteel membersasoor androof decks[ 42] , roof trusses[ 6] ,

open web steel joists [ 43] , transmission poles [ 10] , storage racks [ 35] , shear diaphragms [ 7, 32] ,

compositeslabs[ 11] , metal buildings[ 33] , light framingsystems[ 15] , guardrails, structural supports

for highway signs, luminaries, and trafc signals [4] , automotive structural components [ 5] , and

others. For the design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members, see ASCE Standard 8-

90[ 12] .

7.3 DesignBases

For cold-formedsteel design, twodesignapproachesarebeingused. Theyare: (1) ASDand(2) LRFD.

Both methodsarebriey discussed in thissection.

7.3.1 AllowableStressDesign(ASD)

In theASD approach, therequired strengths(moments, axial forces, and shear forces) in structural

members are computed by accepted methods of structural analysis for the specied nominal or

workingloadsfor all applicableload combinationslisted below[ 7] .

1. D

2. D + L + (L

r

or S or R

r

)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

3. D + (W or E)

4. D + L + (L

r

or S or R

r

) + (W or E)

where

D = dead load

E = earthquakeload

L = liveload dueto intended useand occupancy

L

r

= roof liveload

R

r

= rain load, except for ponding

S = snowload

W = wind load

In addition, dueconsideration shouldalsobegiven totheloadsdueto(1) uidswith well-dened

pressureandmaximumheights, (2) weight andlateral pressureof soil andwater in soil, (3) ponding,

and (4) contraction or expansion resultingfromtemperature, shrinkage, moisturechanges, creep in

component materials, movement dueto different settlement, or combinationsthereof.

Therequired strengthsshouldnot exceedtheallowabledesignstrengthspermittedbytheapplicable

design standard. Theallowabledesign strength isdetermined by dividingthenominal strength by a

safety factor asfollows:

R

a

= R

n

/ (7.1)

where

R

a

= allowabledesign strength

R

n

= nominal strength

= safety factor

For thedesign of cold-formed steel structural membersusingtheAISI ASDmethod [ 7] , thesafety

factorsaregiven in Table7.1.

Whenwindor earthquakeloadsact incombinationwithdeadand/or liveloads, it hasbeenageneral

practiceto permit theallowabledesign strength to beincreased by afactor of one-third becausethe

action of wind or earthquake on a structure is highly localized and of very short duration. This

can also beaccomplished by permitting a25% reduction in thecombined load effectswithout the

increaseof theallowabledesign strength.

7.3.2 Limit StatesDesignor LoadandResistanceFactor Design(LRFD)

Two types of limit states are considered in the LRFD method. They are: (1) the limit state of

strength required to resist theextremeloadsduringthelifeof thestructureand (2) thelimit stateof

serviceability for astructureto performitsintended function.

For thelimit stateof strength, thegeneral format of theLRFDmethodisexpressedbythefollowing

equation:

i

Q

i

R

n

(7.2)

where

i

Q

i

= required strength

R

n

= design strength

i

=

load factors

Q

i

= load effects

=

resistancefactor

R

n

= nominal strength

Theload factorsand load combinationsarespecied in variousstandards. Accordingto theAISI

Specication [ 7] , thefollowing load factorsand load combinationsareused for cold-formed steel

design:

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.1 Safety Factors, , and ResistanceFactors, , used in theAISI

Specication [ 7]

ASD LRFD

safety resistance

Typeof strength factor, factor,

(a) Stiffeners

Transversestiffeners 2.00 0.85

Shear stiffeners

a

1.67 0.90

(b) Tension members(seealso bolted connections) 1.67 0.95

(c) Flexural members

Bendingstrength

For sectionswith stiffened or partially stiffened

compression anges 1.67 0.95

For sectionswith unstiffened compression anges 1.67 0.90

Laterally unbraced beams 1.67 0.90

Beamshavingoneangethrough-fastened to deck or

sheathing(C- or Z-sections) 1.67 0.90

Beamshavingoneangefastened to astandingseamroof system 1.67 0.90

Web design

Shear strength

a

1.67 0.90

Web crippling

For singleunreinforced webs 1.85 0.75

For I-sections 2.00 0.80

For two nested Z-sections 1.80 0.85

(d) Concentrically loaded compression members 1.80 0.85

(e) Combined axial load and bending

For tension 1.67 0.95

For compression 1.80 0.85

For bending 1.67 0.90-0.95

(f ) Cylindrical tubular members

Bendingstrength 1.67 0.95

Axial compression 1.80 0.85

(g) Wall studsand wall assemblies

Wall studsin compression 1.80 0.85

Wall studsin bending 1.67 0.90-0.95

(h) Diaphragmconstruction 2.00-3.00 0.50-0.65

(i) Welded connections

Groovewelds

Tension or compression 2.50 0.90

Shear (welds) 2.50 0.80

Shear (basemetal) 2.50 0.90

Arcspot welds

Welds 2.50 0.60

Connected part 2.50 0.50-0.60

Minimumedgedistance 2.00-2.22 0.60-0.70

Tension 2.50 0.60

Arcseamwelds

Welds 2.50 0.60

Connected part 2.50 0.60

Fillet welds

Longitudinal loading(connected part) 2.50 0.55-0.60

Transverseloading(connected part) 2.50 0.60

Welds 2.50 0.60

Flaregroovewelds

Transverseloading(connected part) 2.50 0.55

Longitudinal loading(connected part) 2.50 0.55

Welds 2.50 0.60

ResistanceWelds 2.50 0.65

(j) Bolted connections

Minimumspacingand edgedistance 2.00-2.22 0.60-0.70

Tension strength on net section

With washers

Doubleshear connection 2.00 0.65

Singleshear connection 2.22 0.55

Without washers 2.22 0.65

Bearingstrength 2.22 0.55-0.70

Shear strength of bolts 2.40 0.65

Tensilestrength of bolts 2.00-2.25 0.75

(k) Screwconnections 3.00 0.50

(l) Shear rupture 2.00 0.75

(m) Connectionsto other materials(Bearing) 2.50 0.60

a

When h/t 0.96

_

Ek

v

/F

y

, = 1.50, = 1.0

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

1. 1.4D + L

2. 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(L

r

or S or R

r

)

3. 1.2D + 1.6(L

r

or S or R

r

) + (0.5L or 0.8W)

4. 1.2D + 1.3W + 0.5L + 0.5(L

r

or S or R

r

)

5. 1.2D + 1.5E + 0.5L + 0.2S

6. 0.9D (1.3W or 1.5E)

All symbolsweredened previously.

Exceptions:

1. Theloadfactor for E incombinations(5) and(6) shouldbeequal to1.0whentheseismic

load model specied by theapplicablecodeor specication islimit statebased.

2. Theload factor for Lin combinations(3), (4), and (5) should beequal to1.0for garages,

areas occupied as places of public assembly, and all areas wheretheliveload is greater

than 100psf.

3. For wind load on individual purlins, girts, wall panels, and roof decks, multiply theload

factor for W by 0.9.

4. Theload factor for L

r

in combination (3) should beequal to 1.4in lieu of 1.6when the

roof liveload isdueto thepresenceof workmen and materialsduringrepair operations.

In addition, the following LRFD criteria apply to roof and oor composite construction using

cold-formed steel:

1.2D

s

+ 1.6C

w

+ 1.4C

where

D

s

= weight of steel deck

C

w

= weight of wet concreteduringconstruction

C = construction load, including equipment, workmen, and formwork, but excluding the

weight of thewet concrete.

Table 7.1 lists the factors, which are used for the AISI LRFD method for the design of cold-

formed steel members and connections [ 7] . It should be noted that different load factors and

resistance factors may be used in different standards. These factors are selected for the specic

nominal strength equationsadopted by thegiven standard or specication.

7.4 MaterialsandMechanical Properties

In theAISI Specication [ 7] , 14different steelsarepresentlylistedfor thedesign of cold-formedsteel

members. Table7.2 listssteel designations, ASTM designations, yield points, tensilestrengths, and

elongationsfor thesesteels.

Fromastructural standpoint, themost important propertiesof steel areasfollows:

1. Yield point or yield strength, F

y

2. Tensilestrength, F

u

3. Stress-strain relationship

4. Modulusof elasticity, tangent modulus, and shear modulus

5. Ductility

6. Weldability

7. Fatiguestrength

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.2 Mechanical Propertiesof SteelsReferred to in theAISI 1996Specication

Elongation (%)

Yield Tensile In 2-in. In 8-in.

ASTM point, F

y

strength, F

u

gage gage

Steel designation designation (ksi) (ksi) length length

Structural steel A36 36 58-80 23

High-strength low-alloy A242(3/4in.

structural steel and under) 50 70 18

(3/4in. to

1-1/2in.) 46 67 21 18

Lowand intermediate A283Gr. A 24 45-60 30 27

tensilestrength B 27 50-65 28 25

carbon plates, shapes C 30 55-75 25 22

and bars D 33 60-80 23 20

Cold-formed welded A500

and seamlesscarbon Round tubing

steel structural tubing A 33 45 25

in roundsand shapes B 42 58 23

C 46 62 21

D 36 58 23

Shaped tubing

A 39 45 25

B 46 58 23

C 50 62 21

D 36 58 23

Structural steel with 42ksi A529Gr. 42 42 60-85 19

minimumyield point 50 50 70-100 18

Hot-rolled carbon steel A570Gr. 30 30 49 21-25

sheetsand stripsof 33 33 52 18-23

structural quality 36 36 53 17-22

40 40 55 15-21

45 45 60 13-19

50 50 65 11-17

High-strength low-alloy A572Gr. 42 42 60 24 20

columbium-vanadium 50 50 65 21 18

steelsof structural 60 60 75 18 16

quality 65 65 80 17 15

High-strength low-alloy A588 50 70 21 18

structural steel with

50ksi minimumyield point

Hot-rolled and cold-rolled A606

high-strength low-alloy Hot-rolled as

steel sheet and strip with rolled coils; 45 65 22

improved corrosion resistance annealed, or

normalized; and

cold-rolled

Hot-rolled as

rolled cut

lengths 50 70 22

Hot-rolled and cold-rolled A607Gr. 45 45 60(55) Hot-rolled 23-25

high-strength low-alloy Cold-rolled 22

columbiumand/or vanadium 50 50 65(60) Hot-rolled 20-22

steel sheet and strip Cold-rolled 20

55 55 70(65) Hot-rolled 18-20

Cold-rolled 18

60 60 75(70) Hot-rolled 16-18

Cold-rolled 16

65 65 80(75) Hot-rolled 14-16

Cold-rolled 15

70 70 85(80) Hot-rolled 12-14

Cold-rolled 14

Cold-rolled carbon A611Gr. A 25 42 26

structural steel sheet B 30 45 24

C 33 48 22

D 40 52 20

E 80 82

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.2 Mechanical Propertiesof SteelsReferred to in theAISI 1996

Specication (continued)

Elongation (%)

Yield Tensile In 2-in. In 8-in.

ASTM point, F

y

strength, F

u

gage gage

Steel designation designation (ksi) (ksi) length length

Zinc-coated steel sheets A653SQGr. 33 33 45 20

of structural quality 37 37 52 18

40 40 55 16

50(class1) 50 65 12

50(class3) 50 70 12

80 80 82

HSLA Gr. 50 50 60 20

60 60 70 16

70 70 80 12(14)

80 80 90 10(12)

Hot-rolled high-strength A715Gr. 50 50 60 22-24

low-alloy steel sheets 60 60 70 20-22

and strip with improved 70 70 80 18

formability 80 80 90 14

Aluminum-zinc A792Gr. 33 33 45 20

alloy-coated by the 37 37 52 18

hot-dip process 40 40 55 16

general requirements 50 50 65 12

80 80 82

Notes:

1. Thetabulated valuesarebased on ASTM Standards.

2. 1in. = 25.4mm; 1ksi = 6.9MPa.

3. A653 Structural Quality Grade 80, Grade E of A611, and Structural Quality Grade 80 of A792 are

allowed in theAISI Specication under special conditions. For thesegrades, F

y

= 80ksi, F

u

= 82ksi,

elongationsareunspecied. SeeAISI Specication for reduction of yield point and tensilestrength.

4. For A653steel, HSLA Grades70and 80, theelongation in 2-in. gagelength given in theparenthesisis

for TypeII. Theother valueisfor TypeI.

5. For A607steel, thetensilestrength given in theparenthesisisfor Class2. Theother valueisfor Class1.

In addition, formability, durability, and toughnessarealso important propertiesfor cold-formed

steel.

7.4.1 YieldPoint, TensileStrength, andStress-StrainRelationship

AslistedinTable7.2, theyieldpointsor yieldstrengthsof all 14different steelsrangefrom24to80ksi

(166to552MPa). Thetensilestrengthsof thesamesteelsrangefrom42to100ksi (290to690MPa).

The ratios of the tensile strength-to-yield point vary from 1.12 to 2.22. As far as the stress-strain

relationship isconcerned, thestress-strain curvecan either bethesharp-yieldingtype(Figure7.5a)

or thegradual-yieldingtype(Figure7.5b).

7.4.2 StrengthIncreasefromColdWork of Forming

Themechanical properties(yield point, tensilestrength, and ductility) of cold-formed steel sections,

particularly at the corners, are sometimes substantially different from those of the at steel sheet,

strip, plate, or bar beforeforming. Thisisbecausethecold-forming operation increasestheyield

point and tensilestrength and at thesametimedecreasestheductility. Theeffectsof cold-work on

the mechanical properties of corners usually depend on several parameters. The ratios of tensile

strength-to-yield point, F

u

/F

y

, and insidebend radius-to-thickness, R/t , areconsidered to bethe

most important factorsto affect thechangein mechanical propertiesof cold-formed steel sections.

Design equationsaregiven in theAISI Specication [ 7] for computingthetensileyield strength of

cornersand theaveragefull-section tensileyield strength for design purposes.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.5: Stress-strain curvesof steel sheet or strip. (a) Sharp-yielding. (b) Gradual-yielding.

(FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

7.4.3 Modulusof Elasticity, Tangent Modulus, andShear Modulus

Thestrength of cold-formed steel membersthat aregoverned by bucklingdependsnot only on the

yield point but also on themodulusof elasticity, E, and thetangent modulus, E

t

. A valueof E =

29,500 ksi (203 GPa) isused in theAISI Specication for thedesign of cold-formed steel structural

members. ThisE valueisslightly larger than thevalueof 29,000ksi (200GPa), which isbeingused

in theAISCSpecication for thedesign of hot-rolled shapes. Thetangent modulusisdened by the

slopeof thestress-strain curveat any given stresslevel asshown in Figure7.5b. For sharp-yielding

steels, E

t

= E up to theyield, but with gradual-yieldingsteels, E

t

= E only up to theproportional

limit, f

pr

(Figure 7.5b). Once the stress exceeds the proportional limit, the tangent modulus E

t

becomesprogressively smaller than theinitial modulusof elasticity. For cold-formed steel design,

theshear modulusistaken asG = 11,300ksi (77.9GPa) accordingto theAISI Specication.

7.4.4 Ductility

According to the AISI Specication, the ratio of F

u

/F

y

for the steels used for structural framing

membersshould not belessthan 1.08, and thetotal elongation should not belessthan 10% for a

2-in. (50.8 mm) gagelength. If theserequirementscannot bemet, an exception can bemadefor

purlinsand girtsfor which thefollowinglimitationsshould besatised when such amaterial isused:

(1) local elongation in a1/2-in. (12.7 mm) gagelength acrossthefractureshould not belessthan

20%and (2) uniformelongation outsidethefractureshould not belessthan 3%. It should benoted

that the required ductility for cold-formed steel structural members depends mainly on the type

of application and thesuitability of thematerial. Thesameamount of ductility that isconsidered

necessary for individual framing members may not beneeded for roof panels, siding, and similar

applications. For thisreason, even though Structural Grade80of ASTM A653steel, GradeEof A611

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

steel, and Grade 80 of A792 steel do not meet the AISI requirements of the F

u

/F

y

ratio and the

elongation, thesesteelscan beused for roong, siding, and similar applicationsprovided that (1) the

yield strength, F

y

, used for design istaken as75% of thespecied minimum yield point or 60 ksi

(414MPa), whichever isless, and (2) thetensilestrength, F

u

, used for design istaken as75%of the

specied minimumtensilestressor 62ksi (427MPa), whichever isless.

7.5 Element Strength

For cold-formed steel members, the width-to-thickness ratios of individual elements are usually

large. Thesethin elementsmaybucklelocallyat astresslevel lower than theyield point of steel when

they aresubject to compression in exural bending and axial compression asshown in Figure7.6.

Therefore, for thedesign of such thin-walled sections, local buckling and postbuckling strength of

thin elementshaveoften been themajor design considerations. In addition, shear bucklingand web

cripplingshould also beconsidered in thedesign of beams.

FIGURE7.6: Local bucklingof compression elements. (a) Beams. (b) Columns. (From Yu, W.W.

1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

7.5.1 MaximumFlat-Width-to-ThicknessRatios

In cold-formed steel design, themaximum at-width-to-thicknessratio, w/t , for angesislimited

to thefollowingvaluesin theAISI Specication:

1. Stiffenedcompressionelement havingonelongitudinal edgeconnectedtoawebor ange

element, theother stiffened by

Simplelip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Any other kind of stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

2. Stiffenedcompression element with both longitudinal edgesconnectedtoother stiffened

element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

3. Unstiffened compression element and elementswith an inadequateedgestiffener . . . 60

For thedesign of beams, themaximumdepth-to-thicknessratio, h/t , for websare:

1. For unreinforced webs: (h/t )

max

= 200

2. For websthat areprovided with transversestiffeners:

Usingbearingstiffenersonly: (h/t )

max

= 260

Usingbearingstiffenersand intermediatestiffeners: (h/t )

max

= 300

7.5.2 StiffenedElementsunder UniformCompression

Thestrength of astiffened compression element such asthecompression angeof ahat section is

governedbyyieldingif itsw/t ratioisrelativelysmall. It maybegovernedbylocal bucklingasshown

in Figure7.7at astresslevel lessthan theyield point if itsw/t ratio isrelatively large.

FIGURE7.7: Local bucklingof stiffened compression angeof hat-shaped beam.

The elastic local buckling stress, f

cr

, of simply supported square plates and long plates can be

determined asfollows:

f

cr

=

k

2

E

12(1

2

)(w/t )

2

(7.3)

where

k = local bucklingcoefcient

E = modulusof elasticity of steel = 29.5 10

3

ksi (203GPa)

w = width of theplate

t = thicknessof theplate

= Poissonsratio

It iswell knownthat stiffenedcompressionelementswill not collapsewhenthelocal bucklingstress

isreached. Anadditional loadcanbecarriedbytheelement after bucklingbymeansof aredistribution

of stress. Thisphenomenon isknown aspostbucklingstrength andismost pronouncedfor elements

with largew/t ratios.

Themechanism of thepostbucklingaction can beeasily visualized from asquareplatemodel as

shown in Figure7.8[ 48] . It representstheportion abcd of thecompression angeof thehat section

illustrated in Figure7.7. Assoon astheplatestartsto buckle, thehorizontal barsin thegrid of the

model will act astierodsto counteract theincreasingdeection of thelongitudinal struts.

In the plate, the stress distribution is uniform prior to its buckling. After buckling, a portion

of theprebuckling load of thecenter strip transfersto theedgeportion of theplate. Asaresult, a

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.8: Postbucklingstrength model. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John

Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

nonuniform stress distribution is developed, as shown in Figure 7.9. The redistribution of stress

continuesuntil thestressat theedgereachestheyield point of steel and then theplatebeginsto fail.

FIGURE7.9: Stressdistribution in stiffened compression elements.

For cold-formed steel members, aconcept of effectivewidth hasbeen used for practical design.

In thisapproach, instead of consideringthenonuniform distribution of stressover theentirewidth

of theplate, w, it isassumed that thetotal load iscarried by actitiouseffectivewidth, b, subjected

to auniformly distributed stressequal to theedgestress, f

max

, asshown in Figure7.9. Thewidth, b,

isselectedsothat theareaunder thecurveof theactual nonuniformstressdistribution isequal tothe

sumof thetwo partsof theequivalent rectangular shaded areawith atotal width, b, and an intensity

of stressequal to theedgestress, f

max

. Based on theresearch ndingsof von Karman, Sechler, and

Donnell [ 45] , andWinter [ 47] , thefollowingequationshavebeendevelopedintheAISI Specication

for computingtheeffectivedesign width, b, for stiffened elementsunder uniformcompression [ 7] :

(a) Strength Determination

1. When 0.673, b = w (7.4)

2. When > 0.673, b = w (7.5)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

where

b = effective design width of uniformly compressed element for strength determination (Fig-

ure7.10)

w = at width of compression element

= reduction factor determined fromEquation 7.6:

= (1 0.22/)/ 1 (7.6)

where = plateslendernessfactor determined fromEquation 7.7:

= (1.052/

k)(w/t )(

_

f/E) (7.7)

where

k = platebucklingcoefcient =4.0for stiffenedelementssupportedbyaweboneachlongitudinal

edgeasshown in Figure7.10

t = thicknessof compression element

E = modulusof elasticity

f = maximumcompressiveedgestressin theelement without consideringthesafety factor

FIGURE7.10: Effectivedesign width of stiffened compression elements.

(b) Deection Determination

For deectiondetermination, Equations7.4through7.7canalsobeusedfor computingtheeffective

design width of compression elements, except that thecompressivestressshould becomputed on

thebasisof theeffectivesection at theload for which deection iscalculated.

Therelationship between and accordingto Equation 7.6isshown in Figure7.11.

EXAMPLE7.1:

Calculatetheeffectivewidth of thecompression angeof thebox section (Figure7.12) to beused

asabeambendingabout thex-axis. UseF

y

= 33ksi. Assumethat thebeamwebsarefully effective

and that thebendingmoment isbased on initiation of yielding.

Solution Becausethecompression angeof thegiven section isauniformly compressed

stiffened element, which issupported by aweb on each longitudinal edge, theeffectivewidth of the

angefor strength determination can becomputed byusingEquations7.4through 7.7with k =4.0.

Assumethat thebending strength of thesection isbased on Initiation of Yielding, y 2.50 in.

Therefore, theslendernessfactor for f = F

y

can becomputed fromEquation 7.7, i.e.,

k = 4.0

w = 6.50 2(R + t ) = 6.192 in.

w/t = 103.2

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.11: Reduction factor, , vs. slendernessfactor, . (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-Formed

Steel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

FIGURE7.12: Example7.1. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

f = 33 ksi

= (1.052/

k)(w/t )

_

f/E

= (1.052/

4.0)(103.2)

_

33/29,500 = 1.816

Since > 0.673, useEquations7.5and 7.6to computetheeffectivewidth, b, asfollows:

b = w = [(1 0.22/)/]w

= [(1 0.22/1.816)/1.816](6.192) = 3.00 in.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

7.5.3 StiffenedElementswithStressGradient

When aexural member issubject to bending moment, thebeam web isunder thestressgradient

condition (Figure7.13), in which thecompression portion of theweb may buckledueto thecom-

pressivestresscaused by bending. Theeffectivewidth of thebeam web can bedetermined from the

followingAISI provisions:

FIGURE7.13: Stiffened elementswith stressgradient.

(a) Strength Determination

Theeffectivewidths, b

1

and b

2

, asshown in Figure7.13, should bedetermined fromthefollowing

equations:

b

1

= b

e

/(3 ) (7.8)

For 0.236

b

2

= b

e

/2 (7.9)

b

1

+ b

2

should not exceed thecompression portion of theweb calculated on thebasisof effective

section.

For > 0.236

b

2

= b

e

b

1

(7.10)

whereb

e

= effectivewidth b determined by Equation 7.4or Equation 7.5with f

1

substituted for f

and with k determined asfollows:

k = 4 + 2(1 )

3

+ 2(1 ) (7.11)

= f

2

/f

1

(7.12)

f

1

, f

2

=stressesshown in Figure7.13calculated on thebasisof effectivesection. f

1

iscompression

(+) and f

2

can be either tension () or compression. In case f

1

and f

2

are both compression,

f

1

f

2

(b) Deection Determination

The effective widths used in computing deections should be determined as above, except that

f

d1

and f

d2

aresubstituted for f

1

and f

2

, wheref

d1

and f

d2

arethecomputed stressesf

1

and f

2

as

shown in Figure7.13based on theeffectivesection at theload for which deection isdetermined.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

7.5.4 UnstiffenedElementsunder UniformCompression

Theeffectivewidth of unstiffened elementsunder uniformcompression asshown in Figure7.14can

also becomputed by usingEquations7.4 through 7.7, except that thevalueof k should betaken as

0.43and theat width w ismeasured asshown in Figure7.14.

FIGURE7.14: Effectivedesign width of unstiffened compression elements.

7.5.5 UniformlyCompressedElementswithanEdgeStiffener

Thefollowingequationscan beused to determinetheeffectivewidth of theuniformly compressed

elementswith an edgestiffener asshown in Figure7.15.

FIGURE7.15: Compression elementswith an edgestiffener.

CaseI: For w/t S/3

I

a

= 0 (no edgestiffener needed)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

b = w

d

s

= d

s

for simplelip stiffener

A

s

= A

s

for other stiffener shapes (7.13)

CaseII: For S/3 < w/t < S

I

a

/t

4

= 399{[(w/t )/S]

_

k

u

/4}

3

n = 1/2

C

2

= I

s

/I

a

1

C

1

= 2 C

2

(7.14)

b should becalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where

k = C

n

2

(k

a

k

u

) + k

u

k

u

= 0.43

For simplelip stiffener with 140

40

k

a

= 5.25 5(D/w) 4.0

d

s

= C

2

d

s

For astiffener shapeother than simplelip:

k

a

= 4.0

A

s

= C

2

A

s

CaseIII: For w/t S

I

a

/t

4

= [115(w/t )/S] + 5 (7.15)

C

1

, C

2

, b, k, d

s

, and A

s

arecalculated per CaseII with n = 1/3

where

S = 1.28

E/f

k = bucklingcoefcient

d, w, D = dimensionsshown in Figure7.15

d

s

= reduced effectivewidth of thestiffener

d

s

= effectivewidth of thestiffener calculated asunstiffened element under uniformcom-

pression

C

1

, C

2

= coefcientsshown in Figure7.15

A

s

= reduced areaof thestiffener

I

a

= adequate moment of inertia of the stiffener, so that each component element will

behaveasastiffened element

I

s

, A

s

= moment of inertia of the full section of the stiffener about its own centroidal axis

parallel totheelement tobestiffened, andtheeffectiveareaof thestiffener, respectively

For thestiffener shown in Figure7.15,

I

s

= (d

3

t sin

2

)/12

A

s

= d

s

t

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

7.5.6 UniformlyCompressedElementswithIntermediate

Stiffeners

Theeffectivewidth of uniformlycompressed elementswith intermediatestiffenerscan alsobedeter-

mined from theAISI Specication, which includesseparatedesign rulesfor compression elements

with only one intermediate stiffener and compression elements with more than one intermediate

stiffener.

UniformlyCompressedElementswithOneIntermediateStiffener

Thefollowing equation can beused to determinetheeffectivewidth of theuniformly com-

pressed elementswith oneintermediatestiffener asshown in Figure7.16.

FIGURE7.16: Compression elementswith oneintermediatestiffener.

CaseI: For b

0

/t S

I

a

= 0 (no intermediatestiffener needed)

b = w

A

s

= A

s

CaseII: For S < b

0

/t < 3S

I

a

/t

4

= [50(b

0

/t )/S] 50

b and A

s

arecalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where

k = 3(I

s

/I

a

)

1/2

+ 1 4

A

s

= A

s

(I

s

/I

a

) A

s

CaseIII: For b

0

/t 3S

I

a

/t

4

= [128(b

0

/t )/S] 285

b and A

s

arecalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where

k = 3(I

s

/I

a

)

1/3

+ 1 4

A

s

= A

s

(I

s

/I

a

) A

s

In theaboveequations, all symbolsweredened previously.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

UniformlyCompressedElementswithMoreThanOneIntermediate

Stiffener

For thedetermination of theeffectivewidth of sub-elements, thestiffenersof astiffened ele-

ment with morethan onestiffener should bedisregarded unlesseach intermediatestiffener hasthe

minimumI

s

asfollows:

I

min

/t

4

= 3.66

_

(w/t )

2

(0.136E)/F

y

18.4

where

w/t = width-thicknessratio of thelarger stiffened sub-element

I

s

= moment of inertiaof thefull stiffener about itsown centroidal axisparallel to theelement

to bestiffened

For additional requirements, seetheAISI Specication.

7.6 Member Design

Thischapter dealswiththedesignof thefollowingcold-formedsteel structural members: (a) tension

members, (b) exural members, (c) concentricallyloadedcompressionmembers, (d) combinedaxial

load and bending, and (e) cylindrical tubular members. Thenominal strength equationswith safety

factors() and resistancefactors() areprovided in theSpecication [ 7] for thegiven limit states.

7.6.1 Sectional Properties

Thesectional propertiesof amember such asarea, moment of inertia, section modulus, and radius

of gyration arecalculated by usingtheconventional methodsof structural design. Theseproperties

arebased on either full cross-section dimensions, effectivewidths, or net section, asapplicable.

For thedesignof tensionmembers, thenominal tensilestrengthispresentlybasedonthenet section.

However, for exural members and axially loaded compression members, the full dimensions are

used when calculatingthecritical moment or load, whiletheeffectivedimensions, evaluated at the

stresscorrespondingto thecritical moment or load, areused to calculatethenominal strength.

7.6.2 Linear Methodfor ComputingSectional Properties

Becausethethicknessof cold-formedsteel membersisusuallyuniform, thecomputation of sectional

propertiescan besimpliedbyusinga linear or midline method. In thismethod, thematerial of

each element isconsidered to beconcentrated alongthecenterlineor midlineof thesteel sheet and

theareaelementsarereplaced by straight or curved lineelements. Thethicknessdimension, t , is

introduced after thelinear computationshavebeen completed. Thus, thetotal areaisA = Lt , and

themoment of inertiaof thesection isI = I

elementsand circular lineelementsareshown in Figure7.17.

7.6.3 TensionMembers

Thenominal tensilestrength of axially loaded cold-formed steel tension membersisdetermined by

thefollowingequation:

T

n

= A

n

F

y

(7.16)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.17: Propertiesof lineelements.

where

T

n

= nominal tensilestrength

A

n

= net areaof thecross-section

F

y

= design yield stress

When tension membersusebolted connectionsor circular holes, thenominal tensilestrength is

also limited by thetensilecapacity of connected partstreated separately by theAISI Specication [ 7]

under thesection titleof Bolted Connections.

7.6.4 Flexural Members

For thedesignof exural members, considerationshouldbegiventoseveral designfeatures: (a) bend-

ing strength and deection, (b) shear strength of webs and combined bending and shear, (c) web

crippling strength and combined bending and web crippling, and (d) bracing requirements. For

somecases, special consideration should also begiven to shear lagand angecurlingdueto theuse

of thin materials.

BendingStrength

Bending strengths of exural members are differentiated according to whether or not the

member islaterally braced. If such membersarelaterally supported, they aredesigned accordingto

thenominal section strength. Otherwise, if they arelaterally unbraced, then thebending strength

may be governed by the lateral buckling strength. For channels or Z-sections with tension ange

attachedtodeck or sheathingandwithcompression angelaterallyunbraced, andfor suchmembers

havingoneangefastened to astandingseam roof system, thenominal bendingstrength should be

reduced accordingto theAISI Specication.

Nominal SectionStrength

TwodesignproceduresarenowusedintheAISI Specicationfor determiningthenominal bending

strength. They are: (I) Initiationof Yieldingand (II) InelasticReserveCapacity.

Accordingto ProcedureI on thebasisof initiation of yielding, thenominal moment, M

n

, of the

cross-section istheeffectiveyield moment, M

y

, determined for theeffectiveareasof angesand the

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

beam web. Theeffectivewidth of thecompression angeand theeffectivedepth of theweb can be

computed fromthedesign equationsgiven in Section 7.5. Theyield moment of acold-formed steel

exural member isdened asthemoment at which an outer ber (tension, compression, or both)

rst attainstheyield point of thesteel. Figure7.18 showsthreetypesof stressdistribution for yield

FIGURE7.18: Stressdistribution for yield moment (based on initiation of yielding).

moment based on different locationsof theneutral axis. Accordingly, thenominal section strength

for initiation of yieldingcan becomputed asfollows:

M

n

= M

y

= S

e

F

y

(7.17)

where

S

e

= elasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated with theextremecompression or

tension ber at F

y

F

y

= design yield stress

For cold-formed steel design, S

e

isusually computed by usingoneof thefollowingtwo cases:

1. If theneutral axis is closer to thetension than to thecompression ange(Casec), the

maximum stress occurs in the compression ange, and therefore the plate slenderness

ratio (Equation 7.7) and theeffectivewidth of thecompression angearedetermined

by thew/t ratioand f = F

y

. Thisprocedureisalsoapplicabletothosebeamsfor which

theneutral axisislocated at themid-depth of thesection (Casea).

2. If theneutral axis is closer to thecompression than to thetension ange(Caseb), the

maximumstressof F

y

occursin thetension ange. Thestressin thecompression ange

dependson thelocation of theneutral axis, which isdetermined by theeffectiveareaof

thesection. Thelatter cannot bedeterminedunlessthecompressivestressisknown. The

closed-form solution of thistypeof design ispossiblebut would beavery tediousand

complex procedure. It is, therefore, customary to determinethesectional propertiesof

thesection by successiveapproximation.

SeeExamples7.2and 7.3for thecalculation of nominal bendingstrengths.

EXAMPLE7.2:

UsetheASD and LRFD methodsto check theadequacy of theI-section with unstiffened anges

asshown in Figure7.19. Thenominal moment isbased on theinitiation of yieldingusingF

y

= 50

ksi. Assumethat lateral bracingisadequately provided. Thedead load moment M

D

= 30 in.-kips

and theliveload moment M

L

= 150in.-kips.

Solution

(A) ASD Method

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.19: Example7.2. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

1. Location of Neutral Axis. For R = 3/16in. and t = 0.135in., thesectional propertiesof

thecorner element areasfollows:

I

x

= I

y

= 0.0003889 in.

4

A = 0.05407 in.

2

x = y = 0.1564 in.

For theunstiffened compression ange,

w = 1.6775 in., w/t = 12.426

Usingk = 0.43and f = F

y

= 50ksi,

= (1.052/

k)(w/t )

_

f/E = 0.821 > 0.673

b = [(1 0.22/0.821)/0.821](1.6775) = 1.496 in.

Assumingthewebisfullyeffective, theneutral axisislocated at y

cg

=4.063in. asshown

in Figure7.20. Sincey

cg

> d/2, initial yield occursin thecompression ange.

Therefore, f = F

y

.

2. Check theweb for full effectivenessasfollows(Figure7.20):

f

1

= 46.03 ksi (compression)

f

2

= 44.48 ksi (tension)

= f

2

/f

1

= 0.966.

UsingEquation 7.11,

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.20: Stressdistribution in webs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John

Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

k = 4 + 2(1 )

3

+ 2(1 ) = 23.13

h = 7.355 in.

h/t = 54.48

= (1.052/

k)(54.48)

_

46.03/29,500

= 0.471 < 0.673

b

e

= h = 7.355 in.

b

1

= b

e

/(3 ) = 1.855 in.

b

2

= b

e

/2 = 3.6775 in.

Sinceb

1

+ b

2

= 5.5325in. > 3.7405in., theweb isfully effective.

3. Themoment of inertiaI

x

is

I

x

= (Ay

2

) + 2I

web

(A)(y

cg

)

2

= 25.382 in.

4

Thesection modulusfor thetop ber is

S

e

= I

x

/y

cg

= 6.247 in.

3

4. Based on initiation of yielding, thenominal moment for section strength is

M

n

= S

e

F

y

= 312.35 in.-kips

5. Theallowablemoment or design moment is

M

a

= M

n

/ = 312.35/1.67 = 187.04 in.-kips

Based on thegiven data, therequired moment is

M = M

D

+ M

L

= 30 + 150 = 180 in.-kips

SinceM < M

a

, theI-section isadequatefor theASD method.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

(B) LRFD Method

1. Based on thenominal moment M

n

computed above, thedesign moment is

b

M

n

= 0.90(312.35) = 281.12 in.-kips

2. Therequired moment for combined dead and livemomentsis

M

u

= 1.2M

D

+ 1.6M

L

= (1.2 30) + (1.6 150)

= 276.00 in.-kips

Since

b

M

n

> M

u

, theI-section isadequatefor bendingstrength accordingtotheLRFD

approach.

EXAMPLE7.3:

Determinethenominal moment about thex-axisfor thehat section with stiffened compression

angeasshown in Figure7.21. Assumethat theyield point of steel is50ksi. Usethelinear method.

Thenominal moment isdetermined by initiation of yielding.

FIGURE7.21: Example7.3. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

Solution

1. Calculationof Sectional Properties. Inorder tousethelinear method, midlinedimensions

areshown in Figure7.22.

A. Corner element (Figures7.17and 7.22)

R

= R + t /2 = 0.240 in.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.22: Lineelements. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

Arclength

L = 1.57R

= 0.3768 in.

c = 0.637R

= 0.1529 in.

B. Location of neutral axis

a. First approximation. For thecompression ange,

w = 15 2(R + t ) = 14.415 in.

w/t = 137.29

UsingEquations7.4through 7.7and assumingf = F

y

= 50ksi,

=

1.052

4

(137.29)

_

50

29500

= 2.973 > 0.673

=

_

1

0.22

2.973

_

/2.973 = 0.311

b = w = 0.311(14.415) = 4.483 in.

By usingtheeffectivewidth of thecompression angeand assumingtheweb

isfully effective, theneutral axiscan belocated asfollows:

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Distancefrom

Effectivelength L top ber y Ly

Element (in.) (in.) (in.

2

)

1 2 1.0475= 2.0950 9.9475 20.8400

2 2 0.3768= 0.7536 9.8604 7.4308

3 2 9.4150= 18.8300 5.0000 94.1500

4 2 0.3768= 0.7536 0.1396 0.1052

5 4.4830 0.0525 0.2354

Total 26.9152 122.7614

y

cg

=

(Ly)

L

=

122.7614

26.9152

= 4.561in.

Becausethedistancey

cg

islessthan thehalf-depth of 5.0 in., theneutral axis

iscloser to thecompression angeand, therefore, themaximum stressoccurs

in thetension ange. Themaximum compressivestresscan becomputed as

follows:

f = 50

_

4.561

10 4.561

_

= 41.93 ksi

Sincetheabovecomputed stressislessthan theassumed value, another trial is

required.

b. Second approximation. Assumingthat

f = 40.70 ksi

= 2.682 > 0.673

b = 4.934 in.

Distancefrom

Effectivelength L top ber y Ly Ly

2

Element (in.) (in.) (in.

2

) (in.

3

)

1 2.0950 9.9475 20.8400 207.3059

2 0.7536 9.8604 7.4308 73.2707

3 18.8300 5.0000 94.1500 470.7500

4 0.7536 0.1396 0.1052 0.0147

5 4.9340 0.0525 0.2590 0.0136

Total 27.3662 122.7850 751.3549

y

cg

=

122.7850

27.3662

= 4.487in.

f =

_

4.487

10 4.487

_

= 40.69 ksi

Sincetheabovecomputed stressiscloseto theassumed value, it isO.K.

C. Check theeffectivenessof theweb. UsetheAISI Specication to check theeffec-

tivenessof theweb element. FromFigure7.23,

f

1

= 50(4.1945/5.513) = 38.04 ksi (compression)

f

2

= 50(5.2205/5.513) = 47.35 ksi (tension)

= f

2

/f

1

= 1.245. UsingEquation 7.11,

k = 4 + 2(1 )

3

+ 2(1 )

= 4 + 2(2.245)

3

+ 2(2.245) = 31.12

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

h/t = 9.415/0.105 = 89.67 < 200 O.K.

=

1.052

31.12

(89.67)

_

38.04

29,500

= 0.607 < 0.673

b

e

= h = 9.415 in.

b

1

= b

e

/(3 ) = 2.218 in.

Since < 0.236,

b

2

= b

e

/2 = 4.7075 in.

b

1

+ b

2

= 6.9255 in.

Becausethecomputed valueof (b

1

+ b

2

) isgreater than thecompression portion

of theweb (4.1945in.), theweb element isfully effective.

FIGURE7.23: Effectivelengthsand stressdistribution using fully effectivewebs. (From Yu, W.W.

1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

D. Moment of inertia and section modulus. The moment of inertia based on line

elementsis

2I

3

= 2

_

1

12

_

(9.415)

3

= 139.0944

(Ly

2

) = 751.3549

I

z

= 2I

3

+ (Ly

2

) = 890.4493 in.

3

(L)(y

cg

)

2

= 27.3662(4.487)

2

= 550.9683 in.

3

I

x

= I

z

(L)(y

cg

)

2

= 339.4810 in.

3

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Theactual moment of inertiais

I

x

= I

x

t = (339.4810)(0.105) = 35.646 in.

4

Thesection modulusrelativeto theextremetension ber is

S

x

= 35.646/5.513 = 6.466 in.

3

2. Nominal Moments. Thenominal moment for section strength is

M

n

= S

e

F

y

= S

x

F

y

= (6.466)(50) = 323.30 in.-kips

Once the nominal moment is computed, the design moments for the ASD and LRFD

methodscan bedetermined asillustrated in Example7.2.

Accordingto ProcedureII of theAISI Specication, thenominal moment, M

n

, isthemaximum

bendingcapacity of thebeamby consideringtheinelasticreservestrength through partial plastica-

tion of thecross-section asshown in Figure7.24. Theinelasticstressdistribution in thecross-section

FIGURE 7.24: Stress distribution for maximum moment (inelastic reserve strength). (From Yu,

W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

depends on the maximum strain in the compression ange, which is limited by the Specication

for the given width-to-thickness ratio of the compression ange. On the basis of the maximum

compression strain allowed in theSpecication, theneutral axiscan belocated byEquation 7.18and

thenominal moment, M

n

, can bedetermined by usingEquation 7.19:

_

dA = 0 (7.18)

_

ydA = M (7.19)

where isthestressin thecross-section. For additional information, seeYu [ 49] .

Lateral BucklingStrength

Thenominal lateral bucklingstrength of unbraced segmentsof singly-, doubly-, and point- sym-

metricsectionssubjected to lateral buckling, M

n

, can bedetermined asfollows:

M

n

= S

c

M

c

S

f

(7.20)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

where

S

f

= elasticsection modulusof thefull unreduced section for theextremecompression ber

S

c

= elasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated at astressM

c

/S

f

in theextreme

compression ber

M

c

= critical moment for singly-, doubly-, and point-symmetricsectionscalculated asfollows:

1. For M

e

2.78M

y

:

M

c

= M

y

(7.21)

2. For 2.78M

y

> M

e

> 0.56M

y

:

M

c

=

10

9

M

y

_

1

10M

y

36M

e

_

(7.22)

3. For M

e

0.56M

y

:

M

c

= M

e

(7.23)

where

M

y

= moment causinginitial yield at theextremecompression ber of thefull section

= S

f

F

y

M

e

= elasticcritical moment calculated accordingto (a) or (b) below:

(a) For singly-, doubly-, and point-symmetricsections:

M

e

= C

b

r

0

A

ey

t

for bendingabout thesymmetryaxis. For singly-symmetricsections, x-axis

is the axis of symmetry oriented such that the shear center has a negative x-coordinate.

For point-symmetric sections, use0.5 M

e

. Alternatively, M

e

can becalculated using the

equation for doubly-symmetricI-sectionsor point-symmetricsectionsgiven in (b)

M

e

= C

s

A

ex

[j +C

s

_

j

2

+ r

2

0

(

t

/

ex

)]/C

T F

for bendingabout thecentroidal axisperpendic-

ular to thesymmetry axisfor singly-symmetricsectionsonly

C

s

= +1for moment causingcompression on theshear center sideof thecentroid

C

s

= 1for moment causingtension on theshear center sideof thecentroid

ex

=

2

E/(K

x

L

x

/r

x

)

2

ey

=

2

E/(K

y

L

y

/r

y

)

2

t

= [GJ +

2

EC

w

/(K

t

L

t

)

2

]/Ar

2

0

A = full cross-sectional area

C

b

= 12.5M

max

/(2.5M

max

+ 3M

A

+ 4M

B

+ 3M

C

) (7.24)

In Equation 7.24,

M

max

= absolutevalueof maximummoment in theunbraced segment

M

A

= absolutevalueof moment at quarter point of unbraced segment

M

B

= absolutevalueof moment at centerlineof unbraced segment

M

C

= absolutevalueof moment at three-quarter point of unbraced segment

C

b

ispermittedtobeconservativelytaken asunityfor all cases. For cantileversor overhangswhere

thefreeend isunbraced, C

b

shall betaken asunity. For memberssubject tocombined axial load and

bendingmoment, C

b

shall betaken asunity.

E = modulusof elasticity

C

T F

= 0.6 0.4(M

1

/M

2

)

where

M

1

isthesmaller and M

2

thelarger bending moment at theendsof theunbraced length in the

planeof bending, andwhereM

1

/M

2

, theratioof endmoments, ispositivewhenM

1

andM

2

havethe

samesign (reversecurvaturebending) and negativewhen they areof oppositesign (singlecurvature

bending). When thebendingmoment at any point within an unbraced length islarger than that at

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

both endsof thislength, and for memberssubject to combined compressiveaxial load and bending

moment, C

T F

shall betaken asunity.

r

0

= Polar radiusof gyration of thecross-section about theshear center

=

_

r

2

x

+ r

2

y

+ x

2

0

r

x

, r

y

= radii of gyration of thecross-section about thecentroidal principal axes

G = shear modulus

K

x

, K

y

, K

t

= effectivelength factorsfor bendingabout thex- and y-axes, and for twisting

L

x

, L

y

, L

t

= unbracedlengthof compressionmember for bendingabout thex- andy-axes, and

for twisting

x

0

= distancefromtheshear center to thecentroid alongtheprincipal x-axis, taken as

negative

J = St. Venant torsion constant of thecross-section

C

w

= torsional warpingconstant of thecross-section

j = [

_

A

x

3

dA +

_

A

xy

2

dA]/(2I

y

) x

0

(b) For I- or Z-sectionsbent about thecentroidal axisperpendicular to theweb (x-axis):

In lieu of (a), thefollowingequationsmay beused to evaluateM

e

:

M

e

=

2

EC

b

dI

yc

/L

2

for doubly-symmetricI-sections (7.25)

M

e

=

2

EC

b

dI

yc

/(2L

2

) for point-symmetricZ-sections (7.26)

In Equations7.25and 7.26,

d = depth of section

E = modulusof elasticity

I

yc

= moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about the gravity axis of the

entiresection parallel to theweb, usingthefull unreduced section

L = unbraced length of themember

EXAMPLE7.4:

Determinethenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength for theI-beamused in Example7.2.

Assumethat thebeamisbraced laterally at both endsand midspan. UseF

y

= 50ksi.

Solution

1. Calculation of Sectional Properties

Based on thedimensionsgiven in Example7.2(Figures7.19and 7.20), themoment of inertia, I

x

,

and thesection modulus, S

f

, of thefull section can becomputed asshown in thefollowingtable.

Distancefrom

AreaA mid-depth y Ay

2

Element (in.

2

) (in.) (in.

4

)

Flanges 4(1.6775)(0.135) = 0.9059 3.9325 14.0093

Corners 4(0.05407) = 0.2163 3.8436 3.1955

Webs 2(7.355)(0.135) = 1.9859 0 0

Total 3.1081 17.2048

2I

web

= 2(1/12)(0.135)(7.355)

3

= 8.9522

I

x

= 26.1570in.

4

S

f

= I

x

/(8/2) = 6.54in.

3

Thevalueof I

yc

can becomputed asshown below.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Distance

AreaA fromy axis, x Ax

2

Element (in.

2

) (in.) (in.

4

)

Flanges 4(1.6775)(0.135) = 0.9059 1.1613 1.2217

Corners 4(0.05407) = 0.2163 0.1564 0.0053

Webs 2(7.355)(0.135) = 1.9859 0.0675 0.0090

Total 3.1081 1.2360

I

anges

= 4(1/12)0.135(1.6775)

3

= 0.2124

I

y

= 1.4484in.

4

I

yc

= I

y

/2= 0.724in.

4

Considering thelateral supportsat both endsand midspan, and themoment diagram shown in

Figure7.25, thevalueof C

b

for thesegment AB or BC is1.30 according to Equation 7.24. Using

FIGURE7.25: Example7.4. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

Equation 7.25,

M

e

=

2

EC

b

dI

yc

L

2

=

2

(29,500)(1.30)

(8)(0.724)

(5 12)

2

= 608.96 in.-kips

M

y

= S

f

F

y

= (6.54)(50) = 327.0 in.-kips

0.56M

y

= 183.12 in.-kips

2.78M

y

= 909.06 in.-kips

Since2.78M

y

> M

e

> 0.56M

y

, fromEquation 7.22,

M

c

=

10

9

M

y

_

1

10M

y

36M

e

_

=

10

9

(327.0)

_

1

10(327.0)

36(608.96)

_

= 309.14 in.-kips

Based on Equation 7.20, thenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength is

M

n

= S

c

M

c

S

f

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

in which S

c

istheelasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated at acompressivestressof

f = M

c

/S

f

= 309.14/6.54 = 47.27 ksi. By usingthesameprocedureillustrated in Example7.2,

S

c

= 6.295in.

3

. Therefore, thenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength is

M

n

= (6.295)

_

309.14

6.54

_

= 297.6 in.-kips

For channelsor Z-sectionshavingthetensionangethrough-fastenedtodeckor sheathingwiththe

compression angelaterallyunbraced and loaded in aplaneparallel totheweb, thenominal exural

strength isdetermined by M

n

= RS

e

F

y

, whereR isareduction factor [ 7] . A similar approach is

used for beamshavingoneangefastened to astandingseamroof system.

UnusuallyWideBeamFlangesandShort SpanBeams

Whenbeamangesareunusuallywide, special considerationshouldbegiventothepossibleeffects

of shear lagand angecurling. Shear lagdependson thetypeof loadingand thespan-to-width ratio

andisindependent of thethickness. Flangecurlingisindependent of span lengthbut dependson the

thicknessand width of theange, thedepth of thesection, and thebendingstressesin both tension

and compression anges.

In order to consider the shear lag effects, the effective widths of both tension and compression

angesshould beused accordingto theAISI Specication.

When astraight beam with unusually wideand thin angesissubject to bending, theportion of

the ange most remote from the web tends to deect toward the neutral axis due to the effect of

longitudinal curvatureof thebeamandtheappliedbendingstressesin both anges. For thepurpose

of controlling theexcessiveangecurling, theAISI Specication providesan equation to limit the

angewidth.

Shear Strength

Theshear strength of beamwebsisgovernedbyeither yieldingor bucklingof thewebelement,

depending on thedepth-to-thicknessratio, h/t , and themechanical propertiesof steel. For beam

webshaving small h/t ratios, thenominal shear strength isgoverned by shear yielding. When the

h/t ratio islarge, thenominal shear strength iscontrolled by elastic shear buckling. For beam webs

havingmoderateh/t ratios, theshear strength isbased on inelasticshear buckling.

For thedesign of beam webs, theAISI Specication providesthefollowing equationsfor deter-

miningthenominal shear strength:

For h/t 0.96

_

Ek

v

/F

y

:

V

n

= 0.60F

y

ht (7.27)

For 0.96

_

Ek

v

/F

y

< h/t 1.415

_

Ek

v

/F

y

:

V

n

= 0.64t

2

_

k

v

F

y

E (7.28)

For h/t > 1.415

_

Ek

v

/F

y

:

V

n

=

2

Ek

v

t

3

/[12(1

2

)h] = 0.905Ek

v

t

3

/h (7.29)

where

V

n

= nominal shear strength of beam

h = depth of theat portion of theweb measured alongtheplaneof theweb

t = web thickness

k

v

= shear bucklingcoefcient determined asfollows:

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

1. For unreinforced webs, k

v

= 5.34

2. For beamwebswith transversestiffenerssatisfyingtheAISI requirements

when a/h 1.0:

k

v

= 4.00 +

5.34

(a/h)

2

when a/h > 1.0:

k

v

= 5.34 +

4.00

(a/h)

2

where

a = theshear panel length for unreinforced web element

= theclear distancebetween transversestiffenersfor reinforced web elements

For aweb consistingof two or moresheets, each sheet should beconsidered asaseparateelement

carryingitsshareof theshear force.

CombinedBendingandShear

For continuousbeamsand cantilever beams, high bending stressesoften combinewith high

shear stresses at the supports. Such beam webs must be safeguarded against buckling due to the

combination of bendingand shear stresses. Based on theAISI Specication, themoment and shear

should satisfy theinteraction equationslisted in Table7.3.

TABLE7.3 Interaction EquationsUsed for Combined Bendingand Shear

ASD LRFD

Beamswith unreinforced

webs

_

M

Maxo

_

2

+

_

V

Va

_

2

1.0

_

Mu

b

Mnxo

_

2

+

_

Vu

vVn

_

2

1.0

(7.30) (7.32)

Beams with transverse

web stiffeners

M M

a

and V V

a

M

u

b

M

n

and V

u

v

V

n

0.6

_

M

Maxo

_

+

_

V

Va

_

1.3 0.6

_

Mu

b

Mnxo

_

+

_

Vu

vVn

_

1.3

(7.31) (7.33)

M = bendingmoment

M

a

= allowablemoment when bendingaloneexists

M

axo

= allowablemoment about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespec-

ication excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling

V = unfactored shear force

V

a

= allowableshear forcewhen shear aloneexists

b

= resistancefactor for bending

v

= resistancefactor for shear

M

n

= nominal exural strength when bendingaloneexists

M

nxo

= nominal exural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with

thespecication excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling

M

u

= required exural strength

V

n

= nominal shear strength when shear aloneexists

V

u

= required shear strength

WebCrippling

For cold-formed steel beams, transversestiffenersarenot frequently used for beamwebs. The

webs may cripple due to the high local intensity of the load or reaction as shown in Figure 7.26.

Becausethetheoretical analysisof web cripplingisrather complex dueto theinvolvement of many

factors, thepresent AISI design equationsarebased on extensiveexperimental investigationsunder

four loading conditions: (1) end one-ange(EOF) loading, (2) interior one-ange(IOF) loading,

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.26: Web cripplingof cold-formed steel beams.

(3) endtwo-ange(ETF) loading, and(4) interior two-ange(ITF) loading[ 29, 46, 50] . Theloading

conditionsused for thetestsareillustrated in Figure7.27.

FIGURE7.27: Loadingconditionsfor webcripplingtests. (a) EOFloading. (b) IOFloading. (c) ETF

loading. (d) ITFloading. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, New

York. With permission.)

The nominal web crippling strength for a given loading condition can be determined from the

AISI equations[ 7] on thebasisof thethicknessof web element, design yield stress, thebend radius-

to-thicknessratio, thedepth-to-thicknessratio, thebearinglength-to-thicknessratio, and theangle

between theplaneof theweb and theplaneof thebearing surface. Tables 7.4a and Table7.4b list

theequationsfor determiningthenominal web cripplingstrengthsof one- and two-angeloading

conditions, respectively.

CombinedBendingandWebCrippling

For combined bending and web crippling, thedesign of beam webs should bebased on the

interaction equations provided in the AISI Specication [ 7] . These equations are presented in

Table7.5.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Table7.4a Nominal Web CripplingStrength for One-FlangeLoading, per Web, P

n

Shapeshaving Shapeshaving I-Sectionsor

singlewebs singlewebs similar sections

Stiffened or Stiffened,

partially partially stiffened,

stiffened Unstiffened and unstiffened

anges anges anges

End reaction t

2

kC

3

C

4

C

[331 0.61(h/t )] t

2

kC

3

C

4

C

[217 0.28(h/t )] t

2

F

y

C

6

(10.0 + 1.25

N/t )

opposingloads [1 + 0.01(N/t )]C

9

a

[1 + 0.01(N/t )]C

9

a,b

spaced > 1.5h

Interior reactions t

2

kC

1

C

2

C

[538 0.74(h/t )] t

2

kC

1

C

2

C

[538 0.74(h/t )] t

2

F

y

C

5

(0.88 + 0.12m)

opposingloads [1 + 0.007(N/t )]C

9

c

[1 + 0.007(N/t )]C

9

c

(15.0 + 3.25

N/t )

spaced > 1.5h

a

When F

y

66.5 ksi (459MPa), thevalueof KC

3

shall betaken as1.34.

b

When N/t > 60, thefactor [1 + 0.01(N/t )] may beincreased to [0.71 + 0.015(N/t )]

c

When N/t > 60, thefactor [1 + 0.007(N/t )] may beincreased to [0.75 + 0.011(N/t )]

C

1

= (1.22 0.22k)

C

2

= (1.06 0.06R/t ) 1.0

C

3

= (1.33 0.33k)

C

4

= (1.15 0.15R/t ) 1.0 but not lessthan 0.50

C

5

= (1.49 0.53k) 0.6

C

6

= 1 + (h/t )/750 when h/t 150

= 1.20, when h/t > 150

C

9

= 1.0for U.S. customary units, kipsand in.

= 6.9for SI units, N and mm

C

= 0.7 + 0.3(/90)

2

F

y

= design yield stressof theweb

h = depth of theat portion of theweb measured alongtheplaneof theweb

k = 894F

y

/E

m = t /0.075, when t isin in.

m = t /1.91, when t isin mm

t = web thickness

N = actual length of bearing

R = insidebend radius

= anglebetween theplaneof theweb and theplaneof thebearingsurface 45

n

Shapeshaving Shapeshaving I-Sectionsor

singlewebs singlewebs similar sections

Stiffened or Stiffened,

partially partially stiffened,

stiffened Unstiffened and unstiffened

anges anges anges

End reaction t

2

kC

3

C

4

C

[244 0.57(h/t )] t

2

kC

3

C

4

C

[244 0.57(h/t )] t

2

F

y

C

8

(0.64 + 0.31m)

opposingloads [1 + 0.01(N/t )]C

9

a

[1 + 0.01(N/t )]C

9

a

(10.0 + 1.25

N/t )

spaced 1.5h

Interior reaction t

2

kC

1

C

2

C

[771 2.26(h/t )] t

2

kC

1

C

2

C

[771 2.26(h/t )] t

2

F

y

C

7

(0.82 + 0.15m)

opposingloads [1 + 0.0013(N/t )]C

9

[1 + 0.0013(N/t )]C

9

(15.0 + 3.25

N/t )

spaced 1.5h

a

When F

y

66.5 ksi (459MPa), thevalueof KC

3

shall betaken as1.34.

C

7

= 1/k, when h/t 66.5

= [1.10 (h/t )/665]/k, when h/t > 66.5

C

8

= [0.98 (h/t )/865]/k

C

1

, C

2

, C

3

, C

4

, C

9

, C

, F

y

, h, k, m, t, N, R, and aredened in Table7.4a.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.5 Interaction Equationsfor Combined Bendingand Web Crippling

ASD LRFD

Shapes having single unrein-

forced webs

1.2

_

P

Pa

_

+

_

M

Maxo

_

1.5 1.07

_

Pu

wPn

_

+

_

Mu

b

Mnxo

_

1.42

(7.34) (7.37)

Shapeshavingmultipleunrein-

forced webssuch

1.1

_

P

Pa

_

+

_

M

Maxo

_

1.5 0.82

_

Pu

wPn

_

+

_

Mu

b

Mnxo

_

1.32

asI-sections (7.35) (7.38)

Support point of two nested Z-

shapes

M

Mno

+

P

Pn

1.0

Mu

Mno

+

Pu

Pn

1.68

(7.36) (7.39)

Note: TheAISI Specication includessomeexception clauses, under which theeffect of combined bending

and web cripplingneed not bechecked.

P = concentrated load or reaction in thepresenceof bendingmoment

P

a

= allowableconcentrated load or reaction in theabsenceof bendingmoment

P

n

= nominal web crippling strength for concentrated load or reaction in the absence of bending

moment (for Equations7.34, 7.35, 7.37, and 7.38)

P

n

= nominal web cripplingstrength assumingsingleweb interior one-angeloadingfor thenested

Z-sections, i.e., sumof thetwo websevaluated individually (for Equations7.36and 7.39)

P

u

= required strength for theconcentrated load or reaction in thepresenceof bendingmoment

M = applied bendingmoment at, or immediatelyadjacent to, thepoint of application of theconcen-

trated load or reaction

M

axo

= allowablemoment about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespecication

excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling

M

no

= nominal exural strength for thenested Z-sections, i.e., thesum of thetwo sectionsevaluated

individually, excludinglateral buckling

M

nxo

= nominal exural strength about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespeci-

cation excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling

M

u

= requiredexural strength at, or immediatelyadjacent to, thepoint of application of theconcen-

trated load or reaction P

u

= resistancefactor = 0.9

b

= resistancefactor for bending

w

= resistancefactor for web crippling

BracingRequirements

In cold-formed steel design, bracesshould bedesigned to restrain lateral bendingor twisting

of a loaded beam and to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment. When channels and

Z-shaped sectionsareused asbeamsand loaded in theplaneof theweb, theAISI Specication [ 7]

providesdesign requirementsto restrain twisting of thebeam under thefollowing two conditions:

(1) the top ange is connected to deck or sheathing material in such a manner as to effectively

restrain lateral deection of theconnected ange, and (2) neither angeisconnected to sheathing.

In general, bracesshould bedesigned to satisfy thestrength and stiffnessrequirements. For beams

using symmetrical crosssections, such asI-beams, theAISI Specication doesnot providespecic

requirements for braces. However, the braces may be designed for a capacity of 2% of the force

resisted by thecompression portion of thebeam. Thisisa frequently used ruleof thumb but isa

conservativeapproach, asproven by arigorousanalysis.

7.6.5 ConcentricallyLoadedCompressionMembers

Axially loaded cold-formed steel compression members should be designed for the following

limit states: (1) yielding, (2) overall column buckling (exural buckling, torsional buckling, or

torsional-exural buckling), and (3) local buckling of individual elements. The governing failure

modedependson theconguration of thecross-section, thicknessof material, unbraced length, and

end restraint.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Yielding

Averyshort, compact column under axial load mayfail byyielding. For thiscase, thenominal

axial strength istheyield load, i.e.,

P

n

= P

y

= AF

y

(7.40)

whereA isthefull cross-sectional areaof thecolumn and F

y

istheyield point of steel.

Overall ColumnBuckling

Overall column bucklingmay beoneof thefollowingthreetypes:

1. Flexural buckling bendingabout aprincipal axis. Theelasticexural bucklingstressis

F

e

=

2

E

(KL/r)

2

(7.41)

where

E = modulusof elasticity

K = effectivelength factor for exural buckling(Figure7.28)

L = unbraced length of member for exural buckling

r = radiusof gyration of thefull section

FIGURE7.28: Effectivelength factor K for concentrically loaded compression members.

2. Torsional buckling twistingabout shear center. Theelastictorsional bucklingstressis

F

e

=

1

Ar

2

0

_

GJ +

2

EC

w

(K

t

L

t

)

2

_

(7.42)

where

A = full cross-sectional area

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

C

w

= torsional warpingconstant of thecross-section

G = shear modulus

J = St. Venant torsion constant of thecross-section

K

t

= effectivelength factor for twisting

L

t

= unbraced length of member for twisting

r

0

= polar radiusof gyration of thecross-section about shear center

3. Torsional-exural bucklingbendingandtwistingsimultaneously. Theelastictorsional-exural

bucklingstressis

F

e

= [(

ex

+

t

)

_

(

ex

+

t

)

2

4

ex

t

]/2 (7.43)

where

= 1(x

0

/r

0

)

2

ex

=

2

E/(K

x

L

x

/r

x

)

2

t

= thesameasEquation 7.42

x

0

= distancefromshear center to thecentroid alongtheprincipal x-axis

For doubly-symmetric and point-symmetric shapes (Figure 7.29), the overall column buckling

can beeither exural typeor torsional type. However, for singly-symmetricshapes(Figure7.30), the

overall column bucklingcan beeither exural bucklingor torsional-exural buckling.

FIGURE7.29: Doubly-symmetricshapes.

FIGURE 7.30: Singly-symmetric shapes. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John

Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

For overall column buckling, thenominal axial strength isdetermined by Equation 7.44:

P

n

= A

e

F

n

(7.44)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

where

A

e

= effectiveareadetermined for thestressF

n

F

n

= nominal bucklingstressdetermined asfollows:

For

c

1.5:

F

n

= (0.658

2

c

)F

y

(7.45)

For

c

> 1.5:

F

n

=

_

0.877

2

c

_

F

y

(7.46)

Theuseof theeffectivearea A

e

in Equation 7.44 isto reect theeffect of local buckling on the

reduction of column strength. In Equations7.45and 7.46,

c

=

_

F

y

/F

e

in which F

e

istheleast of elastic exural buckling stress(Equation 7.41), torsional buckling stress

(Equation 7.42), and torsional-exural bucklingstress(Equation 7.43), whichever isapplicable.

For thedesign of compression members, theslendernessratio should not exceed 200, except that

duringconstruction, KL/r preferably should not exceed 300.

For nonsymmetricshapeswhosecross-sectionsdonot haveanysymmetry, either about an axisor

about apoint, theelastictorsional-exural bucklingstressshould bedetermined by rational analysis

or by tests. SeeAISI Design Manual [ 8] .

In addition to the above design provisions for the design of axially loaded columns, the AISI

Specication also provides design criteria for compression members having one ange through-

fastened to deck or sheathing.

EXAMPLE7.5:

Determinetheallowableaxial load for thesquaretubular column shown in Figure7.31. Assume

that F

y

= 40 ksi, K

x

L

x

= K

y

L

y

= 10 ft, and thedead-to-liveload ratio is1/5. UsetheASD and

LRFD methods.

FIGURE7.31: Example7.5. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,

NewYork. With permission.)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Solution

(A) ASD Method

Since the square tube is a doubly-symmetric closed section, it will not be subject to torsional-

exural buckling. It can bedesigned for exural buckling.

1. Sectional Propertiesof Full Section

w = 8.00 2(R + t ) = 7.415 in.

A = 4(7.415 0.105 + 0.0396) = 3.273 in.

2

I

x

= I

y

= 2(0.105)[(1/12)(7.415)

3

+ 7.415(4 0.105/2)

2

] + 4(0.0396)(4.0 0.1373)

2

= 33.763 in.

4

r

x

= r

y

=

_

I

x

/A =

_

33.763/3.273 = 3.212 in.

2. Nominal Buckling Stress, F

n

. According to Equation 7.41, theelastic exural buckling

stress, F

e

, iscomputed asfollows:

KL

r

=

10 12

3.212

= 37.36 < 200 O.K.

F

e

=

2

E

(KL/r)

2

=

2

(29500)

(37.36)

2

= 208.597 ksi

c

=

_

F

y

F

e

=

_

40

208.597

= 0.438 < 1.5

F

n

= (0.658

2

c

)F

y

= (0.658

0.438

2

)40 = 36.914 ksi

3. Effective Area, A

e

. Because the given square tube is composed of four stiffened ele-

ments, theeffectivewidth of stiffenedelementssubjectedtouniformcompression can be

computed fromEquations7.4through 7.7by usingk = 4.0:

w/t = 7.415/0.105 = 70.619

=

1.052

k

_

w

t

_

_

F

n

E

= 1.052/

4(70.619)

_

36.914/29,500 = 1.314

Since > 0.673, fromEquation 7.5,

b =

w

where

= (1 0.22/)/ = (1 0.22/1.314)/1.314 = 0.634

Therefore, b = (0.634)(7.415) = 4.701 in.

Theeffectiveareais

A

e

= 3.273 4(7.415 4.701)(0.105) = 2.133 in.

2

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4. Nominal and AllowableLoads. UsingEquation 7.44, thenominal load is

P

n

= A

e

F

n

= (2.133)(36.914) = 78.738 kips

Theallowableload is

P

a

= P

n

/

c

= 78.738/1.80 = 43.74 kips

(B) LRFD Method

In Item (A) above, thenominal axial load, P

n

, wascomputed to be78.738 kips. Thedesign axial

load for theLRFD method is

c

P

n

= 0.85(78.738) = 66.93 kips.

Based on theload combination of dead and liveloads, therequired axial load is

P

u

= 1.2P

D

+ 1.6P

L

= 1.2P

D

+ 1.6(5P

D

) = 9.2P

D

where

P

D

= axial load dueto dead load

P

L

= axial load dueto liveload

By usingP

u

=

c

P

n

, thevaluesof P

D

and P

L

arecomputed asfollows:

P

D

= 66.93/9.2 = 7.28 kips

P

L

= 5P

D

= 36.40 kips

Therefore, theallowableaxial load is

P

a

= P

D

+ P

L

= 43.68 kips

It can be seen that the allowable axial loads determined by the ASD and LRFD methods are

practically thesame.

7.6.6 CombinedAxial LoadandBending

TheAISI Specication providesinteraction equationsfor combined axial load and bending.

CombinedTensileAxial LoadandBending

For combined tensileaxial load and bending, therequired strengthsshould satisfy theinterac-

tion equationspresented in Table7.6. Theseequationsareto prevent yieldingof thetension ange

and to prevent failureof thecompression angeof themember.

CombinedCompressiveAxial LoadandBending

Cold-formed steel membersunder combined compressiveaxial load and bendingareusually

referred to as beam-columns. Such members are often found in framed structures, trusses, and

exterior wall studs. For thedesign of thesemembers, therequired strengthsshould satisfy theAISI

interaction equationspresented in Table7.7.

7.6.7 Cylindrical Tubular Members

Thin-walled cylindrical tubular members are economical sections for compression and torsional

members because of their large ratio of radius of gyration to area, the same radius of gyration in

all directions, and thelargetorsional rigidity. TheAISI design provisionsarelimited to theratio of

outsidediameter-to-wall thickness, D/t , not greater than 0.441E/F

y

.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.6 Interaction Equationsfor Combined TensileAxial Load and Bending

ASD LRFD

Check tension ange

b

Mx

M

nxt

+

b

My

M

nyt

+

t

T

Tn

1.0

Mux

b

M

nxt

+

Muy

b

M

nyt

+

Tu

t

Tn

1.0

(7.47) (7.49)

Check compression ange

b

Mx

Mnx

+

b

My

Mny

+

t

T

Tn

1.0

Mux

b

Mnx

+

Muy

b

Mny

Tu

t

Tn

1.0

(7.48) (7.50)

M

nx

, M

ny

= nominal exural strengthsabout thecentroidal x- and y-axes

M

nxt

, M

nyt

= S

f t

F

y

M

ux

, M

uy

= required exural strengthswith respect to thecentroidal axes

M

x

, M

y

= required momentswith respect to thecentroidal axesof thesection

S

f t

= section modulusof thefull section for theextremetension ber about theappropriateaxis

T = required tensileaxial load

T

n

= nominal tensileaxial strength

T

u

= required axial strength

b

= resistancefactor for bending

t

= resistancefactor for tension

b

= safety factor for bending

t

= safety factor for tension

TABLE7.7 Interaction Equationsfor Combined CompressiveAxial

Load and Bending

ASD LRFD

when

c

P/P

n

0.15, when P

u

/

c

P

n

0.15,

cP

Pn

+

b

Mx

Mnx

+

b

My

Mny

1.0

Pu

cPn

+

Mux

b

Mnx

+

Muy

b

Mny

1.0

(7.51) (7.54)

when

c

P/P

n

> 0.15, when P

u

/

c

P

n

> 0.15,

cP

Pn

+

b

CmxMx

Mnxx

+

b

CmyMy

Mnyy

1.0

Pu

cPn

+

CmxMux

b

Mnxx

+

CmyMuy

b

Mnyy

1.0

(7.52) (7.55)

cP

Pno

+

b

Mx

Mnx

+

b

My

Mny

1.0

Pu

cPno

+

Mux

b

Mnx

+

Muy

b

Mny

1.0

(7.53) (7.56)

M

x

, M

y

= required momentswith respect to thecentroidal axesof theeffective

section determined for therequired axial strength alone

M

nx

, M

ny

= nominal exural strengthsabout thecentroidal axes

M

ux

, M

uy

= required exural strengthswith respect to thecentroidal axesof the

effectivesection determined for therequired axial strength alone

P = required axial load

P

n

= nominal axial strength determinedin accordancewith Equation 7.44

P

no

= nominal axial strengthdeterminedinaccordancewithEquation7.44,

for F

n

= F

y

P

u

= required axial strength

x

= 1

c

P/P

EX

(for Equation 7.52)

y

= 1

c

P/P

EY

(for Equation 7.52)

x

= 1 P

u

/P

EX

(for Equation 7.55)

y

= 1 P

u

/P

EY

(for Equation 7.55)

P

EX

=

2

EI

x

/(K

x

L

x

)

2

P

EY

=

2

EI

y

/(K

y

L

y

)

2

b

= safety factor for bending

c

= safety factor for concentrically loaded compression

C

mx

, C

my

= coefcientswhosevalueshall betaken asfollows:

1. For compression membersin framessubject tojoint translation (sidesway) C

m

= 0.85

2. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and

not subject totransverseloadingbetween their supportsin theplaneof bendingC

m

=

0.6 0.4(M

1

/M

2

), whereM

1

/M

2

istheratio of thesmaller to thelarger moment at

theendsof that portion of themember under consideration which isunbraced in the

planeof bending. M

1

/M

2

ispositivewhen themember isbent in reversecurvature

and negativewhen it isbent in singlecurvature

3. For compression membersin framesbraced against joint translation in theplaneof

loadingand subject totransverseloadingbetween their supports, thevalueof C

m

may

be determined by rational analysis. However, in lieu of such analysis, the following

valuesmay beused: (a) for memberswhoseendsarerestrained, C

m

= 0.85; (b) for

memberswhoseendsareunrestrained, C

m

= 1.0

I

x

, I

y

, L

x

, L

y

, K

x

, and K

y

weredened previously.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

BendingStrength

For cylindrical tubular memberssubjected to bending, thenominal exural strengthsareas

followsaccordingto theD/t ratio:

1. For D/t 0.070E/F

y

:

M

n

= 1.25F

y

S

f

(7.57)

2. For 0.070E/F

y

< D/t 0.319E/F

y

:

M

n

= [0.970 + 0.020(E/F

y

)/(D/t )]F

y

S

f

(7.58)

3. For 0.319E/F

y

< D/t 0.441E/F

y

:

M

n

= [0.328E/(D/t )]S

f

(7.59)

where

S

f

= elasticsection modulusof thefull, unreduced cross-section

Other symbolsweredened previously.

CompressiveStrength

When cylindrical tubesareused asconcentrically loaded compression members, thenominal

axial strength is determined by Equation 7.44, except that (1) the elastic buckling stress, F

e

, is

determined for exural bucklingby usingEquation 7.41 and (2) theeffectivearea, A

e

, iscalculated

by Equation 7.60.

A

e

= [1 (1 R

2

)(1 A

0

/A)]A (7.60)

where

R =

_

F

y

/2F

e

A

0

= {0.037/[(DF

y

)/(t E)] + 0.667}A A

A = areaof theunreduced cross-section

In theaboveequations, thevalueA

0

isthereduced areadueto theeffect of local buckling[ 8, 49] .

7.7 ConnectionsandJoints

Welds, bolts, screws, rivets, andother special devicessuchasmetal stitchingandadhesivesaregenerally

used for cold-formed steel connections. TheAISI Specication containsonly thedesign provisions

for welded connections, bolted connections, and screw connections. These design equations are

based primarily on theexperimental dataobtained fromextensivetest programs.

7.7.1 WeldedConnections

Weldsused for cold-formed steel construction may beclassied asarc welds(or fusion welds) and

resistancewelds. Arcweldingisusuallyusedfor connectingcold-formedsteel memberstoeachother

aswell asconnectingsuch thin membersto heavy, hot-rolled steel framingmembers. It isused for

groovewelds, arc spot welds, arc seam welds, llet welds, and aregroovewelds. TheAISI design

provisionsfor welded connectionsareapplicableonly for cold-formed steel structural members, in

which thethicknessof thethinnest connected part is0.18 in. (4.57 mm) or less. Otherwise, when

thethicknessof connected partsisthicker than 0.18 in. (4.57 mm), thewelded connection should

bedesignedaccordingtotheAISCSpecications[ 1, 2] . Additional design information on structural

weldingof sheet steelscan also befound in theAWSCode[ 16] .

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Arc Welds

According to the AISI Specication, the nominal strengths of arc welds can be determined

fromtheequationsgiven in Table7.8. Thedesign strengthscan then becomputedbyusingthesafety

factor or resistancefactor provided in Table7.1.

TABLE7.8 Nominal Strength Equationsfor ArcWelds

Typeof weld Typeof strength Nominal strength P

n

(kips)

Groove Tension or compression Lt

e

F

y

welds Shear strength of weld Lt

e

(0.6F

xx

)

(Figure7.32) Shear strength of connected part Lt

e

(F

y

/

3)

Arcspot Shear strength

welds Strength of weld 0.589d

2

e

F

xx

(Figure7.33) Strength of connected part

1. d

a

/t 0.815

E/F

u

2.20t d

a

F

u

2. 0.815

E/F

u

< (d

a

/t ) < 1.397

E/F

u

0.28[1 + (5.59

E/F

u

)/(d

a

/t )]t d

a

F

u

3. d

a

/t 1.397

E/F

u

1.40t d

a

F

u

Shear strength of connected part

based on end distance eF

u

t

Tensilestrength

Strength of weld 0.785d

2

e

F

xx

Strength of connected part

1.F

u

/E < 0.00187 [6.59 3150(F

u

/E)](t d

a

F

u

)

1.46t d

a

F

u

2. F

u

/E 0.00187 0.70t d

a

F

u

Arcseam Shear strength [d

2

e

/4 + Ld

e

]0.75F

xx

welds Strength of connected part 2.5t F

u

(0.25L + 0.96d

a

)

(Figure7.34)

Fillet welds Shear strength of weld 0.75t

w

LF

xx

(Figure7.35) (for t > 0.15in.)

Strength of connected part

1. Longitudinal loading

L/t < 25: [ 1(0.01L/t )]t LF

u

L/t 25: 0.75t LF

u

2. Transverseloading t LF

u

Flaregroovewelds Shear strength of weld 0.75t

w

LF

xx

(Figure7.36) (for t > 0.15in.)

Strength of connected part

1. Transverseloading 0.833t LF

u

2. Longitudinal loading

For t t

w

< 2t or if lip height < L 0.75t LF

u

For t

w

2t and lip height L 1.50t LF

u

d = visiblediameter of outer surfaceof arcspot weld

d

a

= averagediameter of thearcspot weld at mid-thicknessof t

d

a

= (d t ) for singlesheet

d

a

= (d2t ) for multiplesheets

d

e

= effectivediameter of fused areaat planeof maximumshear transfer

d

e

= 0.7d 1.5t 0.55d

e = distancemeasured in thelineof forcefromthecenterlineof aweld tothenearest edgeof an adjacent

weld or to theend of theconnected part toward which theforceisdirected

F

u

= tensilestrength of theconnected part

F

y

= yield point of steel

F

xx

= ller metal strength designation in AWSelectrodeclassication

L = length of weld

P

n

= nominal strength of weld

t = thicknessof connected sheet

t

w

= effectivethroat dimension for grooveweld, seeAISI specication

t

w

= effectivethroat = 0.707w

1

or 0.707w

2

, whichever issmaller

w

1

= legof weld

w

2

= legof weld

SeeAISI Specication for additional design information.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

ResistanceWelds

The nominal shear strengths of resistance welds are provided in the AISI Specication [ 7]

accordingto thethicknessof thethinnest outsidesheet. They areapplicablefor all structural grades

of low-carbon steel, uncoated or galvanized with 0.9oz/ft

2

of sheet or less, and mediumcarbon and

low-alloy steels.

7.7.2 BoltedConnections

Dueto thethinness of theconnected parts, thedesign of bolted connections in cold-formed steel

construction is somewhat different from that in hot-rolled heavy construction. The AISI design

provisionsareapplicableonly to cold-formed membersor elementslessthan 3/16in. (4.76mm) in

thickness. For materialsnot lessthan 3/16in. (4.76mm), thebolted connection should bedesigned

in accordancewith theAISCSpecications[ 1, 2] .

In the AISI Specication, ve types of bolts (A307, A325, A354, A449, and A490) are used for

connectionsin cold-formed steel construction, in which A449 and A354 boltsshould beused asan

equivalent of A325and A490bolts, respectively, whenever boltswith smaller than 1/2-in. diameters

arerequired.

On thebasis of thefailuremodes occurring in thetests of bolted connections, theAISI criteria

deal with threemajor design considerationsfor theconnected parts: (1) longitudinal shear failure,

(2) tensilefailure, and (3) bearingfailure. Thenominal strength equationsaregiven in Table7.9.

TABLE7.9 Nominal Strength Equationsfor Bolted Connections

Typeof strength Nominal strength, P

n

Shear strength based on spacingand edge t eF

u

distance

Tensilestrength

1. With washersunder bolt head and nuts (1 0.9r + 3rd/s)F

u

A

n

F

u

A

n

2. No washersor only onewasher under (1r+ 2.5rd/s)F

u

A

n

F

u

A

n

bolt head and nuts

Note: Thetensilestrength computed above

should not exceed A

n

F

y

.

Bearingstrength

1. With washersunder bolt head and nut

Insidesheet of doubleshear connection

F

u

/F

y

1.08 3.33F

u

dt

F

u

/F

y

< 1.08 3.00F

u

dt

Singleshear and outsidesheetsof doubleshear 3.00F

u

dt

connection

2. Without washersunder bolt head and nut

or with only onewasher

Insidesheet of doubleshear connection 3.00F

u

dt

Singleshear and outsidesheetsof doubleshear 2.22F

u

dt

connection

A

n

= net areaof theconnected part

d = diameter of bolt

e = distancemeasured in thelineof forcefrom thecenter of bolt to thenearest edgeof

an adjacent holeor to theend of theconnected part

F

u

= tensilestrength of theconnected part

F

y

= specied yield point of steel

r = forcetransmittedbythebolt or boltsat thesection considered, dividedbythetension

forcein themember at that section. If r islessthan 0.2, it may betaken equal to zero

s = spacingof boltsperpendicular to lineof force

t = thicknessof thinnest connected part

In addition, design strength equationsareprovided for shear and tension in bolts. Accordingly,

theAISI nominal strength for shear and tension in boltscan bedetermined asfollows:

P

n

= A

b

F

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where

A

b

= grosscross-sectional areaof bolt

F = nominal shear or tensilestressgiven in Table7.10.

For boltssubjected to thecombination of shear and tension, thereduced nominal tension stressis

given in Table7.11.

TABLE7.10 Nominal Tensileand Shear Stressesfor Bolts

Nominal tensile Nominal shear

Description of bolts stressF

nt

, ksi stressF

nv

, ksi

A307Bolts, GradeA, 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 40.5 24.0

A307Bolts, GradeA, d 1/2in. 45.0 27.0

A325Bolts, when threadsarenot excluded fromshear planes 90.0 54.0

A325Bolts, when threadsareexcluded fromshear planes 90.0 72.0

A354 GradeBD Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in., when threadsarenot excluded

fromshear planes

101.0 59.0

A354 GradeBD Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in. when threadsareexcluded from

shear planes

101.0 90.0

A449 Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in., when threadsarenot excluded from shear

planes

81.0 47.0

A449Bolts, 1/4in. d <1/2in., when threadsareexcludedfromshear planes 81.0 72.0

A 490Bolts, when threadsarenot excluded fromshear planes 112.5 67.5

A490Bolts, when threadsareexcluded fromshear planes 112.5 90.0

TABLE7.11 Nominal Tension Stresses, F

nt

(ksi), for BoltsSubjected

to theCombination of Shear and Tension

(A) ASD Method

Threadsnot excluded Threadsexcluded

Description of bolts fromshear planes fromshear planes

A325Bolts 110 3.6f

v

90 110 2.8f

v

90

A354GradeBD Bolts 122 3.6f

v

101 122 2.8f

v

101

A449Bolts 100 3.6f

v

81 100 2.8f

v

81

A490Bolts 136 3.6f

v

112.5 136 2.8f

v

112.5

A307Bolts, GradeA

When 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 52 4f

v

40.5 52 4f

v

40.5

When d 1/2in. 58.5 4f

v

45 58.5 4f

v

45

(B) LRFD Method

A325Bolts 113 2.4f

v

90 113 1.9f

v

90

A354GradeBD Bolts 127 2.4f

v

101 127 1.9f

v

101

A449Bolts 101 2.4f

v

81 101 1.9f

v

81

A490Bolts 141 2.4f

v

112.5 141 1.9f

v

112.5

A307Bolts, GradeA

When 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 47 2.4f

v

40.5 47 2.4f

v

40.5

When d 1/2in. 52 2.4f

v

45 52 2.4f

v

45

d = diameter of bolt

f

v

= shear stressbased on grosscross-sectional areaof bolt

7.7.3 ScrewConnections

Screwscan providearapid and effectivemeansto fasten sheet metal sidingand roongto framing

membersand to connect individual sidingand roongpanels. Design equationsarepresently given

intheAISI Specicationfor determiningthenominal shear strengthandthenominal tensilestrength

of connected parts and screws. Thesedesign requirements should beused for self-tapping screws

with diameterslarger than or equal to 0.08in. (2.03mm) but not exceeding1/4in. (6.35mm). The

screwcan bethread-formingor thread-cutting, with or without drillingpoint. Thespacingbetween

thecentersof screwsandthedistancefromthecenter of ascrewtotheedgeof anypart inthedirection

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE7.12 Nominal Strength Equationsfor Screws

Typeof strength Nominal strength

Shear strength

1. Connection shear

For t

2

/t

1

1.0: a. P

ns

= 4.2(t

3

2

d)

1/2

F

u2

usesmallest of threeconsiderations b. P

ns

= 2.7t

1

dF

u1

c. P

ns

= 2.7t

2

dF

u2

For t

2

/t

1

2.5: a. P

ns

= 2.7t

1

dF

u1

usesmaller of two considerations b. P

ns

= 2.7t

2

dF

u2

For 1.0< t

2

/t

1

< 2.5:

uselinear interpolation

2. Shear in screws 1.25P

ns

Tensilestrength

1. Connection tension

Pull-out strength P

not

= 0.85t

c

dF

u2

Pull-over strength P

nov

= 1.5t

1

d

w

F

u1

2. Tension in screws P

nt

1.25

(lesser of P

not

and P

nov

d = diameter of screw

d

w

= larger of thescrew head diameter or thewasher diameter, and

should betaken not larger than 1/2in. (12.7mm)

F

u1

= tensilestrength of member in contact with thescrewhead

F

u2

= tensilestrength of member not in contact with thescrewhead

P

ns

= nominal shear strength per screw

P

nt

= nominal tension strength per screw

P

not

= nominal pull-out strength per screw

P

nov

= nominal pull-over strength per screw

t

1

= thicknessof member in contact with thescrewhead

t

2

= thicknessof member not in contact with thescrewhead

of theforceshould not belessthan threetimesthediameter.

AccordingtotheAISI Specication, thenominal strengthper screwisdeterminedfromTable7.12.

SeeFigures7.37and 7.38for t

1

, t

2

, F

u1

, and F

u2

.

For theconvenienceof designers, thefollowing tablegivesthecorrelation between thecommon

number designation and thenominal diameter for screws.

Number Nominal diameter, d

designation (in.)

0 0.060

1 0.073

2 0.086

3 0.099

4 0.112

5 0.125

6 0.138

7 0.151

8 0.164

10 0.190

12 0.216

1/4 0.250

FIGURE7.32: Groovewelds.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.33: Arcspot weld singlethicknessof sheet.

FIGURE7.34: Arcseamweld.

FIGURE7.35: Fillet welds.

In addition to thedesign requirementsdiscussed above, theAISI Specication also includessome

provisionsfor spacingof connectorswhen two channelsareconnected to forman I-section or when

compression elementsarejoined to other partsof built-up membersby intermittent connections.

7.8 Structural SystemsandAssemblies

In thepast, cold-formed steel componentshavebeen used in different structural systemsand assem-

bliessuchasmetal buildings, shear diaphragms, shell roof structures, wall studassemblies, residential

construction, and compositeconstruction.

7.8.1 Metal Buildings

Standardized metal buildings have been widely used in industrial, commercial, and agricultural

applications. This type of metal building has also been used for community facilities because it

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.36: Flaregroovewelds.

can provide attractive appearance, fast construction, low maintenance, easy extension, and lower

long-termcost.

Ingeneral, metal buildingsaremadeof weldedrigidframeswithcold-formedsteel sectionsusedfor

purlins, girts, roofs, andwalls. IntheU.S., thedesignof standardizedmetal buildingsisoftenbasedon

theLowRiseBuildingSystemspublishedbytheMetal BuildingManufacturersAssociation[ 33] . This

document containsdesign practices, commentary, common industry practices, guidespecications,

andnomenclaturefor metal buildingsystems. Inother countries, manydesignconceptsandbuilding

systemshavebeen developed.

7.8.2 Shear Diaphragms

In building construction, it has been a common practice to provide a separate bracing system to

resist horizontal loadsdueto wind load or earthquake. However, steel oor and roof panels, with or

without concretell, arecapableof resisting horizontal loadsin addition to thebeam strength for

gravity loadsif they areadequately interconnected to each other and to thesupporting frame. For

thesamereason, wall panelscan providenot only enclosuresurfacesand support normal loads, but

they can also providediaphragmaction in their own planes.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.37: Screwconnection for t

2

/t

1

1.0.

FIGURE7.38: Screwconnection for t

2

/t

1

2.5.

Thestructural performanceof adiaphragmconstructioncanbeevaluatedbyeither calculationsor

tests. Several analytical proceduresexist, and aresummarized in theliterature[ 3, 18, 22, 32] . Tested

performancecan bemeasured by theproceduresof theStandard Method for Static Load Testingof

Framed Floor, Roof and Wall Diaphragm Construction for Buildings, ASTM E455 [ 13] . A general

discussion of structural diaphragmbehavior isgiven by Yu [49] .

Shear diaphragms should be designed for both strength and stiffness. After the nominal shear

strength isestablished by calculationsor tests, thedesign strength can bedetermined on thebasis

of thesafety factor or resistancefactor given in theSpecication. Six casesareclassied in theAISI

Specicationfor thedesignof shear diaphragmsaccordingtothetypeof failuremode, connection, and

loading. Becausethequality of mechanical connectorsiseasier to control than welded connections,

arelatively smaller safety factor or larger resistancefactor isused for mechanical connections. Asfar

astheloadingisconcerned, thesafety factorsfor earthquakeareslightly larger than thosefor wind

dueto theductility demandsrequired by seismicloading.

7.8.3 Shell Roof Structures

Shell roof structuressuchasfolded-plateandhyperbolicparaboloidroofshavebeen usedin building

construction for churches, auditoriums, gymnasiums, schools, restaurants, ofce buildings, and

airplanehangars. Thisisbecausetheeffectiveuseof steel panelsin roof construction isnot only to

providean economical structurebut also to makethebuildingarchitecturally attractiveand exible

for future extension. The design methods used in engineering practice are mainly based on the

successful investigation of shear diaphragmsand thestructural research on shell roof structures.

A folded-plateroof structureconsistsof threemajor components. They are(1) steel roof panels,

(2) fold linemembersat ridgesand valleys, and (3) end frameor end wallsasshown in Figure7.39.

Steel roof panelscan bedesigned assimply supported slabsin thetransversedirection between fold

lines. Thereaction of thepanelsisthen applied to fold linesasalineloading, which can beresolved

into two componentsparallel to thetwo adjacent plates. Theseload componentsarecarried by an

inclined deep girder spanned between end framesor end walls. Thesedeep girdersconsist of fold

linemembersasangesand steel panelsasaweb element. Thelongitudinal angeforcein fold line

memberscan beobtainedbydividingthebendingmoment of thedeepgirder byitsdepth. Theshear

force is resisted by the diaphragm action of the steel roof panels. In addition to the strength, the

deection characteristicsof thefolded-plateroof should also beinvestigated, particularly for long-

span structures. In thepast, it hasbeen found that amethod similar to theWilliot diaphragm for

determiningtrussdeectionscan also beused for theprediction of thedeection of asteel folded-

plate roof. The in-plane deection of each plate should be computed as a sum of the deections

dueto exure, shear, and seam slip, considering theplatetemporarily separated from theadjacent

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.39: Folded-platestructure. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley

& Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

plates. Thetruedisplacement of thefold linecan then bedetermined analytically or graphically by a

Williot diagram. Theabovediscussion dealswith asimplied method. Thenite-element method

can provideamoredetailed analysisfor varioustypesof loading, support, and material.

Thehyperbolicparaboloid roof hasalso gained popularity dueto theeconomical useof materials

and itsappearance. Thistypeof roof can bebuilt easily with either single- or double-layer standard

steel roof deck panelsbecausehyperbolicparaboloid hasstraight linegenerators. Figure7.40shows

four common typesof hyperbolic paraboloid roofswhich may bemodied or varied in other ways

to achieveastrikingappearance. Themethod of analysisdependson thecurvatureof theshell used

FIGURE 7.40: Types of hyperbolic paraboloid roofs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-Formed Steel

Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

for theroof. If theuniformly loaded shell isdeep, themembranetheory may beused. For thecase

of a shallow shell or a deep shell subjected to unsymmetrical loading, the nite-element method

will provideaccurateresults. Using themembranetheory, thepanel shear for a uniformly loaded

hyperbolic paraboloid roof can bedetermined by wab/2h, in which w istheapplied load per unit

surface area, a and b are horizontal projections, and h is the amount of corner depression of the

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

surface. Thispanel shear forceshouldbecarriedbytension andcompression framingmembers. For

additional design information, seeYu [ 49] .

7.8.4 Wall StudAssemblies

Cold-formed steel I-, C-, Z-, or box-type studs are widely used in walls with their webs placed

perpendicular to thewall surface. Thewallsmay bemadeof different materials, such asber board,

lignocellulosic board, plywood, or gypsum board. If thewall material isstrongenough and thereis

adequateattachment provided between wall material and studsfor lateral support of thestuds, then

thewall material can contributeto thestructural economy by increasing theusablestrength of the

studssubstantially.

TheAISI Specication providestherequirementsfor twotypesof studdesign. Therst typeisAll

Steel Design, in whichthewall studisdesignedasan individual compression member neglectingthe

structural contribution of theattached sheathing. Thesecond typeisSheathingBraced Design, in

which consideration isgiven to thebracingaction of thesheathingmaterial dueto theshear rigidity

andtherotational restraint providedbythesheathing. Bothsolidandperforatedwebsarepermitted.

Thesubsequent discussion dealswith thesheathingbraced design of wall studs.

Wall StudsinCompression

TheAISI designprovisionsareusedtoprevent threepossiblemodesof failure. Therst requirement

isfor column bucklingbetween fastenersin theplaneof thewall (Figure7.41). For thiscase, thelimit

statemay beeither (1) exural buckling, (2) torsional buckling, or (3) torsional-exural buckling

depending on the geometric conguration of the cross-section and the spacing of fasteners. The

nominal compressivestrength isbased on thestud itself without considering any interaction with

thesheathingmaterial.

FIGURE7.41: Bucklingof studsbetween fasteners. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,

John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Thesecond requirement isfor overall column bucklingof wall studsbraced by shear diaphragms

on both anges(Figure7.42). For thiscase, theAISI Specication providesequationsfor calculating

thecritical stressesin order todeterminethenominal axial strength byconsideringtheshear rigidity

of thesheathingmaterial. TheselengthyequationscanbefoundinSectionD4of theSpecication[ 7] .

FIGURE7.42: Overall column bucklingof studs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,

John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)

Thethirdrequirement istoprevent shear failureof thesheathingbylimitingtheshear strainwithin

thepermissiblevaluefor agiven sheathingmaterial.

Wall StudsinBending

Thenominal exural strengthof wall studsisdeterminedbythenominal section strengthbyusing

theAll Steel Design approach and neglectingthestructural contribution of theattached sheathing

material.

Wall StudswithCombinedAxial LoadandBending

TheAISI interaction equationspresented in Table7.7arealsoapplicabletowall studssubjected to

combined axial load and bendingwith theexception that thenominal exural strength beevaluated

by excludinglateral bucklingconsiderations.

7.8.5 Residential Construction

Duringrecent years, cold-formed steel membershavebeen increasinglyused in residential construc-

tion asroof trusses, wall framing, and oor systems(Figure7.43). Becauseof thelack of standard

sectionsand design tables, prescriptivestandardshaverecently been developed by theNational As-

sociation of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center and the Housing and Urban Development

(HUD). Thesectional propertiesand load-span design tablesfor aselected group of C-sectionsare

calculated in accordancewith theAISI Specication [ 9] .

For thedesign of cold-formed steel trussesand shear wallsusing steel studs, design guideshave

been published by theAmerican Iron and Steel Institute[ 6, 9] .

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE7.43: Steel houseusingcold-formed membersfor walls, joists, and trusses.

7.8.6 CompositeConstruction

Cold-formed steel deckshavebeen used successfully in compositeroof and oor construction. For

thistypeof application, thesteel deck performsthedual roleof servingasaformfor thewet concrete

duringconstruction and aspositivereinforcementsfor theslab duringservice.

Asfar asthedesign method for thecompositeslab isconcerned, many designshavebeen based

on theSDI Specication for compositesteel oor deck [ 42] . Thisdocument containsrequirements

and recommendations on materials, design, connections, and construction practice. Since 1984,

theAmerican Society of Civil Engineers has published a standard specication for thedesign and

construction of compositeslabs[ 11] .

When thecompositeconstruction iscomposed of steel beamsor girderswith cold-formed steel

deck, thedesign should bebased on theAISCSpecication [ 1, 2] .

7.9 DeningTerms

ASD (allowablestressdesign): Amethodof proportioningstructural componentssuchthat the

allowablestress, allowableforce, or allowablemoment isnot exceededwhen thestructure

issubjected to all appropriatecombinationsof nominal loads.

Beam-column: Astructural member subjected to combined compressiveaxial load and bend-

ing.

Bucklingload: Theloadat whichacompressedelement, member, or frameassumesadeected

position.

Cold-formed steel members: Shapes that are manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared

from sheets, cut lengthsof coilsor plates, or by roll formingcold- or hot-rolled coilsor

sheets.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Compositeslab: Aslabinwhichtheload-carryingcapacityisprovidedbythecompositeaction

of concreteand steel deck (asreinforcement).

Compression members: Structural members whose primary function is to carry concentric

loadsalongtheir longitudinal axes.

Design strength: R

n

/ for ASD or R

n

for LRFD (force, moment, asappropriate), provided

by thestructural component.

Effectivedesign width: Reduced at width of an element dueto local bucklingfor design pur-

poses. Thereduced width istermed theeffectivewidth or effectivedesign width.

Effectivelength: Theequivalent length KL used in design equations.

Flexural members(beams): Structural memberswhoseprimaryfunction istocarrytransverse

loadsand/or moments.

Flat-width-to-thicknessratio: Theat width of an element measured alongitsplane, divided

by itsthickness.

Limit state: A condition at which a structure or component becomes unsafe (strength limit

state) or no longer useful for itsintended function (serviceability limit state).

Load factor: A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual load from the

nominal load.

Local buckling: Bucklingof elementsonly within asection, wherethelinejunctionsbetween

elementsremain straight and anglesbetween elementsdo not change.

LRFD (load and resistancefactor design): A method of proportioningstructural components

such that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all

appropriateload combinations.

Multiple-stiffened elements: An element that isstiffened between webs, or between aweb and

astiffened edge, by meansof intermediatestiffenersthat areparallel to thedirection of

stress. A sub-element is the portion between adjacent stiffeners or between web and

intermediatestiffener or between edgeand intermediatestiffener.

Nominal loads: Theloadsspecied by theapplicablecodenot includingload factors.

Nominal strength: Thecapacity of a structureor component to resist theeffects of loads, as

determined by computations using specied material strengths and dimensions with

equationsderived from accepted principlesof structural mechanicsor by testsof scaled

models, allowingfor modelingeffects, and differencesbetween laboratory and eld con-

ditions.

Point-symmetricsection: A point-symmetric section is a section symmetrical about a point

(centroid) such asaZ-section havingequal anges.

Required strength: Load effect (force, moment, asappropriate) actingon thestructural com-

ponent determined by structural analysisfrom thefactored loadsfor LRFD or nominal

loadsfor ASD (usingmost appropriatecritical load combinations).

Resistancefactor: Afactor that accountsfor unavoidabledeviationsof theactual strengthfrom

thenominal value.

Safety factor: A ratio of thestress(or strength) at incipient failureto thecomputed stress(or

strength) at design load (or serviceload).

Stiffened or partially stiffened compression elements: A stiffened or partially stiffened com-

pression element isaat compression element with both edgesparallel to thedirection

of stressstiffened either by aweb, ange, stiffeninglip, intermediatestiffener, or thelike.

Stress: Stressasused in thischapter meansforceper unit areaand isexpressed in ksi (kipsper

squareinch) for U.S. customary unitsor MPafor SI units.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Thickness: Thethicknessof anyelement or section should bethebasesteel thickness, exclusive

of coatings.

Torsional-exural buckling: Amodeof bucklinginwhichcompressionmemberscanbendand

twist simultaneously without changein cross-sectional shape.

Unstiffened compression elements: A at compression element which isstiffened at only one

edgeparallel to thedirection of stress.

Yield point: Yield point as used in this chapter means either yield point or yield strength of

steel.

References

[ 1] American Instituteof Steel Construction. 1989. Specicationfor Structural Steel Buildings

AllowableStressDesignandPlasticDesign, Chicago, IL.

[ 2] American Instituteof Steel Construction. 1993. LoadandResistanceFactor DesignSpecica-

tionfor Structural Steel Buildings, Chicago, IL.

[ 3] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1967. Designof Light-GageSteel Diaphragms, NewYork.

[ 4] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1983. Handbookof Steel DrainageandHighwayConstruc-

tionProducts, Washington, D.C.

[ 5] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. AutomotiveSteel DesignManual, Washington, D.C.

[ 6] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1995. DesignGuidefor Cold-FormedSteel Trusses. Publi-

cation RG-9518, Washington, D.C.

[ 7] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. Specication for theDesign of Cold-Formed Steel

Structural Members, Washington, D.C.

[ 8] AmericanIronandSteel Institute. 1996. Cold-FormedSteel DesignManual, Washington, D.C.

[ 9] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. Residential Steel FramingManual for Architects,

Engineers, andBuilders, Washington, D.C.

[ 10] American Society of Civil Engineers. 1978. Designof Steel TransmissionPoleStructures, New

York.

[ 11] American Society of Civil Engineers. 1984. Specicationfor theDesignandConstructionof

CompositeSteel DeckSlabs, ASCEStandard, NewYork.

[ 12] American Societyof Civil Engineers. 1991. Specicationfor theDesignof Cold-FormedStain-

lessSteel Structural Members, ANSI/ASCE-8-90, NewYork.

[ 13] American Society for Testingand Materials. 1993. StandardMethodfor StaticLoadTestingof

FramedFloor, Roof andWall DiaphragmConstructionfor Buildings, ASTM E455, Philadel-

phia, PA.

[ 14] Architectural Institute of Japan. 1985. Recommendationsfor theDesign andFabrication of

Light Weight Steel Structures, Japan.

[ 15] Association of theWall and Ceiling IndustriesInternational and Metal Lath/Steel Framing

Association. 1979. Steel FramingSystemsManual, Chicago, IL.

[ 16] AmericanWeldingSociety. 1989. Structural WeldingCodeSheetSteel,AWSD1.3-89, Miami,

FL.

[ 17] British StandardsInstitution. 1987. BritishStandard: Structural Useof SteelworkinBuilding.

Part 5. Codeof Practicefor Designof Cold-FormedSections, BS5950: Part 5: 1987.

[ 18] Bryan, E.R. andDavies, J.M. 1981. Steel DiaphragmRoofDecksADesignGuideWithTables

for EngineersandArchitects, GranadaPublishing, NewYork.

[ 19] Canadian StandardsAssociation. 1994. Cold-FormedSteel Structural Members, CAN3-S136-

M94, Ottawa, Canada.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

[ 20] Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Metallique. 1978. Recommendationspourle

Calcul desConstructionsaElementsMincesenAcier.

[ 21] Czechoslovak StateStandard. 1987. DesignofLightGaugeCold-FormedProlesinSteel Struc-

tures, CSN 731402.

[ 22] Department of Army. 1985. SeismicDesignfor Buildings, U.S. Army Technical Manual 5-809-

10, Washington, D.C.

[ 23] DIN 18807. 1987. TrapezproleimHochbau (Trapezoidal Proled Sheeting in Building).

DeutscheNorm(German Standard).

[ 24] European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. 1987. European Recommendationsfor

theDesignof Light GaugeSteel Members, CONSTRADO, London.

[ 25] Eurocode3. 1989. Designof Steel Structures.

[ 26] Finnish Ministry of Environment. 1988. BuildingCodeSeriesof Finland: Specication for

Cold-FormedSteel Structures.

[ 27] GroepStellingFabrikantenGSF. 1977. RichtlijnenVoordeBerekeningvanStalenIndustriele

Magezijnstellingen, RSM.

[ 28] Hancock, G.J. 1994. Cold-FormedSteel Structures, Australian Instituteof Steel Construction,

North Sydney, NSW, Australia.

[ 29] Hetrakul, N. andYu, W.W. 1978. Structural Behavior of BeamWebsSubjectedtoWebCrippling

andaCombinationof WebCripplingandBending, Final Report, Universityof Missouri-Rolla,

Rolla, MO.

[ 30] Indian StandardsInstitution. 1975. IndianStandardCodeof Practicefor Useof Cold-Formed

Light-GaugeSteel Structural MembersinGeneral BuildingConstruction, IS:801-1975.

[ 31] Lagereinrichtungen. 1974. ONORM B4901, Dec.

[ 32] Luttrell, L.D. 1988. Steel DeckInstituteDiaphragmDesignManual, 2nd ed., Steel Deck Insti-

tute, Canton, OH.

[ 33] Metal BuildingManufacturersAssociation. 1996. LowRiseBuildingSystemsManual, Cleve-

land, OH.

[ 34] PeoplesRepublicof ChinaNational Standard. 1989. Technical StandardforThin-WalledSteel

Structures, GBJ18-87, Beijing, China.

[ 35] Rack ManufacturersInstitute. 1990. Specicationfor theDesign, Testing, andUtilizationof

Industrial Steel StorageRacks, Charlotte, NC.

[ 36] Rhodes, J. 1991. Designof Cold-FormedSteel Structures, Elsevier Publishing, NewYork.

[ 37] RomanianSpecicationfor Calculationof Thin-WalledCold-FormedSteel Members, STAS

10108/2-83.

[ 38] SouthAfricanInstituteof Steel Construction. 1995. CodeofPracticefortheDesignofStructural

Steelwork.

[ 39] StandardsAustralia. 1996. Cold-FormedSteel Structures, Australia.

[ 40] StandardsNewZealand. 1996. Cold-FormedSteel Structures, NewZealand.

[ 41] StateBuildingConstruction of USSR. 1988. BuildingStandardsandRules: DesignStandards

Steel Construction, Part II, Moscow.

[ 42] Steel Deck Institute. 1995. DesignManual for CompositeDecks, FormDecks, Roof Decks, and

Cellular Floor DeckwithElectrical Distribution, Publication No. 29. Canton, OH.

[ 43] Steel Joist Institute. 1995. StandardSpecicationandLoadTablesfor OpenWebSteel Joists,

40th ed., MyrtleBeach, SC.

[ 44] SwedishInstituteof Steel Construction. 1982. SwedishCodefor LightGaugeMetal Structures,

Publication 76.

[ 45] von Karman, T., Sechler, E.E., and Donnell, L.H. 1932. TheStrength of Thin Platesin Com-

pression, Trans. ASME, Vol. 54.

[ 46] Winter, G. and Pian, R.H.M. 1946. Crushing Strength of Thin Steel Webs, Bulletin35. Pt. 1,

Cornell University EngineeringExperiment Station, Ithaca, NY.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

[ 47] Winter, G. 1947. Strength of Thin Steel Compression Flanges, Trans. ASCE, Vol. 112.

[ 48] Winter, G. 1970. CommentaryontheSpecicationfor theDesignof Cold-FormedSteel Struc-

tural Members, American Iron and Steel Institute, NewYork.

[ 49] Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork.

[ 50] Zetlin, L. 1955. Elastic Instability of Flat PlatesSubjected to Partial EdgeLoads. J. Structural

Div., ASCE, Vol. 81, NewYork.

Further Reading

GuidetoStabilityDesignCriteriafor Metal Structures, edited by T.V. Galambos, presentsgeneral

information, interpretation, new ideas, and research results on a full range of structural stability

concerns. It waspublished by John Wiley & Sonsin 1988.

Cold-FormedSteel inTall Buildings, edited by W.W. Yu, R. Baehre, and T. Toma, providesreaders

with information needed for thedesign and construction of tall buildings, usingcold-formed steel

for structural membersand/or architectural components. It waspublishedbyMcGraw-Hill in 1993.

Thin-Walled Structures, edited by J. Rhodes and K.P. Chong, is an international journal which

publishespaperson theory, experiment, design, etc. related to cold-formed steel sections, plateand

shell structures, andothers. It waspublishedbyElsevier AppliedScience. Aspecial issueof theJournal

on Cold-Formed Steel Structureswasedited by J. Rhodesand W.W. Yu, Guest Editor, and published

in 1993.

Proceedingsof theInternational SpecialtyConferenceonCold-FormedSteel Structures, edited by

W.W. Yu, J.H. Senne, andR.A. LaBoube, hasbeenpublishedbytheUniversityof Missouri-Rollasince

1971. Thispublicationcontainstechnical paperspresentedat theInternational SpecialtyConferences

on Cold-Formed Steel Structures.

Cold-FormedSteel Structures, byJ. RhodesandN.E. Shanmugan, in TheCivil EngineeringHand-

book(W.F. Chen, Editor-in-Chief ), presentsdiscussionsof cold-formedsteel sections, local buckling

of plateelements, and thedesign of cold-formed steel membersand connections. It waspublished

by CRCPressin 1995.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

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