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PRE COMMISSIONING TESTS ON EQUIPMENT AT33/11 KV SUB STATIONS TESTS ON TRANSFORMERS 1.

IR Values This is measured to measure the Insulation Resistance of the w h o l e transformer.a)For 33/11 KV Power Transformer 2500 V megger is to be need. b)Power Transformer neutral Earthing is to be disconnected.c)Line terminal of the megger is to be connected to one of the HV Bushings of Power transformer and Earth terminal of megger is to be connected to Power transformer Body Earth Point.IR Values are to be read on the megger by meggering the Power transformer i ) T h e a b o v e V a l u e i s t o b e n o t e d a s H V t o B o d y o r E a r t h . ii)Then IR Value between LV terminal and body of Power transformer is to bemeasured & noted.ii)IR Values between HV & LV terminals are to be measured & noted.i v ) T h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t r a n s f o r m e r o i l a t w h i c h t h e I R V a l u e s a r e m e a s u r e d i s also to be noted.v)Particulars of megger is also to be noted.The maximum value shall be 60M at 60 0 C temperature for transformer whicha r e i n s e r v i c e . F o r n e w t r a n s f o r m e r t h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d s h a l l b e t a l l i e d w i t h manufactures test results. Example: HV E ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITELV E ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITEHV LV ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITE 2. Continuity test :Checking of continuity of HV windings and LV windings with m e g g e r o r multimeter. To know the continuity of windings of the transformer. Example: On HV side RY-YB-BR- Zero Megaohm or continuityOn LV side ry-yb-br- Zero Megaohm or continuity 3. D.C. Resistance or Winding Resistance The Resistance of HV winding LV winding between their terminals a r e t o b e measured with precision milliohm meter/ micro ohm meter OR Wheatstone Bridge or DC resistance meter. To know the resistance of windings. Example :For 100 KVA 11/0.4 KV trf.H V s i d e i n o h m s R Y = 1 2 0 t o 1 6 0 Y B = 1 2 0 t o 1 6 0 B R = 1 2 0 t o 1 6 0 L V s i d e i n m i l l i o h m s r y = 1 2 5 t o 1 8 0 y b = 1 2 5 t o 1 8 0 b r = 1 2 5 t o 1 8 0 r n = 6 0 t o 9 0 y n = 6 0 t o 9 0 b n = 6 0 t o 9 0 Similarly for 5 MVA power trf.H V s i d e i n o h m s R Y = 1 t o 2 Y B = 1 t o 2 B R = 1 t o 2 LV side in milliohmsry = 30 to 100 yb =30 to 100br =30 to 100r n = 1 5 t o 5 0 y n = 1 5 t o 5 0 b n = 1 5 t o 5 0 -1-

The values shall be compared with original test results which v a r i e s w i t h t h e transformer ratings. 4. Turns Ratio Test With turns Ratio meter, turns Ratio between HV & LV windings at various taps to bemeasured & recorded.At normal tap for 33/11 KV Delta/Star transformer the turns turns ratio is 5.196. Atother taps values will be as per the percentage raise or lower at the respective tap positions.In case of Delta/Star transformers of 33/11 KV rating the ratio measure betweenRY-rn, YB-yn and BR-bn.Being Delta/Star transformers the voltage ratio between HV winding and LV windingin each phase limb at normal tap is33KVOR333=5.19611 KV / 3 11At higher taps (i-e high voltage steps) less number of turns are in circuit than normal.Hence ratio values increase by a value equal to.5.196 + {5.196 x (no. of steps above normal) x (% rise per each tap)}100Similarly for lower taps than normal the ratio is equal to5.196 - {5.196 x (no. of steps above normal) x (% rise per each tap)}100 5.Voltage Ratio Test :When Turns Ratio meter is not available, Voltage Ratio Test is done at Various tap position by applying 3 phase LT (415V) supply on 33 KV side of Power transformer.At Various taps applied voltage and Resultant voltages LV side between various Phases and phases& neutral measured with precision voltmeter & noted. Example :For any 33/11 KV power trf. Tap position V RY V YB V BR V ry V yb V br V rn V yn V bn1 4 2 0 4 1 9 7 4 4 1 2

1 7 4

4 3 5 1

1 1 2 8 1

3 1 ( 3 n

3 0 1 3 o r m a l 2 1 3 1 1

1 ) 3

7 4 3 1 7

5 8 6

7 5 7 5 ..This test is done to check both the transformer voltage ratio and tap changer. 6. Short Circuit Test The four terminals on LV side of Power transformer are shorted with 50 sq. mm.copper cable. Three phase LT supply is applied on HV side of power transformer atnormal tap and currents measured in all the phases on HV side and phases & neutralon LV side values noted.In transformer factory the above test is done to measure full load transformer loss.In this case the the four terminals on LV side of Power transformer are shorted with50 sq. mm. copper cable. Three phase LT supply is applied on HV side of power transformer at normal tap with rated current on HV side. Measure the loss in al l thethree phases with the help of 3 watt meter method. Total no load loss or iron loss of the trf = W1 + W2 W3The loss varies from trf to trf.- 2 -

Example :For any 33/11 KV power trf.Short circuit current = Rated primary current of the trf X applied voltage X100R a t e d p r i m a r y v o l t a g e o f t h e t r f p e r c e n t a g e I m p o f t r f The Resultant HV & LV currents are as follows:-HV side current in all Phases =Rated HV current of PTR X LT Voltage applied on 33 KV side of PTR X100 Rated primary voltage i-e 33000 X Percentage Impedance VoltsLV side phase Current in all phases =Rated LV current of PTR XLT Voltage applied on 33 KV side of PTR X 100Rated primary voltage i-e 33000 X Percentage Impedance VoltsLV side neutral current shall be zero or less than 1.0 amp. For example in a 1.6 MVAtrf. the results are:V RY V YB V BR I R I Y I B I r I y I b I n 4 1 7 4 0 6 4 1 2 5 . 8 3 5 . 7 5 5 . 5 0 1 7 . 6 1 1 7 . 0 5 1 7 . 5 0 0 . 4 5 Short circuit current = 28 x 417 x100 = 5.75 A similarly for LT sideO n H T s i d e 3 3 0 0 0 x 6 . 2 5 7. Open Circuit Test Three phase LT Voltage of 415 V applied on HV side of Power t r a n s f o r m e r keeping LT open. Measure the loss in all the three phases with the help of 3 wattmeter method. Total no load loss or iron loss of the trf = W1 + W2 +W3The loss varies from trf to trf. Tap position

V RY V YB V BR V ry V yb V br V rn V yn V bn 2 ( n o r m a l ) 4 1 8 4 1 2 4 1 8 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 3 7 6 7 5 7 5 For a new 63 KVA trf. no load loss <=160wattFor a new 63 KVA trf. full load loss <=1235watt 8. Magnetic Balance Test 415V, Two phase supply is to be applied to any two phases terminals on HV side of Power transformer and voltages in other two phase combination are to be measured with LT open. Sum of the Resultant two values shall be equal to the voltage applied. Example :For any 33/11 KV power trf. Given V RY V YB V BR V ry V yb V br V rn V

yn V bn ( R 3 1 8 4 5 9 ) 1 8 8 1 2 3 B R ) 0 2 9 1 1 9 R R l a ) V 1 V 2 V= V 1 +V 2 b)V 1 V ( 4 1 2 V= V 1 +V 2 c)V 1 V 2 V ( 4 1 5 1 +V 2

Y 1 1 1 9 1 5 1 4 3 5 Y R t ( 4 1 Y e 3 1 7

) 9 9 7 9 1 4 0 0 4 6 B s 5 V

4 9 4 ( 0 1 3 6 4 9 7

0 1 7 Y 1 2 7 3 3 6 6 B u ) V B

7 3 6

9 0 (

-3-

V ) V

V ) V =

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