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Agricultural Extension Services

Meaning :Agricultural Extension services or agricultural extension education is an informal system of extending or imparting practical knowledge related to agricultural field which helps in solving the agricultural problems. The problem solving practical knowledge is imparted by the teacher or a group of specialized teachers by discussions, question & answer way, by holding seminar, by demons tration on a field or by group discussion between one or a group of students & one or a group of teachers who are expert in various branches of knowledge concerning agriculture, rural life & developments in agriculture & allied fields such as veterinary science, animal husbandary, part plant pathology. . Fruits of research from development countries in the field of agriculture reach other countries quickly due to spread of extremely rapid means of transport & communicating. Sprinkler system of water came to India from Israel, discovery of Mexican wheat seeds of short variety helped to bring about Green (Wheat) revolution in Punjab. Agricultural Extension services also includes specialized knowledge about different soils & their suitability for different agricultural crops, specialized knowledge about different fertilizers & their different composition & their use for different crops. The aspect of extending specialized knowledge about various aspects of agricultural production to Indian farmers is very important especially because majority of Indian farmers are illiterate & generally deeply attached to conventional ways of agricultural production. This task of imparting modern specialized agricultural knowledge to Indian farmers is a difficult task because there are more than 5.5 lakh village in the country. The community development programme was introduced in our country in the year 1952 in which an administrative system has been built up linking national & state level research & educational institutions engaged in conducting research on different aspect of agricultural sector on one hand & the farmer working on his farm on the other hand.

The person who works as a link between the farmer & the national & state level institution is the village level worker or Gram sevak who comes to know about the new problems regarding new hybrid seeds, unsuitability of the prescribed composition of chemical fertilizer for soil or any other problems regarding diseases of the animals, water production, pest control etc. The village level worker passes on these problems as feed back to National level & state level research institutions where these problems are studied & solutions are again passed back through different channels to the village level worker. Objective of Agricultural Extn Services :1) To keep various specialist connected with different aspects of agriculture such as veterinary science, Animal husbandary, Agronomy, plant pathology, Botany, Pest control etc. These specialists are engaged in conducting research & village level worker helps in imparting that advanced knowledge to the farmers by holding seminars, group discussions, field demonstrations etc. 2) To impart to farmer useful & practical knowledge regarding agriculture, animal husbandary, home science etc. all with a view to help farmers to maximize production from land & animals. 3) 4) To impart education to rural women in home science & agriculture. To promote development of young boys & girls who are future adults should be willing & research to innovate & adopt latest technology to solve their day to day problems. 5) Teachers to work with farmers with a view to develop qualities of leadership, co-operation with others, initiative & participation with farming community. 6) To co-ordinate research that is going on in several branches connected with agriculture & different aspects of rural life in universities, agricultural colleges & agricultural department of

state Govt. with a view to make it more & more useful to the farmers. Agriculture Research Set-up The existing set up for research comprises of the Indian Council for Agricultural Research at the apex level and the constituent Agricultural Universities, Regional Research Stations, Krishi Vigyan Kendras etc. at the subsequent levels. The main objectives of the ICAR are : 1. To encourage and coordinate education and research in agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries and to help in the utilization of the results of the research. 2. 3. 4. 5. To act as a centre of dimension of research related to agriculture and animal science. Establishment and maintenance of a research and contact library. To do all that is necessary for the achievement of the above stated objectives. To provide advisory services in education research and mining in agriculture and the related fields of science. Research activities are being undertaken on various aspects like : 1. Management of the land related to the economics of cultivation, maintenance of the quality of land s related to both the physical and biological properties of the soil through the prevention of soil erosion, land degradation, moisture conservation, appropriate fertilization etc. 2. Crop management involving the improved cultural and agronomic price like the varietal selections, appropriate cropping patterns, crop production practices, 3. cultural and intercultural operations etc. Proper water management including the conjunctive use of ground and surface water percolation ponds, drop and the sprinkler irrigation systems, diversion ditches, other water conservation techniques in dryland agriculture etc. 4. Horticultural development including the various management practices related to penology, olericulture and floriculture like the issue culture techniques, use of plastic in agriculture etc. 3


Inputs related to animal husbandry, fisheries and poultry management including production, nutrition, disease management, fodder management etc.

Research Station and Other Related Organization National Research Institutes : 1. 2. 3. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Barely, UP. National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana.

Crop Science Institutes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Orissa. Vivekananda Hill Agricultural Research Laboratory, Almora, U.P. National Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi. Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpur, West Bengal. Central Tohacco Research Institute, Rajahmundri, Andhra Pradesh. Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Indian Sugarcane Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P. Central Cotton Research Institute, Nagpur, Maharashtra.

Agricultural Universities : 1. 2. 23. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad. Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam. Rajendra Agricultural University, Pattna, Bihar. Gujarat Agricultural University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Haryana. Himachal Agricultural University, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, M.P. Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuty, Kerala. Kokan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra. Jammu and Kashmir Uniersity of Agricultural Science and Technology. 4

13. 14. U.P. 15. 16. 17. 18. U.P. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Bihar. Narendra Dev University of Agriculture, and Technology, Faizabad, Bidhan Chand Agricultural University, Michanpur, West Begal. Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coinbatone, Tamil Nadu. Chandrashekar Azad Agricultural University and Technology Kanpur. Orissa Agricultural University, Technology, Bhuaneshwar, Orissa. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajastan. Maratwada Agricultural University, Akola, Maharashtra. Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, Maharashtra.

Nagar U.P.

Hariticultural Crops Research Institute : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Central Horticultural Crops Research Institute, Kasargod, Kerala. Central Tkuber Crops Research Institute, Trivendrum, Kerala. Indian Horticultural Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka. Central Northern Zone Horticultural Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karual, Haryana. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Central Rained Crops Research Institute, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh. North Eastern Hills I.C.A.R. Research Institute, Meghalaya. Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair, Andaman. Indian Soil Science Research Institute, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

Veterinary Institute : 1. 2. 3. Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Rajasthan. Central Government Research Institute, Farah, U.P. Central Bird Research Institute, Barelly, U.P. 5

4. 5.

Central Buffalo Research Institute, Hissar, Haryana. Central Animal Genetics Institute, Kerala, Haryana.

Agricultural Engineering Institutes : 1. 2. 3. 4. Central Agricultural Engineering Institute, Bhopal, M.P. Indian Lac Research Institute, Ranchi, Bihar. Cotton Technology Research Institute, Matunga, Bombay. Jute Technology Research Laboratory, Calcutta, West Bengal.

Fisheries Institutes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpur, West Bengal. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, Kerala. Central Fisheries Technology Institute, Cochin, Kerala. Central Fisheries Education Institute, Bombay. Central Saline Aquatic Science Institute, Madras. Central Non Saline Aquatic Research Institute, Bhuhaneshwar, Orissa.

Economics and Statistics Institutes : 1. 2. Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi. Indian Agricultural Economics Institute, Pusa, New Delhi.

Research Management : 1. 2. 3. 4. National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hydeerabad, Andhra Pradesh. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Allahabad, U.P. National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources and Animal Genetics Institute, Karal, Haryana. National Research Stations : 1. 2. Nationa Groundnut Research Station, Junagarh, Gujarat. National Mushroom Research Institute, and Training Centre, Solan, H.P. 6 Maharashtra.

3. 4. 5. 7.

Black Soil Research Station, Bikaner, Rajasthan. National Horse Research Station, Hissar, Haryana. National Yak Research Station, Purva, Nagaland. National Insemination Research Station, Purva, Nagaland.

The Extension Set-up : (The Training and Visit System) The extension of the valid research being done in the field of agriculture is disseminated mainly through the training and visit system comprising of the Village Extension Workers at the grass root level the Agricultural Extension Officers, the Sub-divisional Extension Officer, the District Extension Officer, the Zonal Extension Offier and the Director of Extension as the coordinating agency at the top. The organizational set-up is as follows : Depending on the number of farmer families, Village Extension Workers have been assigned to specific areas. The main responsibility of the NEW is to visit regularly each of the farmers groups within his area of jurisdiction and to teach and to convince the farmers to utilize the recommended practices, monitor the price and availability of the various inputs and the prevailing market conditions and then to correspond the farmers response to his superiors or the agricultural extension officers. For the purpose of dissemination of information the VEW selects certain contact farmer on the basis of their being progressive and having a large social network. Sir to eight Village Extension Workers, are then supervised by an Agricultural Extension Officer who also provides the technical inputs. The two main functions of the ABOs are to review and assist in the organizational aspects of the VEWs, to provide technical support to them and to solve the problems faced by the VEWs in the field. The Sub-divisional extension officer then supervises about six to eight Agricultural Extension Officers and is charge of the extension programmes in the area. The SDEO is assisted in his functioning by a few Subject Matter Specialists. Four to Eight SDEOs are supervised by the District Extension Officer. At the top is the Zonal Extension Officer who is responsible for the smooth 7

functioning of all the extension programmes in the different districts that constitute the Zone. The ZEOs come under the preview of the Director of Extension at the state level and finally under the Director of Agriculture at the Administrative level. Training of the Extension Workers : Training to the extension workers include the technical knowledge as well as training related to how to extend the particular information. Training may be the pre-service training which is the formal training ex. Two year training course of the village level workers at the Gram Sevaks Training Centres or a full fledged college education in agriculture or in the service training given to the extension officers of the various categories in the new techniques developed after their employment. Institutions of Training : 1. National Institute of Community Development, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. (For the Collectors, Deputy Directors, Joint Directors, Deputy Registrars of Co-operatives etc.) 2. Income of Directors at Dehradun. (For the Principals of the Village Level Worker Training Centres and the Trainers of the Orientation and the Study Centres.) 3. Orientation and the Study Centres. (They are 11 in number and are mainly for the Block Development Officers, A gricultural Officers and the representatives of the Zilla Parishads etc.) 4. Social Education Organisers Training Centres located at Ranchi, Bihar; Gandhigram, Madurai; Samiala, Baroda; Belurmath, Bengal; Niokheri, Haryana; Kasturbagram, M.P; Gargoti, Maharashtra; Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu; Lucknow, U.P. Bhubaneshwar, Orissa. 5. Co-operative Officers Training Centres. (Eight such Centres are located at Kalyani, Bengal; Himayat Sagar, Hyderabad; Panwadi, Bhavanagar, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, Patiala, Punjab; Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh; Gopalpur Ganjam ; Kota, Rajasthan.) 6. Health Orientation Training Centres (Najabghar, Delhi; Poonamalli, Tamil Nadu; Singur, Bengal.) 8


Gram Sevak Training Centres (Andhra Pradesh : 8, Assam : 5, Bihar : 4, Maharashtra : 9, Gujarat : 5, Himachal Pradesh : 1, Jammu and Kashmir : 1, M/P : 7 T.N. : 7, Karnataka : 5, Orissa : 5, Punjab : 4, Rajasthan : 5, U.P. : 24 Bengal : 4)


Lady Village Level Workers Training Centres (There are 45 such centres i.e. 3 in the North, 12 in the Central zone, 9 in the West, 9 in the East and 13 in the South.)

The Research Extension Linkage : (The Lab in Land Programme) : The extension and research activities are closely inter-related as the extension requires the findings of research to disseminate to the farmers and it is the feedback of the extension workers regarding the problems faced in the implementation of new findings and the problems faced by the farmers requiring immediate attention, which forms the basis of further research. The monthly working is the main venue of the training of the subject matter specialists to build up technical skills regularly in the field of specialization and in effectively meet the actual technical requirements of the farmers. The researchers and the SMSs discuss and formulate relevant production recommendations for imparting subsequently to the VEWs and the AEOs. Monthly workings are normally held at the district levels. The fortnightly training is the means of continuously upgrading and updating the professional skills of the VEWs and the AEOs which comprises of a one day training every fortnight. The VEWs and the AEOs review the farmers reaction to the new practices, the problems faced in the implementations and are taught the newer practices for dissemination to the farmers in the coming weeks. These raining programmes are organized by the Sub Divisional Extension Officer. Thus, an effective improvements will be possible in the agricultural set up, unless there is a close co-ordination between research and extension. The Lab to Land Programme thus mainly comprised if the effective, dissemination of the various laboratory research to the farmers fields and their effective implementation with a continuous feedback to the laboratories or to the research centres where useful research can be further undertakes. This

may be an improvement in the existing technology or a new problem identified by the farmers. The main objectives are : 1. 2. The transfer of new technologies directly by the scientists to the Development of a strong feed back mechanism to enable the research stations to identify the problems and needs of the farmers and to identify the constrains in the adoption of a particular technology. 3. Improvement in the standard of living of farmers aimed at increasing the productivity of firms, diversification of agricultural enterprises for additional income, concentration on the economies of farming etc. 4. Involvement of the farmers, themselves in the research activities and the introduction of simple and low cost technologies throughout the year. 5. Still development of the farmers, women and youth to better facilitate the adoption of newer technologies through the organization of various training programmes. Training Programmes For Farmers : 1. Training in the Village : Youth are trained in small clubs in the village itself on the adoption of improved practices of cultivation, leadership qualities, project formulation etc. 2. District Level Training : Demonstration-cum-training camps, short duration training courses, discussion groups etc. are conducted at the district level for young and introduce farmers as well as the farmers families including the women and youth. 3. Voluntary Organisations : Short duration training courses and seminars are taken up by the national level voluntary organizations which are also being provided 10


with financial assistance by the Directorate of Extension to enable them to undertake programmer related to agricultural production through their state and district level branches. 4. International Farm Youth Exchange Programmes : The Directorate of Extension has been working in collaboration with international organizations where in farming youth from the participating nations visit each others countries and in the process can learn about the new technologies prevalent elsewhere and the suitability for implementation at home. 5. Exchange of Farmers within the Country : Evaluation and monitoring of the various extension programmes results in the provision of a feedback of the relevant important information to the agencies concerned about the impact of a particular programme in order to attain higher standards of excellence through continuous improvements each time. Monitoring may be in relation to the goal, content or the system. Agro-Industries Management and Agricultural Extension : For the effective management of any enterprise the determining factor proves to be the knowledge and the access to current development in the area. As seen above, there already exists a very effective system for the dissertation of the research findings to the grass root level farmers through the intricate government network or prising of the zonal extension officers, district extension officers, sub-divisional extension officers and most important of all the village level workers who are the grass root level functionaries. What is essential for any individual or organization involved in Agri-business is to form an effective contact mechanism with the functionaries in the extension link to have immediate access to all the revolutionary changes in technology taking place in the field of agriculture related to mechanization, pest control, disease management, water management, managerial techniques etc.


In addition to the tapping of the downward linkages, care should be taken to give a useful feedback to the research institutions regarding the various problems in the implementation of a particular technology. Any difficulties in the production such as the occurrence of some unidentifiable diseases etc. should also be communicated back to the laboratories so that effective, useful and need based research can be undertaken. The managers involved in the agribusiness can also participate in the various training programmes being conducted by the Directorate of extension through the voluntary organizations, exchange scienes etc. for an up gradation of the skills required to implement advanced or the appropriate technology.