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The word administer is derived from the Latin word ad+ministraire
means to care for or to look after people-to manage affairs. Administraire
means Serve- the meaning is suggestive enough, as it insists on the
administrator to regard himself as servant, not that the master to look
after, perform all functions. Wherever and whenever people have worked
together in groups there was management. Administration is a process
permeating all collective effort, be it public or private, civil or military,
large scale otherwise, and is that of universal nature. It is a corporative
effort, directed towards the realization of a consciously laid down

Administration is the organization and direction of human and material
resources to achieve desired ends
Administration is the direction, co-ordination and control of many persons
to achieve some purposes or objectives
Administration is determined action taken in the pursuit of a conscious
purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of

resources aimed at making those things happen which one wants to

happen and forestalling everything to the contrary.
Management is the act of doing things through and with the people in
formally organized groups
Management is defined for conceptual, theoretical and analytical
purposes as that process by which managers create, direct, maintain and
operate purposive organization through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort.
Management as a set of activities directed at the efficient and effective
utilization of resources in the pursuit of one or more goals.


These two words are slightly similar and can employ interchangeable.
Management refers to private sector. Whereas administration refers to
public sector.
Management or Administration is the process for exceeding the goal
- Derek French and Heather Saward.


Administration is the activities of group co-operating to accomplish
common goals. In other words, it is the organization and use of men and
materials to accomplish a purpose. It is the specialized vocation of
managers who have skills of organizing and directing men and materials

just as definitely as an engineer has the skills of building structures or a

doctor has the skill of understanding human aliments.
The terms are widely applied sometimes with the intention of making a
distinction between them, but are often interchangeable. Distinction is
sometimes made, for instance between administration as concerned with
matters of broad policy and management as dealing with the execution of
that policy and hence as a matters of concern. Sometimes the distinction
is made the other way round. Usage depends on the field, thus a term like
public administration seems more natural than public management.
Administrative process is intellectual, social dynamic and creative as well
as continuous. The feature or nature of administration is as follows:
It is universal because irrespective of nature and objectives of the
organization, all basic elements of administration such as planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting can
apply for its effective achievement of goals.
It is holistic; the whole process of administration embraces the
organization and its function in entirely, i.e. involves total activities
of the organization
It is intangible since administration is visualized as abstract. It
cannot be transferable to anywhere. So, every organization has to
develop its own administrative style within the content of functional
elements of administration
It is continuous and ongoing process
It is goal oriented; administration is always struggling to achieve
the laid down goals and objectives of the organization

It is social and human; usually administration, there will be group

of people are there to achieve the objective; it needs goal social and
interpersonal contact or relationship to achieve the goal.
It is dynamic; administration has the elements of flexibility and
adaptability and adjustability rising to the needs and demands of
different situations.
It is creative or innovative; to have an effective administration
existed administration provides innovations, offers and invites
creative ideas to its organizational teams.
Administration is a moral act and also a moral agent. Public
administration is of pivotal importance in the developing countries, like
India, which are engaged in a massive effort to lift themselves from a
state of poverty, squalor and disease to a level of general happiness and
property, and as the instrument of change and development. No plan can
succeed if its administrative are not fully realized and commensurate
administrative machinery not provided. A countrys progress is thus
largely determined by the quality of its public administration.
The philosophy underlying the whole field of administration, particularly
as it applies to health work, is based on the following key points.

Administration believes in cost-effectiveness

In the management of administration of any enterprise for
organization, the quality, quantity, timing and cost of the work
necessary to reach the objective of the enterprise are inter related
factors which must be given constant attention. If the resources of
health work, in trained persons and in finances were unlimited, the
need for constant attention to these factors would not be so great. But
the limitation in the number of trained personnel and the lack of
adequate financial resources are major obstacles to greatly improved
health in the world today.


Administration believes in execution and control of work plans

One of the greatest possible contributors to wastage of our precious
resources, whether at the local or national level, is the failure of those
at any level of administration, and at all stages in the management of
the activity, to base all decisions on verifiable facts.


Administration believes in delegation of responsibility and

The delegation of responsibility and authority is an important aspect of
successful administration, to place the responsibility for decision at the
lowest possible organizational level in order to attain decision as
speedily as possible. The responsibility and authority placed in each
position must correspond to the responsibility which the position


Administration believes in human relations good and good

Since the function of administration is to attain an established objective
through the management of people, administration if deeply concerned
with human relations. Good morale of the staff is essential to the
success of any undertaking and that morale is affected by both
financial and non financial factors.


Administration believes in effective communication

Effective communications are essential for all aspects of effective
administration. Staff must be adequately and correctly informed about
Communications must flow from the bottom upwards, as well as from
top to down.


Administration believes in flexibility in certain situations

Administration must be completely flexible to meet the changing needs
of the situation

Administration may be defined as all the actions rationally performed by

one person or a number of persons in concert to fulfill a common purpose
set by someone else of their accomplishment.
Professor Luther Gullick summed up certain principles or elements in
the word POSDCORB. The hieroglyphic POSDCORB consist of the
initials of a number of words under each of which some administrative
activity has been classified and named. POSDCORB is of course a made
up word designed to call attention to the various functional elements of
the work of a chief executive because administration and
management have lost all specific content. POSDCORB is made up of
initials and stands for the following activities:
P stands for planning that is working out a broad put line, the things
that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the
purpose set for the enterprises or of the purpose in hand
O stands for organizing that is the establishment of the formal
structure of authority through which work of subdivisions are arranged,
defined and coordinated for the defined
S stands for staffing that is the whole personnel function of bringing in
and training the staff and maintaining favorable condition of work. In
other words, staffing is appointing suitable persons to the various posts
under the organization and the whole of personnel management.
D stands for directing that is the continuous task of making decision
and embodying them, in specific and general orders and instructions and
serving as leader of the enterprise. Making decisions and issuing orders
and instructions embodying them for the guidance of the staff.
CO stands for co-coordinating that is all important duty of interrelating
the various parts of the work and eliminating of overlapping and conflicts
R stands for reporting that is keeping those to whom the executive is
responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping

himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and

B stands for Budgeting with all that goes with budgeting in the form of
fiscal planning, accounting and control. Budget stands for the whole
financial administration.

The science of management attempts to discover and impart principles of
Since principles may be considered as widely accepts statements which
are found to be true and reflective of life situations. To sum up, with
fourteen principles of management were identified by the Fayol as
a. Division of work: In any organization administrator or manager
cannot perform all the activities to achieve its objective. So there
should be division of work according to departments, e.g.
department of nursing, department of pharmacy, department of
medicine and so on.
b. Authority, responsibility, and accountability: If the person has
to perform job assignment effectively according to their own
qualification and experience, or convention there should be
delegation of authority and responsibility needed, which in turn helps
to get accountability.
c. Discipline: For smooth running of administration to achieve
objectives, there should be proper observance of the rules,
regulations, norms, code of ethics and respect this requires to be
enforced within the organization by the manager.

d. Unity of command: In any organization the subordinates should be

supervised by a single superior to whom he/she should be
e. Unity of direction: In any organization, there should be one
supervisor to give directions to his/her subordinates.
f. Subordination of individual interest to organizational
interest: This implies that narrow selfish interest should be
overcome or should turn to common and broad interest of the
organization for its welfare
g. Remuneration of personnel: There should be fair policy for
payment to the personnel justifying the workload, job hazards,
efficiency and quality of performance.
h. Centralization: There should be some amount of greater and larger
authority resting with top level managers.
i. Scalar chain of command: Which implies that there is a chain or
link of directional instructions from the top level to the lowest rank of
organizational members in the hierarchy
j. Order: In an administration there should be proper, systematic
arrangement of staff, materials, supplies and equipment according
to requirement specific job departments
k. Equity: In administration there should be a fair and impartial
treatment to all workers irrespective of their job.
l. Stability: Organization should make proper efforts to ensure
stability and continuity in the tenure of personnel, which gives
security and promotes products.
Initiative: Administration should always be encouraging
initiative from each employee by allowing him freedom to do his/ her

n. Esprit de corps: It refers to sense of belonging. This fosters the

team spirit, i.e. the spirit of working together to achieve objectives
Basic purpose of management as the art of knowing exactly what you
want to do and then see that they do it best and cheapest way. Since
Tailor has put the problem of management in a scientific way often he is
called as father of scientific management.
a. Replacing the rule of thumb with science: Taylor has
emphasized that in the scientific management organization
knowledge should be applied which will replaced the rule of thumb
with the aptitude and physical strength ect. A worker should be
given work for which he is physically and technically most suitable.
Apart from selection proper emphasis should be given on the
training of the workers which makes them more efficient and
b. Financial incentives: Financial incentives can motivate workers to
put in their maximum efforts. Its provision exists to earn higher
wages by putting in extra efforts, workers will be motivated to earn
c. Job analysis: Job analysis undertaken to find out best way of doing
something. The best way of doing a job is one which requires less
time and cost. Time study involves the determination of time and
movement taken to complete the task. Motion study involves
elimination of unnecessary movements in doing a job. Fatigue study
shows the amount and frequency of rest required in completing the
d. Maximum output: Scientific management involves continuous
increase in production and productivity

e. Separation of planning and doing: Taylor emphasized separation

of planning aspect from actual doing the work.


a. Principle of oneness: From the apprehension of purpose, from its
absorption, flows directly the oneness of leadership that gives from
to the whole aggregate of whose skills are needed for its fulfillment.
Leadership may take the form of a single executive or a duo or a
triumvirate and they are numerous forms of collective administrative
bodies. One may be final leader to take ultimate decisions. Oneness
implies that all the personnel are members.
b. Principles of specialism and the whole: The principle of oneness
offers guidance in an endemic problem in administration. The
relationship of the specialist or expert to the total plan. In the
administration, each one should become an expert.
c. Principles of hierarchy and regimentation: Administration has
accepted the idea of hierarchy to denote authority coming
downwards from above, but not in the sense of chastising dogmatic
rule. It accepts it in the sense only of functional super ordination sub
d. Principles of morale: Morale is the spirit of active devotion to the
persons working together for a common purpose. When it is high,
the subjective burdens of the work, its hours, its routines, the
patience it demands, the submission of personal interesting and
values, are lightly carried, and there is an easy and cheerful
demeanor on the part of those who take and give order.
e. Principle of bureaucracy: Bureaucracy is diseased administration,
the disease may be defined deficiency in the spirit that created its

purpose that caused organization to be created, so that either cooperation has fallen apart or activities are executed without any
interest in the object originally to them.
f. Principle of self administration: Administration begins with the
self in relationship to the fulfillment of purpose. The administrator
begins with self administration, the adaptation of his own stubborn,
passive, incompetent or dissentient self to the purpose, even id no
one else is at work with him on the job.

a. Political: Functions of the administration includes the executive
legislative relationship.
b. Defensive: It covers the hospital protective functions.
c. Economic: Concerns with the vast area of the health care activities.
d. Educational: It involves educational administration in its broadest
e. Legislative: It includes most not mealy delegated legislation, but
the preparatory work done by the administrative officials.
f. Financial: It includes the whole of financial, budget, inventory
control managements.
g. Social: It includes the activities of the department s concerned with
food, social factors.
h. Local: It concerned with the activities of the local bodies.
Administration existed ever since man has been organized into
communities. Administraire means Serve- the meaning is suggestive
enough, as it insists on the administrator to regard himself as servant, not
that the master to look after, perform all functions. Wherever and

whenever people








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